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1, J anuar y 1971

Wol t er s - Noor dhof f Publ i s hi ng- Gr oni ngen

Pr i nt ed in t he Net her l ands

Gaussian Quadrature Formulas for the Numerical Integration of

Bromwich's Integral and the Inversion of the Laplace Transform

R. P I E S S E NS

Institute for Applied Mathematics, University of Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium

(Received August 6, 1969 and in revi sed form May 15, 1970)

S UMMAR Y

An appr oxi mat e formul a for t he i nversi on of t he Lapl ace t r ansf or m F(p) is st udi ed. The f or mul a is exact whenever

Y(p) is a l i near combi nat i on of p-S+k, k=0, 1, 2, ..., 2 N- 1, wi t h s an ar bi t r ar y posi t i ve real number . The f or mul a is

~erived f r om a gaussi an i nt egr at i on f or mul a for Br omwi ch' s i nver si on i nt egral .

A numer i cal exampl e is given as i l l ust rat i on of t he use of t he appr oxi mat e i nver si on formul a.

1. Introduction

The Laplace t ransform is useful in solving some ordi nary and partial differential equat i ons and

integral equat i ons and arises in many areas of engineering mat hemat i cs. However, the exact

det ermi nat i on of the original function f ( t ) from its Lapl ace t ransform

is often a great difficulty. In many cases, numeri cal met hods must be used. A number of

interesting numerical met hods are known [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], the maj ori t y of which,

unfort unat el y gives unsat i sfact ory results if F(p) has a branch point at itifinity.

In this paper, we shall consider an approxi mat e formul a for the inversion of the Laplace

transform, namely,

N

f ( t ) = t ~ 1 Z {Ak(Uk/t)~V(Uk/t)} (2)

k = l

where s is a positive real number t hat must be chosen so t hat pSF (p) is anal yt i c and has no

branch poi nt at infinity, t hus so t hat we can write

pSF(p) = ~ akP - k .

k=O

We shall give formulas for the coefficients Ak and we shall discuss a met hod for the Calculation

of the coefficients Uk. The coefficients A k and Uk are dependent on the value of s and N. Salzer

[6], [7] has al ready studied a formul a of the same form of (2), but only for the special value

s = 1. Kryl ov and Skoblya [8] and Skobl ya [9] have given tables for the coefficients A k and Uk

for several values of N and s, but with a very limited accuracy. Moreover, t hey have not given

the formulas for Ak and Uk, presented here.

2. Inversion of the Laplace Transform by Integration of Bromwich's Integral

The original function f ( t ) is given by

f ( t ) = ~ j ept F(p)dp (3)

where c is chosen so t hat the line Re (p) = c lies to the right of all singularities of F (p), but is

otherwise arbitrary.

Journal of Engineerin9 Math., Vol. 5 (1971) 1 9

2 R. Pi e s s e ns

Substituting

p t = u

and

F (u/t) = u - S G (u)

where s is the paramet er defined in section 1, (3) yields

1

f c ' + ~ e " u - ~ G( u ) d u (4)

t f ( t ) = ~ j .c'-jo~

where c' = tc.

Thus for the inversion of the Laplace transform, we need a formul a to calculate the integral

in the second member of (3). We consider the approxi mat e formul a

( c'+joo

1 t c , _ j o o e , u S G( u ) d u , . . ' ~ A k G( u k ) . (5)

2~j k=l

Indeed, substituting (5) in (4), we have the desired approxi mat e formul a (2) for the inversion

of the Laplace transform. We j ust have to give conveni ent formulas for the coefficients Ak

and uk.

We try to determine the abscissas uk and the weights A k in (5) so t hat the integration is exact

whenever G(u) is a pol ynomi al in u 1, of degree < 2 N- 1. Then we have a Gaussi an i nt egrat i on

formula, t hat has a degree of precision 2 N- 1. In section 3, we shall st udy ort hogonal pol yno-

mials, the roots of which are the coefficients uk. In section 6, we shall give formulas for the

coefficientsA k.

3. Orthogonal Pol ynomi al s Connected with the Gaussian Integration Formulas

Fr om the t heory of Gaussi an quadr at ur e formul ae (Davis and Rabi nowi t z [10]), it is well

known t hat the existence of a pol ynomi al PN,=(P-1) in the variable p-1, of degree N, with the

propert y

2 r c j e Pp - =PN, =( p - l ) p - r d p = 0 (6)

for r =0 , 1, 2 . . . . , N- - 1, where L is an arbi t rary vertical line in the positive half plane of the

complex plane, is necessary and sufficient for the existence of an N-poi nt i nt egrat i on formul a

with degree of precision 2 N- 1. Condi t i on (6) means t hat PN,~(P- 1) is a pol ynomi al of degree N,

which is ort hogonal to all pol ynomi al s of degree < N, with respect to the weight function

eP p - s.

If we set

cbr (t) = 5 ~ -1 {p-(s + ~)Pu,~ (P- ' ) } (7)

where S - , denotes the inverse Laplace transform, the condi t i on (6) is equivalent to

9 ~ ( i ) = 0

for r =0 , 1, 2 . . . . . N- 1 .

Using the convol ut i on propert y of the Laplace transform, we obt ai n

f 1 1 ~ ( 1 - u ) d u r CN + U~+r-~qN_ , = 0 , = 0 , 1 . . . . . N- - 1 (8)

0

where cN and qN-1,s(t) are defined by the relations

PN,s(p - 1 ) = A[ CN q- p - I QN_ I , s ( p - a)] ( 9 )

and

qN_ l , s(t ) = 5O- 1 { p - 1 Q N _ I, ~(p-1) }

Journal of Engineering Math., Vol. 5 (1971) 129

Gaussian quadrature formulas 3

wi t h QN- 1,~ a pol ynomi a l in p - 1 of degr ee N - 1 a n d A a n o r ma l i z a t i o n coeffi ci ent whi c h will be

de t e r mi ne d l at er.

Re l a t i on (8) i mpl i es

f l u s + r _ t ( l _ u ) q n _ l , s ( l _ u ) d u = O , r = 0 , . . . . . 1 N - 2 .

o

Thus, qN-1,~( 1 - u ) is o r t h o g o n a l on [0, 1] t o al l pol ynomi a l s of degr ee < N - 1 , wi t h r es pect

t o t he wei ght f unct i on w( u ) =u ~ - l ( 1 - u).

Hence, we ha ve

qN- 1,s(t) = p ~ s ? 1)(1 __ 2t) (10)

whe r e P~"P)(x) de not e s a J acobi pol ynomi a l of degr ee N (see [ 11] , sect i on 10.8).

Cons equent l y, we ha ve

qN-l,~(t) = 2 F I ( - N + 1, N + s ; 2; t)

a n d

f

l

c N : -- u s - 1 2 F I ( - N + l , N + s ; 2; 1 - u ) d u

JO

o r

2 s + l ' N ( N + s - 1 )

Subs t i t ut i ng (10) a nd (11) i n (9), we have

A A [ - N + I , N+s , 1 ~1

PN's(P-I)-- N ( N + s - - 1 ) + --p 3F1 2 ; . (12)

I f we choos e t he s t a nda r di z a t i on f act or as

A = ( - 1 ) N + I N ( N + s - 1 )

we obt ai n fi nal l y

PN,s(p- 1) = (--1)N 2Fo ( - N , N + s - 1 ; - ; p - l ) . (13)

F o r mu l a (13) is val i d f or all r eal s >0 .

F o r s > 1 however , t he de r i va t i on c a n be si mpl i fi ed a n d it is eas y t o d e mo n s t r a t e t h a t

PN,~(p-1)=p~{p~O'~-2)(1--2t)} ( S > I ) . (14)

An o t h e r i nt er es t i ng f o r m of PN,s ( P- 1) is t he c onf l ue nt h y p e r g e o me t r i c f unc t i on

PN,s(P-1) = p - N ( U + s _ 1)N l V l ( - U ; 2 - 2 U - s ; - p ) (15)

whe r e

F( q + N) ( Po c h h a mme r ' s s ymbol )

( q ) N = - r( q) "

4. Properties of the Orthogonal Polynomials

4.1. Differential Equation.

I t is well k n o wn [11] t ha t t he gener al i zed h y p e r g e o me t r i c f unc t i on

U : pFq [ C t l ' 0(2, 0(3, " ' " G(p 1

[ f l l , f 1 2 , f 1 3 , . . - , f l ~ ; x

satisfies t he di f f er ent i al e q u a t i o n

(16)

Journal of Enoineerin9 Math., V o l . 5 ( 1 9 7 1 ) 1 - 9

aN, s =

a nd

{6 (J q - f l ~ - 1). . . ( 5 + f l a - 1 ) - x ( b + ~1). . . ( ( ~ A V ( ~ p ) } U = 0

R. Piessens

(17)

whe r e

d

( ~X- - .

dx

Thus, u = PN,s(X) is a s ol ut i on of

x Z u " +( s x - 1)u' = U ( U + s - 1 ) u . (18)

The di fferent i al e q u a t i o n (18) is a speci al case of

x e u" +( a x + b ) u ' = U ( N + a - 1)u (19)

whi ch is s t udi ed by Kr al l a nd Fr i nk [ 12] . Sol ut i ons of (19) are t he gener al i zed Bessel pol y-

nomi a l s YN(X, a, b). Thus, t he p o l y n o mi a l s PN,~ (x) ar e speci al cases of t he gener al i zed Bessel

p o l y n o mi a l s

PN,~(x) = ( - - 1) N YN(x, s, -- 1) . (20)

The pr ope r t i e s 4.2, 4.3 a nd 4.4 ar e easi l y der i ved f r om t he c o r r e s p o n d i n g pr oper t i es of t he

gener al i zed Bessel pol ynomi a l s . Pr ope r t i e s 4.3 a nd 4.4 can al s o be o b t a i n e d f r om k n o wn

pr ope r t i e s of conf l uent h y p e r g e o me t r i c f unct i ons.

4.2. Rodri gues' Formul a

d N

PN,~(P- 1) = (__ 1)Ne-ppN+s-1 dP N (ePp-N-s+ 1) (21)

4.3. Recurrence Rel at i on

The mo s t i mp o r t a n t r ecur r ence r el at i on for t he p o l y n o mi a l s PN,~(x) is

PN,~ (x) = (aN,~ x + b N,~) PN- 1,s (X) + CN,s PN- 2,~ (x) f or N > 2 (22)

wher e

( 2N + s - 3) ( 2N + s - 2) ( 2N + s - 3)(2 - s) ( 2N + s - 2) ( N - 1)

U + s - 2 bN,~ = ( U + s - 2) ( 2N + s - - 4) CU,s = ( N + s - - Z)(ZN + s - - 4)

eo, ( x ) = 1 , el, (x) = s x - 1 .

4.4. Expressi on f or the Derivative

d p - - NP- +

N

2 N + s - 2

1 , ( p ) . ( 2 3 ) PN -1

N)

2 N + s - 2 PN's(P-1)

4.5. l nverse Laplace TransJorm

Us i ng (13), we obt a i n

t a - 1

5 f - 1 {p- apN, s( p- 1) } _- ( _ 1)N F ~ 2F1 ( - N , N + s - 1; a ; t)

wher e a is an a r bi t r a r y real pos i t i ve numbe r .

4.6. Mome nt s

We defi ne t he r-t h mo me n t as

(24)

Journal of Engineering Math., VoL 5 (1971) 1 9

Gaussian quadrature formulas 5

MN,r= 2rcj Leep-~PN,s(p-1)p-~dP.

It is obvi ous t hat

MN,,.=O for r = 0 , 1 , 2 . . . . . N- 1 .

Fur t her , we have

(-- 1)U(N+k)!

MN'N+k = F( 2N+k+s) k! for

To demonst r at e (26), we r emar k t hat

MN, r = ~, (1)

where ~r(t)is defined as in (7).

Setting t = 1 in (24), we obt ai n

k =O, 1, 2 . . . .

M N r - - ( - - 1 ) N 2F I (-N,N-- s-1 9 r - }- s; 1 )

r (r + s)

o r

( - 1 ) N r ( r + s ) r ( r + l )

M , , , , - r ( r + s ) r (~ + s + N ) r ( r + l - N) "

Thus, f or mul a (25) is proved.

(25)

(26)

Corrollary

The coefficient of x u in PN,s(x) is

r ( ZN+s - 1 )

F ( N + s - 1 )

Using (26) with k = 0, and (27), we obt ai n t he i mpor t ant expressi on

1 F ( - 1 ) NN!

hu's= 2~j JL e"P-s[P~v's(P- 1)]2dp = ( 2 N+s - 1 ) F ( N+s - 1 ) "

(27)

(28)

5. Abscissas of the Gaussian Integration Formulas

The abscissas of t he Gaussi an i nt egr at i on f or mul a of or der N are the zeros of PN,s(P-1).

Grosswal s [-13] has st udi ed cert ai n propert i es concer ni ng t he zeros of t he simple Bessel

pol ynomi al s. Some of these pr oper t i es are also valid for t he general i zed Bessel pol ynomi al s,

[-14]. The quadr at ur e formul as of even or der have no real abscissas, t hose of odd or der have

exactly one real abscissa. All the abscissas have positive real part s and occur in compl ex

conj ugat ed pairs.

The zeros of PN(u-1) must be found by a numeri cal process of solving a pol ynomi al for its

root s, for instance Newt on- Raphs on' s i t erat i on process. Fi ndi ng an appr oxi mat e zero as

st art i ng value for t he i t erat i on process is facilitated by a cert ai n regul ari t y in t he di st ri but i on of

t he zeros. For fixed N and s, t he zeros lie ver y nearl y on a circle wi t h cent er on the negat i ve real

axis. The radius of this circle is appr oxi mat el y an i ncreasi ng linear funct i on of N and s. See

fig. 1 and fig. 2. For fixed N and s, t he angul ar di st ance bet ween t wo consecut i ve abscissas is

nearl y const ant (see [15]).

6. Weights of the Gaussian Integration Formulas

We shall give t wo formul as for the weights. These formul as can be pr oved in t he same way as

for the classical Gaussi an i nt egrat i on formulas.

Journal of Engineering Math., Vol. 5 (1971) 1-9

6 R. Piessens

I m (p)

2 5

N = 1 5 , , , ,

\ \

\ \

\ \

"~,\\

2 0 N = 1 2 %

N\

\k

\ \ x

\ \ ~ \ \

N = 1 0 % " \

1 5 ~ \ \ \ \ \

N = 9 % \ \ \\\ \ ~

\ \ \ x - k m \

10 N = 7 , , , \ \ \ \ ~ \ \ \ " \ .

\ \ Xx - - \ \ \ \ \ \

\ X x \ \ \ \ \ \

N =S % X ~\ \ ~ , ~, !

5 - N = 4 , \ \ \ ~ \ , t \ ' t

N = 3 ~ \ ~ t \ ~ \ ~ ~. ~ ]

I . I I . [ I I [ [ I

0 ~ ) 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 P,o(p)

Fi gur e 1. Di s t r i but i on of t he Ga u s s i a n absci ssas i n t he first qua dr a nt of t he compl ex pl ane for s = 1 a nd var i ous val ues

of N.

[ m (p)

2 0

15

10

N=5 s = 4 . 0

s = 2 . 0 " ,

I s = 1 . 0 o \ \ \ \

I s : 0 . 1 . < ' < \ \ \ \ \ \

5 1 - k\ \ \\ \

N=12 s =4. 0, t

S = 2 . 0 , " \ ,

S = 1 . 0 , ~ \ , " \ ,

\ \ \

\ \ \ \ \ "1~

\ \ \ \ ~ \

" ~ , " \ \ \ \ ~ \ k

k \ \ \

\ k \ \ \ \ \

3 ~ \ \ \ \ \ \ \

\ \ \

\ \ \ ~\

,\ \ ~\

'\\ ~\

15

\

t

i

' R e f p )

Fi gur e 2. Di s t r i but i on of t he Ga us s i a n absci ssas in t he first qua dr a nt of t he compl ex pl ane for N = 5 a nd N = 12 a nd

var i ous val ues o f s .

(i) Fi rst f ormul a Jot the k- t h weight A k

A k = [P M ,s ( u ~ - t ) ] (29)

whe r e hM, S is gi ven by (28) a n d whe r e uk is t he k- t h abscissa.

(ii) Second f ormul a f o r the k-t h weight

Us i ng t he r el at i ons (23) a n d (26) a nd t he Ch r i s t o f f e l - Da r b o u x f or mul a

N pM,.~(p-1)pM,s(y-1) pN+l , ~( p- 1) pN, s ( y- 1) _pN+l , s ( y- 1) pN, s ( p- 1)

M~=o hM,s au + l,~hu,s(p- t - - y - ~)

whe r e hu,s is gi ven by (28) a nd a s + 1,~ is t he coeffi ci ent whi c h ari ses in t he r e c ur r e nc e r el at i on

Journal o f Engineering Math. , Vol. 5 (1971) 1 9

Gaussian quadrature f ormul as 7

(22), formula (29) can be t ransformed in

( N- I ) ! 2f e~ + s _ 2 ]2

ak = (-- 1)u-1 F ( N + s - 1 ) N u ~ - - u C i "

1, s( k ) J

(30)

7. Some Practical Remarks

1. No convenient rule exists for det ermi ni ng at the outset the order N so t hat the desired

accuracy is obtained. The practical procedure is the use of a series of formul as (2) with increasing

order. If, for the given value of t, agreement occurs of two successive approxi mat i ons to wi t hi n

the desired accuracy, the last comput ed value is ret ai ned as definitive result. This procedure

has the di sadvant age of using different values of the argument s of the Laplace t ransform for

different values of the order of formul a (2). Increase in the order of the formul a makes no use of

previous evaluations of the Laplace t ransform F(p). This di sadvant age can be avoided if, in

combi nat i on with the Gaussi an rules, new quadr at ur e formul as are used, given by Piessens [ 16].

2. When the order N of the formul a (2) is large, the modul i of the coefficients A k are also

large. This may lead, from the numerical poi nt of view, to large losses of significance by can-

cellation.

3. Several aut hors have calculated tables of the coefficients Ak and Uk. We give here a survey

of these tables. Kryl ov and Skoblya give in [8] the coefficients Ak and Uk to 5 to 7 significant

figures for N = 1 (1)9 and for values of s which are integer multiples of 88 and 89 between the limits

88 and 3. In [19], t hey give for s = 1(1)5 and N = 1(1)15 the Ak'S and Uk'S to 20 significant figures

and for s=0.01(0.01)3.00 and N= 1(1)10 to 7 to 8 significant figures.

Skoblya [9] gives the Uk'S to 8 significant figures and the Ak'S to 7 significant figures for

N= 1(1)10 and s=0.1(0.1)3.0.

Salzer [6] gives the coefficients Uk, their inverses, and the product s Uk Ak to between 4 and 8

significant figures for N= 1(1)8 and s = 1.

In anot her paper, Salzer [7] gives the same quantities to between 12 and 15 significant

figures for N= 1(1)16 and s = 1.

St roud and Secrest [17] give the abscissas Uk and the weights Ak to 30 significant figures for

N=2( 1) 24 and s = 1.

Piessens [-18] gives the Uk'S and the Ak'S to 16 significant figures for N=6( 1) 12 and s=0. 1

10

(0.1)3.0, 3.5, 4.0, ~, ~, 4, ~, 7, ~, 7, 88 3, ~, -], 9, ~, 1, ~, 9~.

8. A Numerical Example

The first step in using formul a (2) is the det ermi nat i on of the value of s. In most cases, there is

no difficulty. However, for some Lapl ace transforms, there exists no conveni ent value of s.

Sometimes, F(p) can t hen be wri t t en as a sum of two or more Lapl ace t ransforms t hat can be

inverted separately, each wi t h a different value of s.

For instance

F ( p ) = p O.Sexp(_p-O.5)

can be written as

F (p) = p-O.S cosh (p-O.5)_p-O.5 sinh(p-O.5).

(31)

(32)

Here, the first t erm of the second member can be inverted wi t h s = 0.5 and the second t erm wi t h

s =l . 0.

The exact original funct i on is

1 f u exp ( - u2/4t) Jo (2x/u) du.

f ( O- o

Using the approxi mat e sol ut i on

Jour nal o f Engineering Ma t h . , Vol. 5 (1971) 1 9

8 R. Pi e s s e n s

6 6

f ( t ) = t - ~ Z A ? ' 5 ) G I ( u ? "5)) - A(ka'~176 (33)

k=l k =l

where

G i (x) = cosh [ 4 ( t / x ) ]

and

G 2 (x) = x / ( x / t ) sinh [ 4 ( t / x ) ]

and where A(k ~) and U(k ~) are t he wei ght s and absci ssas for s = a and N = 6, given in [18], we obt ai n

the fol l owi ng errors (by er r or we mean J t rue v a l u e - a p p r o x i ma t e val ue I)

t exact original function error

1.0 -0. 01072342858155 < 1.10 - 14

10.0 - 0. 02478598394520 1.10 i4

20.0 -0. 00308187970796 5.10 - 14

50.0 0.00271995009362 7.10 - 14

100.0 0.00021092905918 4.10 -12

Acknowledgement

The aut hor wishes t o express his t hanks t o t he referee for val uabl e comment s , par t i cul ar l y

concer ni ng t he der i vat i on of t he or t hogonal pol ynomi al s of sect i on 3. The cal cul at i ons of t he

numer i cal exampl e are carri ed out on t he I BM 360/44 of the Comput i ng Cent r e of t he Uni -

versi t y of Leuven.

R E F E R E NC E S

[ I ] R. E. Bellman, R. E. Kalaba and J. Lockett, Numerical Inversion oJ'the Laplace Transform, American Elsevier

Publishing Company, New York (1966).

[2] C. Lanczos, Applied Analysis, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. (1956).

[3] A. Papoulis, A New Method of Inversion of the Laplace Transform. Quart. Appl. Math., 14 (1956) 405-414.

[4] W. T. Weeks, Numerical Inversion of Laplace Transforms using Laguerre Functions, Journal of the A.C.M. 13

(1966) 419426.

[5] H. Dubner and J. Abate, Numerical Inversion of Laplace Transforms and the Finite Cosine Transform, Journal

of the A.C.M. 15 (1968) 115-123.

[6] H. E. Salzer, Orthogonal Polynomials arising in the Numerical Evaluation of Inverse Laplace Transforms,

M.T.A.C. 9, (1955) 164-177.

[7] H. E. Salzer, Additional Formulas and Tables for Orthogonal Polynomials originating from Inversion Integrals,

J. Math. Phys., 40 (1961) 72 86.

[8] V. I. Krylov and N. S. Skoblya, On the numerical Inversion of the Laplace Transform, Inzh.-Fiz. Zh. 4 (1961)

85 101 (Russian).

[9] N. S. Skoblya, Tables for the Numerical Inversion of the Laplace Transform, Minsk. Izdat. Akad. Nauk BSSSR

(1964) (Russian).

[10] P. J. Davis and P. Rabinowitz, Numerical Integration, Blaisdell Publishing Co., Waltham (1967).

[11] A. Erd61yi, et al., Higher Transcendental Functions, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York (1953).

[12] H. L. Krall and O. Frink, A new Class of orthogonal Polynomials: the Bessel Polynomials, Trans. Amer. Math.

Soc., 65 (1949) 10(~115.

[13] E. Grosswald, On some algebraic properties of the Bessel polynomials, Trans. Amer:Math. Soc., (1951) 197-210.

[14] A. Van Rossum, A note on the location of the zeros of generalized Bessel polynomials and totally positive

polynomials. Nieuw Archi ef voor Wiskunde 17 (1969) 142 149.

[15] R. Piessens, Numerieke metodes voor de inversie van de Laplace Transformatie, Doctoraatstesis, Katholieke

Universiteit Leuven, 1970.

[16] R. Piessens, New Quadrature Formulas for the Numerical Inversion of the Laplace Transform, BIT, 9 (1969)

351-361.

Journal of Engineering Math., Vol. 5 (1971) 1 9

Gaussian quadrature formulas 9

[17] A. Stroud and D. Secrest, Gaussian Quadrature Formulas, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. (1966).

[18] R. Piessens, Gaussian Quadrature formulas for the Numerical Integration of Bromwich's Integral and the

Inversion of the Laplace Transform, Inst. of Applied Math., University of Leuven, (1969).

[19] V. I. Krylov and N. S. Skoblya, Handbook of Numerical Inversion of Laplace Transforms. Israel Program for

Scientific Translations, Jerusalem (1969) (translated from Russian).

Journal of Engineering Math., Vol. 5 (1971) 1-9

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