State of Israel Ministry of the Environment

ENVIRONMENT BULLETIN
Ministry of the Environment

April

2006
volume 30

Cover Photo: Dror Nush

Electricity and Air Quality

Dead Sea

12

22

www.environment.gov.il

2005 at a Glance Environmental achievements in 2005.
"Clean Coast" Project: Facts and Figures Measuring the results of the "Clean Coast" project. Regulating the Electricity Sector Draft regulations aim to prevent and abate air pollution from power plants. Air Quality in Israel: 2005 A look at air quality trends shows some improvements and highlights focal points for action. Risk Management – Confronting the Challenge Twenty industrial plants are testing the applicability of a manual on preventing accidental releases of hazardous substances. Confronting the Dead Sea Dilemma A policy document confronts uncertainties in the future of the Dead Sea in a scenario of continued water decline. Environmental Units: Serving the Local Population With ten new units, municipal environmental units now cover 90% of Israel’s land area. Soundproofing Schools for a Sound Education Acoustic treatment of schools and kindergartens in the vicinity of Ben-Gurion Airport. Base Station Antennas and the Precautionary Principle Government approves recommendations of a committee on the siting and licensing of cellular antennas. Green all Over: From Kindergarten to University The "Green School" project expands to community centers, kindergartens and college campuses. Greening the Israel Defense Forces Presentation of environmental awards to army units, soldiers and commanders for environmental projects. Environmental Legislation A new law on non-ionizing radiation, amendments to existing laws and new regulations set out to improve the quality of the environment in Israel on all fronts.

3 8 1 16 18  6 7 8 30 3 34

Dear Reader:
The April 006 Israel Environment Bulletin presents some of the main environmental issues of 005. The first section provides a bird’s eye view of key achievements, while subsequent pages present an indepth look at some major issues - air quality trends, pollution abatement in the electricity generation sector, risk management in the industrial sector, the future of the Dead Sea, exposure to non-ionizing radiation, "Green Schools" and green army bases. Many of the achievements outlined in this bulletin are attributed to the efforts of former Environment Minister Shalom Simhon, who stepped down in November 005, due to political developments in Israel and the decision to hold early general elections. During his service as Environment Minister, Simhon succeeded in substantially increasing the ministry’s budget which facilitated the promotion of a wide range of environmental actions. These include: open space preservation; national cleanliness campaign; reduction of public exposure to radiation from cellular base stations; and allocation of additional funds to the Nature and Parks Authority, to animal welfare projects, to environmental education and to a host of other environmental projects on the local level. Hopefully, in the words of Mr. Shalom Simhon during his farewell message, the Ministry of the Environment will continue to play a major role in "shaping the image of the State of Israel in subjects which are vital for its future." In January 006, the government appointed Minister of Internal Security Gideon Ezra to serve as Minister of the Environment until a new government is formed. To stay updated about environmental developments in Israel, please visit our English website – www.environment.gov.il/english. Shoshana Gabbay Editor

Cover photo: Dror Nush, first prize, "IDF and Environment." Back cover photo: Meytal Nissim, third prize, "IDF and the Environment." Photos: Ministry of the Environment, Israel Airports Authority, Israel Defense Forces, Friends of the Earth Middle East, Alon Karmiel School, Haifa Chemicals, Ronen Alkalay, Gidi Bettelheim, Galia Ben-Shoham, Michal Ben-Shushan, Lior Elovitch, Alex Kaplan, Ilan Malester, Eli Raz, Chagai Shyowitz, Roi Simcha, Alex Weinreb, Keren Mizrachi, Dalit Ehrlich, Medvey Feldman, Judy Elispor 

Production: Publications and Information Unit Ministry of the Environment

W 

005 AT A GLANCE
million 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1.4 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 184 328 295 337

What happened in 005? The latest data on the environment in Israel!

Bottle Collection under the Deposit Law (millions of bottles)

Treating municipal, industrial and agricultural waste • Two sites for crushing and recycling construction and demolition waste began to operate. • Some 337 million bottles and cans (under 1.5 liters) were collected under the Deposit Law for Beverage Containers - 10% more than in 004. • Schoolchildren collected more than one million cans and bottles for recycling under the Deposit Law. • A used tire recycling bill passed its first reading in the Knesset. • The Environment Ministry allocated one million shekels to industrial plants for minimizing hazardous waste and toxicity at source. Since initiation in 1999, 33 projects have been implemented. • Out of some 340,000 tons of hazardous waste produced in 004, nearly 103,000 tons were disposed to the Ramat Hovav national treatment site – about 30%. A similar quantity reached Ramat Hovav in 005. • The environmental problem solving approach was used to advance projects on used oil collection from garages and waste tire collection and treatment. • A reform package in the dairy sector led to environmental improvements in 97% of Israel's dairy farms. • The number of volunteer cleanliness trustees reached 157,497, with 3110 new trustees appointed in 005. They issued 61.4% of the total number of cleanliness reports under the Maintenance of Cleanliness Law.

tons 350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0 1998

Distribution of Hazardous Waste in Israel

1999 2000 treatment outside Ramat Hovav

2001 2002 export disposal to Ramat Hovav

2003

Hazardous Waste Treatment (2004)
use as fuel 4% recovery 23% export 4%

disposal 69%

Number of Cleanliness Reports by Enforcement Bodies
1,235

2,480 Green Police

Inspectors

Israel Police 1,984

Cleanliness Trustees 9,066

3

Cormorants at Achziv. Photo: Gidi Bettelheim
Intensive Wastewater Treatment Plants (For Flows Exceeding 0.5 MCM/year)
number of treatment plants 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 MCM/year 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Preventing water pollution and restoring rivers • A government decision called for the removal of Eilat's fish cages from the Red Sea within three years. • A multi-annual project to keep Israel’s coastline clean – "Going for a Clean Coast" - was launched. • Assessments of pollution in Israel’s major rivers revealed a 50%-80% reduction in pollution load between the years 1994 and 003. • Israel ratified the amendment to the Barcelona Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution. • Water quality continued to improve in the Kishon River as major industrial plants complied with stringent discharge permits. • Discharge of wastewater from Nahariya into the sea stopped, eliminating one of the two remaining sources of municipal sewage discharge into the Mediterranean Sea. • The government adopted the recommendations of the Inbar Committee on upgraded effluent quality standards for unrestricted irrigation and discharge to rivers. • The Ashkelon Desalination Plant, the largest of its kind in the world, began initial production in August 005. It is expected to produce an annual 100 million cubic meters of water.

Number of Wastewater Treatment Plants

Million cubic meters/year

tons/year 25000 22904 20000

Annual Pollution Load in Major Israeli Streams

15000 11559 10000

10318

9056 6607 6531 4775 4295 2683 2284 1072 5212

5000

0

T. Organic Carbon 1994

Total Nitrogen 2000 2001 2003

Total Phosphorus

index 30

Clean Coast Index 2005 - Acre

25

Extremely Dirty

20

15

Dirty

10 Moderate 5 Clean Very Clean 0 28/5/05

17/7/05

5/9/05 date

25/10/05

14/12/05

Jordan River. Photo: Friends of the Earth Middle East

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NOx Annual Averages and Exceedances of the Half-Hour Standard in the Klal Jerusalem Transportation Station

Reducing air pollution from transportation and industrial sources • A statistical analysis confirmed reductions in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide in the years 1999-004. • According to preliminary data, air quality in several Israel cities improved in 005 compared to 004. • Mayors of local authorities in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area signed a covenant for reducing air pollution. • The Public Utility Authority (PUA) – Electricity began paying premiums to ten private electricity producers using renewable energy technologies based on the estimated costs of pollution prevention per ton of emissions. • Updated personal decrees for air pollution reduction, based on TA-Luft 00, were prepared for major industrial plants in Haifa Bay. • An air quality management system, based on emission data from all pollution sources in the country, neared completion. • The Ashdod power plant operated on natural gas, bringing about significant reductions in pollution emissions. • The highest court fine for air pollution in Haifa Bay – 1.6 million shekels – was imposed on the Oil Refineries Company, in January 006.
Photo: Chagai Shyowitz

Annual Average (ppb) and no. of exceedances 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Annual Averages 1999 2000 2001 261 227 284 179 151 136 190 107 93 79 928 834

No. of Exceedances of the Half-Hour Standard 2002 2003 2004

ppm 2500 2000

Reduction in Sulfur Content in Diesel

2000

1500

1000 500 350 50 1994 1999 Sept. 2000 Jan. 2004 10 April 2006

500

0

tons/year 35,000 30,000

Pollutant Emissions from the Eshkol Power Plant in Ashdod
1,161 748

25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000

12,696 9,286 674 5,039 340 16,167 15,077 4,277 5,074

18,824

0 2001 Sulfur Dioxide Emissions (tons) Courtesy: Israel Electric Corporation 2002 Nitrogen Oxides Emissions (tons) 2003 2004

Particulate Emissions (tons)

Treating life-threatening hotspots • Industrial plants in the Ramat Hovav industrial park began to establish in-house effluent pretreatment facilities in accordance with a government decision. • Agreements were reached to remediate two acidic tar ponds in the Ramat Hovav hazardous waste site as a first step in the Ramat Hovav Hazardous Waste Treatment Site Remediation Project.
tons 25000 21,706 20000

Disposal of Asbestos Waste (tons/year)

15000

10000

5000 919 0 2002

3,289

• The government decided to transfer 10 million shekels to the Environmental Services Company for constructing a stabilization/solidification facility for inorganic waste treatment in Ramat Hovav. • The Environment Ministry approved financial grants in the sum of 5 million shekels for cleaning up, treating and disposing of asbestos waste from contaminated sites in the Western Galilee.

2003

2004

5

Catalyzing economic growth and national interests through sustainable development • Government ministries and affiliated agencies drafted strategic plans for sustainable development in line with a government decision. • An action plan on energy conservation in all sectors was drafted within the framework of Israel’s sustainable development strategy. • The process of Local Agenda 1 continued, with some 40 local authorities taking part. • A conference on "The Financial Sector and the Environment," targeted at increasing awareness of environmental liability and risk management, was convened. • The Securities Authority mandated fair disclosure on environmental matters by publicly traded companies, including information on anticipated environmental costs and investments. • The Ministry of the Environment implemented a procedure on the transfer of environmental information on publicly traded companies in order to improve environmental disclosure and transparency. • The Chief Scientist of the Environment Ministry issued a call for proposals for research studies on the impacts of climate change in Israel and means of adaptation. Nine research projects were approved.

Preserving open spaces • The government decided to establish the Ayalon Metropolitan Park in an area spanning 800 hectares around the shut-down Hiriya landfill and to set up a government company to manage all aspects of the park. • Eight new Israeli sites were declared World Heritage Sites in two inscriptions: The biblical tels (prehistoric settlement mounds) of Megiddo, Hazor and Beersheba and the Incense Route and Negev Nabatean cities of Haluza, Mamshit, Avdat and Shivta. • The government unanimously approved the National Master Plan for Planning, Building and Conservation (National Plan 35), which determines areas earmarked for construction and for open space. • The Ministry of the Environment launched a comprehensive information campaign to promote cleanliness in public areas, from beaches to parks, nature reserves and forests. • Thresholds for urban open space were prepared for urban renewal plans.
What to Clean First? First Priority to Beaches
Beaches Urban Parks Community Neighborhood/Street Roadsides Nature Reserves & Forests Open Spaces All to a Similar Degree 0% 10% 8% 7% 5% 12% 5% 10% 15% 20% Priority 1 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 6% 14% 22% 10% 10% 10% 22% 20% 11% 17%

Priority 2

Improving environmental services, information and education • An amendment to the Freedom of Information Law relating to environmental information was approved to make such information more accessible to the public through its publication on websites. • The cabinet approved the recommendations of a directors-general committee on a four-track system for licensing cellular antennas in order to increase transparency and reduce exposure to non-ionic radiation. • Environmental support was granted to more than 0 animal welfare organizations. • "Green School" certification was granted to sixteen new schools, in addition to seven schools certified in 004.
no. of surfers 3500000 3000000 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0 307,064 540,226 3,048,469

Surfers on Environment Ministry Websites

1,266,214

• Criteria were developed for certifying "Green Kindergartens," "Green Community Centers" and "Green Campuses." • New features were added to the Interactive Map of the Environment Ministry's Hebrew website including: information on heritage and national sites, 750 archaeological sites, 1000 sites of the Jewish National Fund, 500 touring sites and a Green Map of Jerusalem. • The Environment Ministry's Hebrew and English website drew ,141,186 surfers in 005 – a 80% increase in comparison to 004. Over 3 million surfers accessed all of the ministry’s websites in 005

2002 Children's Site

2003 Licenses & Permits Site

2004 Arabic Site Interactive Map Site

2005 Air Quality Site

Hebrew & English Site

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Improving the urban environment

Israel in an International Context: Conferences, Workshops and Projects in Israel
TA-LUFT Workshop: A German delegation presented the main emission control requirements of TA Luft 00 during a three-day workshop, organized by the Manufacturers Association of Israel, the Israel Union for Environmental Defense (an NGO) and the Ministry of the Environment.

• The Standards Institution of Israel published standards on the energy rating of apartments in residential buildings and on buildings with reduced environmental impact ("green buildings"). • Ten new environmental units were established in local authorities, bringing the total to 47 units, covering 90% of Israel's land area. • The Knesset enacted the Non-Ionizing Radiation Law to protect the public and the environment from the adverse impacts of exposure to non-ionizing radiation from cellular and radio antennas and electricity installations. • An amendment to the Licensing of Businesses Law was approved, requiring the installation of noise meters in discotheques to protect public health. • An amendment to the Municipalities Ordinance was approved, obligating the appointment of an environmental committee in each local authority. • The Environment Ministry granted millions of shekels to local authorities for environmental projects.

Joint Workshop on Hazardous Waste: Delegates from the German Federal Ministry for the Environment met with representatives of the Ministry for the Environment to discuss hazardous waste management, administration, recycling, treatment and disposal within the framework of Israel’s preparations to draft new hazardous waste regulations. Workshop on Environmental Policy Integration and SMAP III: Representatives of European organizations and countries met with Israeli experts on mechanisms through which sustainable development goals can be promoted and integrated in different policy areas. International Workshop on Promotion of Methyl Bromide Alternatives to Comply with its Phase Out: Professionals and decision makers from developing countries attended the workshop and shared Israel’s experience in finding alternatives to methyl bromide. The workshop was organized by: the Center for International Cooperation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MASHAV), the Center for International Agricultural Development Cooperation and the Agricultural Research Organization. LIFE- Third Countries Projects in Israel: Two projects – sustainable development of the Jordan River (by the Upper Galilee Regional Council) and creation of sustainable communities according to Local Agenda 1 principles (by the Heschel Center for Environmental Learning and Leadership) – were approved for funding by the European Commission. To date, the EU has co-financed ten LIFE projects in Israel, contributing 3 million to the protection of the environment.

Climate Change Impact Research Coordination for a Larger Europe: Israel is one of 17 European countries included in the CIRCLE project, which seeks to contribute to research on means of adapting to the impacts of climate change. BATs/BEPs Mediterranean Action Plan Project: Israel is one of five countries selected to participate in a MAP Regional Activity Center for Cleaner Production project to prepare methodological guidelines for implementing a pollution control system based on Best Available Techniques (BATs) and Best Environmental Practices (BEPs) in non-European Mediterranean countries.
Cellular masts. Photos: Alex Kaplan and Alex Weinreb

7

Preventing marine and water pollution and restoring rivers

Clean Coast Project: Facts And Figures
Preventing marine and water pollution and restoring rivers

Reducing air pollution from transportation and industrial sources

Treating municipal, industrial and agricultural waste

M

Acre coast. Photo: Ilan Malester

Measuring the results of the "Clean Coast" project Participants: Ministry of the Environment, local authorities, Nature and Parks Authority and the public. A special cadre of trained "Coast Watch" volunteers takes part in enforcement and information activities. Cleanliness Indicators: Clean Coast Index, based on the number of plastic pieces left on the beach. Results: Half of the beaches showed improvements six months after the initiation of the project, in comparison to the baseline index of June 005. Publicity: Updated information on each beach is available in Hebrew on the website of the Ministry of the Environment.

Aim of the Project: Cleaning up Israel’s open, undeclared beaches – with no lifeguards and no swimming – and keeping them clean. Length of Undeclared Coastline: About 15 kilometers along the Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts. Cost: Three million shekels a year for a three-year period, with joint financing by the Ministry of the Environment (70%) and local authorities (30%). Method: The environmental problem solving approach to identify the problem, analyze it and find ways to "fix" it. Components: Cleanups by local authorities, information and publicity, enforcement and education.

Catalyzing economic growth and national interests

Improving the environment and preseving open spaces

Developing tools for improving service and professionalism

Clean Coast Index 2005 - Naharia & Kiryat Yam
18 16 Dirty 14 12 10 Naharia 8 Kiryat Yam 6 4 2 0 Moderate

clean coast index 14

Clean Coast Index 2005

12

Dirty

10 Moderate 8

6

Clean Very Clean

4 Clean 2 Very Clean

11/10/05

30/10/05

13/11/05

28/11/05

12/12/05

26/12/05

23/6/05

11/7/05

18/7/05

26/7/05

15/8/05

30/8/05

14/9/05 30/9/05

1/6/05

4/7/05

1/8/05

0 1/6/05

29/6/05

27/7/05

24/8/05

21/9/05

19/10/05

16/11/05

14/12/05

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Clean Coast Index The Ministry of the Environment publishes up-to-date information on the cleanliness level of undeclared beaches along the Mediterranean and Red Sea coastlines. An interactive map in Hebrew on the ministry’s website presents bimonthly information on every undeclared beach using different colored flags: • White flag - very clean • Blue flag - clean • Orange flag - moderate cleanliness • Red flag - dirty • Black flag - extremely dirty By clicking on a flag, the surfer also accesses an ID card about the beach, including photos and information on coastal length, general description, ecological assets, access and more.

Clean Coast Index
Very Clean Clean Moderate Dirty Extremely Dirty No Data Updated: January 3, 006

"Clean Coast" Project Base Index: June 005

Gulf of Eilat

Gulf of Eilat

Interactive Map http://gis.sviva.gov.il Data: Marine and Coastal Environment Division

On The Clean Coast Project Rani Amir
Director, Marine and Coastal Environment Division Why did the Ministry of the Environment decide to launch the Clean Coast Project? We came up with the idea for the project a few years ago, in 00, when we realized that no one was taking responsibility for the litter problem along the Mediterranean coastline. It’s as if we were sucked into a vacuum where no one else was doing anything. While coastal cleanups are the responsibility of municipalities and the Ministry of the Interior, we could not stand idly by and watch while litter continued to accumulate on our coastline. We also knew that litter on the coast originates from two sides – the marine side and the land side. We recognized that we could not control the litter that is deposited on the coast from the open sea – it is simply not feasible – but we could do something about the litter left behind by the public and about the litter that is washed ashore. We concluded that we had to initiate a project which, among other things, would ensure that we clean up our coastlines in the same way that we clean up our homes – all the time! The Ministry of the Environment initiated coastal cleanups before. How is this campaign different? We were looking for a comprehensive solution to the problem. Therefore, we decided to implement the environmental problem solving approach (EPS – based on guidelines developed by Prof. Malcolm Sparrow of Harvard University) to identify the problem, analyze it and tailor a measurable solution to it. We began by identifying the result

Within six months 54% of Israel’s undeclared coastline measured "clean" to "very clean" and 50% was cleaner than in June 005

Photos: Ronen Alkalay and Ilan Malester

9

Preventing marine and water pollution and restoring rivers

Preventing marine and water pollution and restoring rivers

that we wanted to achieve – clean coasts – and then came up with a method to measure this. In the past, our cleanup campaigns were sporadic. This time, we carefully analyzed what needed to be done. We realized that the public is simply not interested in how many bags of garbage or how many tons of garbage are collected during cleanup campaigns. What is important to the public is the bottom line: the cleanliness of the beach – c’est tout! Around this desired outcome, we crafted a solution.

We must clean up our coastlines in the same way we clean up our homes – all the time!

Reducing air pollution from transportation and industrial sources

Treating municipal, industrial and agricultural waste

Catalyzing economic growth and national interests

Improving the environment and preseving open spaces

The problem solving approach requires measurable results. How do you measure the success of the project? We developed an objective and measurable formula, a clean coast index, to tell us whether the coast is clean or dirty. Since we knew that the main component of waste on the coast is plastic, which constitutes at least 80% of all waste on the shoreline, we used plastic as a cleanliness indicator. We based our index on the number of individual plastic pieces – from bottle cap size to larger items – on a given stretch of undeclared beach. We then scored each beach based on the number of plastic pieces found. For example, a score of less than 5 means a "very clean" beach; a score of 10-0 means a "dirty" beach. We continuously follow up on the cleanliness level because beach conditions are dynamic and litter is transported from beach to beach and from sea to beach. The idea is to remain updated and to inform the public. Therefore, the clean coast index is published on our website. The results are updated bimonthly and are open and transparent to all. What are the main components of the project? The first pillar of the project is local authority responsibility. Local authorities are legally bound to clean up beaches in their jurisdiction and do this for their declared beaches. However, since we knew that financial difficulties hampered their ability to continuously clean up and maintain their undeclared beaches, we decided to participate in the project. The second pillar is long-term education. Our goal is to educate the next generation – youth groups, soldiers and schoolchildren. This part of

the project is largely implemented by the educational centers of the Nature and Parks Authority, which invest major resources in educating the younger generation about the importance of coastal protection in all aspects. The third pillar is communication and information. We launched a public campaign – whose motto may be loosely translated as "Going for a Clean Coast" (literally Walking on a Clean Coast). To assimilate the message, we funded public service announcements on television and radio, paid for advertisements in the media, and hired a media consultant. We also made sure that there was a major presence of Marine and Coastal Environment Division and Nature and Parks Authority inspectors on the coasts during seven summer weekends in order to explain the goal of the project to the public and to distribute garbage bags. Shirts and Frisbees were given to members of the public who displayed environmentally responsible behavior. We also trained a special group of volunteers to participate in our efforts. This group of 35 sealoving, environment-oriented volunteers, known as the "Coast Watch," has proved extremely effective: meeting with beach-goers, patiently explaining the importance of beach cleanliness, and taking part in cleanliness assessments. I believe they have a high potential to increase social and community involvement and awareness. The fourth pillar is enforcement. Both the Ministry of the Environment and the Nature and Parks Authority take action against individuals who litter the beach and against local authorities which do not clean their beaches. What are the results in the field? To date, 1 local authorities, including Eilat, are implementing the project. We initiated

Developing tools for improving service and professionalism

Cleaning Eilat’s beach. Photo: Keren Mizrachi

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Zohar Shkalim On The Environmental Problem Solving Approach
enforcement measures against those municipalities that initially opted not to join and not to clean. For example, Acre, which was originally reluctant to join the project, made major progress when it was served with a warning prior to a cleanup decree from the Ministry of the Environment. In almost no time at all, its cleanliness index went up from "extremely dirty" to "clean" or "very clean." On the last week of January 006, the index showed that 54% of our open, undeclared coastline measures "clean" to "very clean," and 50% of the coastline is cleaner than it was at the beginning of the project in June 005. What are your major conclusions and expectations? The clean coast index confirms the volatile condition of our beaches, which can change overnight, as substantial quantities of litter wash up from the sea. This reinforces the need for continuous cleanups and visibly demonstrates the fact that the environment knows no borders. If we are to guarantee a clean and open coastline over time, we cannot afford to stop cleaning and, at the same time, we need to continue our educational work, public campaigns and enforcement. Since coastal cleanups are not our direct responsibility, I hope that within two to three years, the cleanliness message will infiltrate, so that the momentum will continue. At that time we would like to see the Ministry of the Interior, other relevant ministries and especially local authorities take responsibility for the continuation of the project. My vision is simple: if everyone just takes care of their own litter and if municipalities acknowledge their responsibility, the beach litter problem will drastically lessen, or even disappear. I would also like to convey the message to the other parties to the Barcelona Convention that the simultaneous launching of this program or one similar to it throughout the Mediterranean basin would contribute most significantly to solving the litter problem. Director, Enforcement Coordination Division The Enforcement Coordination Division is responsible, among other things, for integrating the environmental problem solving approach into selected projects in the Ministry of the Environment. One of these – collecting used oil filters from garages for recycling – has already met with major success. We managed to increase the number of garages which collect used oil filters from a few dozen to 1,300 and the number of oil filters which are annually collected from 14,000 to 1.5 million. Today, we are expanding the approach to other projects, including minimization of brine discharge into the environment from such sectors as hospitals and the food industry and safe disposal and treatment of construction and demolition waste. The brine project should help solve the problem of sewage salination in Israel where effluent recovery for agricultural purposes is so important, while the construction waste project should facilitate a solution to one of the country’s most widespread solid waste problems - improper disposal of construction waste. Yet, without doubt, our greatest success is the clean coast project. We chose to concentrate on the litter problem on our beaches for two interrelated reasons: First, we recognized that our coastline, which includes wide stretches of undeclared beaches, is a public resource which must be accessible and attractive to all sectors of the population. Second, we realized that previous coastal cleanups simply did not make a long-term difference in the cleanliness level of our beaches. In examining the problem, we discovered that local authorities would not – or could not – take sole responsibility for cleaning up undeclared beaches within their jurisdiction. Rather than taking an antagonistic or an adversarial approach, we opted to "push" local authorities into accepting their responsibility by offering to fund 70% of the cleanup costs – but with a string attached: that beach cleanups will be thorough, methodical and frequent. By working with the stakeholders rather than against them, we achieved very encouraging results. Most of the coastal local authorities have joined the project and, as demonstrated by the clean coast index, the cleanliness level has definitely improved in comparison to the baseline index. However, we did send warnings to six municipalities and issued cleanup orders to two local authorities – Acre and Kiryat Yam. The results were not long in coming. Acre, for example, took its beach cleanup so seriously that its index went up to "clean" and "very clean" in almost no time at all. Finally, we closed the circle with a massive information campaign in the media and information and education weekdays on the beaches, with the aid of marine inspectors and a volunteer "Coast Watch." Not only did these integrated activities make a real difference in the cleanliness level of our open beaches, but, even more importantly, local authorities began to recognize their responsibility for keeping their undeclared beaches clean, something which was far from self-evident at the beginning of the project. We hope to see the same level of cooperation in 006 as we did in 005.

11

Reducing air pollution from transportation and industrial sources

Regulating The Electricity Sector
Preventing marine and water pollution and restoring rivers Reducing air pollution from transportation and industrial sources

Treating municipal, industrial and agricultural waste

Catalyzing economic growth and national interests

Fuel combustion for electricity generation has long been targeted as a major polluter in Israel. It is responsible for about 50% of the country’s air pollution, with sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates the major culprits. That’s not to say that the electricity sector has gone unsupervised. Pollutant emissions from the country’s power plants are regulated under a number of statutory instruments: • Administrative orders (personal decrees) under the Abatement of Nuisances Law. • Conditions for the prevention of air pollution under the Businesses Licensing Law. • Nuisance prevention plans for coal-fired power plants and gas turbines under the Planning and Building Law.

How to prevent air pollution from power plants? Regulations recently drafted by the Ministry of the Environment are expected to provide the ministry with effective control and enforcement mechanisms, on the one hand, while providing electricity producers and decision makers with clear requirements on air pollution abatement from electricity production units, on the other hand.

Yet negotiations between the stakeholders have been long and hard. In 1999, some headway was made when an agreement was reached between the Ministry of the Environment, Ministry of Infrastructures and Israel Electric Corporation (known as the Goren-Brovender Agreement) on principles, conditions and requirements for existing and planned power units which would remain in effect until regulations are promulgated. The agreement related to fuel quality in power stations, reduction targets according to standards and timetables, and pollution abatement measures. In parallel, efforts continued to draft regulations based on the proposal for an updated European Directive on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants.

Improving the environment and preseving open spaces

Developing tools for improving service and professionalism

Today, following a decade of work, yet another legal instrument is nearing fruition: the However, objections by the Ministry of the Environment has Ministries of Finance and of completed to draft air pollution abatement regulations which Hadera power plant. Photo: Ilan Malester Infrastructures and by the Israel Electric Corporation, largely based on financial are specifically targeted at the electricity and reliability of supply considerations, hampered sector. progress. When European Directive 001/80/EC, a Moving from Negotiations to Agreements much more comprehensive and stringent directive The Ministry of the Environment is convinced that than its 1988 predecessor, was finalized, it was regulations on air pollution abatement from the decided that Israel's new regulations should be electricity sector will benefit all stakeholders. They based on it. will provide the Ministry of the Environment with Milestones Toward Implementation effective control and enforcement mechanisms, on the one hand, while providing electricity producers and decision makers with clear requirements so as to reduce uncertainties and promote long-range planning, on the other hand. While the promulgation of the regulations is not yet in sight, important progress has nevertheless been made. Two precedent-setting developments are worthy of special mention.

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Public hearing on the emission standards: For the first time ever, a public hearing on proposed regulations was held in September 005. During the hearing, the Ministry of the Environment presented the new standards to all relevant stakeholders, including representatives of the Ministry of Infrastructure, Ministry of Finance, Electricity Authority, Israel Electric Corporation, Ministry of Health, Ministry of the Interior, regional associations of towns for the environment and municipal environmental units, Manufacturers Association of Israel and green organizations including Life and Environment and the Israel Union for Environmental Defense. Based on the comments, final adaptations were made in the regulations prior to their transfer to the Ministry of Justice. Cost estimates of pollution prevention: In accordance with a Ministry of Infrastructure request, the Israel Electric Corporation prepared an analysis of the economic costs of implementing the regulations. The report reviews the potential impacts of implementing the regulations, under different scenarios and timetables, on cost of electricity, reliability of supply and environmental performance. Calculations were based on three factors: estimates of investment, maintenance and operation of pollution reduction measures; additional cost for each kilowatt hour of electricity which is produced and sold; and estimated incremental cost of pollutant reduction per ton. The Environment Ministry estimates that full implementation of the proposed regulations will lead to a 60% reduction in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions and more than a 10% decrease in particulate emissions. The price tag for compliance with the proposed regulations is estimated at $1.4 billion. Putting a Dollar Sign on Pollutant Emissions While the Electric Corporation report places a high price tag on air pollution prevention, the marginal external costs of pollutant emissions - in terms of estimated costs of morbidity, mortality, property damage and damage to flora and

The price tag for compliance with the proposed regulations is estimated at $1.4 billion

fauna - are by no means low. Using calculations made by the European Union for the external costs of pollutant emissions (in terms of dollar per ton of pollutant emitted) in different countries, an initial estimate of the external costs of pollutant emissions from different power plants was made in Israel. While the calculation for each country differs based on economic indicators, Israel used the numbers adopted for Greece as initial indicators. The result in terms of dollars per ton of pollutant emitted is: $9500 per ton of particulate emissions, $400 for nitrogen oxides, $3190 for sulfur oxides and $7 for carbon monoxide. Based on these figures, the external cost, in terms of cents per kilowatt hour produced, was calculated for different power plants in Israel. Today, the Public Utilities Authority – Electricity (Electricity Authority), an independent body responsible for overseeing the electricity sector, along with the Ministry of the Environment, is planning a cost/benefit analysis of the implementation of the draft regulations, in order to check cost to the economy, cost of alternative measures, impact on electricity tariffs and external costs. This will be the first time that decision making on pollution reduction will be made on the basis of cost/benefit analysis. On the Way to Implementation Today, all stakeholders are convinced that the proposed regulations are important and vital to determine clear environmental rules for the long-term planning and operation of power plants in Israel. Yet, as evidenced by the IEC report, the price tag for implementation of the European Directive is high and problems in the reliability of supply are anticipated in most of the scenarios. Nevertheless, it is expected that once the cost-benefit analysis is in, answers will be more readily available. There is no doubt that the emission levels set in the proposed regulations will come into effect. The only questions left to answer are when and at what price. Hopefully, these answers will be forthcoming in 006.

A Look at the Proposed Regulations The draft Abatement of Nuisances Regulations (Prevention of Air Pollution from Electricity Production) are largely based on the European Directive of 001, with some modifications to suit conditions in Israel, especially with regard to existing power plants. Objective: To prevent and minimize considerable or unreasonable air pollution, defined as pollutant emissions exceeding permissible emission limit values according to type of electricity production unit and type of fuel, from power generation units. Power generation units covered: Steam-powered power plants, both coalfired and fuel-oil fired, gas turbines, combined cycle power units and diesel generators, whose rated thermal input is not less than 50 MW and which are licensed for electricity production. Required measures: Best Available Techniques, energy efficiency and approved standard fuels. Monitoring requirements: Continuous monitoring in most cases. Requirements for existing and new plants: Different requirements for existing (operational since 1998) and new plants. More stringent requirements may be set within the framework of other legislation.

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Dr. Eugenia Bernshtein On Energy
Energy Sources Coordinator
Does Israel have unique conditions which affect air pollution? Israel is one of the densest countries in the world in terms of both population and land area. If pollutant emissions per capita in Israel are considered high, they are even higher when calculated in terms of emissions per square kilometer. In addition, Israel is characterized by some features that are pertinent to developing countries and others that are relevant to developed countries. For example, the birth rate in Israel is much higher than in developed countries, but the standard of living is characteristic of developed countries. This is reflected, among other things, by growing demands for electrical appliances such as air conditioners. In addition, Israel’s energy efficiency is lower than in developed countries. This combination of factors translates into high demands for electricity, inefficient energy use and air pollution. In addition, it is important to remember that Israel, unlike European states for example, is an isolated island in terms of its electricity network. This requires us to preserve a sufficient production capacity to respond to peak demands in winter or summer. Why did Israel choose to base its emission standards for power plants on European Directives? We chose the European Directive because it presents "balanced" requirements which are well researched and accepted in the European Community. The guidelines set minimum requirements for compliance in all states, while allowing countries the option of adopting more stringent standards. These requirements are appropriate for Israel because they are based on pollution prevention technologies which are available worldwide and are applicable to Israel. What else does the Ministry of the Environment advocate in order to achieve sustainable energy production? Israel has to promote and implement a combination of actions in order to reduce air pollution from power plants, including a switch to natural gas in generating stations and compliance with existing and new regulations. However, we must introduce energy conservation as well. It is estimated that it is possible to save some 0% of energy consumption in different sectors. What has been done in the field of renewable energy? Israel was the first country worldwide to introduce solar collectors in residential buildings for heating water, but we have since lagged behind. On the positive side, there is a government decision from November 00 which states that beginning in 007, at least % of the electricity supplied to consumers should be from renewable energy sources, with an additional one percent increase every three years. There are plans for a 50 MW wind farm in Ramat Sirin and Ma’ale Gilboa in the north of Israel and a 100 MW solar station in the south of the country. In addition, an interministerial committee, in which the Ministry of the Environment participated, has determined the external costs of pollution. On the basis of these calculations, the Electricity Authority decided in early 004 to set tariffs for the production of energy from renewable sources, which will take account of the cost of pollution emissions. Today, the Electricity Authority is giving premiums to about ten producers of clean energy, including wind, sun and water energy. The Electricity Authority also provides bi-directional meters, which bring about electricity savings to grid-connected renewable energy systems. What would you like to see in the future? We have to move from economic and supply-side considerations, such as the building and operation of more power plants, to Integrated Resource Planning, which is based on demand-side options as well. Under IRP, measures to reduce demand through energy efficiency and conservation would be considered on an equal economic footing with new proposals for power plants.

Preventing marine and water pollution and restoring rivers

Reducing air pollution from transportation and industrial sources

Treating municipal, industrial and agricultural waste

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Aharon Sahar On The Electricity Sector
Environmental Policy and Master Plan Manager, Israel Electric Corporation
What is the position of Israel Electric Corporation on the proposed pollution abatement regulations for the electricity sector? The regulations will go a long way toward promoting long-term planning. It is very important to ensure a degree of certainty about future requirements as a basis for planning. The new regulations, which will compile all of the requirements in one place, are the right thing to do from everyone’s point of view. How is the Electric Corporation now addressing the problems associated with pollutant emissions from power plants? We have long cooperated with the Ministry of the Environment on efforts to reduce pollutant emissions. The results are evident. Despite major increases in electricity production, we are seeing a trend of pollution reduction. This is largely attributed to the introduction of cleaner fuels and more advanced pollution abatement technologies. In fact, all of our new production units comply with the new standards included in the proposed regulations. What is the Electric Corporation doing to reduce emissions from existing oil-powered plants? We are implementing a pollution abatement program to enable our existing large oil-fired power plants in Ashdod, Haifa and Tel Aviv to switch to natural gas. In addition, we have reduced nitrogen oxides emissions significantly, and more reductions are on the way. In our Ashdod power plant, where natural gas was introduced in 004, we are seeing drastic reductions in emissions. Existing small and old oil-fired plants will gradually be shut down by the end of 008. The introduction of natural gas to the electricity sector is an ambitious and unprecedented project which is now underway. It will have dramatic consequences on pollution abatement from the electricity sector. This cannot be overemphasized. It will lead to steep reductions in sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions – reducing concentrations
Courtesy of Israel Electric Corporation

to negligible levels. We plan to reach about 50% natural gas use by the end of the decade. What are the plans of the Electric Corporation for its other power plants? Plans are being implemented to establish combined cycle gas turbines and to convert some of our existing gas turbines to natural gas, rather than diesel gas, by 007. We have also launched a pollutant reduction program in our coal-fired plants which will require temporary unit shutdown in order to introduce new technologies, while maintaining electricity production. We are now preparing a tender for the implementation of primary measures for nitrogen oxides reductions, similar to Low NOx Burners (LNB). This, along with the installation of scrubbers, is required by the proposed regulations.

The introduction of natural gas to the electricity sector will have dramatic consequences on pollution abatement from the electricity sector

Electricity Generation System of the Electric Corporation

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Reducing air pollution from transportation and industrial sources

Air Quality In Israel: 005
Preventing marine and water pollution and restoring rivers

Data on air pollution in Israel in 005, based on the Ministry of the Environment’s 4-station national monitoring system, shows improvements in air quality in Jerusalem, Beersheba, Afula, Beit Shemesh, Rehovot, Karmiel and Modi’in, in comparison to 004. This is attributed to actions taken by the Ministry of the Environment, in cooperation with other bodies, and to favorable pollution dispersion atmospheric conditions. Environmental activities include improvements in fuel quality, increased enforcement against polluting plants, economic incentives for environment-friendly cars, technological measures for reducing emissions in industry and diesel-powered vehicles, enforcement of vehicular emissions standards and promotion of old vehicle scrapping.

Reducing air pollution from transportation and industrial sources

Air Quality Maps: 004

Treating municipal, industrial and agricultural waste

Following is a look at some of the data: • Tel Aviv: 65 high air pollution days in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, similar to 004 (but with a slight decrease in annual averages of nitrogen oxides). • Jerusalem: 5 high air pollution days compared to 55 in 004. • Beersheba: 10 high pollution days compared to 15 in 004. • Afula: 4 high pollution days compared to 14 in 004. • Beit Shemesh: 8 high pollution days compared to 14 in 004. • Rehovot: 8 high pollution days compared to 10 in 004.

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• Karmiel: 7 high pollution days compared to 16 in 004. • Modi'in: 0 high pollution days compared to 4 in 004 (but with the highest concentrations of respirable particles resulting from accelerated building and quarrying).

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DR. CHAVA PERETZ ON AIR QUALITY TRENDS
The Ministry of the Environment publishes monthly and annual summaries of air pollution in different regions of the country. Why is a statistical study of air pollution trends necessary? We are bombarded with large amounts of data all the time and with lots of numbers. What we need is a simple summary of these numbers and the ability to draw sensible conclusions. Statistical analysis allows us to do just this: to present large amounts of data in a simpler form and to infer trends. Mathematical models are used to neutralize different factors which may affect the results so that we can arrive at a more accurate picture of air quality trends. This allows us to ascertain whether efforts to reduce air pollution are fruitful. 1999 and 004 was uniform. We also checked the correlation between pollution levels in the different stations. What were the major conclusions of the study? We found that there was a significant trend of reduction in nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon monoxide levels but an increase in ozone in relation to base year 1999. As for particulates, we did not find a clear trend of increase or decrease for PM10 but we did find a slight increase for PM.5, considered to be the most hazardous of air pollutants to human health. In checking the relationship between NO, NO and NOx, a high correlation was found between NO and NO and NOx, as expected. A medium correlation was found between PM10 and PM.5. A weak correlation was found between particulate levels and other pollutants. SO was weakly correlated with CO and NOx. CO was highly correlated with NOx. There was no correlation between O3 and SO, NOx and CO.

Which statistical methods did you use to determine air pollution trends in recent years? The seven monitoring stations of the Ministry of the Environment in the Tel Aviv region were our data sources. We then used two statistical methods: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. As one concerned about the environment In the first, we described pollution and as a resident, what do you think trends, based on time series, by should be done in light of the results? means of summary measurements, This study indicates that the most means, medians and 95 percentiles. problematic pollutants are PM.5 and We used box plots to check extreme PM10. Steps should be accelerated values from a statistical point of to bring about a decrease in these view as well as annual trends and pollutants. Once intervention is prepared smoothed graphs to show implemented, a statistical assessment the daily trends of each pollutant should be undertaken once again. in a time series. Hadera power plant. Photo: Ilan Malester I should also mention that at about The second method was inferential the same time that the study was statistics which is based on models of published, a seminar on air pollution in Tel Aviv took linear regression in which we checked the effect of the place. During the course of the seminar, on December year, adjusted for day, month, temperature and relative 19, 005, the heads of local authorities in the Tel Aviv humidity. We wanted to find out whether there was a metropolitan area signed a covenant on the reduction difference between the years studied and whether of air pollution in their region. These and other initiatives there was a yearly linear effect, and if so, how it was manifested and whether the rate of decrease between are certainly positive developments.

Dr. Chava Peretz, an environmental health and air pollution biostatistician in Tel Aviv and Haifa Universities, investigated air pollution trends from 1999-004 on behalf of the Ministry of the Environment. The study, completed in December 005, looks at air quality trends in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area for eight major air pollutants and assesses trends on the basis of statistical models.

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Reducing air pollution from transportation and industrial sources

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Risk Management – Confronting The Challenge
Accident in Acre plant. Photo: Medvey Feldman

How to identify industrial installations that may have a severe impact on the environment? How to prevent accidental releases of hazardous substances from stationary sources that could be harmful to humans and the environment? How to reduce the adverse impacts of those releases that do occur? A new guidebook on risk management from stationary sources in industry, which addresses hazardous substances accidents, sets out to answer these critical questions. Risk assessments are not new on Israel’s environmental scene. They may be required within the framework of special conditions to Poisons Permits under the Hazardous Substances Law. What’s more, Israel has kept abreast of international developments in this area. In fact, Ms. Sigal Blumenfeld, a staffer at the Ministry of the Environment’s northern region, took part in the drafting group for the OECD Guiding Principles for Chemical Accidents, Prevention, Preparedness and Response, published in 003. Yet, up till now, Israel did not have a uniform policy on how risk assessments should be conducted, there was no differentiation between high-risk installations and low-risk installations, there were no uniform requirements for different factories, and risk assessments did not focus on the ultimate goal: risk prevention and reduction. To overcome these shortcomings, the Ministry of the Environment initiated a risk management project in 001 aimed at determining a uniform policy on the scenarios, methodologies and plans which are intrinsic to risk management schemes. The mega goal was to prevent risks from accidental releases of hazardous substances from industrial sources and to minimize their impacts on the human and physical environment. More specifically, the idea was to focus on the most

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Improving the environment and preseving open spaces

hazardous substances and processes, to upgrade industrial preparedness for preventing hazardous substance accidents, to minimize their impacts should they occur, and to institute uniform requirements applying to all factories using regulated hazardous substances. A Guide for Action: On the Road Toward Implementation Today, four years later, an important milestone has been reached: A Guide on Risk Management from Stationary Sources in Relation to Hazardous Substances Incidents was published in November 005. The Hebrew guidebook, prepared by a professional team within the Ministry of the Environment in cooperation with a consulting company (Hazmat Ltd.), is largely based on the

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Primary Goals of the Risk Management Guide The main aims of the guide, which is accessible on the Hebrew website of the Ministry of the Environment, are to: • Formulate a risk management policy. • Define hazardous substances and specify their threshold quantities. • Set guidelines for risk management of existing (rather than planned) sources. • Develop methods for supervising and assessing the implementation of risk management. • Attain maximum clarity on risk management. • Achieve transparency and public participation in risk management. USEPA’s Risk Management Program (RNP) and the California Accidental Release model (CalARP), but with adaptations to legal conditions, tools and materials in Israel. The preparation process for the guide was fully transparent and was based, as far as possible, on consensus building among the different stakeholders. Findings and recommendations were presented to a risk assessment forum, which was especially created by the Ministry of the Environment, and included representatives of the Ministries of Labor and Welfare, Interior and Infrastructure, Firefighting Service, Homeland Security, Manufacturers Association of Israel, environmental units in local authorities and "Life and Environment" (an NGO). The risk management process sets out to facilitate efficient management by government and industrial bodies in three major areas: risk management policy; implementation of risk assessment and measures to reduce risks from industrial sources. Major Elements in the Risk Management Process The proposed risk management plan includes, inter alia, the following elements: • An offsite consequence analysis that evaluates specific potential release scenarios, including worst-case and alternative scenarios; • A five-year history of accidental releases of regulated substances from the covered processes;

• An integrated risk prevention program; • An emergency response program. The risk management plan also includes an executive summary which is to include the following elements: policy for accident prevention and emergency response, description of the stationary source and hazardous substances used, description of worst case and alternative scenarios including control and mitigation measures, general program for accident prevention and prevention measures for specific substances, fiveyear accident history, emergency procedure and survey of proposed changes to improve safety. What’s Covered? Supervised industries: Any premise subject to a Poisons Permit under the Hazardous Substances Law for a regulated substance, which appears in the list of especially toxic or flammable substances above a certain threshold level, is required to prepare a risk management plan. Regulated substances: Any material which appears in the list of especially toxic or flammable substances. The guide specifies 18 regulated substances. Covered processes: Any activity which relates to the use, storage, production and treatment of regulated substances above the defined threshold level. Classification of covered processes: To ensure that individual processes are subject to requirements that suit their size and potential risk level, the guide classifies them into three programs – from 1 to 3, where 1 is based on minimum requirements and 3 on maximum requirements. For example, program 1 requirements would apply to processes in which a hazardous substance accident has not occurred over the past five years and for which a worst-case scenario of hazardous substance release is not expected to affect the public. These processes are only required to prepare an emergency procedure which is coordinated with the relevant authorities. On the other hand, program 3 requirements apply to processes with a real potential for offsite consequences associated with the worst-case scenario and/or

The risk management process should facilitate efficient management in three major areas: risk management policy, implementation of risk assessment and measures to reduce risks from industrial sources

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Risks Covered by the Guide • Risks to the environment: Including risks to the population, both residing and temporarily occupying the vicinity of the stationary sources (excluding employees within the framework of their work) and risks to natural resources, such as land and water sources onsite or offsite. • Risks from an accident: Defined as an uncontrolled release, fire or explosion of a substance which is hazardous to public health and/or the environment. • Risks from stationary industrial sources involving hazardous substances: Including buildings, structures, equipment, installations or any other stationary activity which may result in the accidental release of a regulated hazardous substance. with an accident history whose materials appear in the table of regulated substances and exceed the threshold levels defined for program 3. These processes are required to address all of the components of the risk management plan. What Next? Publication of the guide is by no means an end, but rather a beginning. The success of the project will be measured by its implementation in practice. In order to help answer the question of how best to implement the new risk management approach, Haifa Chemicals, a major producer and marketer of specialty fertilizers and chemicals for industry, undertook to test the CalARP process as early as 00. The Ministry of the Environment has now initiated a wider pilot study to test the feasibility and applicability of the guidebook and the need for further adaptations. To help launch the pilot project, staffers at the regional level of the Environment Ministry identified some 0 industrial plants, a few in each region of the country, for participation. Criteria for selection were not uniform and differed from region to region according to the discretion of the individual director - whether proximity to a populated area or presence of very hazardous substances or results of risk assessments. Only

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Emergency response Hazmat Treatment Vehicle

seismic risk was uniformly taken into consideration due to its importance on the national agenda. From Guide to Action According to Michal Bar-Tov, head of the Hazardous Substances Division of the Environment Ministry, the idea is to transfer responsibility for risk management to the industrial sector itself, which after all is the most knowledgeable about specific processes in the factory and is therefore best suited to identify the most dangerous processes and to reduce risks. "We want the industrial plant to recognize the risks and prioritize them, and then to allocate resources to the most serious risks or to the most problematic impacts", says Bar-Tov. Since the goal of the guide is also to prevent and minimize future risks, guidelines for assimilating risk considerations in the planning process in Israel are also on the agenda. The idea is to formulate a better methodology at the planning level for approving residential development in the vicinity of hazardous industrial plants, on the one hand, and for approving such industrial plants in the vicinity of population centers, on the other. Once the results of the pilot projects, scheduled for implementation over an 18-month period, are in, the efficacy of the risk management process will be reevaluated and further adaptations will be made. However, the benefits for both industry and the Ministry of the Environment are already evident: industry now has the tools to improve its risk management and the Ministry of the Environment has the tools to improve its supervision and oversight. Perhaps most importantly, the project has helped the ministry consolidate a comprehensive policy which takes account of all potential risks to the human and natural environment, from health to economics, from transparency to inspection.

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Amiad Alexandron On Risk Management
VP, North Site, Haifa Chemicals When and why did Haifa Chemicals initiate the pilot study on risk management? In December 00, a major fire broke out in Haifa Chemicals, which resulted in property damage but thankfully not in human injury. Nevertheless, we realized that there were gaps in our risk management program. At the time, the Ministry of the Environment initiated the preparation of a risk management program. When the ministry asked us to undertake a pilot project to test the CalARP model, we complied.

Haifa Chemicals is a leading developer, producer and marketer of specialty fertilizers and chemicals for industry. Its main facility is in Haifa in the north of the country. The plant was the first in Israel to initiate a risk management pilot project based on the California Accidental Release model (CalARP). Israel Environment Bulletin spoke to Mr. Amiad Alexandron in November 005 What was the first step in implementing about the pilot project.
the project? With the services of a consultant, we mapped the different processes and hazardous substances in the plant according to the categories and list of regulated substances of the CalARP. This helped us prioritize the risks in our facility. By following the logical process which was laid out in the CalARP, we were able to focus on the main risks, whose impact may extend beyond the factory fence.

main importers of ammonia into the country, we were well aware of the risks associated with this material. In fact, in accordance with the requirements of the Ministry of the Environment we had already reduced some of the risks by decreasing our ammonia inventory from three storage tanks of 600 tons each – or a total of 1800 tons – to a tenth of this sum, or 180 tons in one storage tank. We then switched to two smaller storage tanks of 55 tons each. The CalARP project led to a complete change in our ammonia storage arrangements. Today, our ammonia reserves are stored in storage tanks which are fully protected (without pressure) in the terminal.

Did Haifa Chemicals make any changes in light of the results of the process? As soon as one operates according to a list of priorities and tools, real problems begin to surface. As a result of the mapping process, we discovered that one of the materials we were using was classified on the CalARP list as a relatively high risk material. At the time, we did not know that this material was riskier than some of the other materials we were using. As soon as I was appointed manager of the site in October 004, I implemented the decision to take this material out of use and to introduce another process. Can you point to any other results of the process? During the pilot project, we appointed many teams to identify and classify different hazardous processes within our factory, one of which was ammonia storage. As the

Were you pleased with the results of the pilot project? At the beginning of the project, we checked each and every element in our facility. This was no small matter and cost a lot of money - $500,000, much more than originally planned. However, we are not sorry. What we spent in resources, we gained in safety. CalARP allowed us to proceed logically and systematically while taking everything into account – from seismic risks to natural disasters. I need to emphasize that the CalARP process is not a magic wand. It requires a lot of work, a lot of resources, but in return, it will help create an organizational culture – a culture which I consider to be extremely important. Haifa Chemicals has definitely profited from instituting a better method of work, which is safer, more systematic and more efficient. What are your initial conclusions as you near the completion of the pilot study? For me, the environment has a value beyond manufacturing. It is a matter of culture. I have come out of the process strengthened in my feeling that our employees are now better protected. The value of human life is inestimable. We can now be assured that anyone who enters the factory will be able to leave without fear of injury. This is our most important achievement. Moreover, the safety measures we introduced relate not only to the plant itself, but also to the people who work with us and to the surrounding environment. I can definitely say that despite the high investment, implementation of the model turned out to be a "win-win" situation. I credit the Ministry of the Environment with leading the way and providing the necessary professional guidance throughout the process.

Photo: Haifa Chemicals 

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Catalyzing economic growth and national interests Onwads towards cleaner coasts

Preventing marine and water pollution and restoring rivers

Confronting The Dead Sea Dilemma

Reducing air pollution from transportation and industrial sources

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Water levels in the Dead Sea have dropped to 418 meters below sea level and continue to drop. What to expect? What to do? A new document provides initial answers

Treating municipal, industrial and agricultural waste Catalyzing economic growth and national interests

The Dead Sea, the lowest point on earth, is shrinking. Water levels in this saltiest of the earth’s lakes, have declined dramatically and hazardous sinkholes have begun to appear along its basin. To address these issues, a government decision was taken in January 003 to prepare an integrated plan on the future of the Dead Sea and its drainage basin. The mandate was to focus on the environmental, economic, legal and social impacts of declining Dead Sea levels, recommend measures to stabilize processes and propose steps to facilitate the harnessing of the region’s potential. Three future scenarios were to be assessed: a business as usual or default option in which the negative recharge rate in the basin would continue, a scenario of restoration of freshwater flow to the Dead Sea from the Jordan River system and a scenario that would see the construction of a seawater conduit from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea. The Default Option The first phase of the document on the "Dead Sea and its Drainage Basin: Assessment of Status and Policy Guidelines under Continued Negative Water Balance of the Lake" sets out to confront the uncertainties arising from dropping lake levels and emerging sinkholes. Prepared by the Ministry of the Environment in cooperation with the Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies and the Geological Survey of Israel, it relates to the future of the Dead Sea and its basin under the default

option - the scenario that predicts what is likely to occur in the Dead Sea and its surroundings if no steps are taken to stop water level declines. The report points out that hundreds of sinkholes have been exposed as a result of the Dead Sea’s retreating water line from the approximate –400 meter topographic contour downward. This phenomenon is a safety risk as well as an economic problem, since it has halted future development and has put some existing development at risk. Furthermore, since these conditions will be relevant for the foreseeable planning horizon, new development strategies should be pursued. At the same time, trend-turning steps should be examined in order to formulate a long-term integrated and sustainable national policy for the Dead Sea. Confronting the Uncertainty In order to minimize the uncertainties and provide for the further safe development of the region, the editors of the report identified and mapped areas where substrate failure is anticipated at various levels of certainty as well as areas of stable and safe substrate where development can proceed without restrictions. This does much to dispel the uncertainty which has accompanied the decline of lake water. On the basis of these in-depth studies, the policy document presents a multidisciplinary perspective and a well-grounded forecast of the future of

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the Dead Sea and its shores, which "constitutes a basis for formulating a policy of management and development that meets the changing conditions, and can enable ongoing activity and development of the region’s potential." The

about 00 years at a level of about 550 meters below mean sea level. • Dropping lake levels will lead to changes in the location of the future shoreline and the physical

The policy document presents a multidisciplinary perspective and a well-grounded forecast of the future of the Dead Sea and its shores

Dead Sea sinkholes and views. Photos: Eli Raz

report also includes a list of recommendations for implementation by specific bodies. For example: planning agencies should use sinkhole and subsidence maps as a basis for issuing planning and building permits; the Geological Survey of Israel should continue to monitor changes in the physical infrastructure and to routinely update the maps; and a new regional master plan should be prepared for the western shores of the Dead Sea which will adopt a new planning approach, based on anticipated dynamic changes. Main Conclusions • The default option will be relevant to the foreseeable planning horizon (at least 0-40 years), but, at the same time, trend-turning steps should be examined, in order to formulate a long-term integrated and sustainable national policy. • The negative water balance of the Dead Sea will not improve in the foreseeable future. Water levels will continue to drop at a rate of one meter per year or more - dropping to about 440 m below sea level in 05 and -465 m by 050. • Even after implementation of a remedial program (e.g., building a sea conduit or restoring the natural inflow), raising the lake from 435-440 meters below sea level to any target level will be a lengthy process. • The Dead Sea will not disappear even if no measures are taken to change the negative water balance. It is likely to reach a stable situation in

conditions along the coasts. These changes will impact on the stability of infrastructures and may impact on structures, roads, bridges, agricultural areas, engineering works, and more. • Dropping lake levels will be accompanied by shoreline retreat and increasing distances between the lake and tourism sites and access roads. This issue should be addressed in order to allow visitors to continue to enjoy safe access to the sea. • Dropping lake levels may lead to a reduction in biodiversity, changes in migration patterns and damage to unique local ecosystems. Will the Document Make a Difference? It is widely agreed that the Dead Sea is one of Israel’s most important resources – a foremost industrial base and a top-priority tourist site, both nationally and internationally. Publication of the first phase of the policy document has helped eliminate some of the uncertainty concerning the future of the Dead Sea and its environs while opening up new possibilities for creative solutions and innovative measures which would allow the area to meet its promise and potential.

Pinpointing the Risks: What Do the Maps Show? • Location of the likely future shorelines in space and in time. • Subsidence and sinkhole prone areas: active sinkhole sites, areas in which there is a potential for sinkholes, areas in which the possibility of sinkholes cannot be ruled out, and areas in which sinkholes are not expected to develop. • Exposure of mud flats, steep slopes and regions prone to landslides and mudslides. • Accelerated undercutting and deepening of the creeks, which threaten to damage roads, bridges and other infrastructure. • Potential damage to the stability of natural water pools, such as Einot-Zukim, Kaneh and Samar. • Potential loss of underground water storage capacity. 

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Catalyzing economic growth and national interests

Galit Cohen On The Dead Sea
Head, Unit for Environmental Policy
Preventing marine and water pollution and restoring rivers

What catalyzed the initiative to prepare a policy document on the future of the Dead Sea? This goes back about five years. At the time, two opposing initiatives were on the table: First, an initiative, promoted by Friends of the Earth Middle East, to register the entire Dead Sea Basin as a Biosphere Reserve. Second, plans for accelerated development, especially thousands of new hotel rooms in the Ein Gedi area. Yet, at this very time, we were seeing extreme physical changes in the area: the appearance of sinkholes, extreme reactions of river flow and undercutting with damage to infrastructure. We realized that these physical processes had to be taken into account in the planning process for the future development of the Dead Sea area. We also realized that the geological processes that were taking place were complex and that a major study would have to be taken in order to come up with an integrated and sustainable policy for the area. What did the Ministry of the Environment do? We recognized that we must link physical processes with plans, science with decisionmaking. We therefore sought the cooperation of experts in the field, especially from the Ministry of Infrastructure which has the necessary research institutions, including the Geological Survey. We also organized seminars to find out what was happening and what to anticipate. Thus, the national policy for the Dead Sea area was based on two approaches. On the one side, the basis for the paper was the scientific research – both geological and geophysical studies – done by the
Dead Sea sinkholes and views. Photos: Eli Raz

Reducing air pollution from transportation and industrial sources

Ministry of Infrastructure, especially with regard to the appearance of sinkholes. On the other side, the Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies, through its Israeli Environmental Policy Center, contributed its expertise in policy making. With joint funding, we were able to come out with a multidisciplinary policy document. What is unique about the project? This was the first time that everything related to the future development of the Dead Sea area was considered – physical phenomena, ecology, economic significance, cost/benefit, legal and planning impacts. This multidisciplinary approach was made possible through the cooperation of five teams, each with expertise in a different aspect. What was the conclusion of the first document on what will happen to the lake under a scenario of no change in the deficient water budget? The main conclusion is that nothing will change in the next 0 to 40 years. We now know that whatever the government decides, it will take at least ten years until the first drop of water begins to flow into the Dead Sea and another ten years until the water level stabilizes. By then, the water level will have dropped by at least another 0 meters. And this is the optimistic forecast! We have to be realistic. Over the next 0 to 40 years, more sinkholes will be exposed, infrastructure

Treating municipal, industrial and agricultural waste Catalyzing economic growth and national interests

Improving the environment and preseving open spaces

Developing tools for improving service and professionalism 

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Dead Sea sinkholes and views. Photos: Eli Raz

will be damaged, water levels will continue to drop and the ecosystem will continue to be affected. On the other hand, we also know that the Dead Sea will not disappear, but will rather decrease to two-thirds of its current size and stabilize there. Therefore, we need to reexamine the existing infrastructure in its entirety, from roads to hotels, and to formulate and implement a new master plan which will take account of the drastic changes in the area. We now know which areas are safe for further development and which appear destined for future damage. We must act accordingly. Thus, for example, a major plan for tourism in the Ein Gedi area, which was once on the agenda, is no longer relevant. At the same time, we must begin to carefully examine the two options which have been proposed to stem the continuing decline in the Dead Sea – construction of a canal from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea or restoration of freshwater flow from the Jordan River into the Dead Sea. Is the policy document being taken into account? We have to recognize the reality, no matter how difficult or sad. We have to look squarely in the mirror and deal with what we see. This means that as a country, we have to take decisions today to prevent damage tomorrow. We need a new planning approach based on the realization that we cannot build and develop in the sinkhole area. Linear planning along the Dead Sea shore is no longer appropriate. The National Planning and Building Board accepted the recommendation of the team for a new

master plan for the Dead Sea which will relate to the new conditions. We must ensure that the policy document won’t remain on the shelf but will be implemented. The document includes specific recommendations about what each ministry should do – for example for the Ministry of the Interior to prepare a master plan or for the Nature and Parks Authority to assess impacts on biodiversity. We would like to see a government decision on the subject which would set up an interministerial committee, responsible for Israel’s preparedness to confront the changes in the Dead Sea for a minimum of 0 years. What is the situation of the existing hotels along the Dead Sea? The document mostly relates to the northern basin of the Dead Sea. The southern basin, where the hotels are concentrated, is made up of the industrial pools of the Dead Sea where processes are totally different. In fact, we are seeing an increase in water level of 0 cm each year as a result of the evaporation process and the sinking of the salt. As the bottom rises, so does the water level, which in turn requires the hotels to raise the height of the dikes which protect the pools every few years. The time has come for a long-range solution to the problem and this should be done under the leadership of the Ministry of Tourism. Several solutions, all very expensive, are being assessed, including the building of a wall inside the ponds so as to create a large lagoon in front of the hotels where the water level could be controlled.

As a country, we have to take decisions today to prevent damage tomorrow 

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Improving the urban environment and preseving open spaces

Asbestos Use in Israel: 1950s-1990s

Alex Kaplan On Local Environmental Units
What were the major environmental achievements of 2005 on the local front? Head of Project and Environmental Units Division Local environmental units play a critical role in advancing environmental issues on the municipal level and serve as the local arm of the Ministry of the Environment. The Environment Ministry is professionally responsible for the operation of 47 local environmental units, regional environmental units and associations of towns for the environment, eight of which serve the Arab sector. the supervision of a national coordinator in Jerusalem. However, their budgetary allocations are divided between the ministry and local authorities. The rate of support is determined according to objective criteria and varies between 50% for new and small units to 10% in older, established units. What do environmental units deal with?

Preventing marine and water pollution and restoring rivers

Reducing air pollution from transportation and industrial sources

Treating municipal, industrial and agricultural waste

Catalyzing economic growth and national interests

In 005, former Minister of the Environment Shalom Simhon spearheaded a major change in priorities which saw a dramatic growth in the ministry’s budgetary allocation to local environmental units. At the beginning of 005, environmental units covered 50% of Israel’s geographic area and 70% of the population. Today environmental units cover 90% of the land area and provide environmental services to 85% of the population.

How many new units were established in 2005? We issued a call for proposals which invited local authorities to join an existing local unit or to establish a new unit made up of several neighboring local authorities with our funding. As a result, 10 new units were set up in 005. They include six new units in the north of the country, a new unit in the Shoham area in the central region, a new unit in the Givataim area in the Tel Aviv region and two new units in the south including one in the vicinity of Beersheba which serves the Bedouin sector. We also provided these new units with a one-time grant for the purchase of dedicated equipment for soil sampling, noise and radiation monitoring and more. How does the Ministry of the Environment support these units? All of the environmental units, old and new, are professionally guided by the directors of the Environment Ministry's regional offices under

Improving the environment and preseving open spaces

Developing tools for improving service and professionalism

The units are responsible for environmental activities and services, including, among others, industrial inspection and business licensing, environmental planning, treatment of noise nuisances, recycling, environmental education, pest control and agroecology. Some are also responsible for air pollution monitoring systems or wastewater treatment systems. Over the years, authority for additional subjects has gradually been transferred to local units, including incorporating environmental conditions in business licenses of C-level businesses (classified as lower pollution risk level plants) and granting Poisons Permits to premises dealing with hazardous substances. Recently, responsibility for the Reading Power Plant in Tel Aviv was also transferred to the relevant local unit. We are convinced that local authorities are better equipped to respond to local problems since they are closer to them, more familiar with them, and as a result, more concerned about them. By providing financial assistance to local units, everyone wins - the Environment Ministry, the local authority and the residents themselves. For more about the local environment, see p. 31. 

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Soundproofing Schools For A Sound Education
Holon, Rishon LeZion, Beit Dagan, Or Yehuda and the villages of Emek Lod differ in their socio-economic status, but youngsters in these communities surrounding Ben-Gurion Airport have one thing in common: They have all benefited from a unique project to soundproof schools and kindergartens in order to provide the children of these communities with a sound learning environment. Initiation of the Project The statutory master plan for Ben-Gurion Airport, Israel’s major airport, calls on the Israel Airport Authority (IAA) to provide acoustic protection to residents and to assist local authorities in the noise-impacted area. Accordingly, a special public committee was set up to implement the environmental provisions of the master plan and to determine eligibility for acoustic protection in residential buildings. In addition, the IAA initiated, with the assistance of the Ministry of the Environment, a plan to provide acoustic treatment to educational institutions in the noise-impacted area. Criteria for Eligibility To determine eligibility, a public committee was set up, headed by Att. Haim Corfu, who served as the Minister of Transport at the time, and including the directors general of the Ministry of Transport, Ministry of the Environment and the IAA. The committee decided to determine priorities for acoustic treatment on the basis of speech intelligibility criteria, an objective index that takes account of the number of students in the class and the number of minutes in which speech intelligibility is impaired due to aircraft noise. Implementation in the Field The IAA along with the relevant local authorities funded the project, taking into consideration the socioeconomic status of each locality. Thus, while the norm for funding was set as 70% by the IAA and 30% by local authorities, in reality, the IAA covered 85% of the cost of the project in Beit Dagan, 90% in Or Yehuda and 95% in the Emek Lod communities.

From Att. Haim Corfu
Chairman, Public Committee on Acoustic Protection of Schools, Ben-Gurion Airport The acoustic protection project in schools around Ben-Gurion Airport was exceedingly successful. It helped foster a special harmony among all stakeholders, including the schools and the communities. Over the past four years, we managed to treat just about all of the schools and kindergartens and even a few others which did not appear on the original map of noise-impacted areas. In addition to its financial support for acoustic protection and the general refurbishment of classrooms and playgrounds, the Airports Authority is also implementing an educational program in schools around the airport which focuses on such subjects as aviation, environmental quality and sustainable development.

Educational project on aviation and environment. Photo: Israel Airports Authority.

Facts and Figures
• Acoustic protection of educational institutions in the noise-impacted area of Ben Gurion Airport encompassed 3 schools and 77 kindergartens. • The Israel Airports Authority allocated 8.3 million shekels for acoustic protection to educational institutes and another 1.5 million for upgrading schoolyards and playgrounds (about $6.5 million). • The project included installation of new windows, acoustic ceilings and air conditioners.

percent 4%

Population Exposed to Noise from Ben-Gurion Airport

3%

3%

2% 2%

1%

1%

0%

1990

1991

1992

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 >60 dBA >65 dBA >70 dBA

1999

2000

2001

2002 

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Developing tools for improving service and professionalism

Base Station Antennas And The Precautionary Principle
Preventing marine and water pollution and restoring rivers

Reducing air pollution from transportation and industrial sources

Treating municipal, industrial and agricultural waste

Catalyzing economic growth and national interests

Improving the environment and preseving open spaces

Developing tools for improving service and professionalism

In the summer of 005, in response masts in urban areas and Some 6.9 Israelis have about 7 to growing public concern about encouraging the construction million cell phones - one of the the construction of base stations of small and relatively more highest rates of cell phones in the vicinity of residential areas densely distributed cellular per capita in the world. At and public institutions, Israel’s base stations, which emit lower the same time, the duration Minister of the Interior submitted radiation levels. of cell phone conversations a proposal to the government on • To encourage local authorities in Israel is also the longest an amendment to the national to act, as much as possible, in the world. Yet, although master plan on small broadaccording to the model Israelis are totally dependent casting facilities (known as Plan proposed by the municipality on their cell phones for instant 36/A). The amendment called of Modi’in for integrating a communications – anytime, for broadening the discretion larger number of small cellular anywhere – they adamantly of local planning committees in base stations in the existing oppose the establishment the planning process for cellular urban infrastructure, in order of cellular antennas. What base stations, increasing public to reduce exposure levels. to do? A directors-general notification and participation • To establish a four-track licensing committee makes some and requiring cellular companies method to replace the current recommendations. to compensate local authorities licensing system which is uniform for accepted indemnity claims for all base stations. The fourfor reduced property values track system – red, orange, due to base stations. The yellow and green - would be government, in turn, decided to based on base station type, size, postpone a final decision on the radiation level and impact on amendment until the results of environment and landscape. a specially appointed directors• To establish procedures for general committee will be in. The notifying the public about mandate of the committee: to the proposed construction find ways to provide countrywide of cellular base stations and coverage while taking into to enable its participation in account radiation safety, planning processes. minimization of landscape • To broaden the discretion blight and efficient licensing. In of the local authority in the December 005, the government Cellular masts and antennas. Photos: planning process for cellular approved the recommendations Alex Kaplan and Lior Elovitch base stations, especially for of the committee, which were based on the implementation of the precautionary base stations with high radiation emissions which principle. also have a significant impact on landscape and the environment. Recommendations: Implementation of the Precautionary Principle • To establish an indemnification mechanism for • To adopt the principles underlying the amendment to the master plan, aimed at reducing the number of ground-based and roof-based tall reduced property value based on the involvement and discretion of the local authority in the planning process. 

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Cellular antenna in Modi'in Photo: Alex Weinreb

Four Licensing Tracks for Base Station Antennas
Red Track – For ground-based masts or roof-based masts which are taller than 3.5 meters in urban building areas. Orange Track – For roof-based masts less than 3.5 meters and ground-based masts and roofbased masts taller than 3.5 meters in open spaces, industrial areas and interurban roads.

On Cellular Antennas In Modi’in Alex Weinreb
How and why did Modi’in get involved in the base station antenna issue? Modi’in was first populated in 1996 and was declared a municipality in 001. Its skyline is beautiful and a municipal bylaw prohibits television antennas on rooftops or aboveground electric poles. Yet, there are 15 giant cellular antennas around the town, 13 of them illegal since they were not granted a building permit. When the new city administration was voted in two years ago, we set out to put the environment high on our list of priorities and to find solutions to the general confusion which characterized the antenna issue. The report of the directors-general committee on siting base station antennas relates to the Modi’in model. Can you describe this model? The model is meant to provide maximum reception with minimum radiation. It calls for eliminating the existing large antennas, except for those at the city outskirts, and for installing antennas in specially-designed lampposts, similar to those used today. The masts will only be 16 meters high (not 36 or 46 meters as is the case today) and people will know exactly where they are located since they will be clearly delineated on an interactive map available on the municipality’s website. This is a "win-win" situation.

Yellow Track – For mast plans which are prepared in cooperation with the local authority and integrated in the urban infrastructure (also known as "the Modi’in model"). Green Track – For specifically defined small antennas. Guidelines on distribution, local authority discretion, indemnification mechanism and public notification procedure are included in each track, with licensing procedures for large base stations stricter than those for small stations.

Deputy Mayor of Modi’in, in charge of environment

Mr. Alex Weinreb initiated the cellular antenna plan, also known as the Modi’in model, in conjunction with the engineering division and the legal counsel of Modi’in and with the backing of the mayor.

The Modi’in model is meant to provide maximum reception with minimum radiation 

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Green All Over: From Kindergarten To University
The Success Of The "Green School" Project, Initiated In 00 Continues To Elicit Major Interest Throughout Israel
The idea of a "Green School" was first introduced to Israel some four years ago during the country’s preparations for the Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development. The rationale was to promote sustainable development, inculcate environmental values and foster environmental activism – all by means of the personal example of the school itself. joined the process, of which 3 have already been certified. Interest levels have grown significantly as evidenced by the number of applications to join the process in 005: 170 applications were received by the Ministry of the Environment, of which 101 were approved!

Green all Over
In light of the immense success of the project, plans are currently being advanced to "green" other areas. Steering committees have therefore set criteria for Green Kindergartens, Green Community Centers and Green Campuses. Green Community Center: A pilot project on Green Community Centers was initiated in 005 and seven Green Community Centers were recently certified. Green Campus: The Green Campus project was initiated by a steering committee including representatives of the Ministry of the Environment, the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa University, Tel Hai College and the Council for Higher Education in Israel.

The Green School Process: Three Steps Toward Certification
In order to help schools progress toward sustainability, the steering committee for the Green School process, composed of representatives of the Ministry of the Environment, Ministry of Education and Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel, drew up guidelines and criteria for certification. Schools are only approved for the process if they meet the following three criteria: 1. Integration of environmental subjects in the curriculum 2. Rational use of resources 3. Contribution to the community The three-pronged process is designed to encourage schools, with the cooperation of administration, students, parents and community, not just to teach environmental subjects but to act in a sustainable manner. Only those schools which fulfill the goals listed in each of the three categories are eligible for Green School certification. Although the incorporation of sustainable practices within the school carries its own rewards, schools that are accredited are awarded with special certificates and a monetary prize of between NIS 5,000-10,000 per school. To date, about 130 primary and intermediate schools – spanning different geographical locations and population sectors in Israel - have
Alon Karmiel Green School

Day-to-day activity can make a real difference in the quality of the environment in which we live

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Green Projects. Photo: Roi Simcha

From representatives of the Environment Ministry in the Green School steering committee:
Ms. Zivit Linder, Deputy Director of the Education and Information Division: This is a wonderful project. It brings much more than formal environmental education to the classroom. Through the project, the environment becomes something concrete. Youngsters begin to understand the impacts of throwing a plastic bag, letting a faucet drip, keeping lights on in unoccupied rooms. They are provided with the necessary tools to collect environmental data, to decide how to improve the environment, to take concrete action, and to measure progress. It is of utmost importance to let children see, physically, how their actions affect the life cycle so that they realize that they can make a difference in the quality of their environment as participating citizens in the democratic process. The goal of environmental education is to ensure that today’s youth will be exposed to environmental issues so that by the time they reach adulthood each and every one of their decisions and actions will take the environment into account. Dr. Dorit Baum, Educational Coordinator of the Haifa District: The Green School project has been a huge success. The idea is to have the school serve as a personal example of sustainability. Through the project, environmental subjects are included in the curriculum, environmental actions become daily actions at the level of both school and community and environmental values are instilled in the students. The success of the project encouraged us to expand it to other areas, including Green Community Center, Green Kindergarten and Green Campus. This way we will be able to increase the circle of people who are affected by the project and we will be able to encourage activism on behalf of the environment at all levels. Dr. Motti Sela, Director of the Industry and Business Licensing Division: We are in the midst of a new revolution in green thinking. We have broadened the "green" concept from products to services so that it will encompass the entire educational system and the community. The idea is infectious; it has a snowball effect. It is very exciting to see the projects come to fruition, to witness the commitment of the participants and to celebrate with the winning schools. All of the new projects which are now being planned have a common denominator and are based on education, community involvement and rational use of resources, but with modifications for different age groups. As far as I am concerned, this is our future. This is how we can leave our stamp.
Park in Shoham. Photo: Judy Elispor

Encouraging Local Authorities to Go Green
Tens of millions of shekels were allocated to local authorities and to municipal units in 005 to help promote environmental projects in the following areas: • Enhancing capacity to deal with hazardous substances accidents. • Establishing infrastructure for construction and demolition waste. • Promoting bicycle paths. • Cleaning up and disposing of asbestos waste from contaminated sites in the Western Galilee. • Planning, establishing and operating urban recycling centers and collecting beverage containers of 1.5 liters and more for recycling. • Preventing and treating pest nuisances to assure public health. • Establishing or renovating municipal animal shelters • Promoting sustainable development activities within schools, with emphasis on biodiversity, environmental planning and industry and the environment. • Promoting educational programs on the Deposit Law and on recycling. In addition, over the past few years, some 40 local authorities, including 16 regional councils in the north and south of the country, have initiated Local Agenda 1 processes. A three-year LIFE Third countries project on capacity building for creating sustainable communities, based on training, planning, legislation and administrative networking, was initiated by the Heschel Center for Environmental Learning and Leadership in 006.

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Greening The Israel Defense Forces
"I have no doubt that an army that thinks "green" is a more efficient army, a wiser army, a healthier army and one that best fulfills its mission protecting the country and its residents and protecting natural resources and the landscape. Imparting values that take into account the environment in which we live will assure, at the end of the day, a better and healthier society and a better quality of the environment for us and for future generations."
Minister of the Environment Gideon Ezra at the third annual Israel Defense Forces environmental awards ceremony

On February 6, 006, at an army base in central Israel, environmental awards were granted to army units, soldiers and commanders of the Israel Defense Forces. Although this was the third annual ceremony, it was accompanied for the first time by an exhibition of 0 winning photographs on the subject of "The IDF and the Environment." The 005 IDF environmental competition brought to the fore a world of innovative technologies, activities and ideas in areas as diverse as waste recycling, energy, fuel and water savings, and enhanced appearance of army bases. In reviewing the projects, the selection committee, made up of representatives of the Ministry of the Environment and the IDF, noted the clear link between environmental investments, nuisance prevention and added benefits such as resource conservation, improved organizational culture and efficiency, unit pride and creativity and even financial savings. Winners were divided into four categories: Environment Minister’s Awards, Certificates of Commendations and Certificates of Appreciation to excelling army units and Personal Awards to individuals for promoting environmental projects. Following are the first place winners: Environment Minister’s Award – First Place Ammunition Center: The center developed and constructed an industrial installation which allows for the environmentally friendly disposal of ammunition which is designated for scrapping through its dismantling into metal components and recycling. IDF Fuel Supply Center: This center submitted three projects: collection of used oil filters from army units, conversion of water heating systems from diesel oil to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and development of a mobile surface for gas stations that allows fueling in the field without risk of leakage. Haifa Naval Base: The base established a special unit for preventing marine pollution by oil or fuel, with dedicated equipment for combating oil pollution. The unit undertakes joint exercises with the Marine and Coastal Environment Division of the Ministry of the Environment.
Photos: Environmental projects by the Israel Defense Forces

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IDF Photography Competition
More than 130 photographs by IDF soldiers were submitted to the first photographic competition on "The IDF and the Environment." The aim of the competition was to increase environmental awareness among soldiers, even during their army service, with the aid of the camera lens. The winning 0 photos were displayed for all to see during the IDF award ceremony.

The Winners:
• First Prize: Dror Nush of the Israel Air Force Artillery School - "Balance of Terror" • Second Prize: Yossef Saadon of the Parachutes Unit - "My Intimate Room" • Third Prize: Meytal Nissim of the Ofek Unit - "Nature and Us"

1 > Dror Nush

3 > Maytal Nissim

2 > Yossef Saadon

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Environmental Legislation
Non-Ionizing Radiation Law, 2006
Publication of the Non-Ionizing Radiation Law in the official government gazette (Reshumot) on January 1, 006 marked an important breakthrough in the regulation of radiation sources in Israel. The "framework law" aims to protect the public and the environment from the harmful impacts of exposure to nonionizing radiation, including radiation from cellular base stations (antennas) and electricity network installations. It regulates the establishment and operation of nonionizing radiation sources and the provision of radiation measurement services, inter alia, by determining prohibitions and obligations in accordance with the precautionary principle. More specifically, the law prohibits the construction and operation of a radiation source or the provision of a radiation service without the relevant permit from the Ministry of the Environment: construction permit, operation permit or service provision permit. It then stipulates conditions for granting each of these permits, including measures to limit human and environmental exposure to the anticipated radiation and measurements, both prior to and after the operation of the radiation source, by professionally trained and licensed service providers. In addition, the law sets prohibitions, requirements and instructions on inspection, enforcement, penalties and fees. to flow into the sea waste or sewage from a landbased source, either directly or indirectly, save under a permit and according to its conditions; provided that a permit shall not be granted to types of waste or sewage forbidden by regulations…" The purpose of the amendment is to facilitate effective enforcement against all polluters of the sea, without regard to intent or purpose, including those that unintentionally discharge wastewater to the sea, due to negligence or indifference. Additional changes to the existing legislation include: substantially higher fine levels; additional fines which reflect the benefit which accrued to the polluter from non-compliance with the law; decrees to prevent, minimize or stop the pollution, clean up the area and restore previous conditions; and potential fees for marine pollution prevention to be imposed on permit holders and paid to the Prevention of Sea Pollution Fund.

Amendment to the Freedom of Information Law (Environmental Information), 2005
The 005 amendment to the Freedom of Information Law specifically relates to the publication of environmental information with "relevance to public health, including data on substances that are emitted, spilled, discharged or released to the environment and the results of measurements of noise, odors and radiation, not on private property." The objective is to make environmental information which exists in government agencies more accessible, through its publication on websites and by other means, and to do away with the need for applications and fees.

Eilat’s beach. Photo: Dalit Ehrlich

Prevention of Sea Pollution from Land-Based Sources Law, (Amendment no. 2), 2005
An amendment to Israel’s Land-Based Sources Law, enacted in June 005, aims to strengthen the law and bring it into line with the amended Land-Based Protocol of the Barcelona Convention. The amended law reads: "No person shall dump or cause

Declaration on National Parks, Nature Reserves, National Sites and Memorial Sites (Protected Natural Assets), 2005
The new declaration updates the initial list of protected natural assets which was published in

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1979. Scientists in the Nature and Parks Authority in cooperation with academic experts prepared the updated list on the basis of many years of scientific surveys and research, including the information compiled for Israel’s Red Data Book on Vertebrates and its Red List of wild plants. The entire Red List of endangered plants in Israel – some 400 plants – has been added to the new declaration. The list is based on five major criteria: rarity, extinction rate and habitat vulnerability, attractivity, endemism and peripherality. Some plants, which were originally included in the list, were excluded from the new declaration when it was discovered that they exist in sites throughout the country.

environment and to sustainable development, setting municipal environmental and sustainable development policy and supervising the implementation of approved plans.

Water Regulations (Prevention of Water Pollution) (Fuel Pipelines), 2006
The Minister of the Environment, in consultation with the Minister of Health and the Water Council and with the approval of the Knesset Economic Committee, promulgated regulations on the prevention of water pollution from fuel pipelines in February 006. The purpose of the regulations is to reduce potential risks from fuel transport pipelines, thereby preventing environmental degradation and pollution of water sources. The regulations set provisions for constructing, operating, maintaining, inspecting and testing fuel pipelines, impose reporting obligations in case of leaks, and call for measures to stop and repair the damage caused to the environment as a result of such leaks. The regulations require the following, inter alia: • Informing the official appointed by the Environment Minister and the Water Commissioner about the submission of pipeline installation plans to planning agencies, including their exact location. • Ensuring that the process of installing and operating fuel pipelines does not cause water or soil pollution. • Adhering to procedures and standards for the construction and operation of fuel pipelines, which include safety factors such as depth of cover and minimum distances from water lines, cathodic protection, and leak control systems (Computational Pipeline Monitoring). • Undertaking piping leak tests, continuous measurements and record keeping. • In case of leaks, taking measures to stop the leak and report the event.

Amendment to the Licensing of Businesses Law (Restricting Noise Levels from Entertainment Halls and Gardens and Discotheques), 2005
An amendment to the Licensing of Businesses Law, approved in December 005, adds discotheques to a 00 amendment on limiting noise from entertainment halls and gardens in order to protect public health. According to the amendment, licenses or temporary permits will not be granted to entertainment halls and gardens and to discotheques if a noise monitor is not installed. Noise monitors measure the noise intensity, give a warning when noise levels exceed permitted levels and cut the electricity supply to amplifiers if the warning is not heeded after a defined time period. Maximum noise levels and duration of the alert are to be determined by the Minister of the Environment in regulations.

Amendment to the Municipalities Ordinance (Environmental Committee), 2005
An amendment to the Municipalities Ordinance, promulgated in February 005, requires municipal councils to appoint a statutory environmental committee with the following responsibilities: initiating and planning actions related to the

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Meytal Nissim, Third Prize Winner of IDF Environmental Photography Competition.