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FATHEROFRASASHASTRALORDNAGARUJANA

EVALUATION OF MEDHYA EFFECT OF SHANKAPUSHPI


SWARASA MARITA ABHRAKA BHASMA
- AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
BY

DR. ANIDEV.S

Dissertation Submitted to the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,
Karnataka, Bangalore.
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

A AY YU UR RV VE ED DA A V VA AC CH HA AS SP PA AT TI I ( (D DO OC CT TO OR R O OF F M ME ED DI IC CI IN NE E) )
IN

RASASHASTRA


Under the guidance of

Dr. G.N. Danappagoudar, M.D. (Ayu)
Asst Professor, Dept of Rasashastra.

And Co-guidance of

Dr. Suvarna P.Nidagundi,
M.D. (Ayu)

Lecturer, Dept of Rasashastra.










POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA
D.G M. AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE AND RESEARCH CENTER,
GADAG 582103
2011

RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES, KARNATAKA, BANGALORE

Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Karnataka,
Bangalore.


DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE



I here by declare that this dissertation / thesis entitled Evaluation of Medhya
effect of Shankapushpi Swarasa Marita Abhraka Bhasma - An Experimental
Study is a bonafide and genuine research work carried out by me under the guidance
of Dr.G.N.Danappagoudar,M.D.(Ayu), Asst Professor, Post graduate Department of
Rasashastra and under the Co-guidance of Dr.Suvarna P.Nidagundi,M.D.(Ayu),
Lecturer, Post graduate Department of Rasashastra.




Date:

Place: Gadag. DR. ANIDEV.S




















SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE,GADAG.
POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA.







CERTIFICATE BY THE GUIDE


This is to certify that the dissertation entitled Evaluation of Medhya effect of
Shankapushpi Swarasa Marita Abhraka Bhasma - An Experimental Study is a
bonafide research work done by Dr.Anidev.S in partial fulfillment of the requirement
for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).






Date:

Place: Gadag. Guide:

Dr. G.N. Danappagoudar,
M.D. (Ayu)
Asst Professor,
Dept. of Rasashastra,
Post Graduate Research Center
D.G.M Ayurveda Medical College,
Gadag.












SHRI D. G. MELMALAGI AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE,GADAG.
POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF RASASHASTRA.




CERTIFICATE BY THE CO - GUIDE

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled Evaluation of Medhya effect of
Shankapushpi Swarasa Marita Abhraka Bhasma - An Experimental Studyis a
bonafide research work done by Dr.Anidev.S in partial fulfillment of the requirement
for the degree of Ayurveda Vachaspathi. M.D (Rasashastra).




Date:
Place: Gadag. Co Guide:

Dr.Suvarna P.Nidagundi, M.D (Ayu)
Lecturer,
Dept of Rasashastra,
Post Graduate Research Center
D.G.M Ayurveda Medical College,
Gadag.





ENDORSEMENT BY THE H.O.D AND PRINCIPAL OF
THE INSTITUTION

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled Evaluation of Medhya
effect of Shankapushpi Swarasa Marita Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental
Studyis a bonafide research work done by Dr.Anidev.S under the guidance of
Dr.G.N.Danappagoudar M.D.(Ayu), Asst Professor Postgraduate Department of
Rasashastra and co-guidance of Dr.Suvarna P.Nidagundi, M.D.(Ayu), Lecturer,
Postgraduate Department of Rasashastra.


DR. M.C.Patil, M.D. (Rasashastra) Dr. G. B.Patil,
Professor & H.O.D, Principal/CMO
Department of Rasashastra. D.G.M.A.M.C, GADAG.
D.G.M.A.M.C, GADAG.

Date: Date:

Place: Gadag Place: Gadag










COPYRIGHT


Declaration by the candidate


I hereby declare that the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences,
Karnataka shall have the rights to preserve, use and disseminate this
dissertation / thesis in print or electronic format for academic / research
purpose.




Date:
Place: Gadag. Dr.Anidev.S


Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Karnataka.










I


Acknowledgement

At this amenity of successful integrating of my work, I bow my head on the
feet of Lord Ettumanoor Mahadeva
There is hardly any task which is more pleasant than acknowledgement my
gratitude to all those who have helped in so many ways in preparing this work.
I have no words to express my gratitude towards my affectionate Late Grand
Parents K.K. Vasudevan Vaidhyar and Parvathy Vasudevan and Parents Dr. K.V.
Sathyadev and Sudha Sathyadev whose blessings made me to progress and whose
love and guidance helped me to overcome all the obstacles in my life.
It is my proud and privilege to express my extreme sense of indebtedness to
my guide Dr. G. N. Danappagoudar, M.D. (Ayu) Asst. Prof. PG Dept of Rasashastra,
for his invaluable and ever available help and guidance.
I would like to acknowledge my co-guide Dr. Suvarna P.Nidagundi
MD (Ayu),

Lecturer, Dept of Rasashastra for his kind attention and everlasting help.
I pay my reverences to my HOD and Prof Dr.M.C.Patil, M.D(Ayu) who has
blessed me with his valuable guidance and profound knowledge. His suggestion will
always be helpful for me in every step of my life.
I express my gratitude with due respect to our Principal Dr.G.B.Patil.
I extend my gratefulness to Dr. J agdeesh G. Mitti and Dr. Shobagin, whose
valuable suggestions, helped me to complete my work.
II

I feel immense pleasure and satisfaction in expressing my heartful thanks to


Dr. Saravana Babu whose enormous effort and constant encouragement made me to
reach this stage.
I acknowledge my sincere thanks to Dr.Ashok Patil, M.D. (Ayu) for his
valuable guidance and help from the beginning of my P.G. studies to till date.
I acknowledge my sincere thanks to my wife Sini Anidev for her kind
co-operation and help during study.
I acknowledge my sincere thanks to my brother -in-law Mr. Saji T.A and
Mr. Sanjaykumar and my sisters Maya Saji and Nisha Sanjay and my father-in-law
Mr. Sukumaran Ambady and mother-in-law Mrs. Lalitha Sukumaran for their kind
co-operation and help during study.
I pay my heartful thanks to my dear son Vasudev Anidev whose joyful face
and naughtiness kept me relaxed.
I extend my gratitude to Shri V.M. Mundimani, Mr.Shavi, and Mr.Karur for
providing the required books during the study.
I cannot forget the love and timely co-operation offered by my friends
Dr. Sathishkumar, Dr. Gopikrishnan, Dr.Sanjeev and Dr. J ayakar during this work
and beyond this work. Their love and affection can not be bounded under the single
word Thanks I will be always in need of their love and affection. I am also thankful
to my classmates Dr.Gigi Mathew, Dr.Gaurav, Dr.Vijayraj and Dr. Geetha for their
co-operation during the course of study.
My sincere thanks to my Friends Dr. J ithin, Dr. J oshi, Dr. Sivakumar,
Dr. Anish whose support is always comforting to me.
III


With pleasure I extend my sincere gratitude to non teaching staff Smt.Patil,
Smt.Shamshad, Smt.Mangala, Manjunath, Shettappa Gouda and Prabhu for their co-
operation and help during the study.
I am deeply indebted to Sri. Shivakumar. S. Inamdar, Dept of Pharmacology &
Toxicology, K.L.E Society College of Pharmacy, Gadag for his kind help.
I express my special thanks to Mr. Soans J oseph and Mrs. Sreekala P. Kumar,
for their kind co-operation in completing the work.
Last but not least I thankful to all those persons who directly or indirectly
helped me in this work.

Dr. ANIDEV S

VI

ABBREVIATIONS:
1. A.P Ayurveda Prakasha
2. A.K Ananda Kanda
3. Ay.R.S Ayurvediya Rasa Shastra
4. B.P. Bhava Prakasha
5. Br.R.R.S Brihat Rasa Raja Sundara
6. Br.Y.T Brihat Yoga Tarangini
7. B.R Bhaishaja Ratnavali
8. Dh.N. Dhanwantri Nighantu
9. K.N Kaideva Nighantu
10. M.N Madanaphala Nighantu
11. R.K. Rasakamadenu
12. R.Ni Raja Nighantu
13. R.T. Rasa Tarangini
14. R.Cu Rasendra Chudamani
15. R.S.S Rasendra Sara Sangraha
16. R.H.T. Rasa Hridaya Tantra
17. R.Mr. Rasamrutha.
18. R.P.S. Rasa Prakasha Sudhakara
19. R.R.S. Rasa Rathna Samucchaya
20. Ra.Ci.Vi Rasa Chikitsa Vignana
21. S.P.S Siddha Prayoga Sangraha
23. Y.R. Yoga Ratnakara


V

ABSTRACT
Background: Significance of all healing systems of medicine is to alleviate
suffering of human beings.
Ayurveda is one of the Asian medicine, the utility of Ayurvedic science is to
maintain the health of a healthy individual and cure the disease of a patient.
Memory is the ability to store, retain and recall of information.
Even though there are good number of memory boosting drugs available in the
medical field in both Ayurveda and modern medicine. In recent years , attempts have
been made to develop drugs for improving memory in the treatment of congnitive
deterioration which occurs in Alzhiemers disease etc. The common drug used for the
treatment of memory loss is Tacrine (Tetrahydroaminoacridine). The most important
adverse effect of tacrine is hepatotoxity. The necessity of still better and cost effective
drugs which act as memory booster without any adverse effect has much importance
in modern era.
In Ayurveda classics Abhraka Bhasma is indicated as Medhya Vardhaka
and even Shankapushpi has been explained in Maraka Dravyas of Abhraka and it has
been said that Shankapushpi has also Medhya property. Charaka has mentioned
Shankapushpi as one of the medhya rasayana. According to Samanya-visesha
siddhantha, if Abhraka Bhasma is processed with Shankapushpi because of their
similar Medhya Vardhaka property it enhances the Medhya Guna of Abhraka
Bhasma.
Thus considering the above factors in present days, the study has been taken to
evaluate the memory boosting effect of Shankapushpi Swarasa Maritha Abhraka
Bhasma an experimental study.
The Whole study includes the following topics :
1.Introduction: It introduces the subjects by laying emphasis on its importance in
present time.Plan of study is also dealt.
VI

2.Review of Literature: It is based on Ayurvedic texts and also modern


pharmacotherapeutic properties of Abhraka, Shankapuspi, Piracetam, Kanji,
Gomutra,Triphala kwatha,Godugdha.
3.Methodology:
a) Pharmaceutical study: This Chapter includes the relation of raw materials,
Shodhana of Abhraka, Marana of Abhraka , Amrutikarana & Lohitikarana of
Abhraka.
b) Analytical study: This Chapter includes the organoleptic & chemical analysis of
Abhraka Bhasma.
c) Experimental study: This includes the experimental study of Abhraka Bhasma
W.S.R to Medhya effect.
Results:
In this part the results obtained are systematically presented, which include
data related to response to treatment.
Discussion:
In this chapter observation, findings and results of studies have been found
out with possible explanation for its effects.
Conclusion:
The essence of the whole study is mentioned in this chapter.

VII

Summary:
It contains the information of the overall work in a nut shell.
Keywords: Dhanyabhrakarana, Abhraka Bhasma, Amrutikarana, Lohitikarana,
Analytical Study, Experimental Study, Medhya effect.

VII




CONTENTS:

Sl.
No
Index Page No
1
Introduction
1 - 2
2 Aims and Objectives 3
3
Drug Review 4 33
4
Disease Review 34 76
5 Methodology 77 111
6 Results 112128
7 Discussion 129 -138
8 Conclusion 139
9 Summary 140-141
10 Bibliography 142-154

VIII

LIST OF TABLES

Sl.
No
Tables
Page
No.
01 References from different text books 5 6
02 Paryayas of Abhraka 8 9
03 Vargeekarana of Abhraka 11 12
04 Rasa of Abhraka 15 - 16
05 Karma of Abhraka 16
06 Shodhana dravya & vidhi of Abhraka 17 - 18
07 Various process described for Dhanyabhraka 20
08 Number of Puta 22
09 Opinions on nature of Puta 23
10 Therapeutic uses of Abhraka bhasma 27
11 SUMMARY OF CHARACTERISTIC OF THE STAGE OF
MEMORY
136


58
12 Observation of Abhraka bhasma in different putas 86- 87
13 Observation of Abhraka bhasma in different putas during
Lohiteekarana
90
14 Showing Analysis of Abhraka bhasma by Ancient methods 91
15 Shows the Protocol of experiment 111
16 Shows Mean%ofalterationofallgroups(ParameterI)

114

IX

17 Shows MeanLocomotoractivityofallgroups(parameterII)

114
18 Shows ANOVAforparameterIon0
th
day 120
19 Shows ANOVAforparameterIon4
th
day 121
20. Shows ANOVAforparameterIon8
th
day 121
21. Shows ANOVAforparameterIon12
th
day 122
22. Shows ANOVAforparameterIon16
th
day 122
23. Shows ANOVAforparameterIon20
th
day 123
24. Shows ANOVAforparameterIIon0
th
day 123
25. Shows ANOVAforparameterIIon4
th
day 124
26. Shows ANOVAforparameterIIon8
th
day 124
27. Shows ANOVAforparameterIIon12
th
day 125
28. Shows ANOVAforparameterIIon16
th
day 125
29. Shows ANOVAforparameterIIon20
th
day 126
30. Shows IndividualgroupresultsonParameterI(%ofalteration) 126
31. ShowsIndividualgroupresultsonParameterII(Locomotor
activity)
127
3. Showing Comparison of Data of Urine output in 4
th
hr b/w groups 103
32. Showing Comparison of Data of Urine output in 6
th
hr b/w groups 103

X

33. Showing Comparison of Data of Urine output in 8
th
hr b/w groups 104
34. Showing Comparison of Data of Urine Sodium b/w the groups 104
35. Showing Comparison of Data of Urine Potassium b/w the groups 104
36. Showing Comparison of Data of Urine Chloride b/w the groups 104



LIST OF GRAPHS:
Sl. No Graphs Page No
1 GraphsshowsObservationresultsofParameterI
andIIintheindividualGroups.

115
2 Graphs shows Observation results of Parameter I
and II of the individual Groups
116
3 Graphs shows Parameter II Locomotor activity 119


LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS:
Sl. No Photographs
1 Raw drugs with Shodhana Dravyas
2 Pharmaceutical procedures
3 NPST
4 Experimental procedures


Introduction 1

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma


An Experimental Study


Introduction
Research is the unveiling of facts about a particular object or thing
substantiated by current available scientific tools. Now, the total world is seeing at our
herbo mineral drug to get relief from incurable ailments. Modern people are gradually
budging towards Ayurvedic drugs because of their endurable effect and relative safety
compared to modern synthetic drugs.
Significance of all healing systems of medicine is to alleviate suffering
of human beings.

Ayurveda is one of the Asian medicine, the utility of Ayurvedic science
is to maintain the health of a healthy individual and cure the disease of a patient
1
.

Memory is the ability to store, retain and recall of information.

Even though there are good number of memory boosting drugs available in the
medical field in both Ayurveda and modern medicine. In recent years , attempts have
been made to develop drugs for improving memory in the treatment of congnitive
deterioration which occurs in Alzhiemers disease etc. The common drug used for the
treatment of memory loss is Tacrine (Tetrahydroaminoacridine). The most important
adverse effect of tacrine is hepatotoxity
2
. The necessity of still better and cost
effective drugs which act as memory booster without any adverse effect has much
importance in modern era.

Introduction 2

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma


An Experimental Study


In Ayurveda classics Abhraka Bhasma is indicated as Medhya Vardhaka
3
and
even Shankapushpi has been explained in Maraka Dravyas of Abhraka
4
and it has
been said that Shankapushpi has also Medhya property
5
. Charaka has mentioned
Shankapushpi as one of the medhya rasayana. According to Samanya-visesha
siddhantha, if Abhraka Bhasma is processed with Shankapushpi because of their
similar Medhya Vardhaka property it enhances the Medhya Guna of Abhraka
Bhasma.

Thus considering the above factors in present days, the study has been taken to
evaluate the memory boosting effect of Shankapushpi Swarasa Maritha Abhraka
Bhasma an experimental study.






Objectives 3


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita AbhrakaBhasma
An Experimental Study





AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:


1) Samanya Shodhana of Abhraka

2) Vishesha Shodhana of Abhraka.

3) Preparation of Dhanyabhraka.

4) Preparation of Abhraka Bhasma.

5) Amruteekarana of Abhraka Bhasma.

6) Lohitikarana of Abhraka Bhasma.

7) Physico Chemical Analysis of Abhraka Bhasma.

8) Evaluation of Medhya Effect of Abhraka Bhasma.



Drug review 4

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita


Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

DRUG REVIEW

Historical review:
In Rasashastra Parada is the main drug and it represents lord Shiva himself.
Here Shiva becomes the creator of parada which is the agency that he employs.
Parada is compared to Brahma when it is in a state of purification and to Rudhra when
dead and Maheshwara when it is in a state of solidification.
Use of mercury, metals and minerals as medicines came to existence after a
long time. Earlier to that metals are used for different purpose. This means that Lord
Shiva who came later might be started Rasashastra. Hence he might be said as creator
of Rasashastra.
Abhraka is considered as a main drug in many samskaras of parada. Use of
Abhraka patra, Abhraka satwa in the process of parada jarana is found in many texts.
The making of Divyatanu is possible only when a person is constantly in touch
with Hara Gowri Sristi i.e use of parada along with Gandhaka and Abhraka those
which are capable of making the body strong and healthy.
In the process of Dhatuvada Abhraka has important role in converting the
lower metals into higher once along with parada.
By looking all the above references it is said as, the Abhraka has an important
role in all the parada karmas. Hence Abhraka has got more importance in Rasashastra.
In Pre - historic period (4500 B.C - 1500 B.C) both in Harappa and Mohenjo-
Daro, metallic articles made of copper, bronze, gold, silver and lead were found. But
regarding Abhraka no evidences are found during that period.
In Vedic period (1500 B.C - 600 B.C) various synonyms of Abhraka, are
actually used in the name of Udaka i.e. water. But not a single text has mentioned
Abhraka as a mineral, though various metals and minerals have been elucidated with
Drug review 5

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita


Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

their uses in Vedas. After vedic period in J ain and Buddha literature too, Abhraka
found no place.
During Samhita period, illustration of Abhraka and its uses are not eluded
anywhere in Charaka Samhita. In Sushruta Samhita some synonyms of Abhraka are
found. The word 'Vajrakhya' has been cited in Su.Ci. 9/5 Dalhana, the famous
commentator of Sushruta Samhita has opined it as 'Kesamcit mate Abhrakamiti'. But
this view is not accepted by many of the scholars.
Even in Ashtanga Samgraha and Ashtanga Hrudaya, no clear narration
regarding Abhraka can be procured. There is one reference (A.H.Ci. 8/15-1, 2)
present in A.H. mentioning the use of Abhraka for therapeutic purpose.
In Kautilya Arthasastra (400-300 B.C.), one reference is located regarding the
use of Abhraka by the goldsmith while preparing ornaments, as the substitute for
gold.
The Nyaya darshana of Gautama Muni (2nd A.D.) mentions the name
Abhraka while explaining the transparent objects.
In Amarkosa (3rd A.D.), Amar Singh has adduced it as "Abhrakam
Girijamalam".

Table No: 1 - References from Different Rasashastra Text Books
Kala Texts Description regarding
Abhraka
(1) 7-8th A.D. 1. Rasendra Mangala
2. Kaksaputa Tantra
1. Shodhana
2. Drthikaranam
(2) 9th A.D. 1. Rasa Hridaya Tantra
2. Rasopanishad
1. For Paksacchedana of
Parada
Drug review 6

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita


Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

(3) 10th A.D. 1. Rasarnava 1. Extraction of Abhraka
2. Shodana
3. Satvapatana
(4) 12th century 1. Rasaprakasha -
Sudhakara
1. Shodana
2. Marana
3. Satvapatana
4. Satvabhasmikarana
5. Guna Karmas
(5) 13th century 1. Rasa Ratna Samucchaya


2. Rasa Paddhati
1. Same as R.P.S.
2. And also therapeutic use
as a single drug in various
ailments
1. DhanyAbhrakarana
2. Marana
3. Niscandrikarana
Also quoted the properties
like Vrusya, Balya,
Pramehagna
(6) 15th century 1. Lauha Sarvasvam
(Published by Yadavji
Trikamji)


2. Rasendra Chintamani
3. Rasasara
1. Shodana
2. Marana
3. Satvapatana
4. Satvabhasmikarana
5. Guna - Karmas
1. Above all
1. Above all
(7) 16th century




1.Rasendrasara
Sangraha
1. Shodana
2. Marana
3. Satvapatana
4. Satvabhasmikarana
5. Guna Karmas
Drug review 7

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita


Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

(8) 17th century 1. Ayurveda prakasha
2. Yoga Ratnakara
3. Rasa Tarangini
1. Only exhibit the
description regarding
Dehavada
2. Therapeutic uses of
Abhraka
(9) 20th century Abhraka is used as a
important
1. Mineral in industrial
sector
2. Drug in Ayurvedic
therapeutics.

Origin of Abhraka
About origin of Abhraka fantastic stories have been narrated in different text
books. Some important mythological stories are as follows,
1) One story narrates Goddess parvathi when met God shiva for the first time
she passionately attracted by him resulted by ejaculation of veerya from her genital
organ which coming into contact with earth becomes pure Abhraka
6
.
2) Another mythological story is that, when lord Indra raised his vajrayudha to
kill the demon Urtra, the sparklings from this thunderbolt moved around the top of
mountains. From out of these sparklings, Abhraka originated in those mountains.
7

3) During the time of intercourse between Lord shiva and Goddess Parvathi,
ejaculated Shukra of which deposited on the mount of hills. Later from these shukra,
Parada and Abhraka were produced respectively.
8

Mythologically Abhraka is considered as shukra of goddess parvathi and
because of this reason it is claimed to have great affinity towards parada, which is
considered to be the shukra of lord shiva.
References regarding availability of Abhraka in mines are found in Rasa ratna
Drug review 8

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita


Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

samucchaya. Here Acharya Vaghbata explains that the Abhraka which is mined from
the depth of one rajahasta is said to have good medicinal properties than the Abhraka
available on the surface of the earth which is devoid of essence and useless
9
.
In Bhavaprakasha it is said as Abhraka available in northern mountains has
more essence and best in properties than that available in mountains of southern
part.
10

India is the leading producer of sheet mica, followed by Brazil and
Madagascar. In India the chief sources are in Bihar and Nellore(Andhra Pradesh).
Moreover it is also found in Ajmer (Rajasthan), Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka. Mica
is found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
Table No:2 - Paryayas
Sl.
N0
Paryaya R
R
S
R
C
u
A
P
R
S
S
R
K
B.P R.N K.
N
M.N R
T
1 Abhraka + - + + - + + + + +
2 Abra + - - - - + - + +
3 Anantaka - - - - - - + - + +
4 Akasha - - - - - - + - - +
5 Ambar - - - - + - + - - +
6 Amala - - - + - - + - - +
7 Antariksha - - - - - - - - - +
8 Gagana - - + + - + - - +
9 Girija - - - - + + - + - +
10 Kha - - - - - - - - - +
11 Vyoma - - - - - - + - - +
Drug review 9

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita


Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

12 Vajra + - - - - + + - - +
13 Ghana - + - - - - - - - +
14 Shubra - - - - - - - + - +
15 Garaja
dhwaja
- - - - - - - - - +
16 Megha - - - - + - - - - +
17 Bhrunga - - - - - - - - - +
18 Bahupatra - - - - - - + - - +
19 gouriteja + + - - - - + - - +
20 Akashavaci - - - + - - - - - -
21 Girijabija - - - - - - - - - -
22 Pita - - - - - - - + - -
23 Gourija - - - - - - - - - -
24 Gouriteja + - - - - - + - - -
25 Abrapatala - - - - - - + + - -
26 Nirmala - - - - - - - + - -
27 Varapitaka - - - - - - - + + -
28 Girijamala - - - - - - - + - -
29 Meghava - - - - - - - - + -
30 Swachcha - - - - - - - - + -





Drug review 10

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita


Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

VERNACULAR NAMES -
1. Latin : Mica
2. English : Glimmer
3. Hindi : Abhrak
4. Sanskrit : Abhra
5. Marathi : Abhrak
6. Kannada : Abhraka
7. Gujarati : Abhrakh
8. Telugu : Abhrakam
9. Tamil : Appirakam
10. Bengali : Abhra, Abhar
11. Farsi : Sitarch J amin
12. Malayalam: Abhrakam
13. Oriya : Abhra
14. Simhali : Abhrak
Most of the names in different languages mentioned above, seem to be derived
from the Sanskrit word Abhraka.
Nirukti
1. Abhra ApUuui Apq |
11

Which is produced from clouds
2. Ajara lxi eU rxr x |
12

It keeps the old age away.
3. Anantaka lxi Ali rxr x |
13

No change takes place in it, when heated on the fire.
4. Girija aU eri Ci aUe |
14

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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

It is produced from hills or mountains.
5. Subhram iq |
15

It is white in colour
6. Vajra ue eiiuepM eiq |
16

Which is hard like vajra
7. Gagana aalirii ixqi aalqi
urZriq |
17

Which is produced from clouds
Vargeekarana
Each author of Rasashatra varies in their opinion while classifying a particular
drug. Abhraka being an important drug in Rasashastra have been classified in the
different vargas by different authors. From the following table we can have a clear
idea regarding the vargeekarana of Abhraka.
Table No: 3 - Vargeekarana
Varga Texts
Maharasa

Rasa raja sundara, Goraksha samhita, Rasa paddhati,
Rasa prakasha sudhakara, Raja nighantu,
Dhanwantari nighantu, History of hindu chemistry,
Rasarnava, Rasendra purana, Rasendra
chudamani,Rasaratna samucchaya.
Rasa Rasa ratna samucchaya, Rasa kamadenu,
Ayurvediya Rasashastra, Rudra yamala tantra,
Goraksha samhita.
Uparasa Ayurveda prakasha, Bhava prakasha, Rasa jala
nidhi, Rasendra sara sangraha, Rasa ratnakara,
Brihat rasaraja sundara, Rasa manjari, Ananda
kanda.
Upadhatu Brihat yoga tarangini, Sharangadhara samhita, Yoga
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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

ratnakara.
Lohavarga Rasamrita

Types and their characters
Acc to its response to heating
Depending on the behaviour towards fire Abhraka is divided into 4 types as
Pinaka, Naga, Manduka and Vajra.
18,19
In Rasaratna samuchaya and Rasendra
chudamani authors have sub classified each variety into 4 types i.e total of 16 by
matching with each colour
20,21
.
Where as Rasa Taranginikara and Ayurveda Prakasha author have included
Pinaka, Naga, Manduka, Vajra as the varieties Krishnabhraka.
22,23
In Rasarnava &
Rasendra sara sangraha among 4 types of Abhraka, mandukabhraka is replaced by
Dardurabhraka.
A) Pinakabhraka
On heating, the layers of the piece of mica starts getting separated. It leads to
death if consumed, causing severe constipation.
24

As per Rasendra sara sangraha, Rasarnava have described it on heating
produces chit chit sound and consumption of this Abhraka causes kusta.
B) Nagabhraka
This variety of Abhraka when heated, creates a sound that resembles to hissing
of enraged snakes and causes mandala kusta.
25

As per the author of Rasarnava consumption of nagabhraka leads to diseases
like bhagandara.
C) Mandukabhraka
The sheets of mica on heating get thrown out which resembles the jumping of
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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

frogs. Its intake causes incurable ashmari roga, which can be treated only with
surgical measures
26
.
According to Rasarnava, on heating if it produce the sound similar to the
sound produced by the Kukkuta, intake will lead to death.
D) Vajrabhraka
In this variety of Abhraka, neither sound is created nor any visual effect is
seen. It remains as it is and shows no obvious changes. On the contrary it strengthens
the body like iron and destroys all the diseases
27
.
As per Rasarnava this is used for rasa and rasayana karma.
Acc to its colour
I) It has been classified into 4 types, such as Shweta, Rakta, Peeta, Krishna. It
is said as such, because of its contact with different types of soils, Abhraka attains
different colours.
28,29

A) Shwetabhraka
It is useful in shwetakarma, in converting lower metals into silver or in the
treatment of shwetakusta.
B) Raktabhraka
It is used in Raktakarma such as imparting red colour to a metal and has
haematinic properties.
C) Peetabhraka
It is considered as best for peetakarma, in converting lower metals into gold or
in the treatment of Kamala.
D) Krishnabhraka
It is said to be be excellent in qualities by crores of times than other varieties
even though all kinds of Abhraka were best rasayanas.It is again divided into Naga,
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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

Pinaka, Dardura, Vajra
30
.
II) Another one classification depending upon Varna itself,
31

1) Brahmana(Shweta)
2) Kshatreeya (Rakta)
3) Vaisya (Peeta)
4) Shudra (Krishna)
Acc to Udbhava Sthana
32

It has been categorized as Uttara shailotha, Poorva shailotha and Dakshina
shailotha and these are uttarotara shreshta.
Abhraka Grahya Lakshana
Abhraka being a mineral found in different places and mines. The chemical
composition and physical properties vary from place to place and mines to mines.
Rasacharyas have fixed some parameters based on physical properties and behaviour
towards fire to test genuine species.
All the rasagranthas have mentioned the good quality of Abhraka with
following words.
1. Krushnam Tatra Gadapaham
2. Krushnavajrabhram Koti Koti Gunadhikam
3. Krushnantu Gadesu
4. Sarvarogaharam Param
5. Krushna Varnabhram Sarvebhyo hi Gunadhikam.
Further good quality of Abhraka has been mentioned, which is smooth, heavy,
thick layered, could be separated easily
33
, good coloured like Anjana and Vajra, does
not change its appearance in fire.
34

Apart from all these, the Rasacharyas have unanimously accepted the
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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

Krsnavajrabhraka as the ideal one and capable of eradicating all sorts of ailments. It is
also said that the Abhraka available in the northern mountains has more essence and
best in properties whereas available in south has less essence and properties.
35, 36

Similarly Abhraka, which is mined from the depth of Purusha pramana
37,38
or
One Rajahasta Pramana
39,40
or one Gajahasta pramana
41
, is said to have good
qualities. The Abhraka available on the surface of the earth is devoid of essence and
useless by the contact of smoke, air and water.
PHARMACODYNAMICS
Table No:4 - Rasa of Abhraka
Author Rasa Guna Veerya Vipaka
A.K -- Snigdha,Laghu,
Sheeta
-- Tridoshaghna
A.P Madhura,Kasaya Sheeta Sheeta Tridoshaghna
Ay.R.S -- Snigdha,sheeta Sheeta Tridoshaghna
Br.R.R.S -- Snigdha -- Vatapittaghna
Br.Y.T -- Sheeta -- Tridoshaghna
R.R.S -- Snigdha,sheeta -- Tridoshaghna
R.T Madhura,Kasaya Snigdha -- --
Y.R -- Snigdha,sheeta Sheeta Tridoshaghna
S.P.S Madhura,Kasaya -- Sheeta --
Ra.Ci.Vi Madhura,Kasaya -- Sheeta Tridoshaghna
B.R -- -- Sheeta --








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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

Table no :5 - Karma of Abhraka
Karma A
K
A
P
A
Y
R
S
B
R
Br
R
R
S
B
r
Y
T
R
P
S
R
R
S
R
S
S
R
T
S
P
S
Y
R
R
a
Ci
Vi
Ayusya + + - - + + - + - - + + +
J aranashaka + - - + + + - - + + - + -
Medhya + + - - + + + + - - - - +
Mrityu
nashaka
+ + - + + - + - + + + + -
Rasayana + + + + - - - + - - - - +
Sarvaroga
hara
- - - + + - - + - + + + -
Smritikara - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Balya + - + - + - + + - - - + +
Virya
vardhaka
+ + + + + - + - + + + - -
Vrushya + + + - + + + + - + - + +
Deepana + - + - + + + + - + - + -

SHODHANA
The term shodhana literally means purification. Abhraka being a mineral drug,
hard and stony in nature comes in contact with impurities like sand, clay, stone pieces
and poisonous substances in the mines, so shodhana of Abhraka is mandatory to
separate these physical and chemical impurities and to make brittle for marana.
The administration of Abhraka without proper shodhana is as advising Kala
Kuta Visha in the livelihood.
42, 43
Internal administration of unpurified Abhraka
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cannot be effective, on the contrary it may cause various disorders like kusta, karshya,
pandu, shotha and hrit parshwashoola etc.
44

It is also said that the impure Abhraka takes away the span of life, aggravates
vata and kapha. So to eradicate all these above ill effects Abhraka should be purified
properly before subjecting for internal application.
The process of shodhana
Most of the texts of Rasashastra have agreed the method for shodhana as
Nirvapana, means heating Abhraka to red hot and dipping in the suitable liquid media
immediately. This is called as Nirvapana as per the definition given by the texts.

Table No :6 - SHODHANA DRAVYA AND VIDHI OF ABHRAKA
Sl.
NO
Purifing media Reference Methods
1 Kanji R.R.S, A. P, R.M,
R.Cu, Y.R
7 times Nishechana and
trituration with Amla dravya
for one day.
2 Triphala kwatha R.R.S, A.P,
R.Cu, Y.R, R.M
7 times Nishechana
3 Godugdha R.R.S, Sha.Sam,
R.Cu,R.T, R.K.D,
Y.R, R.M.
7 times Nishechana
4

Gomutra R.R.S, R.M, Y.R,
R.Cu.
7 times Nishechana
5 In all the above
said 4 dravyas
A.P. 7 times Nishechana
6 Badari kwatha R.P.S, R.K.D, A.P,
R.T
7 times Nishechana
7 Nirgundi swarasa R.K.D, Br.R.R.S 7 times Nishechana
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8 Bhringaraja
swarasa
R.Chu, R.M, R.P.S 7 times Nishechana
9 Kanji,Kulattha
kwatha,Takra,
Gomutra,Agastya
pushpa swarasa,
Kushmanda
rasa,Tinduka,
J ambira,
Meghanada,
Punarnava,
vanasurana,
Bhudatri,
Aranala, Amla
dravya, Karavira,
Meshashrungi,
Shrungataila,
Vajravalli,
Kshirakanda,
Maricha.
R.P.S, Rasarnava 3 days swedana


DHANYABHRAKA
Definition :
Converting stratified Abhraka into granular form with the help of Dhanya and
J ute bag is called as Dhanyabhrakaranam.

Prerequisite:
Though after Mardana, Abhraka will become brittle and it will only get
converted into small dimensional pieces from one large lattice of ore.
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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

As Abhraka is found in ignicious rock, during cooling layerwise compact
arrangement generates mica sheets. So, it is also possible that in between the layers of
those small pieces, physical impurities may exist.
So,
(1) To reduce the hardness of Abhraka.
(2) To form more fine and standard size to Abhraka particle to increase the area of
exposure.
(3) To remove the remaining physical impurities.
(4) And also to impose the properties of Amla Rasa through Kanji on it;
The Acharyas have introduced process of Dhanyabhrakarana after Sodhana
and before Marana.
Practicability :
(1) Removal of physical impurities.
(2) Due to the porousity of jute bag, Abhraka is converted to the coarse powder of
standard size. So, it is possible to get the Dhanyabhraka of various particle
sizes by altering the cloth.
(3) Due to various actions of Amla rasa, new properties are induced on it.
(4) Makes Abhraka fit for Marana procedure.

Process of Dhanyabhraka
45

One part of shalidhanya and four parts of purified Abhraka are mixed well and
kept in a jute bag and tied with thread. Further it is immersed in a container having
kanji for 3 days. After 3 days the bag is taken outside and kept on a clean surface and
rubbed vigorously by foot wearing slippers. The bag is dipped in liquid media in
regular intervals repeatedly by which fine particles of Abhraka are collected into the
liquid, disintegrated by sharp edges of paddy through the fine pores of the jute bag.
The hard and stony particles remain inside the jute bag due to their unchanged shape.



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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

TableNo:7 VARIOUS PROCESS DESCRIBED FOR DHANYABHRAKARANA
Process Days Drug used References
4 parts Churnabhra +
1 part Sali
Vastrabaddha Soaked
in Kanji

--
Kanji (1) R.R.S. 2/21
(2) R.T. 10/25
Abhraka + Sali
Pottali Soaked in water
1 day Water (1) R.T. 10/26-27
(2) A.P. 2/115
Same as above 3 days Water (1) A.P. 2/113
Abhraka Red hot
Nirvapa in Badari
Kwatha Mardana
Dhanyabhraka

--
Badari
Kwatha
(1) Rasamanjari .
(2) A.P. 2/112,

MARANA

Definition :
Levigation of metals and minerals with liquid extracts of medicinal herbs and later
their exposure to heat is called as process of calcination i.e. Marana.
Prerequisite :
(1) To prepare a herbomineral drug from an inorganic matter i.e. metals and
minerals, by destroying their mettalic properties like lustre, opacity, colour,
inertia.
(2) To constitute mainly fineness, smoothness in drugs by abolishing the hardness,
toughness of the ore.
(3) To prepare most assimilatory, harmless, therapeutically effectual form of
herbomineral drug.
Practicability :
(1) New properties of various Bhavana drugs are imposed on the Bhasma.
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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

(2) It provokes entirely different properties like Raga, Laghutva,
Vichitragunadeepti in Bhasma, which are not previously seen in raw material.
(3) It boosts the action of drug escalating its potency and curtailing its dose.
(4) According to reference of R.S.S, R.D, one can say that due to numerous puta,
the penetration power of drug is amplified which helps for its quick absorption
and easy assimilation.

After Dhanyabhraka, marana is most important step to convert it into bhasma
form.Marana is a process in which metals and minerals of inorganic nature are
subjected to extensive heat by Mahaputa, Gajaputa etc. to reduce the substance to
minute and fine form.
Most of the Rasagranthas have described the marana of Abhraka with several
herbo - mineral - animal drugs.
Mineral drugs used in marana of Abhraka are Gandhaka, Sarjakshara and
tankana.
46

Animal drugs are ajarakta, gomutra and naramutra.
47

Herbal drugs used in marana of Abhraka are Amlaki, Ashwagandha,
Apamarga, Bhanga, Brihati, Guduchi, Haritaki, Palankya,Kakamachi, Kasamarda,
Lodhra, Maricha, Shaliparni, Shriparni, Shwetapunarnava, Talisapatra, Vasapatra,
Saptaparna, Shuklasarshapa, tagara, Tilaparni, Vata dugdha,Gokshura, Hilamochika,
Prishnaparni, Kantakari, Kokilaksha, Katuki, Matsyakshi, Musali, Arka pushpa or
dugdha, Akhuparni, Bringaraja, Bibhitaki, Bilwa moola, Dadima phala or twak,
Eranda patra or moola, Guda, Patala, Kadambaka, Kumari, Manjista, Madanaphala,
Nagavalli, Agnimantha, Badara musta, Brahmi, Badara, Chitraka, Chameli, Devadaru,
Shankhapushpi, Snuhi kshara, Shyamaka, Tanduliyaka, Tulasi, Vatankura.
48

In Ayurveda Prakasha, it is mentioned that the total of 60 drugs are of Maraka
gana of Abhraka.
49
Whereas in Rasa Tarngini it is described as 64 drugs for preparing
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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

100 to 1000 puti Abhraka bhasma.
50

Procedure : Dhanyabhraka is triturated with the drugs which are explained
under Maraka gana and chakrikas are made and dried under sunlight. These are placed
in a sharava samputa and subjected to gajaputa till it attains the features of bhasma
which are explained in Rasagranthas.
Number of puta : Different opinions are seen in different Rasagranthas
regarding number of putas to be given for the preparation of Abhraka bhasma.
Acharyas prescribed the putas ranging from 1 to 1000 (3,7,10,30,50,100,1000)
Table No:8 - Number of puta
Reference Number of puta Therapeutic effect
Ayurveda 10 100 Vyadhi nashana
Prakasha 100 1000 Rasayana
500 Vajikarana
Br.R.R.S 18 Tridoshagna
36 Medoghna
54 Shothagna

Nature of puta : All the Rasashatra text unanimously agree to apply gajaputa
for the preparation of Abhraka bhasma. Some authors opine to give mahaputa in
preparing Abhraka bhasma.
According to classics, for Abhraka Bhasma Niscandratva is the Chief Desired
Character (C.D.C) and puta should be given till the appearance of this C.D.C. Prior to
appearance of this C.D.C. Bhasma is in immature form and could not be
recommended for any use.




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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

Table No:9 Opinions on Nature of Puta:

Gra
ntha
nam
a
Kap
ota
put
a
K
u
k
k
u
t
a
K
u
m
b
h
a
G
a
j
a
G
or
bh
ar
a
V
a
l
u
k
a
B
ha
nd
a
B
hu
da
ra
M
a
h
a
L
a
g
h
u
L
a
v
a
k
a
V
a
r
a
h
a
S
u
r
y
a
A.P - - - + + + - + + + - - +
A.S.
S
+ + + - + - + + + - + + -
P.S - - - + - - - - - - - - -
B.P + + - + + - + - + - - + -
R.Ci + + - + + + + + + - - + +
R.P.
S
+ + - + - - + + + - + + -
R.R.
S
+ + - + + + + + + + + + -
R.T + + + + + + + + + + + + +
Sh.S
a
- + - + - + - + + + + + -
R.J.
N
+ - - + + + + + - + + + +
Rasa
rnav
a
+ - - + + - - + - - - - -
Ra
ka
+ + + + + + + + + + + + +



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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

Amrutikarana

The word itself indicates Amruta i.e the drug processed in this method turns
into Amruta and thus the effect in the body. Also it removes all the Avashista doshas
left out in Marana, it reduces the rukshata, teekshanata, ksharata produced by agni
samskara and increases the potency by Amrutikarana process.

Procedure: In this process 10 part of Abhraka bhasma is taken in an iron pan and 16
part of decoction of triphala along with 8 parts of goghrita is mixed with it and heated
in low temperature till the liquid evaporates. There after the container is covered by
an earthen plate and allowed to cool.
51

By the above process Abhraka bhasma becomes more potent, mridu and
snigdha, but it loses its natural colour and becomes black.
Apart from triphala kwatha, kumari swarasa, can be used for this process
(swarasa - 16, Abhraka - 10, Goghrita - 12 parts) or can also be performed by using
equal parts of Goghrita only (1 : 1) .
52

PROBING THE CHEMISTRY BEHIND "VARNAHANI" ?
While describing uses of this Samskara, Acaryas have quoted a disadvantage too,
called as Varnahani (colour loss) i.e. red coloured Bhasma changes to brown or
black one.
The secret behind this can be revealed by referring to the periodic table. Iron and
copper are the main constituents of Abhraka and Tamra Bhasmas respectively. Both
Fe and Cu are placed in 4th period and termed as 'transition element' (Plate 1/I),
forming 3 and 2 types of oxides respectively. These oxides of an element may
transform to one or another type on heating. As we are concerned with Abhraka, we
will mainly deal with oxides of iron,
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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

Iron forms 3 types of oxides :
(1) Iron (II) Ferrous oxide - FeO ( Black powder produced by heating iron
oxalate in absence of air )
(2) Iron (III) Ferric oxide - Fe
2
O
3
( Red powder prepared by heating iron
hydroxide in strong heat )
2 Fe (OH)
2
Fe
2
O
3
+3H
2
O
(3) Iron (II, III) Ferroso Ferric Oxide - Fe
3
O
4
( Bluish black prepared by heating
iron in air or steam to redness)
Iron (III) oxide is the basic oxide readily reacting with dilute acids to form
corresponding iron (II) salts, this makes it the most absorptive form of iron,
which will be digested in Stomach.
Iron (II) changes rapidly to Iron (III) when it is exposed to air.
When Iron (II, III) treated with acids, it immediately yields the Iron (II) and
Iron (III) salts in solution.
From the previously mentioned reactions one can say that, due to process of
Amritikarana -
(A) In first step iron III changes to iron II, III and
(B) In second step Iron III changes to Iron II as earthen Sharava is covered causing
absence of air.
So, the red colour which was due to Iron III is lost and Bhasma becomes
brownish black in colour.
That is why, to overcome this disadvantage, they have introduced another
procedure called 'Lohitikarana'.

Lohiteekarana

In this process Abhraka bhasma is triturated with manjista kwatha in a mortar.
Small chakrikas are made and dried under sunlight. They are kept in sharava samputa
and subjected to Gajaputa. The same procedure is repeated for 4 to 5 times. At the end
Drug review 26

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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

Abhraka bhasma attains natural brick colour and becomes smooth.
53

Apart from manjishta some other herbs like Vatamoola swarasa, Vata ksheera,
Ganeruki, Badaramusta and Haridra swarasa were prescribed for Lohiteekarana.
54, 55



Bhasma Pareeksha
Several parameters have been mentioned in rasashatra texts to test the
purification of the incinerated metals and minerals suitable for therapeutic
applications. In the context of Abhraka bhasma some classical parameters have also
been prescribed.

Organoleptic tests Others
1) Sound 1) Varitara
57

Dantagrekachakachabhava
56

2) Touch 2) Rekhapurnata
59

Slaksna, Sukshma, Mrudu
58

3) Appearance
A) Colour
1) Sindhurabha
60

2) Raktotpalasama
61

3) Padmaragavat
62

4) Shonavarna
63

5) Istikabha
64

B) Nischandra
65

4) Taste - Niswadu
5) Odour - Nirgandha




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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

Therapeutic uses:
66

Abhraka bhasma has been mentioned as sarvavyadihara prescribing its broad
spectrum therapeutic use. It alleviates a majority of physical ailments with suitable
vehicles or drugs.
Table No: 10 Therapeutic uses of Abhraka Bhasma.
Sl.No Disease Accessory medicine Anupana
1 J wara Rasasindura
2 J irna jwara Pippali churna Madhu
3 Drustimandhya Triphala churna Madhu
4 Grahani Trikatu churna Ghrita
5 Rakta pitta Haritaki, Guda, Sharkara, Ela
bija churna
Vasa
swarasa
6 Arsha, Pandu,
Kshaya, Halimaka
Trikatu,Triphala,Chaturjata
Churna
Madhu
7 Prameha Haridra, Pippali churna Madhu
8 Kshaya Swarna bhasma
9 Vandhyatwa Rajata, Swarna bhasma
10 Mutrakrichra Bhumyamlaki, Gokshura,Ela,
Sita
Ghrita
11 Mutraghata,
Ashmari,Mutrakrichra
Ashta kshara
12 Vrana dosha Murva kashaya
13 Dourbalya Kshirakakoli churna Kshira
14 Arsha Shodhita Bhallataka
15 Dhatu kshaya Lavanga churna Madhu
16 Shukratarala J atiphala churna Bhanga
swarasa
17 Vata vyadi Shunti, Pushkaramula,
Bharangi, Vamshalochana
churna
Madhu
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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

18 Krumija hridroga Kajjali Arjuna
kwatha
19 Pitta roga Chaturjata churna, Sharkara
20 Kloma roga Pippali, Katphala churna Madhu

Matra :
1 ratti to 2 ratti
67
Apatya :
Karira, karavellaka, karkati, taila, kshara, vruntaka.
68

Kshara, amla, vidala anna, karkati, karavellaka, vrunthaka, karira, taila.
69


Mica
70

Introduction to Mica :
Mica is a generic term applied to a group of complex aluminosilicate minerals having
a sheet or plate like structure with different composition and physical properties. All
mica, form flat six-sided monoclinical crystals with a remarkable cleavage in the
direction of large surfaces, which permits them to split easily into optically flat films.
When split into thin films, they remain tough and elastic even at high temperature.
Mica possesses some of the most outstanding combinations of chemical, physical,
electrical,thermal and mechanical properties which are not found in any other product.
Physically:
Mica is transparent, optically flat, easily split able into thin films along its cleavage,
colourless in these sheets, resilient and incompressible.
Chemically:
It is a complex hydrous silicate of aluminium, containing potassium, magnesium,
iron, sodium, fluorine and/or lithium and also traces of several other elements. It is
stable and completely inert to the action of water, acids (except hydro-fluoric and
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concentrated sulphuric), alkalies, conventional solvents, oil and virtually unaffected
by atmospheric action.

Types of Mica :
According to the 'System of Minerology' by Dana,
1. Muscovite - Potassium Mica [H2KAl3 (SiO4)3]
2. Paragonite - Sodium Mica [H2NaAl3 (SiO4)3]
3. Lepidolite - Lithium Mica [(OH, F)2 KLiAl2 Si3O10]
4. Zinnwaldiet - Lithium iron Mica [(Li2K2Fe2Al4Si7O24]
5. Biotite - Magnesium iron Mica [H2K(Mg,Fe)3 Al(SiO4)3]
6. Phlogopite - Magnesium Mica - usually containing flourine free from iron
[H2KMg3Al (SiO4)3]
7. Lepidomelane - Iron Micas containing ferric iron in large amount
[(H2K)Fe3(Al, Fe)(SiO4)3]
Composition of Mica :
Chemical Composition Physical Composition
Silica (Sio2) 43 to 48% SPECIFIC GRAVITY (gm/cm) 2.82
Aluminium (Al2O3) 33 to 37% Refractive Index 1.58
Potash (K2O) 8 to 12% Apparent Density (lbs/Cu.ft.) 9-12
Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3) 1.5 to 3% HARDNESS (Moh's Scale) 2.5
Calcium Oxide (CaO) 0.1 to 0.5%
Magnesia (MgO) 0.1 to 1%
Titanium Oxide (TiO2) 0.5 to 0.7%
Manganese (MnO2)
Sodium Oxide (Na2O)
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Phosphorous (P)
Sulphur (S)
KANJI
Liquor prepared with the manda of half boiled kulmash dhanya is Kanji.
71

GUNA KARMA :
Rasa : Amla Virya : Ushna
Guna : Tikshna, Laghu Vipaka : Amla
Property : Bhedana
When applied externally cures daha and fever. When taken internally it
allivates vata and kapha.
72

GOMUTRA
GUNA KARMA:
73

Rasa Katu, Tikta, Kashaya, Madhura, Lavana (anurasa)
Guna Tikshna, Ushna, Laghu
Vipaka Katu
Dosha karma Kaphavata shamaka pitta Prakopaka
TRIPHALA
This includes three drugs: (a) Haritaki (b) Vibhitaki (c) Amalaki.
Synonyms : Phalatrika, Vara.
(a) HARITAKI:
74

Latin name Terminalia chebula Retz. Family - Combretaceae
Paryaya - Abhaya, Pathya, Shiva, Girija, Pramthya, Amrita
GUNA KARMA:
Rasa Kashaya( pradhana), Tikta, Katu, Madhura, Amla
Guna - Laghu, Ruksha Virya - Ushna
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Vipaka - Madhura Prabhava - Tridoshahara.
Action : Medhya, Rasayana, Brimhana, Anulomana, Ayushya, Chakshushya etc.
(b) VIBHITAKI:
75

Latin name Terminalia bellerica Roxb. Family Combretaceae
Paryaya - Kalidruma, Kasaghna, Aksha, Karshaphala, Kalpavriksha
GUNA KARMA:
Rasa Kashaya (Pradhana), Tikta, Katu, Madhura, Amla
Guna Ruksha, Laghu Virya Ushna
Vipaka Madhura Doshaghnata Tridosha, mainly Kaphahara.
Actions: Deepana, Anulomana, Grahi, Chakshushya, Kantya, Swasakasahara,
Raktashodhaka.
(C) AMALAKI:
76

Latin name Emblica officinalis Linn Family Euphorbiaceae
Paryaya Dhatri, Vayastha, Amruta phala etc.
GUNA KARMA:
Rasa Amla (Pradhana), Kashaya, Tikta, Katu, Madhura.
Guna Guru, Ruksha Vipaka Madhura
Virya Seeta Doshaghnata Tridoshaghna
Actions: Rasayana, Vrishya, Vajikara, Chakshushya etc.
GODUGDHA
77

Pharmacodynamics :
Rasa : Madhura Guna : Snigda
Veerya : Sheeta Vipaka : Madhura
Dosha karma : Vata pitta shamaka
Karma: Brahmana, Vrishya, Medhya, Balavardhaka, J eevaniya & Asthisandhanakara.
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Rogaghnata : Pandu,Rakta pitta,Shukra dosha etc & it is pathya in vata pittaja vikara.
GOGRUTHA
78
Synonyms : Grutha, Sarpi, Ajya
Pharmacodynamics :
Rasa : Madhura Guna : Snigda
Virya : Shita Vipaka : Madhura
Dosha : Vatapitta nashaka
Nadivaha samsthana : Medhya
Pachana samsthana : Snehana, Agnideepaka, Anaha
Raktavaha samsthana : Dahahara
Mutravaha samsthana : Mutrala
Prajanana samsthana : Sukra janana
Rogagnatha : J wara, Visarpa.
SHANKAPUSHPI
79
Botanical Name : Clitoria Ternata
Family : Fabaceae
Synonyms : Aparajitha, Girikarnika, Adrikarni, Gavadani, Asphota, Girikarni,
Vishnukranta, Sanigapushpa, Sephanda, Sveta, Mahasveta
Pharmacodynamics :
Rasa - Katu, Tikta, Kashaya Guna - Laghu, Rooksha
Virya - Seetha Vipaka - Katu
Doshakarma Tridoshahara
KarmaChakshushya, Medhya, Vishaghna, Tridoshahara, Smritibuddidayaka
Rogaghnata Koshtaghna, Vishaghna, Sophaghna, vrana, J waraghna, Chardi,
Unmada, Bhrama, Arti, Swasa, Kasa, Soola, Kshaya, Kilasa, Daha, Ama.
Dose : Root Powder - 1 -3 g, Seed Powder - 1 - 2 g.
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Formulations : Garbhapalarasa
MANJISHTA
80
Botanical name : Rubia cordifolia
Family : Rubiaceae
Synonyms : Ratangi, Aruna, Kala, Manjusa, Samanga, Yojanavalli
Pharmacodynamics :
Rasa : Tikta, Kashaya, madhura Guna : Guru, ruksa
Virya : Usna Vipaka : Katu
Dosakarma ; Kaphapittashamaka Dose : 1 - 3 gms
Karma: Ratkashodhaka, Varnya, Sthambana, Krimighna, Kaphagna, Balya,Rasayana.
Formulations : Manjistadi kwatha, Manjistadyasava, Manjistadya ghrtam,
Manjistadya taila, Manjistadya lepa.




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REVIEW OF SMRITI

ROLE OF MANAS IN AYURVEDA:
Ayurveda is the science of life; it is the state of conjugation of harmony of
four components namely the Body (Shareera), the Mind (manas), the Soul (Atma) & the
Sense organs (Indriyas). Mind is integral aspect or part of life.
81
In Ayurveda more importance is given to the functional entity (manas) rather than
structural entity (mastishka, hridaya). Very few references are available about mastishka
where as more references are available about manas during healthy and diseased
conditions.
Manas play important role in the individual behaviors having capabilities and also
affliction of psychological disorders. Hence a brief description about Manas is given.
Ayurveda refers learning and memory to jnanotpatti, which is said to be
manolaxana.
82

Jnanotpatti
The knowledge is gained only if there is proper conjugation between artha,
indriyas, manas and atma.


Manas is having 5 objects
83
they are
Chinta to think
Vichara assessment
Uha prediction, guess
Dhyeya determination
Sankalpa decision making

Mana is said to have specific karma
84
.
Indriyabhigraha controlling sensory and motor organs.
Svasyanigraha controlling itself.

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These all functions of cognition are possible only when the mana is normal. In case of
lack of attention and concentration (mano anavasthanat), jnanotpatti is not possible.


Gunas of Manas
Satwa, Raja and Tama are the trigunas. Among which satwa is manoguna, which
promotes the normal functioning of the manas. Rajas and tamas are termed as
manodoshas, which hamper the functional ability of manas.
85


Origin of mind:
Most of the Acharyas of Ayurveda opine that, the Manas is in the latent form in
the Garbhavastha (embryonic stage) and during 5
th
month it is capable of exhibiting the
desire through the longings of the mother and later by 6
th
month the intellect is
established.
86

The Bhavas / factors which are responsible in the growth and development of foetus
are.
1. Matruja
2. Pitruja
3. Atmaja
4. Satwaja
5. Rasaja
6. Satmyaja
Satwaja bhava refers to the latent mind which plays an important role in the
development of foetal factor like Shoucha (Cleanliness), Aastikya (Divine), Shukla
darma (Transparency), Ruchi / Bhakti (Devotion), Mati / Buddhi (Intellect).
87



Mind and its faculties:
There are two types of faculties, the sensory faculty and motor faculties. The
faculties are not perceptible. They are only inferable.
88

According to Ayurveda there are five sensory faculties (Gnanendriyas) and five
motor faculties (Karmendriyas).
89



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The five sensory faculties are the
o Ghranendriya (Olfactory faculty),
o Rasanendriya (Gustatory faculty),
o Chaksurendriya (Visual faculty),
o Sparshanendriya (Tactile faculty) and
o Shravanendriya (Auditory faculty).


The motor faculties
90
are the
o Pada (faculty for Locomotion),
o Paani (faculty for Grasping and holding),
o Paayu (faculty for Excretion),
o Upastha (faculty for Reproduction) and
o Vaak (faculty for Communication).


Mind is dual faculty. It has sensory and motor functions. As a sensory faculty
its object is anything, that is thinkable.


Multiplicity of Mind:
Though there is only one mind in person, we feel that there is multiplicity of mind
in one person itself due to the various factors. This is because of the union of mind with
various objects including its own objects and disposition of mind as to the modes created
by the universal attributes.
91


Doshas and their role on manas:
Ayurveda emphasizes Ayu (life) as the combination between Shareera (body),
Indriya (sensory organs), Satwa (mind) and Atma (soul). The living body for its existence
requires continuous physiological activity to take place. Ayurveda as summarized the
total body physiology in two categories.
Samyoga formation

Vibhaga/viyoga destruction

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In between these two stages there will be intermediate action i.e. Roopantara
(modification). So the physiology according to Ayurveda comes under three stages
Samyoga, Roopantara and viyoga.

The factors responsible for these three different activities inside the living body
are termed as Doshas. The three Doshas have their unique functions.
Kapha Samyoga
Pitta Roopantara
Vata Viyoga
These Doshas being the components of the body are also panchabhoutika in
composition.
92

Doshas are humors of the body, which maintain the integrity during normalcy.
Abnormally increased or decreased Doshas destroy the body.
93

Doshas are defined as Dooshayanti iti doshah i.e. the factors which can vitiate
other principles of body and manas are not apart from it. Satwa raja and tama are termed
to be trigunas among which Satwa is manoguna and raja and tama are manodoshas. The
tridoshas have the intimate relationship with the trigunas. Like vatadosha in the body,
rajas in normalcy regulate manas.
Vatadosha is rajasika in nature. Pitta during normalcy is satwika but becomes
rajasika when abnormally increased. Kapha is satwika in normal limits but turns to
tamasika when increased abnormally.
94
Even though vata is rajogunatmaka, it is essential
in regulating the activity of manas.
Sex in relation with Manas:
The sex, which is considered as one of the four arthas, is also related with buddhi.
If a person indulges in sex considering all factors of nirupadrava, visala yoni, taking
vajikara his life span will increase with healthy state of body and mind. (Ca.Ci.2/3/29-
30). On the other hand if an unwise indulges in sex without proper judgement that will
led to several psychological imbalance viz. depression, short temper ness and inferiority
complex.


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CONCEPTS OF MEDHA:
The word medha is derived from the Sanskrit root qk xq which means
to meet or to come together or harmonize.
kUh z r k qk || which means, the knowledge Buddhi, Dhee
which has power of retaining knowledge for very long period
qki xcNi xuqxrq | i.e to have proper correlation and
understanding about the knowledge of the existing objects. Without medha,
knowledge cannot be understood.
uxi uuMz qkq | that means ability of discrimination of
objects, further without medha, knowledge cannot be understood.
kUhui oUi qk| medha is defined as that which groups or
retains knowledge.
aljukUh z qk || according to Dalhan. It is a powder, which
retains the knowledge of text and also said that medha is very deep knowledge gained
for the long period.

Medha is equated to Buddhi:
According to Arunadatta, ouzw qk|| which means it is a
faculty of Buddhi (Knowledge).
95


Medha is equated to Dhee:
Chakrapani on Ch.Su. 27/350 kUhui k qk |which means it is a
type of Dhee having the power of retention of knowledge.
96

It is clear from Shabdakalpadruma that, medha is equivalent to Buddhi and
Pragna, because Pragna and Medha are the two synonyms of Buddhi among other names
like Mati, Chit, Dharana etc.
97






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Relation between Tridoshas and Medha -
Vata: Prana vayu is responsible for controlling the functions of Buddhi and Mana
buddhi citta indriya dhrik, while udana vayu helps in recalling the past experiences.
98

Pitta: Function of Pitta is to promote medha,
99
but sadhaka pitta is mainly
responsible for good medha, Buddhi and abhimana.
100

Kapha: Tarpaka and avalambaka kapha in their normal state confer the
knowledge and intelligence. Kapha is also responsible for the best qualities of dhruti.
101

So that it is clear that Buddhi, Medha and Pragna are interchangeable words.

Relation between Medha and Food:
In Ayurvedic classics certain code of dietetics has been mentioned. How a person
should eat, has been nicely explained in Ayurveda. The food should to be taken at
specific time and time intervals, it must possess certain qualities and while taking the
food certain methodology has to be followed. If one takes ahara in this described manner,
the food undergoes proper digestion and in turn maintains the healthy state of mana,
buddhi and medha.

Sleep in relation with Medha:
Sleep not only plays an important role in repairing the breakdown of tissues but
also helps in proper function of J nanendriyas and medha or any other manasabhavas. In
Charaka Samhita while describing the benefits of nidra, it is described that sukha, dukha,
pusti, karsya bala, abala, vrista, klibata, jnana and ajnana are dependent upon sleep.
102


Role of Medha in health and diseases:
Since medha is related with manas and manas being an important constituent of
the living being, medha also attains an important position. While narrating the linga of
purusha, Charaka has pointed out that iccha, dvesa, sukha, dukha, prayatna, chesta,
dhrti, buddhi, smruti and ahamkara are the indicators of purusa and they can be witnessed
only in a living human being.
103


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When we look at the definition of swastha, Sushruta has stressed on three
characteristics, which are relevant in the present context, they are prasannatma,
prasannamana and prasanna indriya. According to Chakrapani, prasannatma indicates the
vikararahita and absence of dukhas; these dukhas may be caused by vaishamya.
104
This
explanation on one hand hints out to be interring relationship between the Shareera and
other components of life. Whereas on the other hand it explains that components other
than Shareera are also liable to be influenced by different abnormalities and as such it is
absolutely necessary that apart from the body other three constituents should also be free
from any imbalance or derangement.

BUDDHI - The Intellectual aspect:
The word meaning of Buddhi is the power of forming and retaining conceptions
and general notion intelligence, intellect, mind, reason, discernment and judgment.
Buddhi is defined as Buddhyate anena iti that which forms the knowledge. It is
derived from the root budha +kin and Buddhi is said as a function of Antakarana
(Manas) i.e., it is faculty of mind and it falls under Savikalpajnana.
It has been known by various synonyms in the lexicographic literature such as
a. Buddhi
b. Manisa
c. Dhisana
d. Dhi
e. Prajna
f. Simusi
g. Mati
h. Preksa
i. Upalabdhi
j. Citta
k. Samvit
l. Pratipat
m. J napti

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n. Cetana (Amarakosa-1/5)

Perceptive of Buddhi:
According to Ayurveda, buddhi is one of the properties of atma. Direction of
senses, control of itself, reasoning and deliberations are the functions of Mana. Beyond
this, is the field of buddhi.
105
In the process of evolution, buddhi is the first tatwa in the
sequence and is produced from avyakta and mulaprakrti and this buddhi / mahat is
responsible for further development of the sristi (world).
106
It is one of the prakrti vikaras
and is dominated by satva guna.
ouuclm x lelli| It is the
faculty for generation of knowledge and also for discrimination of good and bad things.

TYPES OF BUDDHI:
Based on the predominance of Trigunas, Buddhi is classified into three types,
namely,
1) Satwika Buddhi
2) Rajasa Buddhi
3) Tamasa Buddhi
According to Sankhya
Buddhi can be classified under two comprehensive headings i.e.
1) Daivi (Divine)
2) Asuri (Demonical)

Prakrti in relation with Buddhi:
Ayurveda is a unique medical science as it takes into account the aspect of
structural and functional built of each and every individual. The most important and
fundamental theory of Prakrti explains that why one individual differs from another,
despite being born in the same place, time or family. Prakrti is broadly classified as
sharirika and manasika prakruti. Vata, pitta and kapha are being responsible for the
manifestation of former, while satva, rajas and tamas for the latter. Each of these factors
is intimately concerned with the anatomical, physiological as well as psychological

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- An Experimental study
buildup of an individual. In general satva, rajas and tamas are concerned with the mental
faculties where as vata, pitta and kapha with the anatomical and physiological entities.
But satva, rajas and tamas also have a part to play in the normal anatomy and physiology
and vata, pitta, kapha also affect the psyche of an individual. Thus all these Doshas can
be regarded as factors having psychosomatic role to play.
Relation between Dhatus and Buddhi:
Among the seven dhatus the best qualities of rasa, rakta, mamsa, sukra and oja
improve the functions of the faculties of medha. Rasa dhatu nourishes the buddhi
whereas the best quality of rakta is responsible for the promotion of the medha. Mamsa
sarata indicates strong dhrti, likewise the sukra of best quality is stated to strengthen the
same i.e. dharana shakti and dhrti.
107
Ojas has direct relationship with all the faculties of
buddhi, as it is held responsible for their nourishment.
108

In a nutshell we can say the best qualities of prana and udana vayu, sadhaka pitta,
tarpaka kapha and avalambaka kapha, rasa, rakta, mamsa, sukra and ojas are responsible
for the normal functioning and best qualities of medha. A vitiation of any of these factors
will reflect upon the faculties of medha.


PRAJNA:
Prajna is derived from the root Pa +jnana +ka and is also called as Buddhi
and is defined as Prajnou prakarshena jaanaati cha
The word meaning of Prajna is to know, understand, especially a mode of action,
discern, distinguish, know about, be acquainted with, to find out, discover,
perceive, learn, wisdom, intelligence, knowledge, discrimination & judgment.
That which generates to knowledge in advance and is equated to buddhi and
Dalhan defines Prajna as Msirj mi pxl
MsriqM o| Knowledge about the present, past and future
is called Prajna.



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FACULTIES OF PRAJNA:
Pragna is of threefold i.e. Dhee, Dhruti, and Smruti are the faculties of Prajna.
Dhee:
The word Dhee is derived from krri xmxUh c |
The word meanings of Dhee are intelligence, intellect, ability to correct judgment &
discrimination power.
Amarakosha defines Dhee as to perceive and to reflect i.e. the faculty of Buddhi,
which performs the duty of perceiving the things.
Arunadatta and Chakrapani opine Dhee as bheda of Prajna and which discriminates
the good and bad things.
Swarupa of Dhee:
Acharya Charaka has stated that- xqq oW mzri |
109

Acharya tried to identify Dhee through its functions. Regarding this Chakrapani
comments that the knowledge of an object in the sense of as it is (Yathaarthaanubhava)
or perception of true knowledge(Uchita buddhi).
Dhruti :
The word is derived from krl kUh | meaning of Dhruti is capacity of with
holding, seizing, supporting, firmness, well, resolution, command and satisfaction.
According to Sushruta xiuM ah-qlx lrqiqM o
|

he says the ability to be within in the norms or rightness which is caused by
satwaguna of manas. Where as Dalhan says that Dhruti is mental happiness ql
xli |
According to Charaka Dhruti is a controlling factor, which prevents the mind from
indulging in harmful and non-beneficial objects. The Svasthyanigraha function of
manas are carried out by the factor Dhruti only
He also defines Dhruti as ki lrqiqM |
110




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Dhruti vibhramsha: -
In abnormal conditions of Manas, Dhruti bramsha occurs and conscious mind
indulges in performing harmful things knowingly. By all this one can say that, Dhruti is a
will power and power to hold as well as ability, to be within norms of rightness.
Smruti:-
The word meaning of Smruti is remembrance, memory or calling of mind.
The word Smruti is derived from the Sanskrit root xq Akrl |
Definitions
xqUhq xqi Ci | which means subject ability to recall things.
xqi mulpixr xqUhq| is recalling past experiences.
xqi Aiij uwr lq| (Ch. Chi. 2/3 Chakrapani) - Regaining of
past knowledge.
xqi xqUh z | - Memory power.
pij ulq | - Recalling of past experiences.
Alpuelr lq mulpixr Ajxr xqUhq,
Alpij xmqz xqi | -Memory is generated from past
experiences.
Alpij Axmqz xqi| (yoga sutra 1/11) preservation
of acquired faculty of cognition is smruthi.
According to Vachaspatyam, Smruthi is the capacity to recollect the experience of
knowledge acquired before.
According to Kanada, Smruthi is the product of the trades on internal impression
produced by the union of experience of soul and mind (Vaisesika sutra 1/26)
xqi piji ulq | (Su.Ut 61/3) smruthi is defined as the
cognition of past experience.
xqi xupuiiu xqUhq |(cakrapani on Cha.Sa 2/140) the ability
to recognize the basic nature of all matters is Smruthi.
Examination of Smruti: -
It is examined by Anumana pramana i.e, Smruti Smaranena by asking the
person to recollect the past experiences.
111


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By all the above said references one can conclude that smruti is the phenomenon
which is the experience gained by the pancha jnanendriyas (sense organ) like Darshana,
Sparshana, Shravana, Grahana and Rasana will be stored and collected in a seat of
Buddhi (Mastiska).

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR SMRUTHI (PHYSIOLOGY OF SMRUTI)
According to Acharya Charaka, for the functions of smruti two factors are mainly
responsible, they are -
a) Abhyantara karana (Intrinsic factors)
b) Bahya karana (Extrinsic factors)

a) Abhyantara karana:
The Sannikarsha of Atma, Indriya, Manas and Indriyarthas are responsible for
Smruti.
112

b) Bahya karana: -
Acharya Charaka, has described 8 factors responsible for the recollection of
experiential knowledge, they are as follows-
o Nimitta grahana (Reaction to caused effects)
o Rupa grahana (perception similar shape objects)
o Sadrushya (Similarity)
o Saviparyaya (Contrast)
o Satvanubandha (Attention)
o Abhyasa (Repetition)
o J nanayoga (Divine knowledge)
o Punaha Shruta (Repeated hearing)
113


SMRUTI VIBRAMSHA (MEMORY DISTURBANCE):
Smruti vibhramsha refers to a state characterized by deviation from normalcy; this
means either reduced memory or selective memory or total loss of memory.
114

Causative factors: Nidanas responsible for loss of memory

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- An Experimental study
1) Divaswapna:
Divaswapna is considered as one of the etiological factor for smruti vibhramsha. It is said
that, Divaswapna aggravates kapha and Pitta. Continuous indulgence can result in
alteration in the processes of digestion and metabolism and resulting in alteration /
reduction of growth, chesta and Smruti hrasa.
115


2) Gramyahara sevana:
List of Gramyahara
Amla, katu, Lavana rasatmaka ahara sevana
Shushka shaka and mamsa sevana
Viruddha dhanya sevana usage of sprouted grain
Nava shuka shamee dhanya sevana
Paryushita bhojana
Stree nithya Daily indulgence of sex
Madya nitya Daily intake of alcohol
Vishama and atimatra vyayama
Bhaya, Krodha, Shoka, lobha, Moha bahulanam - excessive fear, anger, grief etc.
Because of above-mentioned factors person becomes unable to perform physical &
mental work. He also loses his Memory, intellect & complexion & becomes abode of
diseases
116
.

3) Rajo & Mohavrita mana:
Rajo and Tamo gunas are considered as doshas of Manas. These affect the Manas
& can cause disturbed manasika chesta, which can also include smruti vibhramsha.
117


4) Jara:
In J ara avastha there is a gradually depleting nature of the Dhatu, Indriya and
Bala, and predominated by Vata dosha. It results in diminished Grahana (Grasping),
Dharana (Retention) and Smarana (Recollection).
118



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Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study
Pathogenesis of Smruti Vibhramsha:
In our classics, specific patho- physiology of Smruti hrasa is not explained but
information obtained from various textual collections shows the pathogenesis as -When
mana is shielded with excessive raja and tamogunas then the smruti nasha will manifest.
iiul xqirxr UeqWuiiql pzri x
xqipz xqixr W xqixjiq| (Ch.sha.1/101)
Nidan sevana

Vata kapha pradushana along with
Dhatu pradushana


Raja and tamo guna vruddhi

Manovaha sroto avarana



Dhee Vibhramsa Smruti Vibhramsa Dhruti Vibhramsa

The diseases in which Smruti nasha is one of the Symptom:
1) Apasmara.
119

2) Unmada
120

3) J arajanya Smrutinasha
121

Line of treatment of Manorogas with special references to loss of memory:
The treatment for mental diseases (Manasa roga) may be classified into 4 groups.
General line of treatment
Panchashodhan (Purifactory measures)
Shamana (Palliative treatments)
Swastha rakshana (Preventive measures)

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Pathya (Wholesome regimen)
Apathya (Unwholesome regimen)

1. General line of management:
Vagbhatacharya mentions in Sutra sthana that Dhee (Intellect), Dhairya (Will
power) and Atmadi vijnana (Self orientation) are all said to be the measures to have
healthy mind
122


2. Classical Panchakarma:
In the manifestation of mental diseases the srotases are obstructed either partially
or completely. To cure the diseases these channels should be cleaned. Further in order to
achieve the maximum effect of shamana oushadha it is always preferred to do shodhan
chikitsa before administration of shamana oushadha
In mental disorders Emesis (Vamana), Purgation (Virechana) and Nasal
medication are employed in their sharp and strong form (Teekshna).
Charaka Samhita advises intense internal oleation (snehana) in maximum dose of
Purana ghrita (ghrita of 10 years old) and Prapurana ghrita (100 years old).
123
They are a
good brain tonics, causes purgation and wards of all types of evil spirit. It is mentioned
that even the slight touch or smell of clarified butter aged up to a hundred years will
relieve mental disease.
124


3. Palliative Therapy:
After the classical Panchakarma therapy if the disease is not relieved completely,
the following initiative techniques may be employed.
125


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i) Behavioral treatment:
Tadana (Beating)
Tamogruha pravesha (Isolation in dark room)
Tarjana (Scalding)
Daana (Giving the patient according to the need)
Santvana (Consoling words)
Harshana (Cheering up)
Tershana (Shocking)
Bhaya (Frightening)
Vismaya (Astonishing)
Pradeha (Appling irritant to the body)
Abyanga (Oil Massage)
Vinasha kathana (Conveying bad news)

ii) Therapeutically Measures:
Nasya (Inhalation)
Seka (Irrigation)
Dhoopana (Fumigation)
Anjana (Collyrium)
Dhumapana (Inhalation of smoke)
3. Food and habits which increase intelligence (Medhya ahara vihara)
4. Consoling words (Aashvasana)

IV Preventive measures:
Once relieved of mental diseases, the person should not be informed of his
activities during illness. He should be permitted to rejoice with the objects of his own
choice to facilitate the normalcy of his mind.
126

Sadvrutta paalana by every individual of the community, it contributes in prevention of
mental illness.

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- An Experimental study
Apart from therapeutic measures following measures will help in increasing Buddhi and
Medha.
Satata Adhyayana - Constant study.
Vaada - Interaction
Paratantra Avalokana - Referring to other allied subjects.
Tadvidya Sambhasha - Debate and seminars.
Acharya seva - Obedience to the teachers.

Wholesome Regimen (Pathya):
Rice, wheat, green gram, milk & leafy vegetables.
127

Unwholesome Regimen (Apathya):
Food substances that are incompatible contaminated, unhealthy and
unaccustomed are prohibited. Excessive consumption of food is also unwholesome.
128


Rasayana Therapy
Literary the term Rasayana refers to the means of obtaining the optimum
nourishment to the Rasadi Dhatus. Thus, the Rasayana is a specialized type of treatment
which influencing on the Dhatus, Agni and Strotas of the body, leading to an overall
improvement in the formation and maintenance of the living tissue. It helps in the
prevention of aging, improving of resistance against diseases, bodily strength and process
of improving mental faculties.

Actions of Rasayana Drug.
129
Prevents senile degeneration
Stimulate metabolism
Promote body resistance and immunity
Improves memory and intelligence
Increase vitality
Freedom from disease
Restore health and increase long life.
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REVIEW OF THE MEMORY

Memory is a specialized faculty of brain, which retains the wants developed
during the process of learning, the mechanism of memory, is complex as the mechanism
of though to provide memory. The nervous system must recreate the same spatial and
temporal pattern of stimulation in the central nervous system at some future date. Though
we cannot explain in the detail what the memory is we do know some of the basic
neuronal processes that probably lead to the process of memory.
130
It is well established that various degrees of memory occur, some memories
lasting a few seconds and others lasting hours, days, months or years. Possibly all of
these types of memory are caused by same mechanism operating at different degrees of
fulfillment. Yet, it is also possible that different mechanisms of memory do exist. Indeed,
most psychologists classify memory into from two to four different types.
131


Dictionary meaning of memory
Recollection, remembrance(Standard dictionary)
A particular act of recalling something learned or experienced, the fact or a condition
of recalling remembrance.(Webster dictionary)

Definition:
Memory is defined as the ability to recall the past experience.
Memory is the function by which information stored in the brain is a latter recalled to
consciousness.
Memory is a comphrensive term that covers the retention of all types of material over
various times and involves diverse forms of response.
Memory refers to the encoding, storage and retrieval of information.



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Memory:
Memories are caused by changes in the capability of synoptic transmission from
one neuron to the next as a result of previous neural activity. Those changes in turn
cause new pathways to develop for transmission of signals through the neural circuit
of the brain.
The neural pathways are called memory travels. They are important because once
established, thinking mind to reproduce the memories can activate them. Experiments
have demonstrated that memory traces can occur at all levels of nervous system.

Neural activity
Causes
Changes in capability of synaptic transmission
Development of new pathways (memory traces)
Memory traces can occur at any level of nervous system

Cerebral Cortex Cerebellum Spinal cord etc.
Memory associated slight response due to
with intellect process repetitive stimulation.





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CLASSIFICATION:
Different levels of memory:
Recent memory
Remote memory
Recent memory may be lost frequently with neurological disease but the remote
memory is remarkably resistant and may persist even in severe brain damage.
132


Second type:
1. Sensory memory
2. Short term memory or Primary memory.
3. Long term memory, which itself can be divided into Secondary memory
and Tertiary memory.
133


SENSORY MEMORY:
Sensory memory means the ability to retain sensory signals in the sensory areas of
the brain for a very short interval of time following the actual sensory experience.
Usually these signals remain available for analysis for several hundred milliseconds but
are replaced by new sensory signals in less than one second. Nevertheless, this is initial
stage of the memory process.

SHORT TERM MEMORY OR PRIMARY MEMORY
It is the memory of facts, words, numbers, letter or other information received for
a few seconds to few memories to few minutes at a time. For example, after searching for
a telephone numbers in the directory, we remember the number for a short while. After
appreciating beautiful scenery, the details of it could be recalled for sometimes or days.
Afterwards it disappears from the memory.
The characteristic feature of this type of memory is that the information is
available for recall easily from memory store itself one need not search or squeeze
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through the mind and this memory is easily replace by new bits of memory, i.e by
looking into another telephone number, the first one might disappear.

LONG TERM MEMORY
Long term memory is the storage in the brain of information that can be recalled
at some later time many minutes, hours, days, months or years later. This type of memory
has been called fixed memory, permanent memory and several other names.
Long term memory divided into two different types
Secondary memory
Tertiary memory
A secondary memory is a long-term memory that is stored with either a weak or only
a moderately strong memory trace. For this reason it is easy to forget and it is
sometimes difficult to recall further more, the time required to search for the
information is relatively long. This type of memory can last from several minutes to
several years. When the memories are so weak that they will last for only a few
minutes to a few days, they are also frequently called recent memory.
A tertiary memory is a memory that has become so well ingrained in the mind
that the memory can usually last the lifetime of the person. Furthermore the very
strong memory traces of this type of memory make the stored information available
within a split second. This type of memory is typified by ones knowledge of his own
name, by his ability to recall immediately the numbers from 1 to 10, the letters of the
alphabet, and the words that he uses in speech, and also by the memory of his precise
physical structure and of his very familiar immediate surroundings.

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Positive and Negative memory:
Although we believe memories as being positive recollections of thoughts /
experiences but the greater share of our memories is negative memories. Our brain
receives sensory impulses from all the senses and if all those information were to be
remembered the memory capacity of brain would be exceeded within minutes.
The brain has special capacity to ignore information, which is of no consequence,
but information that causes important consequence such as pain or pleasure are stored
in the form of memory traces. The basal limbic areas are involved in determination
whether information is important or not. Unimportant information causes inhibition
of synaptic pathways. This is called habituation that results in negative memory.
Important information causes facilitation of synaptic pathways. This is called
sensitization, which results in positive memory. The brain also has automatic
capability of enhancing and storing the memory traces.





Memory Representation
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Sense


Information (sensory inputs)


Special areas in basal limbic area judge the information


Important information unimportant information
(having important consequence by pass) (having no consequence)


Causes facilitation of synaptic Causing inhibition of synaptic
Pathways pathways


Memory sensitization Habituation


Memory traces formed No memory traces formed

Storing of positive memory Information not stored

Negative memory

SOME THEORY ACCORDING TO PSYCHOLOGIST
Atkins-shiffrin theory (1968)
134

Memory starts with a sensory input from the environment. Information that is
attended to and recognized in the sensory register may be passed on to short term
memory (STM) where it is held for perhaps 20 or 30 seconds, some of the
information reaching short term memory is processed by being rehearsed that is by
having attention focused on it, perhaps by being repeated over and over, or perhaps
by processed in some other way that will link it up with other information already
stored in memory. Information that is rehearsed may then is passed along to long term
memory (LTM). When items of information are placed in long term memory they are
organized into categories where they may reside for days, months, years or for a
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lifetime. When you remember something, a representation of the item is withdrawn or
retrieved, from long term memory.

Memory output
Attended to
And recognized
material



short term memory
(holds only few items) long term memory
(holds a tremendous amount
of information in organized
Categories)
An information processing models of memory (Based on Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968)



The level of processing theory
135

A contrasting model of memory involves what are called levels of processing (Craik and
Lockhart, 1972) with more recently, the idea of elaboration added to the level of
processing frame work (Craik and Tulving, 1975).
According to the levels of processing idea, incoming information be worked on at
different levels of analysis; the deeper the analysis goes, the better the memory.
The first level is simply perception, which gives us our immediate awareness of the
environment.
At a some what deeper level, the structural features of the input (what it sounds like
or looks like, for example) are analyzed.
Sensory
Register
STM
A A
C,C,
C
B B
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Finally at the deepest level of processing, the meaning of the input is analyzed.
Analysis to the deep level of meaning gives the best memory.

Incoming information













A summary diagram of the relationship among levels of processing, elaboration of
information and memory. The shaded portion of the figure shows the amount of
information retained
TABLE NO:-11 SUMMARY OF CHARACTERISTIC OF THE STAGE OF
MEMORY
136

Sensory register Short term memory Long term memory
Approximate
For vision: upto1 sec
For hearing : up to 5
sec

Up to about 30 sec but it
varies, depending on a
number of factor
Days, months , years or
a lifetime

Level 1
Perception

Level 2
Structural
Level
Level 3
Meaning
Or
Sematic
Level
D
e
p
t
o
f
p
r
o
c
e
s
Amount of elaboration
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Capacity
Relatively large up to
at least 16 items but
probably much more
Relatively small up to about
7 times or chunks under
most condition
Very large no known
limits
Transfer
processes
Attention and
recognition. Items
attended to and
recognized more to
short-term memory
Rehearsal:items
appropriately rehearsed
more to long term memory

Type of
information
Copy of input
Sounds, visual images
words and sentences
Primarily meaningful
sentences, life events
and concept; some
images; sematic and
episodic memory.
Major reason
information is
last
Decay of trace
Displacement of old
information by incoming
information
Faculty organization or
inappropriate retrieval
(search) strategy:
interference

PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS OF MEMORY:
137

Despite many advances in neurophysiology during the past half century, we still
cannot explain what perhaps the most important function of the brain is: its capability for
memory. Yet physiological experiments are beginning to generate conceptual theories of
the means by which memory could occur. Some of these are discussed in the following
few sections.
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POSSIBLE MECHANISMS FOR SHORT TERM MEMORY:
Short-term memory requires a neuronal mechanism that can hold specific
information signals for a few seconds to at most a minute or more. Several such
mechanisms are the following.
Reverberating Circuit Theory of Short Term Memory:
When a tetanizing electrical stimulus is applied directly to the surface of the
cerebral cortex and then removed after a second or more, the local area excited by this
stimulus continues to emit rhythmic action potentials for short periods of time. This effect
results from local reverberating circuits, the signals passing through a multistage circuit
of neurons in the local area of the cortex itself or perhaps also back and forth between the
cortex and the thalamus.
It is postulated that sensory signals reaching the cerebral cortex can set up similar
reverberating oscillations and that these could be the basis for short term memory. Then,
as the reverberating circuit fatigues, or new signals interfere with the reverberations, the
short-term memory fades away.
Post-Tetanic Potentiation Theory of short-term Memory:
In most parts of the nervous system including even the anterior motoneurons of
the spinal cord, tetanic stimulation of the neuron for few seconds causes a subsequent
increased excitability of the neuron for a few seconds to few hours.
If during this time the neuron is stimulated again, it responds much more
vigorously than normally, a phenomenon called Post-tetanic potentiation. This is
obviously a type of memory that depends on change in excitability of the involved
neurons, and it could be the basis for short-term memory. It is likely that this
phenomenon results from some temporary change in the synapses of the neurons.
DC Potential Theory of Short Term Memory:
Another change that occurs in the neurons following a period of excitation is a
prolonged decrease in the membrane potential of the neuron lasting for from seconds to
minutes. Because this changes the excitability of the neuron, it could be the basis for
short-term memory. Such changes in neuronal potentials are called DC potentials or
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sometimes Electrotonic Potentials. Measurements in the cerebral cortex show that such
potentials occur especially in the superficial dendritic layers of the cortex, indicating that
the process of short-term memory could result from changes in the dendritic membrane
potentials.
Mechanisms of Long Term Memory, Enhancement of Synaptic Transmission
Facility:
Long-term memory means the ability of the nervous system to recall thoughts
long after initial elicitation of the thoughts is over. We know that the long term memory
does not depend on continued activity of the nervous system, because the brain can be
totally inactivated by cooling, by general anesthesia, by hypoxia, by ischemia, or by any
other method and yet memories that have been previously stored are all still retained
when the brain becomes active once again. Therefore, it is assumed that long-term
memory must result from some actual alterations of the synapses, either physical or
chemical.

Anatomical basis of memory
Synaptic terminal for memory coding is slightly different from other synapses.
Two separate presynaptic terminals are involved. One of the terminals is the primary
presynaptic terminal. This ends on postsynaptic neuron. This terminal is called sensory
terminal, because the sensations are transmitted to post synaptic neuron through this
terminal.
The other presynaptic terminal ends on the sensory terminal itself. This second terminal
is called is facilitator terminal. If sensory terminal alone is stimulated without facilitator
terminal, the firing from sensory terminal leads to habituation on the other hand, if both
the terminals are stimulated, the signals remain strong for long duration, i.e for few
months to few years. This is called facilitation.
CHEMICAL OR MOLECULAR BASES OF MEMORY
138

Facilitation: this occurs in the following manner.

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Stimulation of facilitator neuron along with sensory neuron causes release of serotonin
from facilitator terminal on sensory terminal

Serotonin binds with serotonin receptor.

The serotonin receptor complex activates the enzyme adenyl cyclase in the terminal
membrane.

This cause formation of cyclic AMP in sensory terminal

cyclic AMP activates the protein kinase.

The protein kinase causes phosphorylation of potassium channels in the terminal
membrane

This blocks the exist of potassium ions

So, the action potential continues for days or weeks or still years

Prolong action potential causes prolonged activation of calcium pores there by allowing
large amount of calcium to enter sensory terminal.

The calcium ions further enhance the release of transmitter i.e serotonin thus facilitating
synaptic transmission to a great extent leading to memory.

The over all facilitated circuit is called memory engram or a memory trace.



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Habituation:
Habituation is due to passive closure of calcium channels of terminal membrane. Hence,
the release of transmitter is less and action potential is in less number. So, the signals
become weak. The weakening of the signals is called habituation.
Consolidation of memory
The primary memory becomes secondary memory by consolidation. i.e. the
permanent facilitation of synapses. This is possible by rehearsal mechanism. i.e. rehearsal
of same information again and again accelerates and potentials the degrees of transfer of
primary memory into secondary memory. This is what happens in memorizing a poem or
a phase by reading repeating.

Role of Rehearsal in Transference of Short Term Memory into long-term Memory:
Psychological studies have shown that rehearsal of the same information again
and again accelerates and potentiate the degree of transfer of Short-term memory into
Long-term memory, and therefore accelerate and potentiate the process of consolidation.
The brain has the neutral tendency to rehearse newfound information, and especially to
rehearse the newfound information that catches the mind attention. Therefore, over a
period of time the important features of sensory experiences become progressively more
and more fixed in long-term memory stores. This explains why a person can remember
small amounts of information studied in depth far better than he can remember large
amount of information studied only superficially. And it also explains why a person who
is wide awake will consolidate memories far better than will a person who is in a state
of mental fatigue.
Codifying of Memories during the Process of Consolidation:
One of the most important features of the process of consolidation is that
memories to be placed permanently into the Long-term memory storehouse are first
codified into different classes of information. During this process similar information is
recalled from the long-term storage bins and is used to help process the new information.
The new and old are compared for similarities and for differences, and part of the storage
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process is to store the information about these similarities and differences rather than
simply to store the information unprocessed. Thus, during the process of consolidation,
the new memories are not stored randomly in mind, but instead are stored in direct
association with other memories of same type. This is obviously necessary if one is to be
able to scan the memory store at a later date to find the required information.
Transfer of Sensory Memory into Long term Memory:
Some physiopsycologists believe that the sensory memory can be transferred
directly into long-term memory first without passing through the stage of short-term
memory. This would apply to such information as visual scenes, musical tunes, tactile
experiences, and so forth. Here again, the greater the number of times that the person
experiences the sensory information, which is a form of rehearsal, the greater also is the
degree of consolidation of the memories.

Change of long-term Secondary Memory into long-term Tertiary Memory-Role of
Rehearsal:
Rehearsal also plays an extremely important role of changing the weak trace type
of long term memory, called secondary memory, into the strong trace type, called
Tertiary memory. That is, each time a memory is recalled or each time the same memory
experience is repeated, a more and more indelible memory trace develops in the brain.
The memory finally becomes so deeply fixed in the brain that it can be recalled within
fraction of a second and it will also last for a lifetime, both of which are the
characteristics of long-term tertiary memory.

Abnormalities of memory
139

1. Amnesia
Loss of memory is known as amnesia. Amnesia is classified into two types.
Anterograde amnesia
It is the failure to establish new long term memories. This usually occurs due to lesion
in hippocampus.
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Retrograde amnesia
Failure to recall past remote long-term memory is called retrograde amnesia. It occurs
in temporal lobe syndrome.


AMNESIA


Psychological amnesia Biological amnesia

Child hood amnesia transient global amnesia

Dream amnesia marijuana, alcohol and amnesia

Defensive amnesia disease of the brain.


2) Dementia
Progressive detoriation of intellect, emotional control, social behaviour and motivation
associated with loss of memory is known as dementia. It is an age related disorders.
Usually it occurs the age of 65; it is called pre senile dementia.
Causes
Dementia occurs due to many reasons. Most common cause of dementia is
Alzheimers diseases. In about 75% of cases, dementia is due to this disease (given
below) other common causes of dementia are hydrocephalus, Huntingtons chorea,
Parkinsons disease, Viral encephalitis, HIV infection, hypothyroidism,
hyperparathyroidism, Cushing syndrome, alcoholic intoxication, poisoning by high dose
of barbiturate, carbon monoxide, heavy metals.


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Clinical features

The common features are loss of recent memory, lack of thinking and judgment
and personality changes. As the disease progresses, psychiatric features begin to appear
motor functions are affected. Finally, the patient has to lead a vegetative life without any
thinking power. The person is speechless and is unable to understand anything.
There is no effective treatment for this. Physostigmine which inbibits
cholinesterase, cause moderate improvement.
3) Alzheimers Disease
This progressive neurodegenerative disease. It is due to degeneration, loss of function
and death of neuron in many parts of brain particularly cerebral hemispheres
hippocampus and pons. There is reduction in the secretion of most of the
neurotransmitters especially acetylcholine. The synthesis of acetylcholine decreases
because of lack of the enzyme choline acetyltransferate. Norepinephrine secretion
decrease because of degeneration of locus, ceruleus. Dementia is the common feature of
this disease.

BEHAVIORAL PARADIGMS FOR LEARNING AND MEMORY
140


Behavioral models for studying drugs or conditions that effect cognitive processes
rely on stimuli to induce an aversive state within an organism. The nature of that aversive
state, and the interpretation of learning and memory, is assessed by the response of the
subject to that aversive stimuli in the presence and absence of agents and more generally
defined as enhancement/impairment of learning and/or memory processes. Since
learning and memory processes cannot be expressed with a unified definition, the
interpretation of behavioral parameters in these tasks when parameters change on
repetitive testing should be more appropriately stated in terms of the observed behavioral
changes rather than learning and memory processes. Once an animal has learnt to escape
from aversive events, the next favorable strategy is to try to avoid those aversive events
totally. The aversive event is made predictable (conditioned stimulus) so that the animals
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can actively respond (active avoidance paradigms such as jumping on a pole or Platform,
shuttling to the safe part of the apparatus) or suppress/delay innate behavior (passive
avoidance paradigms such as reaching shock free Zone, voluntary delay in entering the
dark compartment of the apparatus).
Most of the currently used paradigms for learning and memory can be
conveniently discussed under two behavioral tasks behaviour on mazes (e.g. elevated
plus maze radial arm maze, Y-maze, figure-8 maze and water maze) and behavior on
avoidance chambers (e.g. active and passive avoidance task paradigms).
In-vivo methods
Plus Maze:
Mazes are traditional tools in assessing learning and memory performance in
laboratory animals. Originally designed to evaluate the anti-anxiety agents, elevated plus
maze has also been recently extended to measure the spatial long-term memory in
animals. The elevated plus maze was also introduced by Pellow et al with rats and by
Listen with mice, consisting of two open and two enclosed arms (Figure 1), and is based
on the apparent natural aversion of rodents to open and high spaces in the measurement
of anxiety state in animals. Animals spend more time in the enclosed arms because they
dislike the open arms. The aversive quality of open arms is not apparent until the animals
enter them. Based on this parameter, ltoh et al has demonstrated that transfer latency (the
time in which the animal moves from the open arms to the enclosed arms was markedly
shortened if the animal has previously experienced entering the open arms. This
shortened transfer latency has shown to be related to the memory processes. Accordingly,
the transfer latency from 2
nd
day onwards was shorter than on the 1
st
day of exposure of
animals to plus maze. This decrease in transfer of latency was observed when mice spent
even 10 seconds in enclosed arm after entering it. However, in anxiety- related studies,
the natural aversion to open arms of plus maze did not habituate over time when tested
repeatedly.
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Recent revelations of several nootropics and amnestic agents on elevated plus
maze made this a model a widely acceptable paradigm to study learning and memory
processes in rodents.

Radial arm maze:
Radial arm maze evaluates the working memory in animals. Each arm of
5012cm) eight-arm maze extend from an octagonal shaped central hub of 30 cm
diameter. The platform is elevated 40 cm above the floor. Small black plastic cups (3 cm
in diameter and 1 cm deep) can be mounted on the each end of the arm that serves
receptacles for reinforces (food). Guillotine doors surround the hub. The animals for the
experiment are pre-selected by conducting at least one daily training trail; two food
pellets are placed in each receptacle. A rat is placed on central hub with all guillotine
doors lowered. Then, all the doors are simultaneously opened to allow the rat to choose
arms freely. When the rat enters one of the arms, the doors to the remaining seven of the
arm are closed. The open door is closed after the animal returns to the center hub. Then
all the doors are raised again simultaneously. The trial is considered complete when the
rat visits all eight arms or spends 10 minutes on the maze. Entry intro an arm that the rat
has not been previously visited is recorded as a correct response and re-entry is counted
as error. The number of correct responses before committing the first error (the number
of initial correct responses) is calculated as an index of radial maze performance. A trial,
in which an animal makes no error at the eight choices, can be defined as successful trail.
The percentage of successful rats is also an index, which is highly sensitive to drug
induced behavioral changes in the radial arm maze Running time is calculated by
dividing the total running time by total number of choices. Although this paradigm is
tedious, and time consuming, recent investigation has shown that the working memory
can be reliably assessed using radial maze. This maze has also been exploited for
swimming-induced spatial learning after a suitable modification into radial water maze.
However, the swimming stress mechanisms involved in this model may also intercept the
drug effect on memory parameters.
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Y-Maze:
A variety of Y-maze tasks Paradigms are available for evaluation of
spatial working and long-term memory in rodents. Using food or sweetened water as an
incentive to reach the goal, animals are either required to execute a specific search of
sequence or minimize time/errors in the quest for a reward. Temporal measurements and
error scoring are the key parameters recorded for the evaluation of drug effects
administered either prior to or post training
Procedure for using simple version Y-Maze:
This simple version of y maze task is used to measure the spatial working
memory through the spontaneous alteration of behavior in rats
The three arms of the maze are called A, B&C. Each rat is placed at the end of C
arm and allowed to move freely through the maze during 8-min session. Rat tends to
explore the maze systematically, entering each arm in turn. The ability to alternate
requires that the rat know which arm they have already visited. The series of arm entries
including possible returns in to the same arm are recorded visually.
Alteration is defined as the number of successive entries into the three arms, on
over lapping triplet sets (ABC, BAC, CAB, etc)
The percentage of alteration is calculated as the ration of actual alteration to
possible alteration, defined as the total number of arm entries minus two, and multiplied
by 100.


Actual alteration
Percentage of alteration =-----------------------------X 100
Total number of arm entry 2

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Example
An animal doing CBABACBABCABCACA makes 15 arm entries during 8-min.
In this actual alteration are CBA, BAC, ACB, CBA, ABC, BCA, CAB, ABC, and BCA.
No of actual alteration =9
No of arm entry =15
The percentage of alteration =9/15-2=69.2%
Note: no of arm entry is considered as locomotor activity.

Figure 8 maze:
Fig 8 maze, used to measure spatial ability of animals, is a unique task paradigm
designed basically to provide a classic common choice point with gated entry and exit
points. It may also be equipped with Photocell detection system for automatic recording
of the animal behavior. However, this task is not being used currently, except for
supportive information.

Morris Water Maze:
Originally developed and advanced by Richard Morris during 1981-1984, this
maze represents a more specific test for spatial memory, not confounded by the working
memory effects. The essential feature of the technique is that rats are placed into a large
circular pool of water and can escape into a hidden platform. The platform is hidden, first
by arranging its top surface just beneath the water surface, and second by rendering the
water opaque so that the platform is invisible. Thus the platform offers no local cues to
guide escape behavior. The rat can escape from swimming by climbing into the platform
and over time the rat apparently learns the spatial location of the platform from any
starting position at the circumference of the pool. The only spatial dues are those outside
the water tank and are primarily visual cues. The simplicity and versatility of the task
makes it a widely acceptable experimental model for the assessment of cognitive skills in
animals.
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Avoidance behavior on Shuttle box:
Testing of animals for avoidance behavior, passive and active, is classic model for
the assessment of cognitive performance after brain lesions or pharmacological
manipulation. Several types of automated shuttle box systems are commercially available
for testing the avoidance behavior in rats and mice. Typically, each subject is housed
within a cage or box that has been divided by a centrally located wall. The wall has an
opening that allows the animal to pass between the compartments. Active avoidance is
induced by a sequence of conditioned and unconditional stimuli to the animal. In
response, the animal must relocate to the adjoining compartment within a preset time in
order to avert the mild electric shock. The latency of the stimuli to escape of subject after
the pre-training is related to the retention of memory task. Whereas, in passive avoidance,
the avoidance cage consists of single box without any compartments that prevents inter-
compartment transfers. A sequence of stimuli is presented during which the animal has
the freedom to transfer to safe area within the compartment. Failure of the transfer or
latency to transfer to a shock free area indicates the passive behavior, which is used as a
short time memory task. Fully automated systems with controlling software that can
monitor up to 30 avoidance cages are also available commercially (Columbus
Instruments, San Diego Instruments, and Biomedical).

Methods to induce amnesia :
141

Animals trained on a task under some drugs often show a failure of learning
performance when they are tested in the absence of the drugs. The Failure, however, is
ameliorated when the drugs are re-introduced. These phenomenons have been termed as
state-dependant learning. It consists of two phenomenon; failure and success in learning
performance. Drugs acting on GABA-A as well as benzodiazepene agonists have been
reported to produce state dependant learning. Ethanol is one of the most widely used
psycho-active drugs that also produce state-dependent learning. Pre-training injection of
ethanol dose-dependently reduced step-through passive avoidance latency in the test
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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study



session 24 hours after the training. However, it failed to reduce the latency when injected
before both the training and test sessions, indicating that ethanol produces state
dependent learning.
Electroshock- induced amnesia
Amnesia can also be induced in experimental animals by electroshock (ES)
stimulation. Presentation of electroshock (monophase rectangular pulses with current
intensity of 50 mA, single phase duration of 1ms, stimulation frequency of 50 Hz, an trial
duration of 0.5 s) by silver corneal electrodes induces clonic-tonic seizures and impairs
memory. The Electroshock was applied immediately after the training trails in the task
being tested. A sham electroshock was given to the control animals. Alternately, Electro
convulsive shock (ECS) - induced convulsions in animals may produce a more severe
form of amnesia. In this technique, an electroshock form of amnesia (10mA current for
0.2 s) was applied through commercially available Electro stimulators. Both acute and
repeated ECS paradigms had been utilized for the evaluation of drugs on electroshock
induced amnesia.

Brain lesion-induced cognitive dysfunction:
Based on the findings of extensive cell loss in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis
(NBM) in Alzheimers disease patients relative to normal controls, investigators began to
produce lesions in the corresponding nuclei of the laboratory animals. Lesions have been
produced with several different neuro-toxic and electrolytic techniques and several
cholinergic agents have been utilized to reverse the resulting deficits. A selective
cholinergic neurotoxin, ethylcholine mustard aziridinium ion (AF64A) has been widely
used for the experimental induction of cognitive deficits. The other commonly used
toxins are kainic and ibotenic acids, both of which are glutamate analogs that selectively
destroy dendrites and cell bodies of NBM. AF 64-A induced cholinotoxicity is the
currently applied animal model for senile dementia of Alzhemers type. Electrolytic
lesions are nonspecific; however, result in axonal destruction and anterograde and
retrograde neuronal degeneration. The NMB lesions produce persistent depletions in
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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study



cortical cholinergic markers. These distinct types of lesions are found to selectively
impair one type of memory processes, without affecting other types of memory tasks.

In vitro methods
142

In vitro inhibition of acetylcholine-esterase activity in rat striatum
Purpose and rationale
The purpose of this assay is to screen drugs for inhibition of acetylcholine esterase
activity. Inhibitors of this enzyme may be useful for the treatment of Alzheimers disease.
Procedure
Reagents
1.0.05M Phosphate buffer,pH 7.2
a) 6.85g NaH
2
PO
4.
H
2
O/100g distilled H
2
O
b) 13.40 g Na
2
HPO
4
.7 H
2
O/100g distilled H
2
O
c) add a) to b) until pH reaches 7.2
d) dilute 1:10

2.substrate in buffer
e) 198 mg acetylthiocholine chloride (10 mM)
f) q.s explain to 100ml with 0.05 M Na
2
HPO
4
pH reaches 7.2(reagent 1)
3.DTNB in buffer
a)19.8 mg 5,5-dithiobisnitrobenzoic acid (DTNB)(0.5 Mm
b) q.s explain to 100ml with 0.05 M Na
2
HPO
4
pH reaches 7.2(reagent 1)
4. A 2 mM stock solution of the test drug is made up in a suitable solvent and q.s to
volume with 0.5 mM DTNM (reagent 3). Drugs are serially diluted (1:10)such that the
final concentration (in cuvette) is 10
-4
M and screened for activity. If active, IC
50
values
are determined from the inhibitory activity of subsequent concentrations.
Tissue preparation
Male wistars rats are decapitated, brains rapidly removed, corpora striata dissected free,
weighed and homogenized in 19 volumes (approximately 7mg protein/ml) of 0.05 M
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Na
2
HPO
4
pH reaches 7.2 using a potter-Elvejhem homogenizer. A 25 ul aliquot of this
suspension is added to 1 ml of the vehicle or various concentrations of the test drug and
reincubated for 10 min at 37C.
Assay
Enzyme activity is measured with the Bechman DU-50 spectrophotometer. This
method can be used for IC
50
determinations and for measuring kinetic contstants
Reagents are added to the blank and sample cuvettes as follows:
Blank: 0.8ml PO
4
buffer/DTNB
0.8ml PO
4
buffer/Substrate
control: 0.8ml PO
4
buffer/DTNB/enzyme
0.8ml PO
4
buffer/substrate
drugs: 0.8ml PO
4
buffer/DTNB/Drug /Enzyme
0.8ml PO
4
buffer/substrate.
Blank values are determined for each run to control for non-enzymatic hydrolysis of
substrate and these values are automatically subtracted by the kindata program available
on kinetics soft-pac module. This program Bechman DU-50 spectrophotometer, kinetic
soft-Pac module operation instructions: 1-7 also calculated the rate of absorbance change
for each cuvette.
Evaluation
IC
50
determinations: substrate concentration is 10mM diluted1:2 in an assay yielding a
final concentration of 5mM .DTNB concentration is 0.5 mM yielding 0.25 mM final
concentration.

Slope control slope drug
% Inhibition _____________________x 100
Slope control

IC
50
values are calculated form log-probit analysis.

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Clinical assessment:
Various psychometric tests and polysomnography have been extensively utilized
to evaluate the effect of drugs on Human cognitive skills. EEG spectral analysis showed
sufficient correlation with improvement in certain psychometric tests. Two major classes
of behavioral paradigms have been used for the evaluation of drugs in human Volunteers;
Non-Verbal tasks, which are analogous to tests in animals, and second, deal with verbal
learning. Nonverbal form of human learning includes eye-lid and galvanic skin response,
salivary conditioning development of motor, driving and tracking skills. The verbal tests
such as free recall tasks, word completion task, and puzzle test have been used to study
the effect of drugs on explicit memory. Subjects are screened for past and current
physical/mental health problems; sleep problems and drug use before being presented
distinct memory paradigms. The restricted reminding test paired associates test,
stimulated escape test and the computerized repeated acquisition and Stanford sleepones
scale are being used widely for the clinical assessment of drug-induced cognitive
dysfunction.


Pharmacological and drug discrimination tests:
143

Administration of drugs or pharmacological discrimination is a complimentary
approach, in some cases enabling more specific targeting of neuronal anatomy or
biochemical functions that are suspected to underlie formation of memory. Amnestic
agents have been found to produce differential actions, some produce retention deficits
soon after training where as others have little or no effect until later.
Piracetam (150mg/kg b.w) and aniracetam (200mg/kg b.w) are the memory
enhancing drugs, which can abolish the working memory, have become the prototype
agents for comparative study of memory enhancing drugs.
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Furthermore pharmacologically induced impairment of cognitive tasks either with
scopolamine or MK-801 has become routine tools for the elucidation of specific
neurotransmitter and receptor systems in the manipulation of learning and memory
process. A variety of agents that consistently and reliably induce the impairment in
learning and memory tasks are also available for pre clinical evaluation of nootropics and
memory enhancing agents. However these can only help as adjuvant in the assessment
battery.
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Methodology
Methodology can be studied under 3 headings:
1) Pharmaceutical study.
2) Analytical study.
3) Experimental study.

Pharmaceutical Study :
The study involves proper Identification, Collection, Processing of raw drugs &
Preparation of the Abhraka Bhasma. The rationality of this study is to make the drug
effective, safe & suitable medicine. It is evident that samskara given
to the drug will change the quality & also acts in different manner, when mixed with
other drugs. Timing of medication & anupana also direct the medicine to act in
different ways.

Study Design:
It involves 5 major steps:
Step 1: Identification & collection of Krishnavajrabhraka.
Step 2: Shodhana of Abhraka as per classics.
Step 3 : Dhanyabhraka preparation as per classics.
Step 4: Marana of Abhraka as per classics.
Step 5: Amruteekarana & Lohitikarana of Abhraka Bhasma as per classics.
It also involves Date of commencement & Date of completion, Reliable
References & Methods adopted.

Identification & collection of Raw Drug :
An important part in the preparation of medicament lies in proper identification &
procurement of the raw materials. This determines quality of the drug.Special
request was made to the Mineralogists of Dharwad Mineralogy Department,
K.U.D, for selecting the best Abhraka. On their suggestion, Krishnavajrabhraka
collected from Chennai was selected & implicated for Bhasmeekarana & it was
used for the study.


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Pharmaceutical study
Practical no 1
Name of the practical: Preparation of Kanji
Reference: Bhavaprakasha, sandhana varga /1
Date of starting: 29/06/10
Date of completion: 8/07/10
Materials required: Gas stove, steel vessel with lid, plastic jar, sieve, cloths, dry
husk, etc.
Drugs used: Shali 2 kg
Water 32 litres
Procedure : 2 kg of Shali is cleaned and washed twice with water. Then to it 32 litres
of water is added and kept on agni. Mandagni is maintained throughout the procedure.
After 2 hrs gas is turned off,one part is evaporated and three parts is retained.Then
it is kept for self cooling. Later filtered through the mesh and manda portion is kept in
the plastic jar which is fumigated before and closed with lids. Then jar is kept in the
husk. From 10
th
day of filteration, the kanji was suitable for the purpose of shodhana.
Observation:
1) After boiling for 2 hrs the rice particles were found broken.
2) On 3
rd
day the hissing sound was absent, on filtration the manda obtained was thick
and white in colour.
Results :
Quantity obtained 12 litres
Odour Amla gandha
Taste Amla
Consistency Thinner
Colour White
Pharmaceutical study 79

Evaluation of Medya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
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Practical no 2
Name of the practical : Samanya shodhana of Abhraka in Kanji
Reference : R.R.S 2 / 16 - 17
Date of commencement : 9/07/10
Date of completion : 9/07/10
Materials :
Krishnavajrabhraka 1 kg
Kanji 12 litres
Apparatus :
Gas stove, steel vessels, Iron pan etc
Procedure : In a steel vessel, required amount of kanji was taken with help of
measuring jar. Then large pieces of Abhraka were kept directly on charcoal till they
became red hot. Then immediately Abhraka was completely immersed in kanji. Then
it was allowed to cool,after that Abhraka was taken out and washed with hot water.
After complete drying, the Abhraka was weighed and repeated the same procedure
for 7 times, each time fresh kanji was taken.
Observations :
1) Abhraka became soft and brittle.
2) Lusture was increased.
3) Colour became golden brown.
4) A typical hissing sound is produced when Abhraka was dipped in kanji.
5) Temperature of kanji suddenly raised and its colour became slightly brown.
Results :
Intial weight - 1000gms
Final weight - 980gm
Pharmaceutical study 80

Evaluation of Medya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
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Practical no 3
Name of the practical : Samanya shodhana of abhraka in gomutra for 7times
Reference : R.R.S 2/16 -17
Date of starting : 12/07/10
Date of completion : 12/07/10
Materials :
Krishna vajrabhraka 980gms
Gomutra 12 litres
Apparatus :
Gas stove, steel vessels, cloth, measuring glass, Iron pan etc
Procedure :
Sufficient quantity of gomutra was taken in steel container. Then kanji
shodhita abhraka was heated until it turns red hot. Then it was immersed in gomutra.
Once it becomes cool,Abhraka was taken out and washed with hot water. After
complete drying, the Abhraka was weighed and again repeated the same procedure for
7 times, each time fresh gomutra was taken.
Observations :
1) Each time when the Abhraka quenched in gomutra there was lot of smoke.
2) After 7
th
nirvapa,the Abhraka was more blackish in colour than the previous
nirvapa.
3) The Abharaka became brittle and shining reduced.
Results :
Intial weight - 980gm
Final weight - 950gm

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Practical no 4
Name of the practical : Preparation of Triphala kwatha
Reference : Sharangadhara samhita, Madhyma khanda 2/1
Date of starting : 15/07/10
Date of completion : 16/07/10
Materials :
Triphala (coarse powder) 6 kg
Water 48 litres.
Apparatus :
Gas stove, steel vessels, cloth, measuring glass etc
Procedure :
6 kg coarse powder of Triphala was taken. Then 48 litres of water was added
to triphala churna and boiled on mandagni till it reduced to part. Then it is filtered
and used for Abhraka shodhana.
Observations :
1) For 1
st
hr slowly smoke started .
2) In 3
rd
hr foam was observed.
3) After 4
th
hr the amount of water decreased.
4) After 6
th
hr, triphala was found to be turned into very soft in consistency.
5) The colour of kwatha was slight brownish in nature.
Results :
No of days taken 2 days
Total kwatha obtained 12 litres.

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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study



Practical no 5
Name of the practical:Samanya shodhana of Abhraka in Triphala kwatha for 7 times
Reference : R.R.S 2/16 - 17
Date of starting : 16/07/10
Date of completion : 16/07/10
Materials :
Gomutra shodhita krishnavajrabhraka 950gms
Triphala kwatha 10 litres
Apparatus :
Gas stove, steel vessels, cloth, measuring glass, Iron pan etc
Procedure :
Sufficient quantity of triphala kwatha was taken in a steel container. Then
Gomutra shodhita abhraka was heated until it becomes red hot. Then it was immersed
in Triphala kwatha. Then the Abhraka which is cooled was taken out and washed with
hot water. After complete drying, the Abhraka was weighed and again repeated the
same procedure for 7 times, each time fresh triphala kwatha was taken.
Observations :
Each time the Abhraka quenched in triphala kwatha took lot of time to red hot.
Results :
Intial weight - 950gm
Final weight - 930gm


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Practical no 6
Name of the practical : Vishesha shodhana of samanya shodhita abhraka.
Reference : R.R.S 2/16 - 17
Date of starting : 20/07/10
Date of completion : 20/07/10
Materials :
Samanya shodhita abhraka 930gms
Godugdha 10 litres
Apparatus :
Gas stove, steel vessels, cloth, measuring glass, Iron pan etc
Procedure :
Sufficient quantity of Godugdha was taken in a steel container. Then
Samanya shodhita Abhraka was heated until it turns to red hot. Then it was immersed
in Godugdha. Then cooled Abhraka was taken out and washed with hot water. After
complete drying, the Abhraka was weighed and again repeated the same procedure for
7 times, each time fresh Godugdha was taken.
Observations :
1) The milk used became very hot after each nirvapa.
2) The milk showed grey tinge after each nirvapa.
3) The Abhraka became more brittle.
Results :
Intial weight - 930gms
Final weight - 920gms

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Practical no: 7
Name of the practical : Dhanyabhraka Nirmana
Date of commencement : 26 / 07/ 10
Date of completion : 29 / 07 / 10
Reference : R.R.S 2/21
Equipments : J ute cloth, large steel vessels.
Ingredients :
1) Shodhita abhraka - 920gm
2) Shali dhanya - 230gm
3) Kanji - 10 litres
Procedure : The shodhita abhraka was powdered and shali dhanya was mixed with it
thoroughly and tied in a jute bag with thread to prepare pottali. The required quantity
of kanji was taken in a vessel and the pottali was kept into it. After 72hrs the pottali
was removed and rubbed between palms protected by gloves. Then the fine particles
of Abhraka were slipped into the kanji and settled in the bottom of the container. Then
it was collected by transferring the supernatant fluid. This process was continued till
the complete extraction of dhanyabhraka occurred. Then collected Abhraka particles
were washed, dried and weighed.
Observation :
1) Every time the colour of the kanji changed to black.
2) Abhraka became more brittle, minute in particle size and light in weight.
Results :
Total Dhanyabhraka obtained - 880gm

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Practical no : 8
Name of the practical :Abhraka marana
Ref : R.T 10/56 64, R.T 10/30
Date of commencement : 15/ 08/ 10
Date of completion : 20/03/10
Drugs required : Dhanyabhraka - 880gm
Shankapushpi - 100 gm
Water Q.S
Equipements : Mortar, Pestle, Sharava, Steel vessels, Cloth, Clay, Cowdung cakes.
Method : First Shankapushpi swarasa is prepared by taking above mentioned
quantity of Shankapushpi and water.Filtered in a vessel.Then Dhanyabhraka was
taken in khalva and required amount of Shankapushpi swarasa was added and
mardana is done for 9 hrs. When the contents become paste like, then chakrikas were
made over plastic sheet and allowed to dry. Next chakrikas were kept in sharava,
sandhibandhana was done accordingly. Then dried and subjected to gajaputa. When
puta becomes swangasheeta the sharava samputa was taken out chakrikas were
collected after opening sandhi bandhana carefully.The Abhraka bhasma was
collected, powdered and weighed. The same procedure is repeated for 20 times and
each time fresh Shankapushpi swarasa was added to Abhraka bhasma for mardana.
Observation :
1) Weight loss is observed in each puta, so the quantity of Shankhapushpi swarasa
was reduced gradually.
2) Shiny particles reduced gradually after each puta.
3) Colour changes was observed in each puta.
4) Puta was continued until the appearance of the special parameters for Abhraka
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Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

bhasma .
Results :
Intial weight : 880gms
Final weight : 750gms
Table no: 12 - Observation of Abhraka bhasma in different putas
Observ
ation

No of
puta

Wt
afte
r
Eac
h
Puta
in
(g)
Inti
al
wt
880g
m
Pea
k
Tem
p
duri
ng
puta
in
C
Colou
r
Odour Ta
ste
Touc
h
Chan
drika
Var
itar
a in
%
Rek
hapu
rnat
a in
%
1 873 960 Black Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Roug
h
++++ - ve - ve
2 866 980 Black Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Roug
h
++++ - ve - ve
3 859 950 Black Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Roug
h
++++ - ve - ve
4 851 950 Black Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Roug
h
++++ - ve - ve
5 845 890 Brow
nish
Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Roug
h
++++ - ve - ve
6 839 892 Brow
nish
Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Less
roug
h
++++ - ve - ve
7 831 890 Brow
nish
Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Less
roug
h
++++ 20 25
8 828 890 Brow
n
Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Less
roug
h
+++ 30 30
9 821 934 Pale
brown
Odour
less
Cla
y
Less
roug
h
+++ 35 35
10 811 856 Dark
brown
Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Smo
oth
++ 45 50
Pharmaceutical study 87

Evaluation of Medya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

11 800 900 Pale
brown
Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Smo
oth
++ 50 60
12 793 900 Pale
brown
Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Smo
oth
++ 55 75
13 785 920 Brow
n
Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Smo
oth
++ 60 75
14 770 890 Pale
brown
Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Smo
oth
++ 60 75
15 764 890 Brow
n
Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Smo
oth
++ 75 80
16 760 880 Brow
n
Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Smo
oth
++ 75 80
17 758 875 Brow
n
Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Smo
oth
+ 80 85
18 754 920 Brow
n
Odourl
ess
Cla
y
like
Smo
oth
+ 90 90
19 752 890 Brow
n
Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Smo
oth
- ve 90 100
20 750 890 Brick Odour
less
Cla
y
like
Smo
oth
- ve 95 100










Practical no : 9
Name of the practical : Amriteekarana of Abhraka bhasma
Pharmaceutical study 88

Evaluation of Medya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

Ref : Rasendra chintamani 4/33
Date of commencement : 22/ 03/ 11
Date of completion : 22/03/11
Drugs required : Abhraka bhasma - 750 gms
Triphala kwatha - 1200ml
Ghrita - 600ml
Equipements : Gas stove, iron vessel etc.
Procedure : The above mentioned quantity of ingredients are taken in an iron vessel
and kept over the stove and heated until ghrita gets dried up completely.
Observation :
1) Abhraka bhasma lost its natural colour and became black.
2) Bhasma particles were fine and smooth.
Results :
Weight of Abhraka bhasma : 795gms








Practical no : 10
Name of the practical : Lohiteekarana of Abhraka bhasma
Pharmaceutical study 89

Evaluation of Medya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

Ref : Rasa tarangini 10/65 - 66
Date of commencement : 24/ 03/10
Date of completion : 2/04/10
Drugs required : Abhraka bhasma - 795gms
Manjishta - 100gm
Water 800ml
Equipements : Mortar, Sharava, Steel vessels, Cloth, Clay, Cowdung cakes.
Procedure : First Manjista kwatha is prepared by taking above mentioned quantity of
manjista and water boiled and reduced to 1/4
th
. Filtered in a vessel. The Abhraka
bhasma is taken in a khalva and sufficient quantity of Manjishta kwatha was added
and triturated.When the substance became semisolid, chakrikas were made and dried.
After that chakrikas were kept in sharava and sandhibandana is done with the help of
gopichandana, dried and subjected to gajaputa. After swangasheeta, sharava samputa
was taken out and chakrikas were collected, powdered and weighed,again the same
procedure was repeated until Ishtika varna Abhraka bhasma was obtained.
Observations :
1) During 1
st
puta the bhasma was still black in colour.
2) During 2
nd
, 3
rd
and 4
th
the bhasma colour changed to brownish colour.
3) By the end of 5
th
puta the bhasma attained Ishtikavat varna.
Result :
Final weight : 740gms
Varna Ishtika varna

Table no: 13 - Observation of Abhraka bhasma in different putas during
Lohiteekarana
Pharmaceutical study 90

Evaluation of Medya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

Ob
ser
vati
on


No
of
put
a

Wt
after
Each
Puta
in (g)
Intial
wt
795g
m
Peak
Temp
durin
g
puta
in C
Colour Odou
r
Tast
e
Touc
h
Chan
drika
Varit
ara in
%
Rek
hap
urn
ata
in
%
1 780 920 Black Odour
less
Clay
like
Smoo
th
-ve 98 100
2 770 850 Black Odour
less
Clay
like
Smoo
th
-ve 98 100
3 762 850 Browni
sh
Odour
less
Clay
like
Smoo
th
-ve 98 100
4 755 900 Browni
sh
Odour
less
Clay
like
Smoo
th
-ve 99 100
5 740 820 Brick Odour
less
Clay
like
Smoo
th
-ve 100 100













Analytical study 91

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study
Analytical Study:
The Rasoushadies mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia should be analyzed
for physical & chemical properties to confirm genuinity & safety before
administration in human beings. Hence it became obligatory to adopt modern
analytical methodology for better understanding and interpretation of physico-
Chemical changes occurred during the process.
Aims & Objectives
To analyze the physico - chemical properties of Abhraka bhasma.
To carry out quantitative estimation of Al, Ca, Mg, Fe in Abhraka bhasma.
Materials:
1)Ancient parameters were conducted at P.G Dept of Rasashastra, D.G.M.A.M.C,
Gadag.
2) Modern physical and chemical tests were conducted at Bangalore Drug test house
Bangalore, and Sastra University,Tanjore.
3) N.P.S. Test was done at P.G.Dept of Rasashastra, D.G.M.A.M.C, Gadag.
1) Ancient parameters
Table 13 - Showing Analysis of Abhraka bhasma by Ancient methods.
Sl.
No.

TEST
OBSERVATION AND RESULT

Abhraka Bhasma
1 Varna Ishtikavat
2 Gatarasatvam Nirasa
3 Sparsha
(Slakshnatvam--Mrudutvam)
Mrudutva and Slakshnatva was felt by simple
touch with finger tips
4 Gandha Nirgandha
5 Rekhapurnatva The Bhasma was rubbed in between index finger
and thumb. It penetrates into the furrows of the
fingers Positive
6 Varitaratva A small amount of Bhasma was carefully
sprinkled in beaker full of water. It was found that
total portion of Bhasma was floating on the water
surface Positive
7 Nischandratvam The Bhasma observed in bright sunlight. It was
not having any lustre Positive
8 Dantagra kach kach Bhava

Bhasma when kept in between teeth, cannot feel
the kach kach Bhava.

Analytical study 92

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study
2) Modern Parameters
The study has been divided into two parts
1) Physical analysis
2) Chemical analysis
1) Physical analysis
a) Organoleptic characters
Colour: Brick red
Odour: Odourless
Touch: Fine
b) Analysis
Determination of pH Value:
Procedure:
The pH value of the sample was determined by a digital pH meter. One gram of
Abhraka bhasma was weighed accurately and dissolved in 100ml of water and pH
was noted in the digital pH meter.
Result: pH = 7.88
Loss on drying at 110C:
Procedure:
Two grams of Abhraka bhasma was weighed in a silica crucible and dried in a hot air
oven at 110C till a constant weight is obtained. The difference in the two weighing
gives the loss on drying & then the percentage of loss on drying was calculated.
Result: 0.18 %



Analytical study 93

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study
Loss on Ignition:
Procedure:
Weigh a silica crucible which is previously ignited for one hour at a temperature not
exceeding 500C and cooled in desiccators. Transfer to the crucible accurately
weighed sample. Weigh the crucible accurately. Place the loaded crucible in the
muffle furnace & ignite the crucible to 500C, until constant weight is indicated.
Calculate loss on ignition with reference to the air dried drug.
Result: 0.51%
Determination of Total Ash:
Procedure:
Take about 2 gms accurately weighed ground drug in a previously traced silica
dish, previously ignited and weighed. Scatter the ground drug in a fine even layer on
the bottom of the dish. Incinerate by gradually increasing the heat not exceeding dull
red heat (450C) until free from carbon. Cooled and weighed. Then the percentage of
ash with reference to the air dried drug was calculated.
Result: Total ash: 99.49%
Determination of Acid Insoluble Ash:
Procedure:
Boil the ash obtained in the process described under determination of total ash for 5
minutes with 25ml of dilute hydrochloric acid. Collect the insoluble matter on an ash
less filter paper. Wash with hot water and ignite.Weigh it and calculate the percentage
of acid insoluble ash with reference to the air dried drug.
Result: 90.88%


Analytical study 94

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study
Determination of Fineness of particles:
Procedure:
The degree of coarseness or fineness of a powder is differentiated and expressed by
the size of the mesh of the sieve through which the particle is able to pass. A suitable
quantity of the sample is weighed and transferred to the set of sieves and shaken,it is
shaken for about 30minutes and the residue on each sieve is weighed separately.
Result: 125 microns - Passes through sieve No. 120
Solubility:
Procedure:
About one gram of the sample was weighed and dissolved in 10 ml of the solvents.
When the sample did not dissolve, an excess of solvent by 10 ml quantity up to 100ml
was added and noted that the sample was sparingly soluble in water. Abhraka bhasma
is sparingly soluble in Water
Results: Water - Sparingly soluble.
Determination of Flow property:
Procedure: Angle of repose: It is the maximum angle that can be obtained between
the free standing surface of a powder heap and the horizontal plane i.e tan = 2h/D
Where D is the diameter of the circle & h is the height of the powder heap. Angle of
repose by which we can analyze either the powder having very good flow property,
good property or a bad flow property. This test involves the hollow cylinder half is
filled with the sample with one end sealed by transparent plate. The cylinder is rotated
about its horizontal axis until the powder surface cascades. The curved wall is lined
with sand paper to prevent preferential slip at this surface. If the value comes between
200 - 400 indicates reasonable flow potential.
Result: Flow property : Angle of repose = 27.80
0
Analytical study 95

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study
Determination of Flow Rate:
Procedure: A simple indication of the ease with which a material can be induced to
flow is given by application of a compressibility index I
I = [1-V/V0] x 100
Where V is the volume occupied by sample of the powder after being subjected to a
standardized tapping procedure.
V0 = Volume before tapping procedure.
In this procedure one measuring cylinder is taken and is filled with sample.
The level of the sample should be noted. Then at a height of 2 cm continuous 10
tapping should be done, after that the level of the sample in the cylinder is once again
noted and the value I is calculated with respect to the Vo and V value. If the I is
below 15% usually having good flow rates.
Results: Flow rate: 14.8 %
2. Chemical analysis:
Determination of Iron As Fe2O3:
Reagents:
1. Nitric acid
2. Hydrochloric acid
3. Diluted Sulphuric acid
4. 10% w/v solution of Ammonium Thiocyanate in water
Standard Solution:
1000 ppm Iron Stock Solution
Sample Solution:
To accurately weighed sample, add 1 ml of Nitric acid and 3 ml of Hydrochloric acid
and heat on a low heat until the sample dissolve. Dilute to 100 ml and filter.
Analytical study 96

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study
Procedure:
To 2ml each of sample and standard solutions, add 5ml of Ammonium Thiocyanate
Solution, dilute to 25 ml dilute sulphuric acid. Measure the absorption of both the
solutions at 520 nm against reagent blank and result is calculated by comparison.
Result: 10.5%
Determination of Calcium:
Reagents:
Ammonium Oxalate Saturated solution
Methyl Red indicator Dissolve 0.5g of Methyl Red in100ml of 95% Alcohol.
Dilute Acetic acid.
Dilute Ammonium Hydroxide.
Dilute Sulphuric acid : Add acid to water slowly and with constant stirring.
Cool and make up to volume.
0.1N Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4)
0.01 N Potassium Permanganate Working standard:
Dilute 10 ml of 0.1 N KmnO4 solution to 100 ml with water (1 ml = 0.2 mg of
Calcium).
Prepare fresh solution before using.
Procedure:
Pipette an aliquot (20 to 100 ml) of the ash solution obtained by dry ashing to a
250 ml Beaker. Add 25 to 50 ml of water if necessary. Add 10ml of saturated
Ammonium Oxalate solution and 2 drops of Methyl Red Indicator. Make the solution
slightly alkaline by the addition of dilute ammonia and then slightly acidic with a few
drops of acetic acid until the color is faint pink (pH 5.0). Heat the solution to the
boiling point. Allow to stand at room temperature for at least 4 hours or preferably
Analytical study 97

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study
overnight. Filter through whatman No. 42 paper, wash with water till the filtrate
isoxalate free (since HCl has been used for preparing the original ash solution, it is
Convenient to test for the absence of chloride using AgNO3). Break the point of the
filter paper with platinum wire or pointed glass rod. Wash the precipitate first using
hot dilute H2SO4 from wash bottle into the beaker in which the calcium was
precipitated.
Then wash with hot water and titrate while still hot (temperature 70 to 800C)
With 0.01 N KmnO4 to the first permanent pink colour. Finally, add filter paper to
solution and complete the titration. Calculated as
Calcium (mg/100g) = Titre X 0.2 Total volume of Ash solution 100
______________________________________________
Volume taken for Estimation weight of sample taken
If the KmnO4 standard solution is not exactly 0.01 N, use the following expression.
Calcium (mg/100g) = Titre Normality of KmnO4 20 Total Volume of ash soln100
_______________________________________________________
ML of Ash solution Weight of the sample
Taken for estimation taken for ashing
Result: 2.88%
Determination of Magnesium:
Reagents: 1. Ammonia-Ammonium Chloride solution
2. 0.05 Disodium Edetate (EDTA)
3. Solochrome Black T Indicator
Procedure:
Weigh accurately about 0.3 g, dissolve in 50 ml of water, add 10 ml of strong
Ammonia Ammonium Chloride solution and titrate with 0.05 M Disodium Edetate
Analytical study 98

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study
(EDTA) using 0.1 gm of Solochrome Black T indicator, until a blue colour is
obtained.
Each ml of 0.05 M Disodium Edetate is equivalent to 0.002916 g of Mg
Calculation:
% of Magnesium
= Volume of EDTA x Actual M of EDTA x 0.002916 x 100 Molecular weight of magnesium
___________________________________________________________________________
Weight of Molecular weight of magnesium hydroxide Sample taken x 0.05 M
Result = 1.24%
Determination Of Aluminium by AAS:
Sample Preparation:
Weigh accurately known quantity of sample in a clear silica crucible and ashed at
temperature up to 500c and dissolve the ash in minimum volume of concentrate
HNO
3
(1:1). Add 20 ml of water and evaporate to dryness on steam bath. Add 20 ml
of 0.1 N HNO
3
. Heat for 5 minutes and filter and give washing with 0.1 N HNO
3
and
make up the volume. Further dilutions may be done if required to attain the working
range of the instrument.
Procedure:
Lamp Current : 5 mA
Support : Air
Fuel : Acetylene
Wavelength : 309.3 nm
Analytical study 99

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study
Optimize the response of the instrument by adjusting burner height and flame.
Aspirate distilled water to get zero absorption. When stable response is observed,
aspirate standards (at least 3) and note down the absorption. Aspirate the sample to
get its absorption. Prepare Calibration Curve by plotting the net absorption values of
standards against concentration in mg/L of Iron. Locate the point of sample
absorbance and calculate the concentration of silver in the sample.
Calculation:
Aluminium content in % : C x V
M x 10
5

Where
C : concentration of aluminium in the final solution
V : Volume in ml of the final solution
M : Mass in gram of the sample in the final solution
Result = 2.3%
Determination Of Silica:
Procedure: Weigh accurately a suitable quantity of the well-mixed sample in a tared
silica dish. Sample used for the determination of moisture may be taken for ashing.
Heat first over a low Bunsen flame to volatilize as much of the organic matter (until
no more of smoke is given out by the material) as possible. Transfer the dish to a
temperature controlled Muffle Furnace. Keep the muffle at about 300C until all the
carbon has ceased to glow and then raise the temperature to 420C. Most materials
may be ashed in a reasonable time at a temperature as low as 420C if heated
Analytical study 100

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study
overnight and such low temperatures are to be preferred. Generally, ashing is done at
450C.
The time required at this temperature will depend on the nature of the material
to be ashed. Generally, 5 to 7 hours are sufficient to ash most of the fruits or
vegetables or their products. If it is suspected that all the carbon has not been
oxidized, remove the dish from the muffle furnace, allow to cool and if required, note
the weight of the ash. Cover the dish with watch glass to prevent scattering, add
gently 40 to 50 ml of 1: 1 HCl with the help of a pipette. Heat over a water bath for
30 minutes, remove the cover and rinse. Continue heating for another 30 minutes to
dehydrated silica; add another 10 ml of 1: 1 HCl and water to dissolve soluble salts
filter into a 100 ml volumetric flask using No. 44 Whatman Filter paper. Wash the
residue in the basin once or twice using dilute HCl; wash the residue on the filter
paper with HCl. Make up to volume with water. Return the filter paper to the dish,
ignite, place in muffle furnace for 1 hour at 450C. Cool and weigh. This gives an
approximate estimate of silica.
Result = 26.42%
Namburi Phased Spot Test:
Date of solution prepared : 11.04.2010
Date of Dropping : 13.04.2010
Materials : Test tubes, spirit lamp, wide mouthed white
Glass bottle, capillary etc.
Reagents : 1. Conc. HCl
2. Potassium Iodide 10% solution
Analytical study 101

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study
3. Potassium ferrocynide 2.5% solution
4. Whatmans Paper No. 1
Procedure:
10% Potassium Iodide and 2.5% Potassium ferrocynide solution was prepared in
two different wide mouthed glass bottles and pieces of Whatmans paper No. 1 of size
14 cm. x 8 cm. was impregnated in the solution and was kept for drying.
Take about 0.25gms of sample bhasma in to a centrifuge test tube and heat for a
minute. After 30 minutes, add drop by drop 0.5ml of con.HCL. Apply gentle heat for
a minute. Allow them to react for 8 hours shaking now & then. The solution is
allowed to settle for some time until clear layer forms. The solution is to be used
before 20 hour after it is prepared. Then take from the clear layer and put one drop on
10% Potassium iodide paper and on 2.5% ferrocynide paper.
Observation:
When it is treated with 2.5% Potassium ferrocynide paper Abhraka Bhasma
in its 2
nd
phase a small very deep blue solid spot forms slowly followed by a wide
light blue periphery and thin white margin. This state continues to be the same in its
3
rd
phase also (four or five hours after 2
nd
phase vide plate no.1)
When it is treated with 10% Potassium Iodide paper in it s 1
st
phase a
wide deep brown solid spot forms which continues to be the same in its 2
nd
phase
also. The brown color slowly begins to fade away. Since it requires several hour for
complete fading away of the brown colour put one or two drops of distilled water over
the spot at the end of its 2
nd
phase

which washes away the brown colour from the
centre of the spot to its periphery leaving behind colourless space.

Analytical study 102

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

2.5% Potassium ferrocynide paper 2.5% Potassium ferrocynide paper with
Standard spot of Abhraka Bhasma


10% Potassium Iodide paper 10% Potassium Iodide paper with
standard spot of Abhraka Bhasma
XRD REPORT:
X-ray diffraction method:
Definition:
X-ray diffraction is a technique through which the special arrangement of
structural units of a substance in the crystalline state i.e. investigating the interior or a
crystal.
Principle:
Braggs law of diffraction of X-ray by crystals is applicable according to him
Analytical study 103

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study
when an X-ray beams strikes a crystal surface at an angle portion of the beam
penetrates to the second layers of atoms and so on. The cumulative effect of this
scattering from the regularly spaced centers of the crystal is nothing but diffraction of
the beam.
The important requirements of the diffraction are:
a) The spacing between layers of atoms must be regularly the same as the wave length
of the radiation.
b) The scattering centres must be specially distributed in a highly regular way.
Various methods of X-ray diffraction:
Lane photographic method
Bragg X-ray spectrometer method
Ratting crystal method
Powder method
Sample Preparation:
The samples are ground to a fine homogeneous powder and held in the beam
of thin walled glass or the specimen may be mixed with a suitable non crystalline
binder and moulded in to a suitable shape.
As a result large number of small crystallites is oriented in all possible
direction and when X-ray beam traverses the material, a significant number of
particles are expected to be oriented in such a manner that Braggs a equation for
reflection from every possible inter planer spacing becomes satisfied.
When the X-ray beam is diffracted by a fine powder, made of small
crystallites, diffraction will take place for all crystallites whose planes spacing of
atom d make an angle or reflection () to that incident beam, and the diffracted beam
will lie on a cone of semi apex angle 2.The minimum interplanner spacing giving
Analytical study 104

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study
diffraction is at
d = / 2 = 90
A complete study of the sample assumes all possible angular positions in the
path of the X-rays. Should give a unique result for each substance.
Application:
X-ray diffraction provides a convenient and practical means for qualitative
identification of crystalline compounds where the X-ray diffraction pattern is
unique for each crystalline substance.
Quantitative analysis of X-ray diffraction is done by comparing the intensity
of a chosen diffraction line in a standard mixture.
X-ray diffraction is employed in investigating the interior of a crystal (size
and shapes of individual crystal vary but interfacial angle remain constant)
Used in detecting the structures of complex natural products such as steroids,
vitamins and antibiotics.

Advantages:
X-ray methods are non destructive.
X-ray analysis done to crystalline samples in any physical state of subdivision.
Disadvantages:
The accuracy of the analysis depends on the surface preparation, reliability of
standards, stability of X-ray tube output and the number of X-ray photos
counted.
Instrumental and sample variable affect the analysis.




Analytical study 105

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

File: Dr ANIDEV.raw- Type: 2Th/Thlocked- Start: 20.000 - End: 60.000- Step: 0.010- Steptime: 2. s - Temp.: 25C (Room) - TimeStarted: 4015s - 2-Theta: 20.000- Th
I
n
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i
t
y

i
n

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u
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s
0
1000
2000
2-Theta
20 30 40 50 60



File: Dr ANIDEV.raw- Type: 2Th/Thlocked- Start: 20.000 - End: 60.000- Step: 0.010- Steptime: 2. s - Temp.: 25C (Room) - TimeStarted: 4015s - 2-Theta: 20.000- Th
I
n
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1000
2000
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20 30 40 50 60
d
=
4
.
0
2
2
0
9
d
=
3
.
5
3
7
2
9
d
=
3
.
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1
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d
=
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.
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=
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.
9
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=
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.
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2
7
d
=
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.
6
7
9
6
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d
=
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.
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8
d
=
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.
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=
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.
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=
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9
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=
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=
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.
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4
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=
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.
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4
0
d
=
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.
6
6
3
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8
d
=
1
.
6
1
6
8
0






Analytical study 106

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study


Angle d value Intensity Intensity %
2-Theta Angstrom Count %
27.374 3.25548 1848 6.0
27.982 3.18608 1815 5.9
30.217 2.95537 2465 8.0
30.683 2.91151 2132 7.0
31.229 2.86184 1781 5.8
32.597 2.74478 1569 5.1
33.493 2.67341 1460 4.8
35.340 2.53777 1488 4.9
35.982 2.49396 2302 7.5
36.943 2.43124 1253 4.1
39.597 2.27419 1223 4.0
42.380 2.13107 1283 4.2
42.716 2.11508 1305 4.3
43.236 2.09082 1167 3.8
44.755 2.02333 1188 3.9
50.048 1.82105 1134 3.7
52.215 1.75045 1515 4.9
52.699 1.73551 1421 4.6
56.933 1.61609 1466 4.8
57.694 1.59657 30654 100.0
57.983 1.58931 1062 3.5
58.305 1.58127 26819 87.5
58.650 1.57280 969 3.2
58.980 1.56478 1563 5.1




Experimental study 107


Evaluation of Medya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study



EXPERIMENTAL STUDY:
As the modern peoples expectations shifted from efficacy to safety, the
important factors for universal acceptance of any pharmaceutical agent, it has
become mandatory to assess the Rasaushadhis under experimental and
toxicological studies for their efficacy and safety proposal.
In vivo pre-clinical studies were carried out to establish safety and efficacy of
the trial drug. The classical Rasadravyas and Rasayogas are clinically documented
for their efficacy. They are the outcome of the trials done in the past. The same
must be relevant for human administration in the current practice. So the
experimental studies are conducted.
In the field of Bio-medical research, various animal models are used to
assess the activity of the drugs and they have contributed immensely for search of
newer drugs. For ethical and safety reasons drugs cannot be tested in man in the
initial stages. Though the Rasaushadhis are time tested, these studies will help
scientifically to prove the efficacy of the drugs. By animal experimentations one can
predict the efficacy, effective dosage, biological actions as well as the patient
population most likely to benefit from the drugs. To achieve this, the
experimentations should have validity, reproducibility and relevance. It is
assumed that many of the effects found in animals are also found in man. But they
have some limitations.
The experimental study should be well planned and various inferences are
to be drawn with respect to therapeutic dosage, route of administration and safety.
The evidences collected out of the experimental study should be accurate and
beyond the bias and errors, so as to get reproducibility and hence accountability.
The task of animal experiments is to minimize the possibility of missing
the useful drug and to obtain maximum information from relatively fewer animals.
Animal experimentation for screening of drugs has a number of limitations like
interspecies variation and difficulty in extrapolating the results to human beings.
This clearly implies,the need of the hour to develop our own Ayurvedic Experimental
Experimental study 108


Evaluation of Medya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study



models. Even then modern experimentations are indispensable, as they provide us
information regarding the efficacy of drugs.

Aim: To evaluate the Medhya effect of Shankapusphi marita Abhraka Bhasma on the
Swiss Albino mice
Source of animals:
The required numbers of animals were procured from Centre for Toxicology and
Developmental Research,Sri Ramachandra University,Chennai-116.The rats weighing
between 22 25 grams were procured.

Examination of the animals prior to the experiment:
All the Swiss Albino mice were subjected to general check up for sex and weight.
The animals with abnormal behavior and health were excluded.
Dose selection
144
:
Drug was given as, dose per kg body weight calculated by using the formula,
Animal dose =Human dose X 0.018
Human dose of Abhraka Bhasma is 2 ratti i.e.250 mg
The mice dose per 20 gms body weight =0.018 X 250 mg
For standard drug (Piracetam 150mg/kg), Animal dose =20mg X 0.018
=0.36 mg
For control group, Normal saline =2ml.
Mode of administration:
Administration of drug through intra gastric tube using 2ml disposable syringe
fitted with 20 gauze stainless steel needle provided with suitable smooth catheter was
used for drug administration to avoid injury to the rats.
Experimental study 109


Evaluation of Medya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study



Pre-determined quantities of extracts were mixed with distilled water (calculated
quantity) and suspension was prepared. Known quantity of suspension was taken in the
syringe and pushed directly.

Maintenance:
All cages used for the experiment were cleaned before the commencement of the
experiment and once in three days thereafter till the end of the experiment. All the cages
were washed with detergent followed by disinfectant phenol solution to maintain the
hygiene. After cleaning of the cages, the bedding material was prepared using paddy husk
and it was changed once in three days till the end of the experiment.
The test drugs, standard drug (Piracetam 150mg/kg) . The control group rats were
fed with plain distilled water

Procedure for using simple version Plus-Maze:
This simple version of y maze task is used to measure the spatial working
memory through the spontaneous alteration of behaviour in rats.
The three arms of the maze are called A, B&C. Each rat is placed at the end of C
arm and allowed to move freely through the maze during 8-min session. Rat tends to
explore the maze systematically, entering each arm in turn. The ability to alternate
requires that the rat know which arm they have already visited. The series of arm entries
including possible returns in to the same arm are recorded visually.
Alteration is defined as the number of successive entries into the three arms, on
over lapping triplet sets (ABC, BAC, CAB, etc)
The percentage of alteration is calculated as the ration of actual alteration to
possible alteration, defined as the total number of arm entries minus two, and multiplied
by 100.
Actual alteration
Percentage of alteration =____________________ X100
Total number of arm entry 2
Experimental study 110


Evaluation of Medya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study



Example
An animal doing CBABACBABCABCACA makes 15 arm entries during 8-min.
In this actual alteration are CBA, BAC, ACB, CBA, ABC.BCA, CAB, ABC, and BCA.
No of actual alteration =9
No of arm entry =15
The percentage of alteration =9/15-2=69.2%
Note: no of arm entry is considered as locomotor activity.

Schedule of experiment:
The animal selected for the experimental study were divided into three
group consisting of six animals in each group of uniform sex, age and weight .
The training session conducted was between 9.30 am 5 p.m.
TABLE No: - 15. Protocol of experiment
1 Sample 18 albino mice of either sex are selected randomly
2 Inclusive
criteria
Healthy albino
weight :-120 to 200gm
3 Exclusive Otherwise does not fulfill above condition
4 Grouping Each group have 6 mice kept in separate cage
Group 1 Control
Group 2 Standard
Group 3 Trial
5 Procedure The mice will be trained on Plus- maze for 7 day. On 8
th
day
mice are placed at the end of open arm of the Plus- maze and
allowed to move freely through the maze during 8-min session.
Mice tends to explore the maze systematically, entering each arm
in turn. The ability to alternate requires that the mice know which
arm they have already visited. The series of arm entries including
possible returns in to the same arm are recorded visually. The
procedure is continued on the 0
th
day 4
th
day 8
th
day 12
th
day 16
th

Experimental study 111


Evaluation of Medya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study



day and 20
th
day
6 Treatment 20 days
7 Observation % of alteration and locomotor activity will be record on 0
th
day 4
th

day 8
th
day 12
th
day 16
th
day and 20
th
day
8 Data obtained Will be subject to statistical analysis.

Recording results:
The values of Mean % of alteration and Locomotor activity of the Plus- maze
were recorded. In this experiment
Parameter I =Percentage of alteration.
Parameter II =Locomotor activity (No of arm entries in the Plus- maze).

Evaluation of results:
The mean values of % of alteration and Locomotor activity of the mice are
recorded from the Plus- Maze were tabulated and statistically analyzed using ANOVA of
variance assuming completely randomized design and least significance method. The
results were expressed as mean, ANOVA F ratio and comparison was done with t test. As
P<0.05 the ANOVA comparison shows significant. Changes within group and between
the groups were analyzed by Tukeys comparison method. The results of control,
Standard, Test drug, between the test drugs are recorded.




Results /112

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study


MASTER CHART



Group S.No Mark % of alteration (parameter I) Locomotor activity (Locomotor activity)
0
th
day 4
th
day 8
th
day 12
th
day 16
th
day 20
th
day 0
th
day 4
th
day 8
th
day 12
th
day 16
th
day 20
th
day
1 Head 44 47.61 47.36 52.94 52.65 47.61 27 23 21 19 21 23
2 Shoulder 50 47.61 50 47.36 47.61 45.45 20 23 22 21 23 24
3 Body 45.83 45.45 47.61 50 47.36 52.94 26 24 23 20 21 19
4 Right front leg 45.45 50 47.36 43.75 47.05 47.82 24 22 21 18 19 25
5 Right back leg 43.47 42.85 50 47.05 43.75 47.36 25 23 20 19 18 21
Control
6 Left back leg 44 47.82 50 52.65 47.72 50 27 25 22 21 23 20

1 Head 45.83 47.61 52.63 56.65 60 61.53 26 23 21 18 17 15
2 Shoulder 45.45 50 52.94 57.14 61.53 63.66 24 22 19 16 15 13
3 Body 44 50 50 53.33 58.33 60 27 24 20 17 14 12
4 Right front leg 47.82 47.36 55.55 58.82 60 64.28 25 21 20 19 17 16
5 Right back leg 43.47 52.38 56.65 57.14 61.53 66.66 25 23 18 16 15 14
Piracetam
150mg
6 Left back leg 47.61 52.63 53.33 58.33 60 62.56 23 21 17 14 12 10

1 Head 47.82 45 50 52.94 60 61.53 25 22 20 19 17 15
2 Shoulder 48 50 52.38 55.55 62.50 64.28 27 24 23 20 18 16
3 Body 45.45 47.36 52.94 53.33 61.53 63.66 24 21 19 17 15 13
4 Right front leg 45.83 50 52.63 57.89 58.82 60 26 22 21 21 19 17
5 Right back leg 43.47 45 50 57.14 58.33 63.66 25 22 18 16 14 13
Trial
6 Left back leg 47.61 52.63 53.33 58.33 60 62.56 23 21 17 14 12 10


Results 113


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study

Observation and results
The Physico-chemical analysis of the Shankhapushpi marita Abhraka Bhasma.
The observation during the period of pilot study, pertaining about the mode of
administration.
All the data about two parameters taken for the study
1. Percentage of alteration
2. Locomotor activity
In the simple version Plus Maze are recorded and analyzed statistically.
Results are compared in between groups and within groups of all duration of the
study i.e. 0
th
day, 4
th
day, 8
th
day, 12
th
day, 16
th
day and 20
th
day of treatment and are
recorded.
Statistical and graphical representation is done.












Results 114


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study


The mean % of alteration (parameter I) of all groups during treatment interval is as
follows.
Table No: 16. Mean % of alteration of all groups (Parameter I)
Groups 0
th
day 4
th
day 8
th
day 12
th
day 16
th
day 20
th
day
Group 1 45.45 46/89 48.72 48.95 47.69 48.53
Group 2 45.69 49.99 53.51 56.90 60.23 63.08
Group 3 46.36 48.33 51.88 55.86 60.19 62.61


The mean Locomotor activity (parameter II) of all groups during treatment interval is as
follows.

Table No 17. Mean Locomotor activity of all groups (parameter II)

Groups 0
th
day 4
th
day 8
th
day 12
th
day 16
th
day 20
th
day
Group 1 24.83 23.33 21.5 19.66 20.83 22
Group 2 25 23.33 19.16 16.66 15 13.33
Group 3 25.16 22 19.66 17.83 15.83 14













Results 115


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study

MASTER CHART

Observation results of Parameter I and II in the individual Groups.

Graph 1 Group 1 Mean % of alteration
Parameter I







Graph 2 Group 1 Mean No of arm entries
Parameter II





In control group,
Parameter I The mean percent of alteration in simple version Y maze at the time
interval of 0,4,8,12,16 and 20
th
day was45.45, 46.89, 48.72, 48.95, 47.69 and 48.53
percentage respectively. Statistically it showed; it is not significant using the ANOVA of
variance.
Parameter II The mean number of arm entries in simple version Y Maze at the
time interval of 0,4,8,12,16 and 20
th
day was 24.83, 23.33, 21.5, 19.66, 20.83 and 22 No
of arm entries respectively. From table ANOVA it may be seen that there is no
statistically changes in the mean number of arm entries. At the end 20 days of treatment
which is statistically not significant


Group 1 % of al t erat i on
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
0th
day
4th
day
8th
day
12th
day
16th
day
20th
day
%

o
f

a
l
t
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

Group 1 Locomotor acti vi ty
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0th
day
4th
day
8th
day
12th
day
16th
day
20th
day
N
o

o
f

a
r
m

e
n
t
r
i
e
s


Results 116


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study





Observation results of Parameter I and II of the individual Groups


Graph 3 Group 2 Mean % of alteration
Parameter I



Graph 4 Group 2 Mean No of arm
entries
Parameter II
Graph 5 Group 3 Mean % of alteration
Parameter I
Graph 6 Group 3 Mean no of arm
entries
Parameter II











Group 4 % of al terati on
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0th
day
4th
day
8th
day
12th
day
16th
day
20th
day
%

o
f

a
l
t
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
Group 5 % of al terati on
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0th
day
4th
day
8th
day
12th
day
16th
day
20th
day
%

o
f

a
l
t
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
Group 4 Locomotor acti vi ty
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0th
day
4th
day
8th
day
12th
day
16th
day
20th
day
N
o

o
f

a
r
m

e
n
t
r
i
e
s
Group 5 Locomotor acti vi ty
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0th
day
4th
day
8th
day
12th
day
16th
day
20th
day
N
o

o
f

a
r
m

e
n
t
r
i
e
s


Results 117


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study


In group II (Standard) Piracetam 150mg
Parameter I The group treated with Piracetam 150mg/kg/day group after the
induction of amnesia, the mean values of % of alteration in the simple version Plus maze
on 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20
th
day are 45.69, 49.99, 53.51, 56.90, 60.23 and 63.08%
respectively. From the table of ANOVA, it may be seen that there is highly significant
increase in the percentage of alteration.
Parameter II In the group treated with Piracetam 150mg/kg/day, the mean no of
arm entries by animals in the 8 min session on the 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20
th
day was 25,
22.33, 19.16, 16.66, 15 and13.33 entries respectively. From the table of ANOVA it may
be seen that there is highly significant decrease in the No of arm entries in Plus Maze.

In group III (Trial) Abhraka Bhasma.
Parameter I The group treated with Trial group after the induction of amnesia,
the mean values of % of alteration in the simple version Plus maze on 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and
20
th
day are 46.36, 48.33, 51.88, 55.86, 60.19 and 62.61% respectively. From the table of
ANOVA, it may be seen that, there is highly significant increase in the percentage of
alteration.
Parameter II In the group treated with Trial group , the mean No of arm entries
by animals in the 8 min session on the 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20
th
day was 25.16, 22, 19.66,
17.83, 15.83 and 14 entries respectively. From the table of ANOVA it may be seen that,
there is highly significant decrease in the No of arm entries in Plus Maze.



Results 118


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study

PARAMETER I PERCENTAGE OF ALTERATION

Observation results of Parameter I (% of alteration) between the groups
When the results of the study was compared in respect to % of alteration by the
rats in the 8min amongst the three groups at different days (0,4,8,12,16 and 20 day) of
treatment the following observation were made and the result drawn.
From the table of Tukeys comparison, it may seen that, the mean % of alteration
in the entire standard group, test drug treated groups were increased significantly when
compared to control.
Control and Trial Groups: From Tukeys comparison, it is seen that the therapeutic
effect is seen on 12
th
day onwards.
Between standard and trial groups: From Tukeys comparison, it is evident that, the
mean % of alteration by rats in the Plus maze between the standard and test groups do not
vary significantly at the end of 20 days of treatment. The % of alteration of standard
group showed significant results on 12
th
day.















Results 119


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study


PARAMETER II, LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY



Graph 7. Mean No of arm entries of all
groups on 0
th
day
Graph 8. Mean No of arm entries of all
groups on 4
th
day
Graph 9. Mean No of arm entries of all
groups on 8
th
day
Graph 10. Mean No of arm entries of all
groups on 12
th
day
Graph 11. Mean No of arm entries of all
groups on 16
th
day
Graph 12. Mean No of arm entries of all
groups on 20
th
day.
0th day Locomotor acti vi ty
24
24.2
24.4
24.6
24.8
25
25.2
25.4
group 1 group 2 group 3 group 4 group 5
N
o

o
f

a
r
m

e
n
t
r
i
e
s
4th day Locomotor acti vi ty
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
group 1 group 2 group 3 group 4 group 5
N
o

o
f

a
r
m

e
n
t
r
i
e
s
8th day Locomotor acti vi ty
0
5
10
15
20
25
group 1 group 2 group 3 group 4 group 5
N
o

o
f

a
r
m

e
n
t
r
i
e
s
12th day Locomotor acti vi ty
0
5
10
15
20
25
group 1 group 2 group 3 group 4 group 5
N
o

o
f

a
r
m

e
n
t
r
i
e
s
16th day Locomotor acti vi ty
0
5
10
15
20
25
group 1 group 2 group 3 group 4 group 5
N
o

o
f

a
r
m

e
n
t
r
i
e
s
20th day Locomotor acti vi ty
0
5
10
15
20
25
group 1 group 2 group 3 group 4 group 5
N
o

o
f

a
r
m

e
n
t
r
i
e
s


Results 120


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study



Observation of Parameter II (Locomotor activity) between the groups.
When the results of the study was compared in respect to No of arm entries by the
rats in the 8min amongst the Control, standard,Trial drug groups at different days
(0,4,8,12,16 and 20 day) of treatment the following observation were made and the result
drawn.
From the table of Tukeys comparison, it may be seen that, the mean No of arm
entries in the entire standard group, test drug treated groups were increased significantly
when compared to control.

Control and Trial group: From Tukeys comparison, it is seen that the therapeutic
effect is seen on 16
th
day onwards.

Between standard and Trial group: From Tukeys comparison, it is evident that, the
mean No of arm entries by rats in the Plus- maze between the standard and test groups do
not vary significantly at the end of 20 days of treatment. The Locomotor activity of
standard group showed significant results on 16
th
day.


Table No 18. ANOVA FOR PARAMETER I ON 0
TH
DAY

Source of
variation
D.f Sum of
squares
Mean sum
squares
F.value F.Table
value
P.value Remarks
Group 4 33.533 8.388 1.807 2.76 >0.05 N.S
Error 25 116.08 4.643
Total 29 149.63







Results 121


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study


Table No 19. ANOVA FOR PARAMETER I ON 4
TH
DAY

Source of
variation
D.f Sum of
squares
Mean sum
squares
F.value F.Table
value
P.value Remarks
Group 4 77.95 19.487 2.42 2.76 >0.05 N.S
Error 25 200.78 8.0312
Total 29 278.74




Table No 20.ANOVA FOR PARAMETER I ON 8
TH
DAY

Source of
variation
D.f Sum of
squares
Mean sum
squares
F.value F.Table
value
P.value Remarks
Group 4 154.68 38.67 7.943 2.76 <0.05 H.S
Error 25 121.70 4.868
Total 29 276.39


Groups Mean difference
Group II 53.51 1.57 0.9 - -
Group III 51.88 3.2* 2.53 1.63 -
Group I 48.72 6.36* 5.69* 4.79* 3.16*
* Significant +Not Significant

Critical difference =2.624












Results 122


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study


Table No -21. ANOVA FOR PARAMETER I ON 12
TH
DAY

Source of
variation
D.f Sum of
squares
Mean sum
squares
F.value F.Table
value
P.value Remarks
Group 4 422.71 105.67 15.67 2.76 <0.05 H.S
Error 25 168.55 6.74
Total 29 591.26


Group MEAN Difference
Group II 57.34 - - - -
Group III 57.08 0.26 - - -
Group IV 56.90 0.44 0.18 - -
Group V 55.86 1.48 1.22 1.04 -
Group I 48.95 8.39* 8.13* 7.95* 6.91*
* Significant +Not Significant
Critical difference-3.08




Table NO 22. ANOVA FOR PARAMETER I ON 16
TH
DAY

Source of
variation
D.f Sum of
squares
Mean sum
squares
F.value F.Table
value
P.value Remarks
Group 4 688.73 172.18 9.23 2.76 <0.05 H.S
Error 25 215.23 8.609
Total 29 903.96


Group MEAN Difference
Group IV 60.232 - - - -
Group V 60.197 0.035 - - -
Group III 59.312 0.92 0.885 - -
Group II 58.547 1.685 1.650 0.765 -
Group I 47.695 12.537* 12.502* 11.617* 10.852*
* Significant +Not Significant


Results 123


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study

Critical difference-3.472
Table NO 23. ANOVA FOR PARAMETER I ON 20
TH
DAY

Source of
variation
D.f Sum of
squares
Mean sum
squares
F.value F.Table
value
P.value Remarks
Group 4 822.16 205.54 20.095 2.76 <0.05 H.S
Error 25 196.91 7.877
Total 29 1019.07


Group MEAN Difference
Group IV 63.115 - - - -
Group V 62.615 0.5 - - -
Group III 60.928 2.187 1.687 - -
Group II 59.755 3.36 2.687 1.173 -
Group I 48.863 14.252* 13.752* 12.065* 10.892*

* Significant +Not Significant
Critical difference-3.321





Table No 24. ANOVA FOR PARAMETER II ON 0
TH
DAY

Source of
variation
D.f Sum of
squares
Mean sum
squares
F.value F.Table
value
P.value Remarks
Group 4 4.467 1.117 0.3649 2.76 >0.05 N.S
Error 25 76.500 3.060
Total 29 80.961









Results 124


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study


Table No 25 ANOVA FOR PARAMETER II ON 4
TH
DAY

Source of
variation
D.f Sum of
squares
Mean sum
squares
F.value F.Table
value
P.value Remarks
Group 4 45.46 11.36 8.29 2.76 <0.05 N.S
Error 25 34.49 1.37
Total 29 79.96


Group MEAN Difference
Group 1 23.33 - - - -
Group 2 22.00 1.33 0.5 0.33 -
Group 3 20.16 3.17 2.34 2.17 1.84




Table No 26.ANOVA FOR PARAMETER II ON 8TH DAY

Source of
variation
D.f Sum of
squares
Mean sum
squares
F.value F.Table
value
P.value Remarks
Group 4 53.13 13.28 5.33 2.76 <0.05 H.S
Error 25 62.32 2.49
Total 29 115.46


Group MEAN Difference
Group I 21.5 - - - -
Group V 19.66 1.84 - -
Group IV 19.16 2.34* 0.5 0.5 -
* Significant
critical difference =1.876







Results 125


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study


Table No 27. ANOVA FOR PARAMETER II ON 12
TH
DAY

Source of
variation
D.f Sum of
squares
Mean sum
squares
F.value F.Table
value
P.value Remarks
Group 4 98.46 24.615 3.93 2.76 <0.05 H.S
Error 25 156.33 6.25
Total 29 254.8


Group MEAN Difference
Group I 19.66 - - - -
Group II 17.66 1.83 - - -
Group III 16.66 3.00* 1.17 - -
* Significant
Critical difference =2.97




Table No 28. ANOVA FOR PARAMETER II ON 16
TH
DAY

Source of
variation
D.f Sum of
squares
Mean sum
squares
F.value F.Table
value
P.value Remarks
Group 4 213.67 53.417 15.468 2.76 <0.05 H.S
Error 25 86.333 3.453
Total 29 300


Group MEAN Difference
Group I 20.833 - - - -
Group II 15.833 5* - - -
Group III 15.000 5.833* 0.833 0.667 -
* Significant
Critical difference =2.19933





Results 126


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study


Table No 29. ANOVA FOR PARAMETER II ON 20
TH
DAY

Source of
variation
D.f Sum of
squares
Mean sum
squares
F.value F.Table
value
P.value Remarks
Group 4 413.33 103.33 23.773 2.76 <0.05 H.S
Error 25 108.67 4.347
Total 29 522.00


Group MEAN Difference
Group I 22.000 - - - -
Group II 14.000 8* 0.667 - -
Group III 13.333 8.667* 1.334 1.333 -
* Significant
Critical difference =2.466823


Table No 30. Individual group results on Parameter I (% of alteration)
Group Degree of
freedom
Sum of
squares
Mean sum
of squares
F Value P value Remarks
I 3 54.027 10.805 1.565 0.2001 NS
II 3 1260.7 252.13 62.437 <0.001 HS
III 3 126.4 252.85 59.985 <0.001 HS







Results 127


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study

Table No 31. Individual group results on Parameter II (Locomotor activity)
Group Degree of
freedom
Sum of
squares
Mean sum
of squares
F Value P value Remarks
I 3 101.14 20.228 5.959 >0.05 NS
II 3 597.92 119.58 42.289 <0.001 HS
III 3 502.92 100.58 21.275 <0.001 HS


Results: -
For the parameter I
On 0
th
and 4
th
day shows not significant, by comparing P value (refer tables
4.6and 4.7). On 8
th
day onwards shows highly significant. By comparing P value. To
know the significant difference among the groups, where the groups shows highly
significant the analysis is done by assuming the data follows completely randomized
design (CRD) and least significant difference method. To know which pairs of groups
shows significant.
Least significant difference =t
0.05
2s
2
E/r.
where t
0.05
=tt-table at 5 degree for error degrees of freedom.
2s
2
=mean error sum of squares.
r- number replicates
The critical difference value found out by using above formula, significant
among. Groups were analyzed. Refer (tables 4.8to 4.11(a))
In Parameter II
In the parameter second shows not significant on 0
th
day and 4
th
days onwards the
second parameter shows highly significant.
To know which pair of groups shows significant difference methods refer (table 24 to 29)



Results 128


Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
- An Experimental study

Individual
Parameter I,
In the parameter I the Trial group shows most highly significant than other groups with
less variation. The Standard group shows more net mean effect where as in group I the
net mean effect is less. There is a more variation in-group I. overall group III shows more
significant than group I and II.
Parameter II
The group III shows more significant than other groups with less variation.
Discussion 129

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma - An Experimental Study

DISCUSSION
Information available on Abhraka from Vedic period to till today indicates its
importance. In Vedic period various Synonyms of Abhraka were actually used in the
name of Udaka i.e. water. After the Vedic period in Jain & Buddha Literature no
explanation regarding Abhraka was found.

Synonyms of Abhraka were found in sushruta Samhita as Vajrakhya explained
in Su.Sh.Chi 9/5. Dalhana, commentator of Sushruta Samhita has opined it as
Keshamit Mathe Abhraka Miti.

In A.H Chi 8/15, Therapeutic usage of Abhraka was explained. In Kautilya
Arthashastra use of Abhraka by goldsmiths for preparing ornaments, as a substitute
for gold was explained. An attempt is made to classify numerous synonyms of
Abhraka according to 3 main parameters such as origin, action & structure, where
action is subdivided into two types regarding its utility in Dehavada & Lohavada.

Vernacular names have also been explained for thorough knowledge of
Abhraka. Abhraka is totally classified into 16 types by R.R.S. (2/4) as well as R.T
(10/34), A.P. (2/92-93) & the R.R.S considered reaction on fire as a main parameter
& then classified Vajra Abhraka in to four types according to colour, while A.P. &
R.T classified Abhraka into four types according to colour & classified Krishna
Abhraka into four types namely Pinaka, Naga, Mandooka & Vajra.

Regarding Grahya Lakshanas of Abhraka it was selected based on 7
parameters namely colour, lustre, structure, cleavage, Reaction on fire, properties &
utpatti. Along with these, other three properties like snighdham, Guru /
Bharatoadhikam, Pruthrudalam were also considered.

So, Krisha Vajra Abhraka possessed all characters & it was selected for the
preparation of Abhraka Bhasma.


Discussion 130

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma - An Experimental Study
Concept of Shodhana:-
This is well elaborated & most discussed topic. The grahya Abhraka may also
contain few adulterants, foreign materials etc which may cause complications, so by
considering all these our Acharyas have mentioned various Shodhana procedures. The
heat resistance properties & stratified structure of Abhraka, made Acharyas to follow
mainly Nirvapa for Abhraka Shodhana.

Main Purpose of Shodhana :-
i) Removal of both water soluble & fat soluble impurities.
ii) Destruction of stratified structure of Abhraka by converting it into a
granular form especially before marana.

Selection of 4 Drugs for Shodhana :-
i) Kanji pH 3 3.4
ii) Gomutra pH 3 4
iii) Triphala kwatha pH 3 4
iv) Godugdha pH 6.6 6.7
By seeing above all pH of shodhana dravyas Kanji, Triphala Kwatha &
Gomutra come under strong acid & plays an important role by converting raw
Abhraka into physically pure granular form.

During Nirvapa:-
i) In the phase of heating due to expansion of solid & evaporation of
water vapours, the layers of Abhraka gets separated along its parallel cleavage
plane.This layer separation causes weakening of electrostatic forces &
increase in intra atomic distances.
ii) As this heating is followed by nirvapa in liquids, instant cooling takes
place. The sudden change in the temperature breaks the strong bonds to
reduce the hardness & increases the brittleness of Ahraka.
iii) Thus after nirvapa though Abhraka becomes brittle, still it has to be
Discussion 131

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma - An Experimental Study
converted into uniform granular form. So this is possible by
Dhanyabhraka.

Concept of Dhanyabhraka :-
Here it is a process of keeping Dhanya + Shodita Ahraka in a Jute bag &
pottali is prepared & kept in Kanji.
Probably interaction between liquid (Kanji) & solid (Abhraka) may takes
place.The role of Amla rasa through Tikshna, Jarana & Kshalana properties supported
by its acidic nature causes brittleness in Abhraka.
Dhanya due to sharp edges makes Abhraka into coarse powder form. The
pressure of hands enhances this process by increased friction & pores of Jute bag
prove to be a perfect sieve, yielding & expelling out standard sized particles of
Dhanyabhraka. Thus by all these processes Abhraka attains granular form & becomes
fit for subjecting to marana process.

Concept of Marana:-
The process of Marana is adopted to convert the heterogenous material into
homogenous substance & converting it into nanoparticles. The puta adopted in the
present study was Gajaputa, which exerts up to 1000C .
Different Acharyas have explained different number of putas for Abhraka
Bhasmeekarana. But here we have given puta until Bhasma Pariksha gets full filled.
So up to 20 putas we have given & after 20th puta we got all Bhasma Parikshas full
filled. Later Amrutikarana was done & after 5 putas lohitikarana was achieved. Puta
can be decided according to raw drug dimensions & temperature they produce
accordingly. In classics 13 types of putas explained by R.T., R.D.P., R.K.D.,
R.R.S.,B.R.R.S. etc. Here R.T. (10/56-64) (10/30) procedure is followed.
Rasacharyas do believed that performance of the putas plays key factor in
enhancing the properties of that Bhasma, So according to the number of putas
conducted, they describe variation in properties of same Bhasma.





Discussion 132

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma - An Experimental Study
Maraka Gana dravyas due to their antagonistic properties make the raw drug
more brittle & facilitates marana procedure & induce their special properties on
Bhasma. So according to the desired effect, the suitable drug is selected to achieve
enhanced effect from the group of maraka dravya. As the number of putas increases it
converts more & more metallic portions into oxides, which helps in yielding desired
effects.
In Ayurveda classics Abhraka Bhasma is indicated as Medhya Vardhaka

and even Shankapushpi has been explained in Maraka Dravyas of Abhraka

and it has
been said that Shankapushpi has also Medhya property. Charaka has mentioned
Shankapushpi as one of the medhya rasayana. According to Samanya-visesha
siddhantha, if Abhraka Bhasma is processed with Shankapushpi because of their
similar Medhya Vardhaka property it enhances the Medhya Guna of Abhraka
Bhasma.
An Aluminosilicate mineral called, Mica can be co-related to Abhraka due
to its specific pattern of cleavage i.e. Micaceous Cleavage & its heat resistance
property.
So the concept of marana provides an absolute extra ordinary form of dhatus
called as bhasma in which a metal & a mineral can be administered internally,as it is
in its most assimilatory form.
As Mica is an Ionic crystal, any changes taking place in it are termed as Ionic
Reactions.These reactions & their rate are directly proportional to the surface area,
temperature & concentration of the constituent.
During marana procedure, while giving puta various changes took place. First &
foremost is that Abhraka weight loss was minimal after each puta, totally after 20
putas only 130 gms weight loss was noticed which was appreciable one. During each
puta, there was difference in temperature of puta yantra, might be the surrounding
atmosphere has made difference in temperature & as I have done marana procedure
during winter season the fluctuations in the temperature was noticed.
On touch Abhraka was very rough before marana process, but as the number of
puta increased, smoothness was appreciable, as it was undergoing brittleness & agni
samskara made Abhraka to attain smoothness.Varitaratva was achieved to the
minimal level after 7th puta,but upto 6 putas no changes were seen regarding
Discussion 133

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma - An Experimental Study
varitaratva. Regarding colour from black colour gradually brownish/brick red colour
was seen after 18 putas & after 20th puta brick red colour was appreciable.

Concept of Amriteekarna & Lohiteekarana :
These are specially explained for Abhraka Bhasma for removal of remaining
doshas from Bhasma.
As very high temperature is provided many times for Abhraka Marana,
frequent exposure to very high temperature leads to Bhasmikarana & also creates
unwanted properties like Rookshata & Teekshnatwa.To overcome these
Amruteekarana is done. Amruteekarna process destroys Rukshata & Shesha
doshas of Abhraka bhasma, but destroys colour of Bhasma.
Iron oxide is the chief constituent of Abhraka Bhasma which is responsible
factor for Brick Red Colour of Abhraka Bhasma. During Amruteekarana iron oxide
when heated up to red hot gets converted in to black colour due to conversion of
Ferric Oxide into Ferrous & Ferroso- ferric Oxide i.e. Brick Red Colour changes in to
Black Colour.
So, to regain its original colour Lohiteekarana is done.

Lohiteekarana:
Here after Amruteekarana, Abhraka Bhasma is subjected to Manjista kwatha
bhavana & Gajaputa is given. It was repeated for 5 times until colour was regained.
Here water soluble extract of manjista may convert ferrous & ferroso-ferric
iron oxide in hydroxide form which on puta gets converted in to ferric form. This
process was repeated for 5 times so that maximum amount of iron gets converted in to
ferric form. This helps to regain the brick red colour of Abhraka Bhasma. The purpose
of expecting brick red colour of bhasma is that our Acharyas were expecting iron
oxide of Abhraka Bhasma in the ferric state only, for desired effects.

Minimal loss of weight was seen (20 gms). Upto 2nd puta no change in the
colour was seen, immediately after 3rd puta from black colour it changed to brick red
colour ,but brick red colour was appreciable after 5 putas of Lohitikarana.
Smoothness remained as it is until the end of Lohitikarana process. Complete
varitaratva was seen after the completion of Lohitikarana Process.
Discussion 134

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma - An Experimental Study


Concept of Analytical Study:
This part exposes the hidden facts about the final product when it was
critically analyzed with the help of physical & chemical parameters.
Ancient Parameters:
Abhraka Bhasma passed all ancient parameters like varitaratva, rekhapurnata
Etc which indicates that Bhasma has been prepared well.
Varna:
The Sample has attained Ishtika Varna after 20th Puta. The Chemical form of
Bhasma is indicated by its colour, which can be explained by Myce theory of colour,
which signifies that specific chemical form has specific colour.
Rasa:
The Bhasma is Niswadu - Tasteless. Tastelessness of Bhasma indicates
transformation of metallic taste to tasteless compound i.e. a new entity resulted due to
unique pharmaceutical properties.
Varitara:
Here the Sample has passed Varitara pariksha after 20 putas.
All the particles of the Bhasma, if float on the surface of the water, it is
considered as +ve i.e. the Bhasma particles have passed the Varitara pariksha. This
suggests that, particle size of the Bhasma does not break the surface tension of the
water. It also indicates the uniformity of the particles.
Rekhapurna:
It is an organoleptic method conducted by the fingertips. A pinch of Bhasma
is taken in between the Index finger and Thumb and rubbed. The Bhasma fills the
furrows of the fingertips. Here all the Bhasma Samples have passed the Rekhapurnata
pariksha. This indicates the Sukshmata (fineness) of the particles and also the
penetration of the Bhasma particles up to minute capillaries of the body without any
obstruction.
Nischandrata:
The Bhasma should be Nischandra before therapeutic application. The
Chandrika present in the metal is due to its physical property, which reflects the light
when fall on it. The absence of chandrika in the Bhasma indicates that every particle
of the metal has been burnt and converted in to Bhasma form.
Discussion 135

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma - An Experimental Study

Discussion on Modern Parameters:
i) pHThe reported pH of 7.83, recommends final product is slighty akali
in nature.
ii) Loss on Drying (at 110
0
C) : It shows that bhasma contains 0.06%
moisture which was negligible amount. The reduction in moisture
content reduced the chance of microbial contamination,
decomposition due to the undesired chemical changes.
iii) Total Ash: In pharmaceutical preparation the amount of ash which
is left after the processing represents the inorganic residue. Abhraka
Bhasma was evaluated for total ash value & it was found to be
99.49% which implies the organic constituents & the left 0.51% in
Abhraka Bhasma was in the inorganic form.Ayurvedic
organoleptic tests of bhasma proved the total conversion of Abhraka
into bhasma. The bhasma pariksha like Varitaratwa, Rekhapurnatwa,
and Slakshnatwa confirms the micro fine nature of Bhasma
and Gatarasatwa test indicates complete loss of metallic taste.
The colour of Abhraka bhasma is brick red in colour, which is
similar as explained in classics i.e. Ishtikabha varnavat. Sparsha is
smooth and soft and odourless.
iv) Acid Insoluble Ash: It is 90.88%. It suggests that the quantity is less
than total ash. The low acid insoluble ash values facilitate the easy
absorption of drug.
v) Fineness of Particle: It passes through sieve No: 120. So the particle
size is 125 microns which is fine in nature, able to enter into small
capillaries & the rate of absorption of drug is directly proportional to
the particle size of drug. The particle size is fine, so the absorption is
quick.
vi) Solubility: It is sparingly soluble in water. It is insoluble in
chloroform.
vii) Flow Rate: As the drug is in powder form it is tested for its flow
property. This analysis makes us to know whether any adjuncts are
essential for proper flow of drug during Capsule or Tablet preparation.
It is determined by application of Compressibility Index I (which
Discussion 136

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma - An Experimental Study
should be below 15%).It is 14.8% in Abhraka Bhasma indicates good
flow rate.
viii) Flow Property: It is determined by application of angle of repose
(which should be within 200 400). It is 27.80 in Abhraka Bhasma,
which indicates reasonable flow potential.
[Flow rate & Flow Property are to be known for purpose of Capsule filling]

Discussion on Quantitative Tests:
The Quantitative estimation of Fe,Ca,Mg, Al
2
0
3
,Si in Abhraka Bhasma were
10.5%,2.88%,1.24%,2.3% & 26.42% respectively, which were with in the standard
limits given for Abhraka Bhasma by Pharmacopoeial standards for Ayurvedic
Formulations. N.P.S.T. results were also upto the mark & proved the Abhraka
Bhasma existence.

Discussion on Experimental Study:

Incidence of disorders of memory is on an increase about 1.3% of the total
population of the world is said to be total population of the world is said to be
suffering from loss of memory and learning deficits. Though specific etiology is
not established, loss of memory can be a clinical manifestation in various
disorders.
Selection of the model
In the present study we have chosen the simple version Plus-Maze
The spontaneous alteration task paradigm is the simplest version of Plus-Maze
task used to measure the spatial working memory in rats. Additional to this we can
measure short term memory, general locomotor activity and stereotypic
behaviour. This method is sample, convenient and accurate. Hence was adopted
for the study.
In this study, we have taken three groups first group is control, second group is a
Standard, third group is Trial group.
For first 7 days the training was given to animals so that the animals acquire the
atmosphere of Plus Maze. After seeing the many articles we came to know that 7
day is acceptable for the animals to be trained.
Discussion 137

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma - An Experimental Study
Mode of administration of the drug, oral route (PO) was chosen as route of the
drug administration
There was problem in the administration of Shankapuspi marita Abhraka
bhasma. The Bhasma use to block the syringe while administering. Then an
attempt is made to homogenize the Abhraka bhasma with water.
Parameter I % of alteration
In the control group no statistical significance was in the % of alteration. This
showed that there was no improvement in the impaired memory at the end of
20 days of the treatment.
The therapeutic effect of the drug in the entire trial drug treated group was
similar to standard drug treated group.
The treated group showed therapeutic effect on 8
th
day onward. At the end of
20
th
day there is neck to neck improvement in Shankapuspi marita Abhraka
bhasma.and standard groups, among two Shankapuspi marita Abhraka bhasma
showed good result then the standard group Piracetam.
Parameter II locomotor activity.
In the control group no statistical significance was in locomotor activity. This
shows that there was no improvement in the total of arm entries at the end of
20 days of treatment.
The therapeutic effect of the drug in the entire trial drug was similar to
standard drug treated group.
On the 16
th
day onwards all groups except control group showed good results.
Mode of drug action
The effect of medhya dravya is described in Ayurveda as prabhava janya. The
reason is that some drugs have madhura rasa, madhura vipaka and sheeta
virya. Where as some have katu, tikta rasa, and katu vipaka, ushna virya.
Medhya dravya acts like the Rasayana dravya. Rasayanam mainly does the
srotovishodhanam, agnisamdeepenam, dhatu prinanam; in the same way the
medhya dravya works. The goal of the rasayana karma is medha vrudhi etc.
Discussion 138

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma - An Experimental Study
One more hypothesis is that, the main action of Medhya drugs is classified as
grahanashakti (power of acquisition), dharanashakti (retention) and smruti
(recollection) vardhaka. The prakruta karma of pitta is medhakara and prakruta
karma of kapha is sthiratha and dhruti. As we know that sheeta veerya drugs mainly
does the kaphavardhaka action and ushna veerya drugs mainly does the pittavardaka
action. We can say that ushna veerya drugs mainly helps in the grahanashakti and
smaranashakti action and sheeta veerya drugs mainly helps in the dharanashakti
action.

Abhraka is said to possess Madhura and Katu rasa, Guru and Snigdha Guna,
Madhura Vipaka,Sheeta Virya and Tridoshagna.

At last we can say that mode of action drug of all the medhya drugs acts by virtue
of their nature or prabhava. The influence on brain is not explainable in the terms of
rasapanchaka and tridosha siddhanta. The medhya action is a multi system effect.
The dravyas perform their actions in body by virtue of their qualities and
configuration of Mahabhoota. Hence the drug action may be assessed on the basis of
effects by their Gunakarmas on the body and also on the basis of Samanya vishesha
siddhanta.
Abhraka Bhasma has been mentioned as sarvarogahara, which describes its
broad-spectrum therapeutic uses. It alleviates majority of physical ailments with
suitable vehicles / drugs. It has been explained as Amruta, Tridoshanashaka,
Rasayana & Balya etc.
In Ayurveda classics Abhraka Bhasma is indicated as Medhya
Vardhaka and even Shankapushpi has been explained in Maraka Dravyas of Abhraka
and it has been said that Shankapushpi has also Medhya property. Charaka has
mentioned Shankapushpi as one of the medhya rasayana. According to Samanya-
visesha siddhantha, if Abhraka Bhasma is processed with Shankapushpi because of
their similar Medhya Vardhaka property it enhances the Medhya Guna of Abhraka
Bhasma.

Conclusion 139

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study

CONCLUSION
In this research work we have drawn following conclusions from various
section of the work.
1. Maximum Acharyas have mentioned mainly 4 drugs for Shodhana, namely -
Triphala Kwatha, Gomutra, Kanji, Godugdha indicates that pH of these
drugs do play an important role in the structural changes in Abhraka as well
as impose their properties on it during the process.
2. To prepare Abhraka bhasma nearly 25 putas are required to fulfil the
parameters mentioned in classics.
3. The Shankapushpi marita Abhraka bhasma was used as test drug.Test drug
and standard drug is administered oral using 2 ml disposable syringe.
4. Twenty days of the treatment was given, Optimum results can be achieved
by 8
th
day onwards.
5. In this experiment, Shankapuspi marita Abhraka Bhasma and piracetam
showed some what equal results in the both parameters on the 16
th
day
onwards.
6. The therapeutic effect of trial drug in parameter I showed results on 8
th
day
onwards and test drug in parameter II showed results on 4
th
day onwards.
7. Shankapuspi marita Abhraka Bhasma is memory promoter, which is
established through experimental studies.
8. To prove further efficacy clinical study can be followed.


Conclusion 140

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
Abhraka Bhasma An Experimental Study


Summary 140

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
AbhrakaBhasm An Experimental Study

SUMMARY
The present dissertation work entitled Evaluation of Medhya effect of
Shankapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma - An Experimental study
contains topics like Introduction, Drug Review, Disease Review, Methodology
includes Pharmaceutical study, Analytical study, Experimental study followed by
Observations, Results, Discussion & Conclusion.
Introduction:
The introduction covers need of research, importance of Abhraka, Importance
of bhasmas and plan of the study is discussed in introduction..
Review of Literature:
This aspect of literary review dealt with Drug & Disease review. Abhraka
Paryaya, Bheda, Shodhana, Dhanyabhraka, Marana, Amrutikarana, Lohitikarana,
Amayika Proyoga, Matra, Yoga & Modern aspect of Abhraka with this
pharmocodynamics of shodhana, Marana & Amrutikarana upayogi dravyas. The
disease review is deals with concept of Medhya effect in detail in both Ayurvedic and
Modern view.
Methodology:
Pharmaceutical Study:
This is dealt with samanya & vishesha shodhana of Abhraka, Dhanyabhraka,
Marana, Amruteekarana & Lohitikarana of Abhraka.
Analytical Study:
This is dealt with Bhasma pareeksha according to Ayurveda & Physico-
Chemical Analysis of Bhasma according to modern parameters including N.P.S.Test.
Experimental Study:
This is dealt with selection of animals, collection & mode of administration of
drugs, experimental parameters.

Summary 141

Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shankapushpi swarasa marita
AbhrakaBhasm An Experimental Study


Results:
In this part, the data obtained from the study conducted is presented with the
help of graphs & statistical analysis.

Discussion:
This part includes with the logical interpretations of results. An attempt has
been made to discuss Pharmaceutical studies, Analytical studies and Experimental
studies & Probable mode of action of Abhraka Bhasma. It also included the further
scope for the study.

Conclusion:
In this part, the essence which is drawn from the present study i.e. about Drug,
Disease, Preparation, Analysis & Experimental study etc were mentioned.

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Evaluation of Medhya effect of Shakapushpi swarasa marita Abhraka Bhasma
An Experimental Study


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An Experimental Study


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13.Shabda kalpa druma, 1st vol, 3rd edition 1967, Choukambha sanskrit
series,Varanasi, Vidyavilasa press, PP-44.

14.Shabda kalpa druma, 2nd vol, 3rd edition 1967, Choukambha sanskrit
series,Varanasi, Vidyavilasa press, PP-328

15.Shabda kalpa druma, 5th vol, 3rd edition 1967, Choukambha sanskrit
series,Varanasi, Vidyavilasa press, PP-228

16.Acharya Madhava- Ayurveda Prakasha, Sri. Gulrajsharma Mishra,chapter 2nd,
shloka 88, 2
nd
Edn reprint 1999, Varnasi Choukambha Bharti Academy, P - 279.

17.Acharya Madhava- Ayurveda Prakasha, Sri. Gulrajsharma Mishra,chapter 2nd,
shloka 88, 2
nd
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18.Acharya Somadeva,Rasendra chudamani, Chap 10 Sloka-4, edited by
Siddinandana Mishra, Edition -1st 1984, Choukambha orientalia, Varanasi Page 137.

19.Vagbhatta Acharyakruta, Rasa RatnaSamucchaya, chapter 2nd, shloka 4, edited by
Indradev Tripathi,2nd edition,Choukambha Sanskrit, Varanasi; Bhavan 2003,PP 11.

20.Ibid PP- 11

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22.Acharya Madhava- Ayurveda Prakasha, Sri. Gulrajsharma Mishra,chapter 2nd,
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23.Sri sadananda sharma,Rasatarangini,10
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24.Vagbhatta Acharyakruta, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, chapter 2nd,shloka 5, edited by
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25.Ibid

26.Ibid

27.Ibid

28.Ibid,shloka 9 10.

29.Acharya Somadeva, Rasendra chudamani, Chapter 10, Shloka 9-10, edited by
Siddinandana Mishra, Edition -1st 1984, Choukambha orientalia, Varanasi Page 137.

30.Sri sadananda sharma, Rasa tarangini,10 taranga, shloka 4, edited by Kashinath
shastri, 11th edition, New Delhi, Motilal banarasidas publication, 1979,PP -222.

31.Acharya Madhava- Ayurveda Prakasha, Sri. Gulrajsharma Mishra,chapter 2nd,
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32.Ibid, shloka 98,PP- 283.

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35.Ibid,shloka 99.

36.Dr.K.C. Chunekar, Bhavaprakash Nighantu, Sri Bhavamishra commentary,
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40.Acharya Somadeva,Rasendra chudamani, Chap 10, Sloka-4, edited by
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41.Sri sadananda sharma, Rasa tarangini,10th taranga, shloka 15, edited by Kashinath
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42.Acharya Somadeva,Rasendra chudamani, Chap 10, Sloka-14, edited by
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46.Ibid, shloka 116,PP- 290.

47.Ibid, shloka 130-131,PP- 293.

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49.Acharya Madhava- Ayurveda Prakasha, Sri. Gulrajsharma Mishra,chapter 2nd,
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51.Ibid, shloka 68-69,PP-233

52.Ibid ,shloka 70-71,PP 233

53.Ibid, shloka 66, PP 232

54.Ibid, shloka 65 -66, PP - 232

55.Vagbhatta Acharyakruta, Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, chapter 2nd, shloka 24 - 25,
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60.Ibid,chapter 2, shloka 23, PP 12.

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64.Dattarama Choube ,Brihat rasa raja sundar,uparasa prakarana,3rd edition
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66.Ibid, shloka 74-99.

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72.Bhavamishra Bhavaprakasha, chapter 21, shloka 2, Shri Brahma shankara
shastri , 5th edition, Varanasi Choukambha sanskrit series; 1969, PP-783.

73.Sushuruta achrya ,Sushruta samhita sutra stana ,Chapter 46, shloka 128,
Ambikadatta shatri, 12 th edition, Varanasi Choukambha sanskrit bhavana; 2001,
PP-186.

74.Dr.J .L.N Shatri, Dravya guna vignana, 2nd edition, Published by choukambha
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75.Ibid PP 216 217.

76.Ibid PP220 222.
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78.Acharya Vaghbata Astnga sangraha, Vol- 1, chapter 5, shloka 21, Srikant
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83.Ibid. 1/20 sloka Pg. 804-805.
84.Ibid. 1/21slokaPg. 805.
85.Ibid. 4/36 sloka Pg. 879.
86.Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita shareera sthana chapter 3 Sloka 30. Prof.
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88.Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Sutra sthana chapter 8 Sloka 14. Kashinatha shastri
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90.Agnivesha, Charaka Samhita Shareera sthana chapter 1 Sloka 26. Kashinatha
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93.Vagbhatacharya, Astanga Hridayam sutra sthana chapter 1 sloka 6.Pt.
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96.Chakrapanidata, Charaka Samhita sutra sthana chapter 27 sloka 350.J adavaji
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135.Ibid. Pg. 195.
136.Ibid. Pg. 194.
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An Experimental Study


144.E.A Rawlins Bentlys textbook of Pharmaceutics. E.A.Rawlins editor. 8
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Bailliere Tindall: English language book society; 1984. Pg. 175-180.


Pharmaceutics of Abhraka Bhasma



Fig.1.Raw Abhraka Fig.2. Heating of Abhraka



Fig.3. Kanji Fig.4. Triphala kwatha




Fig.5. Gomutra Fig.6. Godugdha







Fig.7. Shodhita Abhraka Fig.8. Abhraka with Dhanya Fig.9. Pottali kept in Kanji


Fig.10. Dhanybhraka Mardana Fig .11.Shankapuspi Fig.12. Abhraka Chakrikas




Fig.13. Sharava Samputa Fig.14. Marana in gajaputa Fig15. Abhraka Bhasma After
20 puta



Fig.16. Bhasma after Amrutikarana Fig.17. Bhasma after Lohiteekarana


Experimental Study














Fig.18. Albino Mice Fig.19. Grouping of animals
















Fig.20.Suspension of Abhraka Bhasma Fig.21. Administration of trial drug













Fig.22. Plus Maze Apparatus Fig.23.Mice placed on the open arm
After administration of trial drug







XRD INTERPRETATIONS :


Dr. Anidevs Report:---

System Triclinic

Space Group P-1

Cell dimensions
a =5.3714 0.0034
b =9.2978 0.0066
c =10.8108 0.0075
Alpha () =112.812 0.036
Beta () +118.931 0.028
Gamma () =79.751 0.040
Cell Volume =435.546
3
.

h k l TH(OBS) TH-ZERO TH(CALC) DIFF.

1 2 -3 27.374 27.391 27.365 0.026
1 -2 0 27.982 27.999 27.985 0.014
0 0 3 30.217 30.234 30.229 0.005
0 3 -2 30.683 30.700 30.704 -0.005
0 3 0 31.229 31.246 31.286 -0.041
1 3 -1 32.597 32.614 32.590 0.023
1 0 2 33.493 33.510 33.513 -0.003
2 1 -1 35.340 35.357 35.357 0.000
1 0 -4 35.982 35.999 36.025 -0.027
1 3 0 36.943 36.960 36.987 -0.028
2 -1 0 39.597 39.614 39.607 0.007
2 -2 -1 42.380 42.397 42.398 -0.002
1 -2 3 42.716 42.733 42.726 0.007
0 3 2 43.236 43.253 43.241 0.012
2 2 -5 44.755 44.772 44.767 0.004
3 0 -2 52.215 52.232 52.226 0.005
0 2 4 52.699 52.716 52.694 0.022
2 -3 2 56.933 56.950 56.974 -0.024
1 -3 -4 57.694 57.711 57.716 -0.005
3 0 -5 57.983 58.000 58.014 -0.014
2 -4 -1 58.305 58.322 58.297 0.024