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Petroleum
Engineering
Handbook
Editor-in-Chief
Howard B. Bradley
Professional/Technical Training Consultant
Associate Editors
Fred W. Gipson Mohamed Mortada
Senior Engineering Professional (retired) President
Conoco Inc. Mortada Intl. Inc.
Aziz S. Odeh Lewis L. Raymer
Senior Scientist President
Mobil R&D Corp. Lewis L. Raymer Enterprises
Phillip S. Sizer Gerry L. Smith
Senior Vice President/Technical Director Engineering Consultant
Otis Engineering Corp. (deceased)
Third Printing
Society of Petroleum Engineers
Richardson, TX, U.S.A.
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@Copyright 1987 by the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Printed in the
United States of America. All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof,
cannot be reproduced in any form without written consent of the publisher.
Third printing, Feb. 1992, incorporating minor changes on Pages 22-3,30-3,
30-4, 33-2, and 51-52.
ISBN 1-55.563-010-3
ii
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Preface
The 1962 edition of the Petroleum Production Handbook filled a need at that time for a comprehensive compilation
of practical information and data covering production equipment and reservoir engineering. This 1987 edition updates
the original 48 chapters and adds 11 new ones. New technology, developed over the past 25 years, resulted in im-
proved equipment, materials, and methods. They are described and discussed in the revised original chapters and
in the new ones. The 11 new chapters are the following:
Chapter 7-Electric Submersible Pumps
Chapter 1 &Offshore Operations
Chapter 19-Crude-Oil Emulsions
Chapter 4%Miscible Displacement
Chapter 46-Thermal Recovery
Chapter 47-Chemical Flooding
Chapter 48-Reservoir Simulation
Chapter 5 l-Acoustic Well Logging
Chapter 52-Mud Logging
Chapter 58-SI Metric System of Units and SPE Metric Standard
Chapter 59-SPE Letter and Computer Symbols Standard
This 1987 edition, now called the Petroleum Engineering Handbook, provides a current and worthwhile addition
to the industrys literature for students and experienced professionals working in the petroleum industry.
The handbook is again divided into three sections: Sec. 1, Mathematics (one chapter); Sec. 2, Production Engineer-
ing (18 chapters); and Sec. 3, Reservoir Engineering (40 chapters). There are 57 chapters written by professionals
who are recognized as authorities in their fields of expertise. Chap. 58 is a revised version of the 1982 SI Metric
System of Units and SPE Metric Standard, and Chap. 59 is the 1986 revision of the 1984 Standard SPE Letter and
Computer Symbols for Economics, Formation Evaluation and Well Logging, Natural Gas Engineering, and Petrole-
um Reservoir Engineering.
The Mathematics section presents the basic tables and calculation procedures required by persons engaged in petro-
leum production. The Production Engineering section covers basic types of materials, methods, and tools available
for use in petroleum operations, including their capabilities and proper applications. The Reservoir Engineering sec-
tion treats gas, oil, condensate, and formation water properties and correlations; reservoir rocks and traps; primary,
secondary, and tertiary recovery data and methods; oil and gas reserves; formation evaluation, including well logging
methods; and well treating methods. The what, why, how, and now-what aspects of each topic are emphasized. Also,
at the end of the appropriate chapters, key equations are presented with SI metric units.
Special acknowledgment is due the SPE staff for their immeasurable help and advice, the associate editors for their
avid dedication to the technical-editing task, and all the authors who contributed much time and effort to provide
the timely and excellent information included within each chapter. We are much indebted to the editor-in-chief of
the 1962 edition, Thomas C. Fricke. and to the original group of authors for their arduous 3-year job of developing
the original edition of the Petro/eum Production Handbook. Special thanks are due Ed Mayer of THUMS and B.J.
Dotson of Mobil Oil Corp. (now retired) for their advice and helpful discussions on the proper use of the 1986 SPE
standard letter symbols throughout the handbook and for their editing of Chap. 59, the SPE Letter and Computer
Symbols Standard.
Our hope is that by proper application of the updated information contained within the second edition of this hand-
book, the petroleum-industry professional will be led to more efficient production and use of the worlds petroleum-
energy resources.
Howard B. Bradley
Editor-in-Chief
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Acknowledgments
The Society of Petroleum Engineers sincerely thank\ the following organizations and individuals for permission to use the
cited material.
Chap. 2
Figs. 2.1 through 2.3 and 2.6 through 2.8, from Casino, Tubi,l~, and Drill Pipe, API Spec. 5A, 38th edition. API. Dallas
(1985).
Fig. 2.9, from Line Pipe, API Spec. 5L, 35th edition. API. Dallas (1985).
Figs. 2.10A, 2.10B, 2.11, 2.12, and 2.14 through 2.18, from 7hrt&inR, &g;,lg, and 7hveud hl.~fcct;or2, API Spec, SB.
1 Ith edition, API. Dallas (1985).
Table 2.1, modified from Cusing, Tubing, and Drill Pipe, API Spec. 5A, 37th edition, API, Dallas (1984).
Tables 2.2, 2.5 through 2.7, and 2.25 through 2.27, Casing, Tubing, and Drill Pipe, Bull., USS. Pittsburgh. PA
(1972).
Tables 2.3, 2.4, and 2.24, modified from Performance Propertics of Casing, Tubing, and Drill Pipe, Apf Bu//. 5~2,
API. Dallas (1983).
Tables 2.8 through 2.11 and 2.28, from USS Seamless Casing. Tubing, and Drill Pipe, Bu//, , USS. Pittsburgh, PA
(1972).
Table 2.14, Bull. 664. National Supply Co.. Houston.
Tables 2.31 through 2.33, 2.36, and 2.37, from Line Pipe, API Spec. 5L. 34th edition. API, Dallas (1984).
Tables 2.38 through 2.43, from Formulas and Calculations for Casing, Tubing. Drill Pipe. and Lint Pipe Properties.
API Bull. 5C3, third edition with Supplement No. 1. API. Dallas (1983).
Tables 2.44 through 2.54, from Thrrudit~~. Gaging, und thread Inspection. API Spec. 5B, 10th edition with Supplement
No. 4. API. Dallas (1983).
Chap. 3
Figs, 3.1 and 3.3, and Tables 3.1 through 3.33, from Specicarionsfor Wellhcad and Chrisrtnas Tree Eyuipment. API
Spec. 6A. 14th and 15th editions, API. Dallas (April 1. 1986).
Fig. 3.2, courtesy McEvoy Co., General Catalog 58-59 (Jan. 1959).
Fig. 3.5, from Eichenberg, R., Design Consideration for AWHEM 15,000 psi Flanges, ASME Paper 57.PET-23, Sept.
22, 1957.
Figs. 3.6 through 3.17, courtesy Otis Engineering Corp.. Dallas.
Chap. 4
Figs. 4.1 through 4.11, from Patton, L.D. and Abbott, W.A.: Well Completions and Workovers: The Systems Approuth.
second edition, Energy Publications, Dallas (1985) 57-67.
Tables 4.1 and 4.2, from Pucker Culculations Handbook, Baker Oil Tool Div. (1971).
Chap. 5
Fig. 5.1, from Winkler. H.W.: How to Design a Closed Rotativc Gas Lift System-Part I: Proccdurc, World Qj/ (July
1960) 116-19.
Figs. 5.2, 5.5, 5.6, and 5.18, from Gus Lij?, Book 6 of API Vocational Training Series, revised edition. API. Dallas (1984)
65.
Fig. 5.3, from Winkler. H.W.: Heres How to Improve Your Gas Lift Installations-Part I : Pressure at Depth
Determinations. World Oil (Aug. 1959) 63-67.
Figs. 5.4 and 5.29, from Winkler. H.W. and Smith. S.S.: Cameo Gas Liji Manual, Cameo Inc.. Houston (1962) A2-001.
Fig. 5.7, from King, W.R.: Time and V 0 umc Control for Gas Intermitters, I U.S. Patent No. 2.339.487 (Jan. 1944).
Fig. 5.21, from Kirkpatrick. C.V.: Advances in Gas-Lift Technology, API Drill. and Prod. Pruc. (I 959) 24-60.
Fig. 5.25, from Gas Lt, Book 6 of API Vocational Training Series. API. Dallas (1965) 109.
Fig. 5.33, from CLlmco Cornplere Service Cuialog, Cameo Inc. (1962) 42.
Chap. 6
Figs. 6.1, 6.5, 6.7, 6.12, 6.13, 6.31, 6.40, 6.44, 6.47, 6.49, and 6.51, and Table 6.18, courtesy Trico Industries.
Gardena. CA,
Figs. 6.2, 6.3, 6.6, 6.8, 6.11, 6.14, 6.15, 6.19 through 6.24, 6.26 through 6.29, 6.32 through 6.39, 6.41 through 6.45,
6.48, 6.50, 6.52, 6.53, and 6.55, and Table 6.1, from National-Oilwell. Los Nietos. CA.
Fig. 6.9, courtesy Otis Engineering Corp., Dallas.
Figs. 6.17 and 6.52, and Tables 6.3, 6.12, and 6.17, courtesy Dresser Industries, Dallas.
Fig. 6.18 and Table 6.4, courtesy of Highland Pump Co. Inc.. Midland. TX.
Fig. 6.56, from Si;ing und Selecrion of Electric Submersible Pump Installations, API RP I IU, second edition, API. Dallas
(May 30, 1986).
Table 6.2, courtesy Kobe Inc., Huntington Park, CA.
Chap. 7
Figs. 7.1 through 7.18 and 7.20 through 7.32, and Table 7.1, courtesy TRW Energy Products Group, Reda Pump Div.,
Bartlesville. OK.
Chap. 8
Fig. 8.1, from Subsurface Pumps and Fitrings, API Spec. 11 AX, seventh edition, API, Dallas (June 1979).
Figs. 8.3, 8.5, and 8.7, courtesy Oilwell Div. of U.S. Steel Corp., Garland, TX.
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Chap. 9
Figs. 9.2 and 9.3, and Tables 9.1 through 9.4, from Sucker Rods. API Spcc. 119, 2lst editmn. API, Dallas (May 1985).
Figs. 9.5 and 9.9, and Table 9.9, from Cure und Hundling of Sucker Rod.,, API RP 1 IBR. seventh edition. API. Dallas
(May 30, 1986).
Fig. 9.10 and Tables 9.10 and 9.11, from Reir@ced Plu~fic Sucker Rods, API Spec. 1 IC, first edition. API, Dallas (Jan,
I, 1986).
Table 9.7, from Design Culrulurions for Sucker Rod P~inpini: Systems, API RP I 1 L. third edition, API, Dallas (Feb. 1977)
Chap. IO
Figs. 10.1, 10.3, 10.6, 10.7, 10.9 through 10.12, and 10.14 (pumping unit), courtesy Lufkin Industries Inc., Lufkin. TX.
Fig. 10.8, from Design Calculations for Sucker Rod Pumping Sytems (Convenrional Units), API RP 1 IL. third edition.
API. Dallas (Feb. 1977).
Figs. 10.13, 10.16 through 10.20, and 10.24 through 10.28, and Tables 10.5, 10.7, and 10.9, from Sargent Oil Well
Equipment Co., Odessa, TX.
Fig. 10.14 (engine), from Arrow Specialty Co., Tulsa, OK.
Fig. 10.15, from Waukesha Engine Div.. Dresser Industries Inc., Waukesha. WI.
Fig. 10.21, from Mom-s and Generators, MG l-1978. Natl. Electrical Manufacturers Assn.. Washington. DC (1978).
Figs. 10.29 through 10.31, from Ronk Electrical Industries Inc., Nokomis. IL.
Figs. 10.32 and 10.33, from Classijcnlion of Areas for Electrical lnstullations at Drilling Rigs and Production Facilities on
Land and on Marine Fixed and Mobile Pl at f or m, API RP 5009, second edition, API, Dallas (July 1973) 8.
Tables 10.2 and 10.3, from lnsrullation and Luhrimtim of Pumping Units, API RP 1 IG, second edition. API. Dallas (Feb.
1959) and Supplement (Jan. 1980).
Tables 10.6 and 10.10, from Motor Application and Muintenunce Hundbook, second edition, R.W. Smeaton (ed.),
McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc.. New York City, Table 1 on Page 3-7 and Table 3 on Page I l-3.
Chap. 11
Figs. 11.1 and 11.3, from C-E Natco, Tulsa. OK.
Fig. 11.4, from Design and Fuhricution of Gulvunixd Products, American Hot Dip Galvanizer Assn. and the Zinc Inst.
(Nov. 1983).
Fig. 11.7, from CBI Industries Inc. (Chicago Bridge and Iron Co.), Oak Brook, IL.
Figs. 11.9 and 11.10, from Fenix & Scisson Inc., Tulsa. OK.
Table 11.1, from Bolted Production Tanks, API Spec. 129, 12th edition, API Div. of Production, Dallas (Jan. 1977).
Tables 11.3 and 11.4, from Venting Atmospheric cmd LowPressure Storage Tunk.7, API Std. 2000, third edition, API,
Dallas (Jan. 1982).
Chap. 12
Fig. 12.2, courtesy Jaragua S.A. Industrias Mechanicas. Sao Paula, Brazil.
Figs. 12.7 and 12.8, courtesy Fisher Controls Co., Marshalltown. IA.
Figs. 12.16 and 12.19, courtesy ACS Industries Inc., Woonsocket, RI.
Fig. 12.18, courtesy Peerless Mfg. Co., Dallas.
Fig. 12.20, courtesy Plenty Metrol. Newbury. England.
Fig. 12.21, courtesy Vortec. Inc.. Woodside. CA.
Fig. 12.22, courtesy Porta-Test Systems, Ltd., Edmonton, Alta., Canada.
Figs. 12.24, 12.26, and 12.40, courtesy C-E Natco, Tulsa, OK.
Tables 12.9 and 12.10, courtesy Cornsign Computer Program, Ellis Engineering Inc., Houston.
Tables 12.11 and 12.17, from KWIC Index of Intl. Standards, Intl. Organization for Standardization. Geneva.
Tables 12.12, 12.18, and 12.19, from ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII, Div. 1, New York City (1984).
Tables 12.13 and 12.14, from Megyesy, E.F.: Pressure Vessel Handbook, Pressure Vessel Handbook Publishing Inc.,
Tulsa, OK.
Table 12.15, from Kimmell, G.O.: Stage Separation, paper 48.PET-15 presented at the ASME Annual Meeting.
Oklahoma City, Oct. 1949.
Table 12.16, Separation Flash Calculations, Process Version 0882, Simulation Sciences Inc., Houston.
Chap. 13
Fig. 13.2, courtesy The Bristol Co.
Fig. 13.3, from Orice Constunt Tub/es. American Gas Assn., Report No. 3, revised (1969). Also, ANSI/API 2530.
Fig. 13.4 and Tables 13.2a, 13.2b, and 13.4, from GPSA Engineering Dutubook, Gas Processors Suppliers Assn., Tulsa,
OK (1972).
Figs. 13.20 through 13.22, courtesy Fischer Governor Co.
Table 13.1, courtesy American Meter Co.. Inc.
Chap. 14
Fig. 14.5, from GPSA Engineering Dutuhook, ninth edition. fifth revision, Gas Processors Suppliers Assn., Tulsa, OK
(1981).
Fig. 14.14, from NGSMA Handbook.
Figs. 14.19 through 14.21, and Tables 14.1 and 14.2 from Campbell, J.M.: J.M. Campbell Gas Conditioning and
Processing. Campbell Petroleum Series, Norman, OK (1962) 2.
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Chap. 15
Figs. 15.1 through 15.3, and Table 15.9, from Desl,qn and hstd/don of O&how P~C~CY;OH ~l+t~~ Pip;~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
API RP l4E, third edition, API, Dallas (1981) 22.
Figs. 15.4 through 15.6, and Tables 15.2 through 15.5, from GPSA Engineerirlg Durchx~k, @IS Processors Suppliers
Assn.. Tulsa, OK (1980).
Fig. 15.8, courtesy Paragon Engineering Services Inc.. Houston.
Fig. 15.11 and Table 15.10, courtesy Perry Equipment Co., Mineral Wells, TX.
Fig. 15.12, courtesy C-E Natco, Tulsa. OK.
Fig. 15.13, courtesy U.S. Filter. Fluid System Corp.. Whittier, CA.
Figs. 15.15 and 15.19, from Oil-Water Separator Process Design. API Manual on Disposal of Refinery Wastes. Volume
on Liquid Wastes, API. Dallas (1975) Chap. 5.
Fig. 15.20, Engineering Spccialtiea Inc.. Covington. LA.
Tables 15.6 and 15.7, from Amr~rictr~~ ~triiov7d .bmk~rd. Pip /%mgr.s arzd F/m& FirtirrRs. ANSI B26.5. ASME, New
York City (1981).
Chap. 18
Fig. 18.32, courtesy CanOcean Resources Ltd., New Westminster, B.C., Canada.
Fig. 18.36, courtesy Fluor Subsea Services. Irvine. CA.
Fig. 18.38, courtesy Hamilton Bros. Oil Co., Denver.
Fig. 18.40, from Lagers, G.H.C., Gusto, B.V., and Bell, C.R.: The Third Generation Lay Barge. Proc., Offshore
Technology Conference (1974) 1, 35-46.
Fig. 18.41, courtesy Apache, Santa Fe Intl. Corp., Alhambra. CA.
Fig. 18.43, courtesy Swan Wooster Engineering Ltd., Vancouver, B.C., Canada.
Fig. 18.44, from Willits. K.L.: Well Completions in the Prudhoc Bay Field. Pet. Eng. (Feb. 1976).
Fig. 18.45, courtesy Brian Watt Assocs., Houston.
Chap. 19
Figs. 19.1, 19.3, and 19.6 through 19.8, courtesy Shell Development Co., Houston.
Figs. 19.4, 19.5, 19.9, and 19.10, courtesy Baker Performance Chemicals Inc., Santa Fe Springs, CA
Fig. 19.12, courtesy ASTM, Philadelphia. PA.
Fig. 19.17, courtesy Chemineer-Kenics. Dayton. OH.
Fig. 19.18, courtesy Modular Production Equipment Inc., Houston.
Figs. 19.19, 19.29, and 19.30, courtesy C-E Natco Inc.. Tulsa, OK.
Figs. 19.20 and 19.32, courtesy Hydrocarbon Research Inc.. Long Beach, CA.
Figs. 19.21, 19.22, and 19.28, courtesy Energy Recovery Div., Daniel Industries Inc.
Chap. 20
Figs. 20.2A and 20.3, from Katz, D.L. ef (il.: Hcr!rdhook of Nutuuu/ Gus Eng;nrcr;ng, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New
York City (1959).
Figs. 20.2B and 20.2C, from Brown, G.G. ~1 nl.: Natural Gasoline and the Volatile Hydrocarbons. Natural Gas Assn.
of America. Tulsa OK (1948).
Fig. 20.4, from Wichert, E. and Aziz. K.: Compressibility Factor for Sour Natural Gases, Cdn. J. C!zerrr. Gl,q. (1972)
49, 269-75.
Figs. 20.8 and 20.9, from Stiel. L.I. and Thodos, G.: The Viscosity of Non-Polar Gases at Normal Pressures. AICIfE J.
(1961) 7, 61 l-20.
Fig. 20.10, from Matthews, T.A.. Roland. C H.. and Katz, D.L.: High Pressure Gas Measurement. Proc~. , Natural Gas
A$sn. of America (1942) 41-51.
Fig. 20.14 and Table 20.1, from Perry. R.H. and Chilton, C.H.: C/~cwicz/ 0tgin~er.s ffmdbook. fifth edition. McGraw-
Hill Book Co Inc., New York City (1975).
Table 20.2, from GPSA Enyi~~wriufi Dorcrbonk, ninth edition. fifth revision. Gas Processors Suppliers Aasn.. Tulsa. OK,
Chau. 21
Fig. 21 .l, from Gq~~/oym/ic~ c$ C/ic,n~ic,tr/ T~~c~/tno/o,e~, The Interscicnce Encyclopedia Inc. ( 1953) 10, 1 17.
Fig. 21.3, after N&on. W.L.: Parrnlertr?~ Rc$rrrj:v ~ri,t~irt~~~ri/t~, fourth edition, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc., New York
City (1958) 910-37.
Fig. 21.4, courtesy Hansen. D.N. and Hurd. C.O., Shell Devolopmcnt Co , Prtrd~wrn Rc$wr (Aprtl 1945).
Figs. 21.7 through 21.21, from ASTM Slcrf&rcl.c 011 Pt,/ro/c~trfi P,.oc/lrc~f.s crnd Lubricants. Part 24, ASTM, Philadelphia
( 1975) 796.
Fig. 21.22, from Matthews. T.A.. Roland. C.H.. and Katz. D.L: High Prcssurc Gas Measurements. Proc,., Natural Gas
Aasn. of America (1942) 41.
Figs. 21.23 and 21.24. from Standing. M. B. : lr~lrr/tif,/rrc, t/rid Phcrsr Brhcr~~io~ r!f Oil Fir/t/ Hwlrr,c&~orr S\stc~rns, Reinhold
Publtshing Corp.. New York City (1952).
Fig. 21.25, from Standing. M.13.: A Prcssurc-Volulnc-Tcmpcraturc Correlation for Mixtures of California Oil and Gases.
Drill. curd Prod. Pm , API ( 1937) 275.
Fig. 21.26, courtesy Calitornia Rcjcarch Corp., 1947.
Fable 2 I .7, from Nelson. W. L. : Pr~f-oic,lr!~r Rc:/iucy\ En,g;n~criyy, fourth edition, McGrawHill Book Co. Inc.. New York
City (11)5X) 910-37.
Table 21.10, from A Guide to World Export Ct-udcs. Oil & Gtrv J. (1976).
Table 21.11, courtesy Bartlcavillc Energy Technology Ccntcr. Bartlc~ville. OK.
vii
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Chau. 22
Figs. 22.1 through 22.3, from Standing, M.B.: Volumetric and Phase Behavior of Oil Field Hydrocarbon Systems, Reinhold
Publishing Corp., New York City (1952).
Fig. 22.4, from Katz, D.L.: Prediction of the Shrinkage of Crude Oils, Drill. and Prod. Prac., API (1942).
Figs. 22.5, 22.9, and 22.13, courtesy California Research Corp.
Figs. 22.19 and 22.20, from Baker, 0. and Swerdloff, W.: Finding Surface Tension of Hydrocarbon Liquids, Oil & Gas
1. (Jan. 2, 1956).
Chap. 23
Fig. 23.9 from GPSA Engineering Databook, Gas Processors Suppliers Assn.,
ninth edition, Tulsa, OK (1972).
Figs. 23.12 and 23.13 from Reamer, H.H., Fiskin, J.M., and Sage, B.H.:
Phase Equilibria in Hydrocarbon Systems,
lnd. Eng. Chem. (Dec. 1949) 41, 2871.
Chao. 24
Fig. 24.3, from Hoke, S.H. and Collins, A.G.: Mobile Wellhead Analyzerfor the Determination of Unstable Constituents in
Oil-Field Waters, ASTM STP 735 (1981) 34-48.
Fig. 24.9, from Burcik: Properties of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York City (1957).
Figs. 24.11 and 24.12, from PI-Petroleum Information,
Chap. 25
Figs. 25.3 and 25.4, from Kobayashi, R.: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria in Binary Hydrocarbon-Water Systems, PhD
dissertation, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (1951).
Figs. 25.5, 25.10, 25.21, 25.23, and 25.24, and Table 25.4, from Katz, D.L. et al.: Water-Hydrocarbon Systems,
Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York City (1959) 189-221.
Figs. 25.6, 25.8, and 25.33, from Kobayashi, R. and Katz, D.L.: Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for Binary Hydrocarbon-Water
Systems, Ind. Erg. Chem. (1953) 45, 440-5 1.
Fig. 25.7, from Alder, S.B. and Spencer, C.F.: Case Studies of Industrial Problems, Phase Equilibria and Fluid Properties
in the Chemical Industry, Proc., Equilibrium Fluid Properties in the Chemical Industry (1980) 465-95.
Fig. 25.14, from von Stackelberg, M.: Solid Gas Hydrates, Natunvissenschaften (1949) 36, 327-33, 359-62.
Figs. 25.17 through 25.20, from Sloan, E.D.: Phase Equilibria of Natural Gas Hydrates, paper 67f presented at the
1983 AIChE Summer Natl. Meeting, Denver, Aug. 28-31.
Fig. 25.22, from Song, K.Y. and Kobayashi, R.: Measurement and Interpretation of the Water Content of a Methane-
Propane Mixture in the Gaseous State in Equilibrium with Hydrate, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund. (1982) 21, No. 4, 391-95.
Fig. 25.25, from Deaton, W.J. and Frost, E.M.: Gas Hydrates and Their Relation to the Operation of Natural Gas Pipe
Lines, Monograph 8, USBM, Washington, DC (1946).
Fig. 25.30, from Saito, S., Marshall, D.R., and Kobayashi, R.L: Hydrates at High Pressures: Part II. Application of
Statistical Mechanics to the Study of the Hydrates of Methane, Argon, and Nitrogen, AIChE J. (1964) 10, No. 5,
734-40.
Fig. 25.32, from Dodson, CR. and Standing, M.B.: Pressure-Volume-Temperature and Solubility Relations for Natural
Gas-Water Mixtures, Drill. and Prod. Prac., API, Dallas (1944) 173-79.
Figs. 25.34 through 25.36, from Peng, D.-Y. and Robinson, D.B.: Two- and Three-Phase Equilibrium Calculations for
Coal Gasification and Related Process, Thermodynamics of Aqueous Systems with Industrial Applications, S.A. Newman
(ed.), Symposium Series 133. ACS (1980) 393-414.
Figs. 25.37 and 25.41, from Scauzillo, F.R.: Inhibiting Hydrate Formations in Hydrocarbon Gases, Chem. Eng. Progr.
(1956) 52, No. 8, 324-28.
Figs. 25.38 through 25.40, from Gas Conditioning Fact Book, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (1962) 69-71,
Table 25.5, from Dharmawardhand, P.B.: The Measurement of the Thermodynamic Parameters of the Hydrate Structure
and Application of Them in the Prediction of Natural Gas Hydrates, PhD dissertation, Colorado School of Mines,
Golden (1980).
Chap. 26
Fig. 26.1, from Fraser, H.J. and Graton, L.C.: Systematic Packing of Spheres-With Particular Relation to Porosity and
Permeability, J. Geol. (Nov.-Dec. 1935) 785-909.
Figs. 26.3 and 26.30, courtesy Core Laboratories Inc., Dallas.
Fig. 26.5, 26.24, and 26.25, from Stevens, A.B.: A Laboratory Manual for Petroleum Engineering 308, Texas A&M U.,
College Station (1954).
Fig. 26.7, from Krumbein, W.C. and Sloss, L.L.: Stratigraphy and Sedimentation, Appleton-Century-Crofts Inc., New York
City (1951) 218.
Fig. 26.27, from Klinkenberg, L.J.: The Permeability of Porous Media to Liquids and Gases, Drill. and Prod. Prac.,
API, Dallas (1941) 200-13.
Fig. 26.29, from Kennedy, H.T., VanMeter, O.E., and Jones, R.G.: Saturation Determination of Rotary Cores, Pet.
Eng. (Jan. 1954) B.52-B.64.
Chap. 27
Table 27.12, courtesy Alaska Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Anchorage.
Tables 27.13 through 27.15 and 27.17, courtesy Core Laboratories Inc., Dallas.
Table 27.16, from European Continental shelf Guide, Oilfield Publications Ltd., Ledbury, Herefordshire, England (1982).
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Chap. 28
Figs. 28.3 and 28.4, from Rose. W.: U.S. Patent No. 4,506,542 (1985).
Fig. 28.7, from Rose. W.: Permeability and Gas Slippage Phenomena. Drill. and Prod. Pruc., API. DalIah (1948)
127-35.
Fig. 28.8, from Stone. H.L.: Probability Model for Estimating Three-Phase Relative Permeability. J. Ccl,z. P<,t. Tech.
(Oct. 1973) 53-59.
Fig. 28.12, from Panteleev. V.G. et ctl.: Influence of Carbon Dioxide on Three Phase Permeability by Oil and Water,
Nej?eprom.wlowe de10 (1973) No. 6. I l-13.
Fig. 28.16, from Ashford. F.E.: Determination of Two Phase and Multiphase Relative Permeability for Drainage and
lmbibition Cycles Based on Capillary Pressure Measurement, Revisru Tecnicu Intevep (198 1) 1, 71-94.
Fig. 28.19, from Lin, C. and Slattery. J.C.: Three-Dimensional. Randomized, Network Model for Two-Phase Flow
Through Porous Media. AlChE J. (1982) 28, No. 2, 311-24.
Chau. 29
Figs. 29.1 through 29.3, from Galloway, T.J.: Bull. 118, California Div. of Mines, Sacramento (Aug. 1957).
Fig. 29.6, from Sams. H.: Atkinson Field. Good Example of Subtle Stratigraphic Trap, Oil & Gas .I. (Aug. 12. 1974)
145-63.
Fig. 29.7, from Hoyt. W.V.: Erosional Channel in the Middle Wilcox Near Yoakum. Lavaca County. Texas, Trrlrt~.
Gulf Coast Assn. of Geological Societies (Nov. 1959) 9, 41-50.
Fig. 29.8, from Pirson, S.J.: Oil Reservoir EnRinerring, second edition, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York City
(1958).
Figs. 29.9 and 29.10, from Occurrence of Oil and Gas in Northeast Texas, F.A. Herald (ed.). Bureau of Economic
Geology and East Texas Geological Sot. (April 1951).
Fig. 29.11, from An Infrod~rction to Gulf Cousf Oil Fields, Houston Geological Sot., Houston (1941).
Fig. 29.12, from A Guide Book, Houston Geological Sot.. Houston (1953).
Chap. 30
Tables 30.1 through 30.4, from Bergman, J.C., Gulmard, A., and Hagenar, D.S.: High Performance Pressure
Measurement Systems. Schlumberger Well Services, Houston (1980) 10.
Chao. 31
Fig. 31.1, from Clijnutu/ogicul Dutu in the United Slates. U.S. Weather Bureau, Washington, DC
Chap. 32
Fig. 32.1, from the Railroad Commission of Texas, Austin.
Figs. 32.2 and 32.3, from Calhoun, J.C. Jr.: Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering, revised edition, U. of Oklahoma
Press. Norman (1953).
Figs. 32.10 and 32.11, from Turbine Meters, API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standurd.T, Chap. 5. Sec. 3.
Fig. 32.12, from API Measurement of Perroleum Liquid Hydrocarbons by Positive Displuccment Meter, API Std. IlO1, first
edition (Aug. 1960).
Chap. 33
Table 33.7, from Rawlins, E.L. and Schellhardt. M.A.: Back-pressure Data on Natural Gas Wells and Their Application
to Production Practices, USBM Monograph, Washington. DC (1935).
Chap. 34
Fig. 34.2, from Moody, L.F.: Friction Factors for Pipe Flow, Trans., ASME (1944) 66, 671.
Fig. 34.3, from Brown. G.G. et al.: Nutural Gusohe and the Volatile Hydrocarbons, Natural Gas Assn. of America
(1948).
Fig. 34.4, from Nisle, R.G. and Poettmann, F.H.: Calculation of the Flow and Storage of Natural Gas in Pipe, Per Enx.
(1955) 27, No. I. D-14; No. 2, C-36; No. 3, D-37.
Figs. 34.8 and 34.9, from Griffith, P. and Wallis, G.B.: Two-Phase Slug Flow, J. Heur Transfer (Aug. 1961) 307-20:
Trans., ASME.
Figs. 34.11 and 34.12, from Poettmann, F.H. and Carpenter, P.G.: Multiphase Flow of Gas, Oil, and Water Through
Vertical Flow Strings with Application to the Design of Gas-Lift Installations, Drill. und Prod. Pruc., API (1952)
257-3 17.
Figs. 34.13 through 34.17, from Davis, G.J. and Weidner, C.R.: Investigation of the Air Lift Pump, Bull., Eng. Series,
U. of Wisconsin (191 I) 6, No. 7.
Figs. 34.23 through 34.25, from Poettmann, F.H. and Beck, R.L.: New Charts Developed to Predict Gas-Liquid Flow
Through Chokes, World Oil (March 1963) 95-101.
Table 34.7, from Rawlins, E.L. and Schellhardt, M.A.: Back-Pressure Data on Natural Gas Wells and Their Application
to Production Practices, Monograph Series, USBM (1936) 7.
Chap. 36
Fig. 36.9, from Dahm, C.G. and Graebner. R.J.: Field Development With Three-Dimensional Seismic Methods in the
Gulf of Thailand-A Case History. GeophvJics (Feb. 1982) 149-76.
ix
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Chap. 37
Fig. 37.6 and 37.7, from Tarncr, J., How Different Sire Gas Caps and Pressure Maintenance Programs Affect Amount ot
Recoverable Oil. Oil Week !\~ (June 12. 1944) 32-44.
Figs. 37.16 through 37.24, and Tables 37.1 and 37.2, from Singh. D. and Guerrero. E.T.: Material Balance Equation
Sensitivity, Oil & Gas .I. (Oct. 20. 1969) 95-102.
Figs. 37.29 and 37.30, from Cronquist, C.: Evaluating Producing Volatile Oil Reservoirs. Workl Oil (April 1979)
159-66 and 246.
Chao. 39
Figs. 39.1 through 39.3, and Table 39.1, after Eilerts. K.C. er ~1.: Phusr Rr/ution.s of Gas-Co,l~lenscite F1ui~l.s. American
Gas Assn., New York City (1957).
Figs. 39.4 through 39.6, and Tables 39.2 through 39.10, courtesy Core Laboratories Inc., Dallas (1985).
Fig. 39.7, after Marshall. D.L. and Oliver, L.R.: Some Uses and Limitations of Model Studies in Cycling. Trcrns.,
AIME (1948) 174, 67-87.
Fig. 39.8, after Stelzer, R.B.: Model Study vs. Field Performance, Cycling the Paluxy Condensate Reservoir, Drill. trrrrl
Prod. Pruc., API (1956) 336-42.
Fig. 39.9, data derived from Stelzer, R.B.: Model Study vs. Field Performance, Cycling the Paluxy Condensate
Reservoir. Drill. and Prod. Prac., API (1956) 336-42.
Table 39.12, from Miller, M.G. and Lents. M.R.: Performance of Bodcaw Reservoir, Cotton Valley Field Cycling
Project. New Methods of Predicting Gas-Condensate Reservoir Performance Under Cycling Operations. Drill. wzd Prod.
Prac., API (1946) 128849.
chap. 41
Table 41.11, courtesy Republic Bank of Dallas.
Table 41.14. from Wilson. W.W. and Boyd. W.L.: Simplified Calculations Determine Loan Payout. World Oil (May
1958).
Chao. 44
Figs. 44.6 through 44.8 and Table 44.2, from Craft, B.C. and Hawkins, M.J. Jr.: Applied Pc~troleum Reservoir
Engineering, Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1959) 107, 357, 412-13.
Figs. 44.58 through 44.61, from Guerrero. E.T. and Earlougher, R.C.: Analysis and Comparison of Five Methods Used
to Predict Waterflooding Reserves and Performance, Drill. and Prod. Prac., API, Dallas (I 961) 78-95.
Fig. 44.62, from Higgins, R.V. and Leighton. A.J.: Computer Techniques for Predicting Three-Phase Flow in Five-Spot
Waterfloods, RI 7011. USBM (Aug. 1967).
Chap. 45
Fig. 45.4, from Brown, G.G. et al.: Natural Gasoline and the Volatile Hydrocarbons, Natural Gasoline Assn. of
America (1948).
Fig. 45.5, from Hutchinson, C.A. Jr. and Braun, P.H.: Phase Relations of Miscible Displacement in Oil Recovery.
AIChE J. (1961) 7, 64.
Fig. 45.7, modified from Slobod, R.L. and Koch, H.A. Jr.: High Pressure Gas Injection-Mechanism of Recovery
Increase, Drill. and Prod. Prac., API, Dallas (1953) 82.
Fig. 45.8, modified from Sage B.H and Lacey, W.N.: Some Properties of the Lighter Hydrocarbons, Hydrogen Suljde, and
Carbon Dioxide, Monograph Research Project 37, API, Dallas (1955).
Chap. 46
Fig. 46.1, from Farouq Ali, S.M.: Steam Injection, Secondary and Tertiary Oil Recovery Processes, Interstate Oil
Compact Commission, Oklahoma City (Sept. 1974) 148.
Fig. 46.2, from McNeil, M.S. and Moss, J.T.: Oil Recovery by In-Situ Combustion, Pet. Eng. (July 1958) B-29-B-42.
Fig. 46.5, from Smith, R.W. and Perkins. T.K.: Experimental and Numerical Simulation Studies of the Wet Combustion
Recovery Process, J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. (July-Sept. 1973) 44454.
Fig. 46.34, from Mace. C.: Deepest Combustion Project Proceeding Successfully, Oil & Gus J. (Nov. 17, 1975) 74-81.
Fig. 46.59, from Poettmann. F.H. and Mayland, B.J.: Equilibrium Constants for High Boiling Hydrocarbon Fractures of
Varying Characterization Factors, Pet. Refiner (July 1949) 101ll2.
Tables 46.1 through 46.6, from Steam Dominates Enhanced Oil Recovery, Oil & Gas J. (April 5, 1982) 139-59.
Table 46.31, from 1967 ASTM Steam Tables, ASME. New York City (1967).
Chap. 47
Figs. 47.1, 47.12, and 47.26, from U.S. DOE: drawing by J. Lindley, Bartlesville, OK.
Fig. 47.3, from Mungan, N.: Rev. Inst. Fr. Pet., Editions Technip, Paris (1969) 24, 232.
Fig. 47.4, from Tsaur, K.: A Study of PolymeriSurfactant Interactions for Micellar/Polymer Flooding Applications, MS
thesis. U. of Texas, Austin (1978).
Fig. 47.5, from Martin, F.D., Donaruma, L.G., and Hatch, M.J.: Development of Improved Mobility Control Agents for
SurfactantiPolymer Flooding, second annual report, Contract No. DOEiBCiOCO013, U.S. DOE (Oct. 1980).
Fig. 47.8, from Overbeck, J.Th.G.: Colloids and Surface Chemistry. A Self-Study Subject Guide. Part 2, Lyophobic
Colloids, Bull., Center for Advanced Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (1972).
Fig. 47.9, from Khan. S.A.: The Flow of Foam Through Porous Media, MS thesis, Stanford U., Stanford, CA (1965).
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Fig. 47.19, from Recd. R.L. and Healy, R.N.: Some Physico-Chemical Aspects of Microemulsion Flooding: A Review.
Improved Oil Recovery by Sutjticttmt and Polwner Flooding, D.O. Shah and R.S. Schechter (eds.), Academic Press, New
York City (1977) 383-438.
Fig. 47.20, from Harwell. J.H.: Surfactant Adsorption and Chromatographic Movement with Application in Enhanced Oil
Recovery. PhD dissertation, U. of Texas, Austin (1983).
Fig. 47.23, from Lake, L.W. and Pope, G.A.: Status of Micellar-Polymer Field Tests, Pet. Eng. Intl. (Nov. 1979) 51,
38-60.
Fig. 47.27, from Minssieux, L.: Waterflood Improvement by Means of Alkaline Water, Enhunced Oil Recovery by
Displacement wifh Saline Solutions, Kogan Page Ltd., London (1979) 75-90; courtesy BP Trading Co. Ltd.
Table 47.1, from Manning, R.K., Pope, G.A., and Lake, L.W.: A Technical Survey of Polymer Flooding Projects,
Contract No. DOE/BETC/l0327-19, U.S. DOE (Sept. 1983).
Table 47.2, from Akstinat, M.H.: Surfactants for WOR Process in High-salinity Systems: Product selection and
evaluation, Enhanced Oi/ Recovery, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., New York City (1981).
Chap. 49
Figs. 49.9, 49.10, 49.19 through 49.22, 49.25 through 49.30, and 49.34, from Log Interpretation Principles, Vol. 1,
Schlumberger Well Services, Houston.
Figs. 49.42 through 49.44 and Table 49.2, from Calver, J:C.. Rau, R., and Wells, L.: Electromagnetic Propagation-A
New Dimension in Logging, Schlumberger Well Services, Houston.
Figs. 49.46 and 49.47, from Best, D.L., Gardner. J.S., and Dumanoir, J.L.: A Computer-Processed Wellsite Log
Computation, paper presented at the 1978 SPWLA Annual Logging Symposium, June 13-16.
Fig. 49.48, from Coates, G.R., Schulze, R.P., and Throop, W.H.: VOLAN*-An Advanced Computational Log
Analysis, paper presented at the 1982 SPWLA Annual Logging Symposium, July 6-9.
Tables 49.1 and 49.3 through 49.6, from Bateman. R.M., Log Qunlir?, Control, IHRDC, Boston, 1984.
Chap. 50
Figs. 50.5 and 50.6, from Evans, R.D.: 7he Aromic Nucleus, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York City (1967) 426-38.
Figs. 50.9, 50.21, 50.30, 50.32 through 50.34, 50.40, 50.43, 50.50, and 50.51, courtesy Schlumberger Well Services.
Houston.
Fig. 50.18, from Tidman, J.: Geophysical Well Logging. excerpts from Methods in Experimental Phyic.\: Physics,
Academic Press (1986) 24.
Figs. 50.22 and 50.36, from Schlumberger Log Interpretation Charts, Schlumberger Well Services, Houston. 1984.
Figs. 50.23, 50.24, and 50.26, from Edmundson, H. and Raymer, L.L.: Radioactive Logging Parameters for Common
Minerals. paper presented at the 1979 SPWLA Annual Logging Symposium, Tulsa, June 3-h.
Fig. 50.29, from Hertzog, R.C. and Plasek, R.E.: Neutron-Excited Gamma-Ray Spectrometry for Well Logging. IEEE
Trms. NM. Sti. (Feb. 1979) NS-26, No. 1,
Fig. 50.46, Arnold, D.M. and Smith, H.D. Jr.: Experimental Determination of Environmental Corrections for a Dual-
Spaced Neutron Porosity Log, paper W presented at the 1981 SPWLA Annual Logging Symposium, Mexico City, June
23-26.
Fig. 50.47, from Schlumbergcr Chart Book, Schlumberger Well Services, Houston (1977).
Table 50.3, from Bcrtuzzi. W., Ellis. D.V., and Wahl. J.S.: The Physical Foundation of Formation Lithology Logging
with Gamma Rays, Geophy.siu (Oct. 1981) 46, No. 10.
Chap. 51
Fig. 51.2, from Sears, F.W. and Zemansky, M.W.: Unirwsi@ Physics, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. Inc., Reading. MA
(1955) 1031.
Figs. 51.3 and 51.4, from Krautkramer, J. and Krautkramer, H.: Ultrasonic Testing ofA4ateriais, Springer-Verlag. New
York City (1969) 521.
Figs. 51.6 and 51.71, from Timur. A.: Rock Physics, The Arabian J. Sri. Eng. Special Issue (1978) 5-30.
Figs. 51.7 and 51.15, from Timur. A.: Temperature Dependence of Compressional and Shear Wave Velocities in Rocks,
Groph~sics (1977) 42, 950-56.
Figs. 51.8 and 51.9 and Table 51.2, from Jones, S.B., Thompson, D.D., and Timur. A.: A Unified Investigation of
Elastic Wave Propagation in Crustal Rocks, paper presented at the Rock Mechanics Conference, Vail, CO (1976).
Fig. 51.10, from Johnston. D.H., Toksoz. M.N., and Timur, A.: Attenuation of Seismic Waves in Dry and Saturated
Rocks: Part II: Theoretical Models and Mechanism. Grophvsics ( 1979) 44, 69 l-7 1 I
Fig. 51.11, from Wyllie, M.R.J.. Gardner, G.H.F., and Gregory, A.R.: Studies of Elastic Wave Attenuation in Porous
Media. Geophysics (1962) 27, 269.
Figs. 51.12 through 51.14, from Gardner. G.H.F., Gardner, L.W.R., and Gregory, A.R.: Formation Velocity and
Density-The Diagnostic Basics for Stratigraphic Traps, Geophysics (1974) 39, 770-80.
Fig. 51.16, from Timur, A.: Velocities of Compressional Waves in Porous Media at Permafrost Temperatures,
Geophysics (1968) 33, 584-96.
Figs. 51.17, 51.19, and 51.21, from Toksoz, M.N., Cheng. C.H., and Timur, A.: Velocities of Seismic Waves in Porous
Rocks, Geoph?sirs ( 1976) 41, 62 l-45.
Fig. 51.17, from King, M.S.: Wave Velocities in Rocks as a Function of Changes in Overburden Pressure and Pore Fluid
Saturants. Geophysics (1966) 31, 50-73.
Fig. 51.18, Gregory, A.R.: Fluid Saturation Effect\ on Dynamic Elastic Properties of Sedimentary Rocks. Geophysics
(1976) 41, 895-921.
Fig. 51.20, from Timur. A.. Hempkins. W.B., and Weinbrandt. R.M.: Scanning Electron Microscope Study of Pore
Systems in Rocks. J. Geophy. Res. (1971) 76, No. 20, 4932-48.
xi
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Figs. 51.22, 51.37, 51.50, and 51.94, from Gcycr. R.L. and Myung, J.I.: The 3-D Velocity Log: a Tool for In-Situ
Determination of the Elastic Moduli of Rocks. Dynamic Rock Mechanics, Proc., Twelfth Symposium on Rock
Mechanics (1971) 71-107.
Figs. 51.23 and 51.24, from Minear, J.W. and Fletcher, C.R.: Full-Wave Acoustic Logging, Tr0n.c.) SPWLA (1983)
paper EE.
Fig. 51.25, from Cheng. C.H. and Toksoz, M.N.: Elastic Wave Propagation in a Fluid-Filled Borchole and Synthetic
Acoustic Logs, Geophysics (1981) 46, 1042-S3.
Fig. 51.26, from Cheng. C.H. and Toksoz. M.N.: Generation, Propagation and Analysis of Tube Waves in a Borehole,
Trans., SPWLA (1982) paper P.
Figs. 51.27, 51.28, 51.31, and 51.46, from Thomas, D.H.: Seismic Applications of Sonic Logs, The Log Analwt (Jan.-
Feb. 1977) 23-32.
Figs. 51.29 and 51.33, from Lynch, E.J.: Forrnutiorz Evu/uurwn, Harper and Row, New York City (1962) 422.
Figs. 51.36 and 51.77, from Ausburn, J.R.: Well Log Editing in Support of Detailed Seismic Studies, Trans., SPWLA
(1977) paper F.
Figs. 51.39 and 51.42, from Goetz, J.F., Dupal. L., and Bowler, J.: An Investigation into Discrepancies Between Sonic
Log and Seismic Check Shot Velocities, Part I, APEA J. (1979) 19, 131-41.
Fig. 51.40, from Ransom, R.C.: Methods Based on Density and Neutron Well-Logging Responses to Distinguish
Characteristics of Shaly Sandstone Reservoir Rock, The Log Analyst (May-June 1977) 18, 47-62.
Figs. 51.41, 51.43, 51.44, and 51.48, from The Long Spaciflg So&, Schlumberger technical pamphlet (1980).
Fig. 51.45, from Misk, A. ef a/.: Effects of Hole Conditions on Log Measurements and Formation Evaluation, SAID,
Third Annual Logging Symposium (June 1976).
Figs. 51.47 and 51.49, from The Long Spacing Sonic, Schlumberger technical pamphlet (1982).
Fig. 51.56, from Parks. T.W., McClellan, J.H., and Morris. C.F.: Algorithms for Full-Waveform Sonic Logging, paper
presented at the 1983 IEEE-ASSP Workshop on Spectral Estimation.
Fig. 51.58, from Wiley. R.: Borehole Televiewer-Revisited. Trans., SPWLA (1980) 21, paper HH.
Fig. 51.60, from Seisviewer Logging, Birdwell, Div. of Seismograph Service Corp.. technical pamphlet (1981).
Fig. 51.61, from Broding, R.A.: Volumetric Scanning Well Logging, Trans., SPWLA (1981) 22, paper B.
Fig. 51.63, from Log Interpretation Charts. Schlumberger (1979).
Fig. 51.65, from Evaluaci6n de Formaciones en la Argentina, Schlumberger (1973) 9455.
Fig. 51.66, from Raymer, L.L.. Hunt, E.R., and Gardner, J-S.: An Improved Sonic Transit Time-To-Porosity
Transform. Trms., SPWLA (1980) paper P.
Fig. 51.67, from Hartley. K.B.: Factors Affecting Sandstone Acoustic Compressional Velocities and An Examination of
Empirical Correlations Between Velocities and Porosities, Tram, SPWLA (1981) paper PP.
Figs. 51.70 and 51.72, from Nations, J.F.: Lithology and Porosity from Acoustic Shear and Comprcssional Wave Transit
Time Relationships, Trms., SPWLA 18th Annual Logging Symposium (June 1974).
Fig. 51.73 and 51.74, from Gardner. G.H.F. and Harris, M.H.: Velocity and Attenuation of Elastic Waves in Sands.
Trans.. SPWLA (1968) 9, paper M.
Fig. 51.75, from Arditty. P.C.. Ahrens, G., and Staron, Ph.: EVA: A Long Spacing Sonic Tool for Evaluation of
Velocities and Attenuation. paper presented at the 1981 SEG Annual Meeting, Los Angeles.
Fig. 51.76, from Domenico. S.N.: Effect of Brine-Gas Mixture on Velocity in an Unconsolidated Sand Reservoir. Thr
Log A~~nl~st (1977) 18, 38-46.
Figs. 51.78 and 51.79, from Kithas. B.A.: Lithology, Gas Detection, and Rock Properties from Acoustic Logging
Systems, Trcrns., SPWLA (1976) 17, paper R.
Figs. 51.80 and 51.81, from Laws. W.R.. Edwards. C.A.M., and Wichmann, P.A.: A Study of the Acoustic and Density
Changes Associated with High-Amplitude Events on Seismic Data. Trans., SPWLA (1974) 15, paper D.
Figs. 51.83 and 51.84, from Herring, E.A.: North Sea Abnormal Pressures Determined from Logs, Per. Eng. (1973)
45, 72-84.
Figs. 51.85 through 51.89, from Acoustic Cement Bond Log, Dresser Atlas technical pamphlet (I 979) 20.
Figs. 51.90 and 51.92, from Cement Bond Evaluation in Cased Holes Through 3-D Velocity Logging, Birdwell technical
pamphlet (1978) 12.
Fig. 51.91, from Cement Evaluation Tool, Schlumberger technical pamphlet (1983).
Fig. 51.96, from Walker. T.: Acoustic Character of Unconsolidated Sand, Welcx paper (1971).
Fig. 51.97, from Myung. J.I. and Baltosser. R.W.: Fracture Evaluation by the Borehole Logging Method. Stuhi& Rock
Sloprs. Thirteenth Symposium on Rock Mechanics (1972) 31-56.
Figs. 51.98 and 51.99, from Taylor, T.J.: Interpretation and Application of Borehole Televicwer Surveys. Tram.,
SPWLA (1983) 24, paper QQ.
Fig. 51.100, from Williams. D.M. et (II.: The Long Spacing Acoustic Logging Tool, Trans., SPWLA (1984) 25,
paper T.
Table 51.1, from Timur. A.: Application of Acoustic Wave Propagation Methods to Evaluation and Production of
Hydrocarbon Rcscrvoirs, Pm-, IEEE Ultrasonic Symposium, Dallas (1984).
Table 51.3, from Guyod. H. and Shane. L.E.: Geophysical Well Logging, Hubert Guyod, Houston (1969) I, 256; and
Wyllic, M.R.J.. Gregory, A.R.. and Gardner. G.H.F.: Elastic Wave Velocities in Heterogeneous and Porous Media,
Geophysic~s (1956) 21, 41-70.
Chap. 52
Figs. 52.1 and 52.2, from MS-196, Exploration Logging Inc., Sacramento, CA (1979).
Figs. 52.3 through 52.12 and 52.22 and Table 52.1, courtesy Exploration Logging Inc., Sacramento, CA.
Figs. 52.13, 52.14, 52.16, 52.17, and 52.19 through 52.21, from MS-156, Exploration Logging Inc.. Sacramento, CA
(1981).
Figs. 52.15 and 52.18, from AV-6. Exploration Logging Inc.. Sacramento. CA (1980).
Fig. 52.23, from AV-13. Exploration Logging Inc.. Sacramento. CA (1982).
xii
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Chap. 53
Fig. 53.3, from Measurement While Drilling, Technical Specifications. Anadrill Logging Unit, Schlumherger.
Fig. 53.7 and Table 53.2, from Log Qualify Conrrol Munurri. Vizilog Inc., Houston.
Figs. 53.9 through 53.11, from Dipme/er InferpretLltion~Vol. I, Fundamentals, Schlumberger, Houston (1981).
Fig. 53.12 and 53.15, from Gilbreath. J.A.: Dipmeter Interpretation Rules, Schlumberger Offshore Services, New
Orleans.
Figs. 53.13 and 53.14, from Open Hole Log Analysis and Formation Evaluation. Vizilog Inc.. Houston.
Figs. 53.16 through 53.18, from 7k Lox Analyst (March-April 1979) 20.
Fig. 53.20, from Well Evaluation Developments Schlumherger, Houston (1982).
Fig. 53.23 through 53.25, from Dresser Atlas Production Senlices Catalog, Dresser Atlas.
Fig. 53.26, from The &IR Analyst (March-April 1984) 25-28.
Fig. 53.27 through 53.32, from Well Evaluation Developments 1982, Schlumherger.
Table 53.1 and Fig. 53.5, from EXLOG Flyer GA 817-A. EXLOG (June 1983).
Table 53.3 and Figs. 53.21 and 53.22, from Dia-Log flyer, The Dia-Log Co., Houston.
Chap. 54
Figs. 54.6 through 54.9, courtesy Dowell Schlumherger Technical Brochure TSL-2038, Acidizing-State-of-the-Art,
Tulsa, OK (1981).
Chap. 56
Figs. 56.1 through 56.8, courtesy Dowell Schlumberger Technical Brochure TSL45 19, Dowell Sand Control Techniques
and Equipment Catalog (Sept. 1982). Tulsa. OK.
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Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..~......................___.____._. v
1. Mathematical Tables and Units and Systems of Weights and Measures
Mathematical Tables . .
Units and Systems of Weights and Measures . . .
............... 1-2
............... 1-68
2. Casing, Tubing, and Line Pipe
Casing.. .............................................................................. 2-1
Tubing ................................................................................ 2-38
Line Pipe .............................................................................. 2-46
Equations for Calculating Performance Properties of Casing, Tubing, and Line Pipe ............... 2-46
API Threading Data ..................................................................... 2-64
3. Wellhead Equipment and Flow Control Devices
Introduction .
API Flanged or Clamped Wellhead Equipment.
Flow Control Devices: Safety Shut-In Systems
Other Flow-Control Devices
Corrosion
Special Application.
Independent Screwed Wellhead.
4. Production Packers
Production Packers Classification and Objectives ............... 4-l
Tubing-to-Packer Connections. ............... 4-l
Packer Utilization and Constraints ............... 4-l
Considerations for Packer Selection ............... 4-4
Tubing/Packer System ............... 4-6
Tubing Response Characteristics. ............... 4-8
Combination Tubing/Packer Systems ............... 4-11
Tubing/Packer Forces on Intermediate Packers ............... 4-l I
5. Gas Lift
Introduction...................................................
Gas Fundamentals as Applied to Gas Lift .
Gas Lift Valve Mechanics
Continuous-Flow Gas Lift
Intermittent Gas Lift .
Unloading Procedures and Proper Adjustment of Injection Gas Rate
6. Hydraulic Pumping
Introduction
Downhole Pumps
Principles of Operation-Reciprocating Pumps
Jet Pumps
Surface Equipment
Appendix A-Fluid Properties
Appendix B-Friction Relationships
7. Electric Submersible Pumps
Introduction
ESP System.
Application5
ESP System Components.
Selection Data and Methods
Handling, Installation. and Operation
Troubleshooting
............... 3-l
............... 3-l
............... 3-18
............... 3-34
............... 3-35
............... 3-36
............... 3-39
.
5-l
S-3
5-12
5-21
5-38
5-53
6-1
6-2
6-8
6-34
6-49
6-66
6-69
7-l
7-l
7-l
7-3
7-9
7-12
7-14
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8. Subsurface Sucker-Rod Pumps
Introduction ...................
Pump Selection ................
Plungers ......................
Slippage Past Plungers. .........
Soft-Packed Plungers ...........
Balls and Seats ................
Double Valves ................
Bottom-Discharge Valve ........
Three-Tube Pump. .............
Gas Anchors ..................
Special Pumps. ................
Corrosion ....................
Effect of Gases and Vapors. .....
Conclusions ...................
9. Sucker Rods
Introduction ...................
Steel Sucker Rods ............
Fiberglass Sucker Rods .........
.
.
..,................,..
10. Pumping Units and Prime Movers for Pumping Units: Part l-Pumping Units
Introduction ............................................................
Pumping Units .........................................................
Component Parts .......................................................
Pumping Unit Loading ...................................................
Counterbalance .........................................................
Sizing .................................................................
Installation .............................................................
Lubrication ............................................................
Changing the Oil .......................................................
8-l
8-2
8-4
8-5
8-6
8-7
8-7
8-8
8-8
8-9
8-9
8-9
8-10
8-10
9-l
9-l
9-10
IO-I
IO-I
IO-4
IO-5
IO-6
IO-7
IO-7
IO-12
IO-13
Pumping Units and Prime Movers for Pumping Units: Part 2-Prime Movers for Pumping Units
Introduction ............................................................................ lo-14
Internal-Combustion Engines .............................................................. IO-14
Electric Motors for Oilwell Pumping ....................................................... IO-19
11. Oil Storage
Types of Storage Tanks ................................
Tank Corrosion Protection .............................
Appurtenances ........................................
Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks ......
Materials of Construction ..............................
Production Equipment .................................
Vapor Losses ........................................
Vapor Control and Gravity Conservation With Storage Tanks
Underground Storage ..................................
12. Oil and Gas Separators
Summary.. ...........................................
Introduction ...........................................
Primary Functions of Oil and Gas Separators ...............
Secondary Functions of Oil and Gas Separators .............
Special Problems in Oil and Gas Separation ................
Methods Used To Remove Oil From Gas in Separators ......
Mist Extractors Used in Oil and Gas Separators ............
Methods Used To Remove Gas From Oil in Separators ......
Estimated Quality of Separated Fluids .....................
Classification of Oil and Gas Separators ...................
Centrifugal Oil and Gas Separators and Gas Scrubbers .......
Illustrations of Oil and Gas Separators ....................
Comparison of Oil and Gas Separators ....................
Estimating the Sizes and Capacities of Oil and Gas Separators.
xvi
. .
11-l
1 l-4
11-6
11-6
1 l-9
11-9
11-11
I l-12
11-13
12-l
12-l
. 12-3
12-4
12-6
12-8
12-l I
12-13
12-13
12-16
12-20
12-21
12-21
12-21
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Computer Sizing of Oil and Gas Separators ............................. 12-25
Capacity Curves for Vertical and Horizontal Oil and Gas Separators ........ 12-27
Practical Considerations in Sizing Oil and Gas Separators ................. 12-32
Stage Separation of Oil and Gas. ...................................... 12-32
Selection and Application of Separators and Scrubbers .................... 12-35
Construction Codes for Oil and Gas Separators .......................... 12-38
Controls, Valves, Accessories, and Safety Features for Oil and Gas Separators 12-39
Operation and Maintenance Considerations for Oil and Gas Separators ....... 12-40
13. Gas Measurement and Regulation
Introduction ............................................
Gas Measurement. ......................................
Regulation.. ...........................................
14. Lease-Operated Hydrocarbon Recovery Systems
Introduction...............................................
Low-Temperature Separation (LTS) Systems . . . . . . . . .
Gas-Treating Systems for Removal of Water Vapor, CO,, and H,S
15. Surface Facilities for Waterflooding and Saltwater Disposal
Introduction ............................................
Piping System Design ...................................
Selecting Pumps and Drivers .............................
Separating Suspended Solids From Heater. ..................
Treating Hydrocarbons From Water. .......................
Dissolved Gas Removal ..................................
Dissolved Solids Removal ................................
Removing Hydrocarbons From Solids ......................
Process Selection and Project Management ..................
Project Control .........................................
16. Automation of Lease Equipment
Introduction ...........................................
Automatic Production-Control Equipment ..................
Production Safety Controls ..............................
Automatic Quantitative Measurement ......................
Gas Measurement ......................................
Temperature Measurement ..............................
Automatic Sampler. ....................................
BS&W Monitor .......................................
Net-Oil Computer. .....................................
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems .
Typical Automatic-Control Installations ....................
Automatic Well Testing .................................
LACT ...............................................
17. Measuring, Sampling, and Testing Crude Oil
Introduction ............................................
Procedure for Typical Measuring, Sampling, and Testing ......
Abstract of API Manual .................................
18. Offshore Operations
Introduction ...............................
Historical Review ..........................
Offshore Drilling ..........................
Field Operations ...........................
Special Considerations ......................
Structures ................................
Offshore Production Operations ..............
Arctic ....................................
Electrica:, Instrumentation and Control Systems
Control of Subsea Production Facilities ........
.
.
. .
. .
.
. .
13-l
13-l
13-49
14-l
14-l
14-17
5-l
5-l
5-14
5-18
5-2 I
15-28
15-29
1.5-30
15-30
1.5-32
16-1
16-2
16-4
16-5
16-6
16-7
16-7
16-7
16-7
16-8
16-10
16-12
16-12
17-l
17-l
17-3
18-I
18-l
18-3
18-17
18-20
18-22
18-27
18-38
18-43
. 18-48
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19. Crude Oil Emulsions
Introduction............................................. 19-I
Theories of Emulsions 19-I
Sampling and Analyzing Crude Oil Emulsions . 19-6
Methods Used in Treating Crude Oil Emulsions, 19-6
Emulsion-Treating Equipment and Systems . . 19-15
Description of Equipment Used in Treating Crude Oil Emulsions 19-16
Operational Considerations for Emulsion-Treating Equipment. . 19-28
Economics of Treating Crude Oil Emulsions . . 19-32
20. Gas Properties and Correlations
Molecular Weight. . . . .
Ideal Gas . .
21.
. .
Critical Temperature and Pressure .
Specific Gravity (Relative Density) . . .
Mole Fraction and Apparent Molecular Weight of Gas Mixtures
Specific Gravity of Gas Mixtures . . . .
Daltons Law . . . . . . . . .
Amagats Law.
Real Gases . . .
Principle of Corresponding States.
Equations of State . . . . .
Van der Waals Equation. . . .
Viscosity . . . . .
Viscosity Correlations . . .
Natural Gasoline Content of Gas . . .
Formation Volume Factor . .
Coefficient of Isothermal Compressibility
Vapor Pressure . . .
Cox Chart
Calingeart and Davis Equation .
Lee-Kesler ............................
Example Problems .....................
Crude Oil Properties and Condensate Properties and Correlations
Introduction ..................................................
BaseofCrudeOil ............................................
Physical Properties ............................................
True-Boiling-Point Crude-Oil Analyses ...........................
Bubblepoint-Pressure Correlations ...............................
Dewpoint-Pressure Correlations .................................
Sage and Olds Correlation .....................................
Total Formation Volume Correlations ............................
22. Oil System Correlations
Introduction . . . . . . .
Oil Density Determination. . .
Bubblepoint-Pressure Correlations
Solution GOR for Saturated Oils .
Oil FVF Correlations . . .
Total FVFs
Oil Viscosity Correlations .
Gas/Oil IFT . . .
Glossary . . . . .
23. Phase Diagrams
Introduction . .
Single-Component Phase Diagrams
Phase Rule . . . . .
Types of Diagrams. . .
Calculation of Phase Compositions. . .
.
.
.
.
. . . .
. .
. .
. . . .
. .
. .
. . . .
. .
.
.
.
.
. .
.
. .
.
. .
.
. .
.
.
. .
.
. . .
. . . I
. . .
. .
.
.
. .
20-I
20-l
20-2
20-4
20-4
20-4
20-4
20-4
20-4
20-4
20-6
20-7
20-9
20-9
20-10
20-I 1
20-11
20-11
20-12
20-13
20-13
20-13
21-I
21-l
21-3
21-8
21-9
21-10
2llll
21-15
22-l
22-2
22-5
22-9
22-10
22-13
22-13
22-16
22-20
23-l
23-l
23-2
23-2
23-10
XVIII
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24. Properties of Produced Waters
Introduction and History
Sampling . . . . . . .
Analysis Methods for Oilfield Waters . . .
Chemical Properties of Oilfield Waters . . .
Inorganic Constituents . . . . .
Physical Properties of Oilfield Waters
Interpretation of Chemical Analyses . .
Occurrence, Origin, and Evolution of Oilfield Waters
Recovery of Minerals From Brines . . . . . .
. .
. .
. . . .
25. Phase Behavior of Water/Hydrocarbon Systems
Introduction ...........................................................................
General Hydrocarbon/Water Phase Diagrams and Equilibrium Data Sources .....................
Hydrate Stability Conditions .............................................................
Determining the Water Content of Gas (or Hydrocarbon-Rich Liquid) in Equilibrium With Hydrates
Definition of the Saturated Water Content of Natural Gases in Equilibrium With Aqueous Phases ...
Quantitative Prediction of Water Content in Light Hydrocarbon Systems ........................
Quantitative Predictions of Solute Concentrations in the Aqueous Phase .........................
Sour Water Stripper Correlations .........................................................
Oil and Gas Reservoirs That Exist in the Gas Hydrate Region .................................
Hydrate Inhibition .....................................................................
26. Properties of Reservoir Rocks
Introduction . .
Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Permeability . .
Fluid Saturations. .
Electrical Conductivity of Fluid-Saturated Rocks
Empirical Correlation of Electrical Properties.
27. Typical Core Analysis of Different Formations
Introduction ...............................
Porosity ..................................
Permeability ..............................
Liquid Saturations .........................
Percussion Sidewall Core Data ...............
Data From U.S. Areas .....................
Data From Non-U.S. Areas .................
28. Relative Permeability
Introduction . . . . 28-l
Historical Background . 28-2
Framework Ideas . . 28-2
Measurement Methodologies . 28-3
Recent Literature 28-9
Critique of Recent Work . . . . . 28-10
Ramifications Needing Attention. 28-12
Conclusions . . 28-13
29. Petroleum Reservoir Traps
Introduction .............. ..........
Trap Classification ...................
Characteristics of Reservoir Rocks. ......
Glossary ................ ..........
30. Bottomhole Pressures
Introduction
BHP Instruments . .
Pressure Transducer Technology
Calculated BHP .
Application of BHP .
. .
.
,.,,.,.....,
. .
.
. .
24-l
24-3
24-5
24-5
24-9
24-12
24-18
24-19
24-20
25-l
25-1
25-4
25-10
25-11
25-16
25-16
25-17
25-18
25-19
26-l
26-l
26-10
26-20
26-27
26-29
27-l
27-1
27-l
27-8
27-9
27-9
27-9 . . .
.
. . . . . . . . . .
29-l
29- 1
29-6
29-8
30-l
30-l
. 30-6
30-7
30-8
xix
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31. Temperature in Wells
Introduction ...........
Thermometers .........
Thcrmometry .........
Summary .............
32. Potential Tests of Oil Wells
Texas Allowable Rule ....................
Productivity Index (PI) ...................
Specific PI. .............................
Theoretical PI ...........................
Pseudosteady-State Flow ..................
Stock-Tank Measurement. .................
Portable Well Testers, ....................
GOR ..................................
GOR as a Criterion of Reservoir Performance
....... 31-l
....... 31-I
....... 31-2
....... 31-7
....... 32-1
....... 32-2
....... 32-4
....... 32-4
....... 32-5
....... 32-6
....... 32-7
....... 32-14
....... 32-15
.
. .
33. Open Flow of Gas Wells
Introduction .. ........................
Pitot-Tube Gauging of Low-Pressure Wells
Backpressure Testing ..... ........................
Gas Well Inflow Equation. Pseudosteady State .........
Multipoint Test and Example .......................
Isochronal Test and Example .......................
Comparison of Multipoint With Isochronal Test ........
Gas Measurement ... ............... .............
Calculation of Subsurface Pressures ..................
Application of Backpressure Tests to Producing Problems
Production Rate .................... .............
Causes of Deterioration in Performance .............
Examples of Remedial Operations ..... .............
....... 33-l
....... 33-1
....... 33-3
....... 33-5
....... 33-7
....... 33-10
33-l 1 ........
....... 33-13
....... 33-13
....... 33-20
....... 13-20 _
....... 33-20
....... 33-22
. . .
.
. .
34. Wellbore Hydraulics
Introduction
Theoretical Basis
Producing Wells .
Injection Wells
Oil Wells
Multiphase Flow.
Flow Through Chokes
Liquid Loading in Wells
....... 34- 1
....... 34- 1
....... 34-3
....... 34-28
....... 34-30
....... 34-35
....... 34-45
....... 34-46
.
.
. .
. .
. .
.
35. Well Performance Equations
Introduction. ...............
Diffusivity Equation .........
Multiphase Flow. ...........
Oil Well Performance .......
Gas Well Performance. ......
Transient Well Test Analysis
....... 35-1
....... 35-l
....... 35-2
....... 35-2
....... 35-10
....... 35-14
. . . .
.
. . .
36. Development Plan for Oil and Gas Reservoirs
Introduction.
Oil and Gas Differences
Characterization of the Reservoir
Prediction of Reservoir Performance
36-l
36-2
36-3
36-9
.
. .
37. Solution-Gas-Drive Reservoirs
Introduction ..................................
Definitions. ..................................
Typical Performance ..........................
Types of Models Used. ........................
Basic Assumptions of Tank-Type Material Balance
Basic Data Required. ..........................
Material-Balance Equation ......................
37-1
37-l
37-1
37-2 .
17-2 _
37-3 .
17-5 _
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Material Balance as Equation of Straight Line for Determination of OIP and of Gas-Cap Size 37-6
Material-Balance Calculations Using Tracys Method .................................. 37-7
Comparison of Tarners and Tracys Methods ........................................ 37-10
Material-Balance Calculations Using Muskat and Taylors Method ....................... 37-10
Sensitivity of Material-Balance Results .............................................. . 37-13
Production Rate and Time Calculations .............................................. 37-17
Insights From Simulator Studies .................................................... 37-21
Volatile Oil Reservoir Performance Predictions ....................................... 37-22
38. Water Drive Oil Reservoirs
Introduction ...........................
Definitions. ...........................
Mathematical Analysis ..................
.
.
.
34. Gas-Condensate Reservoirs
Introduction ................................................
Properties and Behavior of Gas-Condensate Fluids. ...............
Gas-Condensate Well Tests and Sampling .......................
Sample Collection and Evaluation .............................
Operation by Pressure Depletion ..............................
Operation by Pressure Maintenance or Cycling ..................
General Operating Problems: Well Characteristics and Requirements
Economics of Gas-Condensate Reservoir Operation ...............
40. Estimation of Oil and Gas Reserves
Estimating Reserves ...........................
Petroleum Reserves-Definitions and Nomenclature.
Glossary of Terms .....................................................................
Computation of Reservoir Volume ........................................................
Computation of Oil or Gas in Place. ......................................................
Saturated Depletion-Type Oil Reservoirs-Volumetric Methods ................................
API Estimation of Oil and Gas Reserves. ..................................................
Undersaturated Oil Reservoirs Without Water Drive Above the Bubblepoint-Volumetric Method ...
Volatile Oil Reservoirs-Volumetric Methods ...............................................
Oil Reservoirs With Gas-Cap Drive-Volumetric Unit Recovery Computed by Frontal-Drive Method
Oil Reservoirs Under Gravity Drainage. ...................................................
Oil Reservoirs With Water Drive-Volumetric Methods ......................................
Volumetric Recovery Estimates for Nonassociated Gas Reservoirs .............................
Production-Decline Curves ................
Other Performance Curves ................
41. Valuation of Oil and Gas Reserves
Types of Oil and Gas Property Ownership
Valuation . . .
Forecast of Future Rate of Production
Development and Operating Costs . .
Federal Taxes . . . . . . . .
Different Concepts of Valuation
Interest Tables and Deferment Factors.
42. Injection Operations
Introduction . . . . . .
Important Factors in the Design of Injection Operations
Analysis of a Reservoir for Injection Operations
43. Gas-Injection Pressure Maintenance in Oil Reservoirs
Introduction. . . . . . .
Types of Gas-In.jection Operations .
Optimal Time To Initiate Gas Pressure-Maintenance Operations
Efficiencies of Oil Recovery by Gas Displacement .
Methods of Evaluating Unit-Displacement Efficiency.
Methods of Evaluating Conformance Efficiency . .
Methods of Evaluating Areal Sweep Efficiency .
Calculation of Gas Pressure-Maintenance Performance
.
. 38-1
. 38-l
38-l
. 39-1
39-1
39-4
. 39-6
39-10
39-15
39-24
. 39-26
40- 1
40-2
40-3
40-4
40-5
40-8
40-12
40-12
40-13
40-13
40-14
40-15
40-2 1
40-26
40-32
41-l
41-2
41-9
41-l 1
41-12
41-16
41-25
42-l
42-2
42-3
43-1
43-2
43-3
43-3
43-3
43-6
43-7
43-8
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Appendix A-Example Calculations of Future Performance .
Appendix B-Selected References Containing Equations, Calculation Procedures, and Example
Calculations Related to Gas-Injection Performance Predictions . . . . . .
Appendix C-Data Requirements for Engineering Analysis of Gas-Injection Operations
44. Water-Injection Pressure Maintenance and Waterflood Processes
Introduction .......................................................
Important Factors in Waterflooding or Water-Injection Pressure Maintenance
Determination of Residual Oil After Waterflooding ......................
Predicting Water Injection Oil Recovery and Performance
Water-Injection Well Behavior .......................................
Water-Injection Case Histories .......................................
Pilot Floods .......................................................
Surface-Active Agents in Waterflooding ...............................
Water Source and Requirements ......................................
Water Treating ....................................................
Selection and Sizing of Waterflood Plants. .............................
45. Miscible Displacement
Introduction . . .
Theoretical Aspects of Miscible-Phase Displacement
Factors Affecting Displacement Efficiency
Engineering Study . . . .
Appendix-Engineering Examples
46. Thermal Recovery
Introduction. ........................
Two Forms of Steam Injection Processes
Three Forms of In-Situ Combustion. ....
Historical Development ...............
Current Status. ......................
Theoretical Considerations.
Analytical Models for Steam Injection ...
Numerical Simulation. ................
Laboratory Experimentation ...........
Field Projects .......................
Project Design ......................
Well Completion. ....................
Field Facilities ......................
Monitoring and Coring Programs .......
Operational Problems and Remedies ....
Case Histories .......................
Thermal Properties ...................
47. Chemical Flooding
Introduction .........................
Mobility Control Processes ............
Low-IFT Processes. ..................
High-pH Processes ...................
Summary ...........................
.
48. Reservoir Simulation
Introduction ...........................................
A Brief History .......................................
General Description of Simulation Models .................
Purpose of Reservoir Simulation. .........................
Considerations in Practical Application of Simulation Models. .
Validity of Simulation Results. ...........................
Simulation Technology ..................................
49. Electrical Logging
Fundamentals .......................
Spontaneous Potential (SP) Log ........
Resistivity Logging Devices ...........
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.
43-10
. . . 43-16
43-17
44-l
. 44-2
. 44-5
44-7
44-32
. . 44-36
. . 44-37
. 44-39
. 44-41
. 44-43
44-45
. 45-l
45-l
. 45-6
. 45-8
. 45-10
46-l
. 46-l
. . 46-l
. 46-3
46-3
46-4
46-7
46-l 1
46-12
. 46-13
46-17
46-19
46-19
46-20
46-2 1
46-22
46-3 I
47-l
. 47- 1
. 41-9
47-18
47-22
48-l
48-l
. 48-2
. . 48-6
. 48-7
. 48-9
. 48-13
. 49-l
49-7
49-l I
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Induction Logging ................................
Focused-Electrode Logs. ...........................
Microresistivity Devices ...........................
Uses and Interpretation of Well Logs ................
The Digital Age ..................................
49-14
49-1x
49-22
49-25
49-36
50. Nuclear Logging Techniques
Introduction ......................................
Nuclear Physics for Logging Applications. ............
Nuclear Radiation Logging Devices ..................
Interpretation of Nuclear Logs ......................
50-l
50-3
50-15
50-23
.
51. Acoustic Logging
Introduction ......................................
Elasticity ........................................
Acoustic Wave Propagation in Rocks. ................
Acoustic Wave Propagation Methods .................
Methods of Recording Acoustic Data. ................
Applications .....................................
Conclusions ......................................
Appendix-Theory of Elastic Wave Propagation in Rocks
51-l
51-l
51-4
51-l I
51-14
51-28
51-47
51-49
. .
. . .
.
52. Mud Logging
Introduction . . . .
Service Types . . .
Formation Evaluation Services . .
The Modern Mud Logging Unit
The Mud Log . . . . . . .
Petroleum Engineering Services .
Drilling Engineering Services . .
Selecting a Mud Logging Service.
Standards for and Status of Services
52-l
. 52-l
52-2
52-11
52-11
52-16
52-27
52-28
52-30
. .
.
. .
.
.
.
53. Other Well Logs
Introduction ......................................
MWD ..........................................
Directional Surveys ...............................
Dipmeter Logging ................................
Caliper Logs .....................................
Casing Inspection Logs ............................
53-l
53-l
53-3
53-7
53-16
53-17
.
. . . .
.
54. Acidizing
Introduction .
General Principles .
Acid Reaction Rates
Acid Additives .
Acidizing Techniques
Laboratory Testing
Acid Treatment Design
Critical Wells
Summary .
54-l
54-l
54-4
54-6
54-8
54-9
54-10
. 54-11
54-12
. .
.
. .
. .
. . . .
.
. . . .
55. Formation Fracturing
Introduction .
Hydraulic Fracturing Theory
Formations Fractured . .
Fracture Planes. .
Fracture Area . . . .
Reservoir-Controlled Fluids.
Viscosity-Controlled Fluids
Fluid-Loss-Controlled Fluids
Stimulation Results. . .
Fracturing Materials . . .
Fracturing Techniques
55-l
55-l
55-2
55-2
55-2
55-2
55-4
55-4
55-4
55-5
55-8
. . .
.
. . .
. .
. .
.
. . .
.
.
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. .
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Multiple-Zone Fracturing.
Fracturing Equipment.
Treatment Planning and Design
56. Remedial Cleanup, Sand Control, and Other Stimulation Treatments
Introduction...................................................
Reperforation ___.,..,,,..._..___.,,.,..,,,._.._..,._____._.._.
Abrasive Jet Cleaning .
Mud Removal.................................................
Water Blocks and Emulsions
Scale Deposits.................................................
Paraffin Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Large-Volume Injection Treatments
Steam Injection
General Comments .
Sand Control ~~~~.~..~.~.~~~..~..~~~.~.~~~~....~~~..~~~...~~.~~
57. Oil and Gas Leases
The Landowners Interest .........
The Oil and Gas Lease ...........
Assignments by the Landowner ....
Assignments by the Lessee ........
Unit Operations .................
Getting the Well Drilled ..........
Lease Problems During Development
Taxation .......................
Offshore Leasing ................
58. The SI Metric System of Units and SPE Metric Standard
Preface ..................................
Part 1: SI-The International System of Units
Introduction ...................................................
SI Units and Unit Symbols .......................................
Application of the Metric System .................................
Rules for Conversion and Rounding. ..............................
Special Terms and Quantities Involving Mass and Amount of Substance
Mental Guides for Using Metric Units .............................
Appendix A-Terminology ..............
Appendix B-S1 Units ...................
Appendix C-Style Guide for Metric Usage .
Appendix D-General Conversion Factors. ..
Appendix E-Conversion Factors for the Vara ......................
Part 2: Discussion of Metric Unit Standards ..........................
Introduction ...................
Review of Selected Units ........
Unit Standards Under Discussion
Notes for Table 2.2 ............
Notes for Table 2.3 ............ .
59. SPE Letter and Computer Symbols Standard
Symbols in Alphabetical Order..
Quantities in Alphabetical Order.
Subscript Definitions in Alphabetical Order
Subscript Symbols in Alphabetical Order
Index .
Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subject . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
55-9
55-9
55-9
56-l
56- 1
56-l
56-l
56-2
56-2
56-2
56-2
56-2
56-2
56-2
57-l
57-3
57-6
57-7
57-7
57-8
57-10
57-l I
57-l I
58-2
58-2
58-2
58-2
58-3
58-5
58-7
58-8
58-8
58-9
58-l I
58-14
58-20
58-2 I
58-2 I
58-22
58-24
58-25
5x-25
59-2
59-18
59-52
59-63
I
1
15
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Chapter 1
Mathematical Tables and Units and
Systems of Weights and Measures
Philip Franklin, Massachusetts I nst. of Technol ogy*
L. E. Barbrow. U. S. Nat] . Bureau of Standards
Contents
Mathemati cal Tabl es
By Phi l i p Frankl i n
Numbers
Tabl e 1 . l - Squares I - 2
Tabl e I . 2- Gi bes I - 7
Tabl e 1. 3- Square Roots . i - i i
Tabl e 1. 4- Cube Roots l - 14
Tabl e 1. 5- Three- Hal ves Pow& : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : l - 19
Tabl e 1. 6- - Reci procal s 1- 21
Ci rcl es
Tabl e 1. 7- Ci rcumf erences by Hundredths l - 24
Tabl e 1. 8- Areas by Hundredths . I - 26
Tabl e 1. 9- Ci rcumf erences and Areas by Ei ghths l - 28
Tabl e 1 . l O- Areas i n Square Feet I - 30
Tabl e 1 . l l - Segments, Gi ven h/c ............... l-31
Tabl e 1. 12- Segments. Gi ven h/D ................ 1-32
Spheres
Tabl e 1. 13- Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 33
Tabl e 1, 14- Vol umes by Hundredths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 34
Tabl e 1 . I 5- Regul ar Pol ygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l - 36
Tabl e 1. 16- - Bi nomi al Coef f i ci ents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 37
Tabl e 1, 17- Common Logari thms ( 1 . OOto 2. 00) 1- 38
Tabl e I . 18- Common Loqari thms I - 40
Tabl e 1. 19- Degrees and- Mi nutes i n Radi ans . . . . . . . l - 42
Tabl e 1. 20- - Radi ans i n Degrees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 43
Tabl e 1. 21- Natural Si nes and Cosi nes l - 44
Tabl e 1. 22- Natural Tangents and Cotangents l - 46
Tabl e 1. 23- Natural Secants and Cosecants l - 48
Tabl e 1. 24- Tri gonometri c Functi ons . . . . . . . . . . . I - 50
Tabl e 1. 25- Exponenti al s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- 55
Tabl e 1. 26- Natural Logari thms I - 56
Tabl e 1. 27- Hyperbol i c Si nes
Cosi nes : : : : : : : : : : : : :
1- 58
Tabl e 1. 28- Hyperbol i c 1- 59
Tabl e 1. 29- Hyperbol i c Tangents I - 60
Tabl e 1. 30- Mul ti pl es of 0. 4343 l - 60
Tabl e 1. 31- Mul ti pl es of 2. 3026
Tabl e 1. 32- Standard Di stri buti on of Resi dual s :
I - 60
I - 61
Tabl e 1. 33- Factors f or Computi ng Probabl e Error 1- 61
This chapter I the 1962 edMn was written by Ph,l,p Franklm and Laws
Judson (both deceased)
Compound I nterest
Tabl e 1. 34- Amount of a Gi ven Pri nci pal
Tabl e 1. 35- Amount of an Annui ty
Tabl e 1. 36- Pri nci pal Amounti ng to a Gi ven Sum
Annui ti es
Tabl e 1. 37- Amounti no to a Gi ven Sum
( Si nki ng Fund) y. ,
Tabl e 1. 38- Present Worth
Tabl e 1. 39- Provi ded f or by a Gi ven Capi tal
Tabl e 1. 40- Deci mal Equi val ents
Uni ts and Systems of Wei ghts
and Measures
by L. E. Barbrow
Conversi on Tabl es
Tabl e 1. 41- Length Equi val ents
Tabl e 1. 42- Conversi on of Lengths : : : : : :
Tabl e 1. 43- Common Fracti ons of an I nch
to Mi l l i meters
Tabl e 1. 44- Deci mal s of an I nch to Mi l l i meters
Tabl e 1. 4%Mi l l i meters to Deci mal s of an I nch
Tabl e 1. 46- Area Equi val ents
Tabl e 1. 47- Vol ume and Capaci ty Equi val ents
Tabl e1. 48- Areas
Tabl e 1. 49- Vol umes or Cubi c Meters
Tabl e 1. 50- Vol umes or Capaci ti es : : :
Tabl e 1. 51- Mass Equi val ents
Tabl e 1. 52- Masses . , , . .
Tabl e 1. 53- Vel oci ty Equi val ents
Tabl e 1. 54- Li near and Angul ar Vel oci ti es : : :
Tabl e 1. 55- - Pressures
Tabl e 1. 56- Pressure Eaui val ents . .
Tabl e 1. 57- Energy or Work Equi val ents
Tabl e 1. 58- Energy, Work, Heat
Tabl e 1. 59- Pow& Equi val ents
Tabl e 1. 60- Power . . ,
Tabl e 1. 61- - Densi ty Equi val ents
Tabl e 1. 62- Thermal Conducti vi ty
Tabl e 1. 63- Thermal Conductance : :
Tabl e 1. 64- Heat Fl ow
Tabl e 1. 65- Rel ati ve Densi ti es Correspondtng to
OAPI and Wei ghts per U. S. Gal l on
I - 62
l - 63
l - 64
l - 65
l - 66
1- 66
l - 67
1- 71
I - 71
I - 72
l - 72
I - 72
l - 73
I - 73
I - 74
l - 74
I - 74
l - 75
I - 75
l - 76
I - 76
l - 76
l - 77
l - 77
I - 78
I - 78
l - 78
l - 79
l - 79
I - 79
I - 79
l - 80
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l - 2 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1 .I -SQUARES OF NUMBERS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Average
Di f f erence
1. 000 1. 002 1. 004
1. 020 1. 022 1. 024
1. 040 1. 042 1. 044
1. 081 1. 083 1. 065
1. 082 1. 084 1. 086
1. 006
1. 026
I . 047
1. 012 1. 014 1. 018 1. 018 2
1.05
1. 08
1. 07
1. 08
1. 09
1. 102
1. 124
1. 145
1.166
1. 188
1. 210
1. 232
1. 254
1. 277
1. 300
1. 105
1. 128
1. 147
1. 189
1. 190
1. 107
1. 087
1. 088
1. 109
1. 008
1. 028
1. 049
1. 089
1. 090
1. 010
1. 030
1. 051
1. 071
1. 092
1. 032 1. 034 1. 036
1. 053 1. 055 1. 057
1. 073
1. 094
1. 111
1. 128 1. 130 1. 132
1. 149 1. 151 1. 153
1. 113
1. 134
1. 156
1. 177
1. 199
1. 221
1. 243
1. 266
1. 288
1. 311
1. 334
1. 357
1. 381
1. 404
1. 428
1. 452
1. 476
1. 501
1. 525
1. 550
1. 575
1. 6OC
1. 626
1. 651
1. 677
1. 703
1. 729
1. 756
1. 115
1. 138
1. 158
1. 179
1. 201
1. 223
1. 245
1. 268
1. 290
1. 313
1. 075
1. 096
1. 117
1. 077
1. 098
1. 119
1. 141
1. 162
1. 184
1. 206
1. 228
1. 250
1. 272
1. 295
1. 318
1. 038
1. 059
1. 080
1. 100
1. 121
1.10
1. 11
1. 12
1. 13
1. 14
1. 212
1. 234
1. 257
1. 279
1. 302
1. 171
1. 192
1. 214
1. 237
1. 259
1. 281
1. 304
1. 175
1. 197
1. 219
1. 241
1. 263
1. 286
1. 309
1. 138
1. 160
1. 182
1. 203
1. 225
1. 248
1. 270
1. 293
1. 316
1. 143
1. 184
1. 186
1. 208
1. 230
1. 252
1. 275
1. 297
1. 320
1.15
1. 16
1. 17
1. 18
1. 19
1. 322 1. 325 1. 327
1. 346 1. 348 1. 350
1. 369 1. 371 1. 374
1. 392 1. 395 1. 397
1. 416 1. 418 1. 421
1. 336 1. 339
1. 360 1. 362
1. 383 1. 385
1. 407 1. 409
1. 430 1. 433
1. 341 1. 343
1. 364 1. 387
1. 388 1. 390
1. 411 1. 414
1. 435 1. 438
1.20 1. 440 1. 442 1. 445
1. 21 1. 484 1. 467 1. 469
1. 22 1. 488 1. 491 1. 493
1. 23 1. 513 1. 515 1. 518
1. 24 1. 538 1. 540 1. 543
1. 25
1. 26
1. 27
1. 28
1. 29
1. 173
1. 195
1. 217
1. 239
1. 281
1. 284
1. 306
1. 329
1. 353
1. 376
1. 399
1. 423
1. 447
1. 471
1. 496
1. 520
1. 545
1. 570
1. 595
1.30
1. 31
1. 32
1. 33
1. 34
1. 582 1. 585 1. 568
1. 588 1. 590 1. 593
1. 813 1. 815 1. 618
1. 638 1. 641 1. 644
1. 684 1. 667 1. 669
1. 690 1. 893 1. 695
1. 716 1. 719 1. 721
1. 742 1. 745 1. 748
1. 769 1. 772 1. 774
1. 796 1. 798 1. 801
1. 821
1. 648
1. 672
1. 898
1. 724
1. 750
1. 777
1. 804
1. 332
1. 355
1. 378
1. 402
1. 426
1. 450
1. 474
1. 498
1. 523
1. 548
1. 573
1. 596
1. 823
1. 849
1. 874
1. 700
1. 727
1. 753
1. 454 1. 457 1. 459 1. 462
1. 479 1. 481 1. 484 1. 486
1. 503 1. 506 1. 508 1. 510
1. 528 1. 530 1. 533 1. 535
1. 553 1. 555 1. 558 1. 560
1. 583 1. 585 3
1. 606 1. 610
1. 833 1. 838
1. 659 1. 862
1. 685 1. 887
1. 780 1. 782
1. 806 1. 809
1. 578 1. 580
1. 803 1. 805
1. 628 1. 831
1. 654 1. 658
1. 680 1. 682
1. 708 1. 708
1. 732 1. 734
1. 758 1. 761
1. 785 1. 788
1. 812 1. 814
1. 711 1. 713
1. 737 1. 74c
1. 764 1. 766
1. 790 1. 793
1. 617 1. 820
1.35 1. 822 1. 825 1.828 1. 831
1. 38 1. 850 1. 852 1. 855 1. 858
1. 37 1. 877 1. 880 1. 882 1. 885
1. 38 1. 904 1. 907 1. 910 1. 913
1.39 1. 932 1. 935 1. 938 1. 940
1. 839 1. 841 1. 844 1. 847
1. 886 1. 889 1. 871 1. 874
1. 893 1. 896 1. 899 1. 902
1. 921 1. 924 1. 927 1. 929
1. 949 1. 952 1. 954 1. 957
1.40 1. 960 1. 963 1. 966 1. 968
1. 41 1. 988 1. 991 1. 994 1. 997
1. 42 2. 016 2. 019 2. 022 2. 025
1. 43 2. 045 2. 048 2. 051 2. 053
1. 44 2. 074 2. 076 2. 079 2. 082
1. 977 1. 980 1. 982 1. 985
2. 005 2. 008 2. 011 2. 014
2. 033 2. 036 2. 039 2. 042
2. 062 2. 065 2. 068 2. 071
2. 091 2. 094 2. 097 2. 100
1.45 2. 102 2. 105 2. 108 2. 111
1. 48 2. 132 2. 135 2. 137 2. 140
1. 47 2. 181 2. 164 2. 187 2. 170
1. 48 2. 190 2. 193 2. 198 2. 199
1. 49 2. 220 2. 223 2. 226 2. 229
2. 120 2. 123 2. 126 2. 129
2. 149 2. 152 2. 15" 2. 158
2. 179 2. 182 2. 184 2. 187
2. 208 2. 211 2. 214 2. 217
2. 238 2. 241 2. 244 2. 247
1.50
1. 51
1. 52
1. 53
1. 54
2. 250 2. 253 2. 258 2. 259
2. 280 2. 283 2. 286 2. 289
2. 310 2. 313 2. 316 2. 320
1. 833
1. 880
1. 888
1. 915
1. 943
1. 971
1. 999
2. 028
2. 056
2. 085
2. 114
2. 143
2. 173
2. 202
2. 232
2. 282
2. 292
2. 323
1. 836
1. 863
1. 891
1. 918
1. 946
1. 974
2. 002
2. 031
2. 059
2. 088
2. 117
2. 146
2. 176
2. 205
2. 235
2. 285
2. 295
2. 326
2. 268 2. 271
2. 298 2. 301
2. 329 2. 332
2. 359 2. 362
2. 390 2. 393
2. 274 2. 277
2. 304 2. 307
2. 335 2. 338
2. 341 2. 344 2. 347 2. 350 2. 353 2. 356
2. 372 2. 375 2. 378 2. 381 2. 384 2. 387
2. 385 2. 389
2. 396 2. 399
1.55 2. 402 2. 406 2. 409 2. 412 2. 415 2. 418 2. 421 2. 424 2. 427 2. 430
1. 56 2. 434 2. 437 2. 440 2. 443 2. 448 2. 449 2. 452 2. 455 2. 459 2. 462
1. 57 2. 465 2. 488 2. 471 2. 474 2. 477 2. 481 2. 484 2. 487 2. 490 2. 493
1. 58 2. 496 2. 500 2. 503 2. 506 2. 509 2. 512 2. 515 2. 519 2. 522 2. 525
1. 59 2. 528 2. 531 2. 534 2. 538 2. 541 2. 544 2. 547 2. 550 2. 554 2. 557
Exol anati on of Tabl e of Souares
Thi s tabl e gi vesthe value of N2 f or val ues of N f rom1 to 10, correct to f our f i gures. ( I nterpol ated val ues may be i n error
by 1 i n the f ourth f i gure. )
To f i nd the square of a number N outsi de the range f rom1 to 10, note that movi ng the deci mal poi nt one pl ace i n
Col umn N i s equi val ent to movi ng i t two pl aces i n the body of the tabl e. For exampl e, ( 3. 217) ' =10. 35,
( 0. 03217) ' =0. 001035, and ( 3, 217) ' =10, 035, 000.
Thi s tabl e al so can be used i nversel y to gi ve square roots.
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MATHEMATI CAL TABLES & UNI TS & SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES 1- 3
TABLE l . l - SQUARES OF NUMBERS( conti nued)
7 8
2. 582 2. 586
2. 815 2. 818
2. 647 2. 650
2. 680 2. 883
2. 713 2. 716
Average
9 Di f f erence
2. 589 3
2. 621
2. 654
2. 688
2. 719
2. 748 2. 749 2. 752
2. 779 2. 782 2. 788
2. 812 2. 816 2. 819
2. 848 2. 849 2. 853
2. 880 2. 883 2. 887
2. 914
2. 948
2. 962 2. 965 2. 989 2. 972 2. 978 2. 979 2. 983
2. 996 3. 000 3. 003 3. 007 3. 010 3. 014 3. 017
3. 045 3. 049 3. 052
3. 080 3. 084 3. 087
3. 115 3. 119 3. 122
3. 151 3. 154 3. 158
2. 917 2. 921
2. 952 2. 955
2. 986 2. 989
3. 021 3. 024
3. 058 3. 059
N 0 1 2 3
2. 570
4 5
1. 60
1. 61
1. 62
1. 83
1. 84
2. 560
2. 592
2. 824
2. 657
2. 690
2. 583
2. 595
2. 828
2. 680
2. 693
2. 566
2. 599 2. 602
2. 631 2. 634
2. 683 2. 667
2. 696 2. 899
2. 729 2. 732
2. 762 2. 768
2. 796 2. 799
2. 829 2. 832
2. 863 2. 866
2. 897 2. 900
2. 931 2. 934
2. 573
2. 805
2. 637
2. 670
2. 703
2. 576
6
2. 579
2. 608 2. 811
2. 641 2. 644
1. 65 2. 722 2. 726
1. 88 2. 758 2. 759
1. 87 2. 789 2. 792
1. 88 2. 822 2. 828
1. 89 2. 856 2. 859
2. 738
2. 789
2. 802
2. 836
2. 870
1. 70 2. 890
1. 71 2. 924
1. 72 2. 958
1. 73 2. 993
1. 74 3. 028
2. 893
2. 928
2. 904
2. 938
2. 673 2. 676
2. 706 2. 709
2. 739 2. 742
2. 772 2. 776
2. 806 2. 809
2. 839 2. 843
2. 873 2. 876
2. 907 2. 910
2. 941 2. 945
1. 75 3. 082
1. 78 3. 098
1. 77 3. 133
1. 78 3. 188
1. 79 3. 204
3. 031
3. 066
3. 101
3. 138
3. 172
3. 208
3. 035
3. 070
3. 105
3. 140
3. 176
3. 211
3. 247
3. 038
3. 073
3. 108
3. 144
3. 179
3. 215
3. 042
3. 077
3. 112
3. 147
3. 183
3. 218
3. 254
3. 091
3. 126
3. 161
3. 186 3. 190 3. 193 3. 197
3. 222 3. 226 3. 229 3. 233
1. 80
1. 81
1. 82
1. 83
1. 84
3. 240 3. 244 3. 251 3. 258 3. 262 3. 285 3. 289
3. 276 3. 280 3. 283 3. 287 3. 291 3. 294 3. 298 3. 301 3. 305
3. 312 3. 316 3. 320 3. 323 3. 327 3. 331 3. 334 3. 338 3. 342
3. 349 3. 353 3. 356 3. 360 3. 364 3. 367 3. 371 3. 375 3. 378
3. 386 3. 389 3. 393 3. 397 3. 400 3. 404 3. 408 3. 411 3. 415
1. 85 3. 422 3. 426 3. 430 3. 434 3. 437 3. 441 3. 445 3. 448 3. 452
1. 88 3. 480 3. 463 3. 467 3. 471 3. 474 3. 478 3. 482 3. 486 3. 489
1. 87 3. 497 3. 501 3. 504 3. 508 3. 512 3. 516 3. 519 3. 523 3. 527
1. 88 3. 534 3. 538 3. 542 3. 546 3. 549 3. 553 3. 557 3. 561 3. 565
1. 89 3. 572 3. 578 3. 580 3. 583 3. 587 3. 591 3. 595 3. 599 3. 602
1. 90
1. 91
1. 92
1. 93
1. 94
3. 610 3. 614 3. 618 3. 821 3. 825 3. 829 3. 833 3. 837
3. 648 3. 652 3. 656 3. 680 3. 663 3. 667 3. 671 3. 675
3. 888
3. 725
3. 784
3. 713
3. 752
3. 791
3. 640
3. 679
3. 717
3. 758
3. 795
1. 95 3. 802
1. 98 3. 842
1. 97 3. 881
1. 98 3. 920
1. 99 3. 960
3. 890 3. 694 3. 698 3. 702 3. 706 3. 709
3. 729 3. 733 3. 738 3. 740 3. 744 3. 748
3. 787 3. 771 3. 775 3. 779 3. 783 3. 787
3. 806 3. 810 3. 814 3. 818 3. 822 3. 826
3. 846 3. 849 3. 853 3. 857 3. 861 3. 865
3. 885 3. 889 3. 893 3. 897 3. 901 3. 905
3. 924 3. 928 3. 932
3. 964 3. 968 3. 972
3. 944
3. 984
4. 024
4. 064
4. 105
4. 145
4. 188
3. 830 3. 834
3. 869 3. 873
3. 909 3. 912
3. 948 3. 952
3. 988 3. 992
2. 00 4. 000 4. 004 4. 008 4. 012
2. 01 4. 040 4. 044 4. 048 4. 052
2. 02 4. 080 4. 084 4. 088 4. 093
2. 03 4. 121 4. 125 4. 129 4. 133
2. 04 4. 162 4. 186 4. 170 4. 174
3. 936
3. 976
4. 016
4. 056
3. 940
3. 960
4. 097
4. 137
4. 178
4. 020
4. 060
4. 101
4. 141
4. 182
4. 028 4. 032 4. 036
4. 068 4. 072 4. 076
4. 109 4. 113 4. 117
4. 149 4. 153 4. 158
4. 190 4. 194 4. 198
2. 05 4. 202
2. 08 4. 244
2. 07 4. 285
2. 08 4. 328
2. 09 4. 388
4. 207 4. 211 4. 215 4. 219 4. 223 4. 227 4. 231 4. 235
4. 248 4. 252 4. 258 4. 280 4. 284 4. 268 4. 272 4. 277
4. 289 4. 293 4. 297 4. 301
4. 331 4. 335 4. 339 4. 343
4. 372 4. 378 4. 381 4. 385
4. 314 4. 318
4. 358 4. 360
4. 397 4. 402
2. 10 4. 410 4. 414
2. 11 4. 452 4. 458
2. 12 4. 494 4. 499
2. 13 4. 537 4. 541
2. 14 4. 580 4. 584
4. 418 4. 423 4. 427
4. 461 4. 465 4. 469
4. 503 4. 507 4. 511
4. 306 4. 310
4. 347 4. 351
4. 389 4. 393
4. 431 4. 435
4. 473 4. 477
4. 516 4. 520
4. 545 4. 550 4. 554 4. 558 4. 562
4. 588 4. 592 4. 597 4. 801 4. 605
4. 439 4. 444 4. 448
4. 482 4. 486 4. 490
4. 524 4. 528 4. 533
4. 587 4. 571 4. 575
4. 610 4. 814 4. 618
2. 15 4. 622 4. 627 4. 831 4. 635 4. 640 4. 844 4. 648 4. 653 4. 857
2. 18 4. 886 4. 670 4. 674 4. 679 4. 683 4. 887 4. 692 4. 696 4. 700
2. 17 4. 709 4. 713 4. 716 4. 722 4. 728 4. 731 4. 735 4. 739 4. 744
2. 18 4. 752 4. 757 4. 761 4. 765 4. 770 4. 774 4. 779 4. 783 4. 787
2. 19 4. 796 4. 800 4. 805 4. 809 4. 814 4. 818 4. 822 4. 827 4. 831
3. 094 4
3. 129
3. 165
3. 201
3. 236
3. 272
3. 309
3. 345
3. 382
3. 419
3. 458
3. 493
3. 531
3. 566
3. 606
3. 844
3. 683
3. 721
3. 760
3. 799
3. 838
3. 877
3. 916
3. 956
3. 996
4. 239
4. 281
4. 322
4. 364
4. 406
4. 661
4. 705
4. 748
4. 792
4. 836
r =9.66960; l/r2
2
=0.101321, e2 =7.38906. x2 =9.669w; (T/z)* =2.46740; l/n2 =0.101321.
(continued on next page)
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I - 4 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLEl . l - SQUARES OF NUMBERS( conti nued)
4
Average
9 Di f f erence N 0 1 2
- - ~
5 8 7
4. 840 4. 844 4. 849
4. 884
4. 928
4. 973
5. 018
4. 889 4. 893
4. 933 4. 937
4. 977 4. 982
5. 022 5. 027
3
4. 853
4. 897
4. 942
4. 986
5. 031
4. 858 4. 882 4. 888 4. 871
4. 902 4. 906 4. 911 4. 915
4. 948 4. 951 4. 955 4. 960
4. 991 4. 995 5. 000 5. 004
5. 036 5. 040 5. 045 5. 049
5. 062 5. 067 5. 072 5. 076 5. 081 5. 085 5. 090 5. 094
5. 108 5. 112 5. 117 5. 121 5. 128 5. 130 5. 135 5. 139
5. 153 5. 157 5. 162 5. 167 5. 171 5. 176 5. 180 5. 185
5. 198 5. 203 5. 208 5. 212 5. 217 5. 221 5. 226 5. 230
5. 244 5. 249 5. 253 5. 258 5. 262 5. 267 5. 272 5. 276
5. 290 5. 295
5. 338 5. 341
5. 382 5. 387
5. 299 5. 304 5. 308 5. 313 5. 318
5. 355 5. 359 5. 364
5. 401 5. 408 5. 410
5. 448 5. 452 5. 457
5. 494 5. 499 5. 504
5. 322 5. 327
5. 388 5. 373
5. 415 5. 420
8
4. 875 2. 20
2. 21
2. 22
2. 23
2. 24
2. 25
2. 26
2. 27
2. 28
2. 29
2. 30
2. 31
2. 32
2. 33
2. 34
2. 35
2. 38
2. 37
2. 38
2. 39
2. 40
2. 41
2. 42
2. 43
2. 44
5. 429 5. 434
5. 478 5. 480
5. 345 5. 350
5. 392 5. 396
5. 522 5. 527
5. 570 5. 574
5. 871 5. 822
5. 884 5. 889
5. 712 5. 717
5. 438 5. 443
5. 485 5. 490
5. 532 5. 537
5. 579 5. 584
5. 626 5. 631
5. 674 5. 879
5. 722 5. 726
5. 482 5. 488
5. 508 5. 513
5. 541 5. 548 5. 551 5. 555 5. 580 5. 565
5. 588 5. 593 5. 598 5. 603 5. 807 5. 612
5. 636 5. 641 5. 645 5. 650 5. 855 5. 660
5. 883 5. 688 5. 693 5. 698 5. 703 5. 707
5. 731 5. 738 5. 741 5. 746 5. 750 5. 755
5. 780
5. 808
5. 856
5. 905
5. 954
5. 785 5. 770 5. 774 5.779 5. 784
5. 813 5. 818 5. 823 5. 827 5. 832
5. 861 5. 866 5. 871 5. 876 5. 881
5. 910 5. 915 5. 919 5. 924 5. 929
5. 958 5. 963 5. 988 5. 973 5. 978
5. 794
5. 842
5. 890
5. 939
5. 988
2. 45
2. 48
2. 47
2. 48
2. 49
8. 002 6. 007 6. 012 6. 017 6. 022 6. 027
8. 502 6. 057 6. 061 6. 088 8. 071 6. 078
8. 101 6. 108 6. 111 6. 116 6. 121 6. 126
5. 789
5. 837
5. 885
5. 934
5. 983
6. 032
8. 081
6. 131
6. 037
6. 086
6. 136
6. 150 6. 155 6. 180 6. 185 8. 170 8. 175 6. 180 6. 185
6. 200 6. 205 6. 210 6. 215 6. 220 6. 225 6. 230 6. 235
2. 50 8. 250 6. 255 6. 260 8. 265 6. 270 6. 275 6. 280 6. 285
2. 51 8. 300 6. 305 6. 310 8. 315 6. 320 6. 325 6. 330 6. 335
2. 52 6. 350 6. 355 6. 380 8. 366 8. 371 6. 378 8. 381 6. 388
2. 53 6. 401 6. 406 6. 411 8. 416 8. 421 6. 428 8. 431 8. 438
2. 54 6. 452 6. 457 6. 462 8. 467 6. 472 6. 477 8. 482 6. 487
2. 55 8. 502 6. 508 6. 513 8. 518 8. 523 6. 528 8. 533 8. 538
2. 56 6. 554 8. 559 6. 564 6. 569 8. 574 6. 579 8. 584 6. 589
2. 57 6. 605 8. 810 6. 815 8. 620 8. 625 6. 831 6. 636 8. 641
2. 58 6. 656 6. 862 6. 667 8. 672 8. 677 6. 882 6. 687 8. 693
2. 59 6. 708 8. 713 6. 718 6. 724 8. 729 6. 734 6. 739 8. 744
2. 60
2. 61
2. 62
2. 63
2. 64
6. 780 8. 765
6. 812 8. 817
6. 884 8. 870
6. 917 6. 922
6. 970 8. 975
6. 770
6. 323
6. 375
8. 776 8. 781
8. 833
8. 885
6. 938
8. 991
6. 788 6. 791 8. 798
6. 849
6. 901
6. 954
7. 007
2. 65 7. 022 7. 028
2. 68 7. 076 7. 081
2. 87 7. 129 7. 134
2. 68 7. 182 7. 188
2. 89 7. 238 7. 241
2. 70 7. 290 7. 295
2. 71 7. 344 7. 350
2. 72 7. 398 7. 404
2. 73 7. 453 7. 458
2. 74 7. 508 7. 513
6. 927
f 5. 980
7. 033
8. 828
8. 880
6. 933
8. 985
6. 838 6. 843
6. 891 6. 896
6. 943 6. 948
6. 996 7. 001
7. 086
i . 140
7. 038 7. 044 7. 049
7. 092 7. 097 7. 102
7. 145 7. 150 7. 158
7. 198 7. 204 7. 209
7. 252 7. 258 7. 263
7. 306 7. 312 7. 317
7. 360 7. 366 7. 371
7. 415 7. 420 7. 426
7. 469 7. 475 7. 480
7. 524 7. 530 7. 535
2. 75
2. 76
2. 77
2. 78
2. 79
7. 562
7. 618
7. 673
7. 728
7. 784
7. 588
7. 623
7. 678
7. 734
7. 790
7. 193
7. 247
7. 301
7. 355
7409
7. 484
7. 519
7. 574
7. 629
7. 884
7. 740
7. 795
7. 579 7. 585 7. 590
7. 634 7. 840 7. 645
7. 690 7. 895 7. 701
7. 745 7. 751 7. 756
7. 801 7. 806 7. 812
7. 054 7. 060
7. 108 7. 113
7. 161 7. 166
7. 215 7. 220
7. 288 7. 274
7. 322 7. 328
7. 377 7. 382
7. 431 7. 437
7. 486 7. 491
7. 541 7. 546
7. 596 7. 801
7. 851 7. 656
7. 708 7. 712
7. 782 7. 767
7. 818 7. 823
4. 880 4
4. 924
4. 988
5. 013
5. 058
4. 920
4. 964
5. 009
5. 054
5. 099 5. 103 5
5. 144 5. 148
5. 189
5. 235
5. 281
5. 194
5. 240
5. 285
5. 331
5. 378
5. 424
5. 471
5. 518
5. 798 5. 803
5. 847 5. 852
5. 895 5. 900
5. 944 5. 949
5. 993
6. 042
6. 091
6. 140
6. 190
6. 240
6. 290
8. 340
6. 391
6. 441
8. 492
8. 543
6. 595
5. 998
6. 047
6. 096
6. 145
8. 195
6. 245
6. 295 5
6. 345
6. 396
6. 447
6. 497
6. 548
6. 600
8. 848 8. 651
8. 698 8. 703
8. 750
8. 802
8. 854
8. 906
6. 959
7. 012
7. 085
7. 118
7. 172
7. 225
7. 279
7. 333
7. 388
7. 442
7. 497
7. 552
7. 607
7. 662
7. 717
7. 773
7. 829
6. 755
8. 807
8. 859
6. 912
6. 964
7. 017
7. 070
7. 124
7. 177
7. 231
7. 285
7. 339
7. 393
7. 447
7. 502
7. 557
7. 812 8
7. 867
7. 723
7. 779
7. 834
r=966960. -In2 =0.101321, e2 =7389X r2=9.86960, (n/2)* =2.46740. l/n2 =0 101321
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MATHEMATI CAL TABLES & UNI TS & SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES l - 5
N 0
2. 80
2. 81
2. 82
2. 83
2. 84
7. 840
7. 896
7. 952
8. 009
8. 066
2. 85 8. 122
2. 86 8. 180
2. 87 8. 237
2. 88 8. 294
2. 89 8. 352
2. 90 8. 410
2. 91 8. 468
2. 92 8. 526
2. 93 8. 585
2. 94 8. 644
2. 95
2. 96
2. 97
2. 98
2. 99
8. 702
8. 762
8. 821
8. 880
8. 940
3. 00 9. 000
3. 01 9. 060
3. 02 9. 120
3. 03 9. 181
3. 04 9. 242
3. 05
3. 06
3. 07
3. 08
3. 09
9. 302
9. 364
9. 425
9. 486
9. 548
3. 10
3. 11
3. 12
3. 13
3. 14
9. 610
9. 672
9. 734
9. 797
9. 860
3. 15 9. 922
3. 16 9. 986
3. 1
3. 2
3. 3
3. 4
10. 24
10. 89
11. 56
3. 5 12. 25
3. 6 1296
3. 7 13. 69
3. 8 1444
3. 9 15. 21
4. 0 16. 00
4. 1 16. 81
4. 2 17. 64
4. 3 18. 49
4. 4 19. 36
4. 5 20. 25
4. 6 21. 16
4. 7 22. 09
4. 6 23. 04
4. 9 24. 01
5. 0 25. 00
5. 1 26. 01
5. 2 27. 04
5. 3 28. 09
5. 4 29. 16
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7. 646 7. 851 7. 857 7. 862 7. 868 7. 874 7. 879 7. 885
7. 902 7. 907 7. 913 7. 919 7. 924 7. 930 7. 935 7. 941
7. 958 7. 964 7. 969 7. 975 7. 981 7. 986 7. 992 7. 998
8. 015 8. 020 8. 026 8. 032 8. 037 8. 043 8. 049 8. 054
8. 071 8. 077 8. 083 8. 088 8. 094 8. 100 8. 105 8. 111
8. 128 8. 134 8. 140 8. 145 8. 151 8. 157 6. 162 8. 168
8. 185 8. 191 8.197 8. 202 8. 208 8. 214 8. 220 8. 225
6. 243 8. 248 8. 254 8. 260 8. 266 8. 271 8. 277 8. 283
8. 300 8. 306 8. 312 8. 317 8. 323 8. 329 8. 335 8. 341
8. 358 8. 384 8. 369 8. 375 8. 381 8. 387 8. 393 8. 398
8. 416 8. 422 6. 427 8. 433 8. 439 8. 445 8. 451 8. 456
8. 474 8. 480 8. 486 8. 491 8. 497 8. 503 8. 509 8. 515
8. 532 8. 538 8. 544 8. 550 8. 556 8. 561 8. 567 8. 573
8. 591 8. 597 8. 602 8. 606 8. 614 8. 820 8. 626 8. 632
8. 649 8. 655 8. 661 8. 667 8. 673 8. 679 8. 885 8. 691
8. 708 8. 714 8. 720 8. 726 8. 732 8. 738 8. 744 8. 750
8. 768 8. 773 8. 779 8. 785 8. 791 8. 797 8. 803 8. 809
8. 827 8. 833 8. 839 8. 845 8. 851 8. 857 8. 863 8. 868
8. 886 8. 892 8. 898 8. 904 8. 910 8. 916 8. 922 8. 928
8. 946 8. 952 8. 958 8. 964 8. 970 8. 976 8. 982 8. 988
9. 006 9. 012 9. 018 9. 024 9. 030 9. 036 9. 042 9. 048
9. 066 9. 072 9. 078 9. 084 9. 090 9. 096 9. 102 9. 108
9. 126 9. 132 9. 139 9. 145 9. 151 9. 157 9. 163 9. 169
9. 187 9. 193 9. 199 9. 205 9. 211 9. 217 9. 223 9. 229
9. 248 9. 254 9. 260 9. 266 9. 272 9. 278 9. 284 9. 290
9. 309 9. 315 9. 321 9. 327 9. 333 9. 339 9. 345 9. 351
9. 370 9. 376 9. 382 9. 388 9. 394 9. 400 9. 406 9. 413
9. 431 9. 437 9. 443 9. 449 9. 456 9. 462 9. 468 9. 474
9. 493 9. 499 9. 505 9. 511 9. 517 9. 523 9. 530 9. 536
9. 554 9. 560 9. 567 9. 573 9. 579 9. 585 9. 591 9. 598
9. 616 9. 622 9. 629 9. 635 9. 641 9. 647 9. 653 9. 660
9. 678 9. 685 9. 691 9. 697 9. 703 9. 709 9. 716 9. 722
9. 741 9. 747 9. 753 9. 759 9. 766 9. 772 9. 778 9. 784
9. 803 9. 809 9. 816 9. 822 9. 828 9. 834 9. 841 9. 847
9. 866 9. 872 9. 878 9. 885 9. 891 9. 897 9. 904 9. 910
9. 929 9. 935 9. 941 9. 948 9. 954 9. 960 9. 967 9. 973
9. 992 9. 998 10. 005
9. 99 10. 05 10. 11
10. 30 10. 37 10. 43 10. 50 10. 56 10. 63 10. 69 10. 76
10. 96 11. 02 11. 09 11. 16 11. 22 11. 29 11. 36 11. 42
11. 63 11. 70 11. 76 11. 83 11. 90 11. 97 12. 04 12. 11
12. 32 12. 39 12. 46 12. 53 12. 60 12. 87 12. 74 12. 82
13. 03 13. 10 13. 18 13. 25 13. 32 13. 40 13. 47 13. 54
13. 76 13. 84 13. 91 13. 99 14. 06 14. 14 14. 21 14. 29
14. 52 14. 59 14. 67 14. 75 14. 82 14. 90 14. 98 15. 05
15. 29 15. 37 15. 44 15. 52 15. 60 15. 68 15. 76 15. 84
16. 08 16. 16 16. 24 16. 32 16. 40 16. 48 16. 56 16. 65
16. 89 16. 97 17. 06 17. 14 17. 22 17. 31 17. 39 17. 47
17. 72 17. 81 17. 89 17. 98 18. 06 18. 15 18. 23 18. 32
18. 58 18. 66 18. 75 18. 84 18. 92 19. 01 19. 10 19. 18
19. 45 19. 54 19. 62 19. 71 19. 80 19. 89 19. 98 20. 07
20. 34 20. 43 20. 52 20. 61 20. 70 20. 79 20. 88 20. 98
21. 25 21. 34 21. 44 21. 53 21. 62 21. 72 21. 81 21. 90
22. 18 22. 28 22. 37 22. 47 22. 56 22. 66 22. 75 22. 85
23. 14 23. 23 23. 33 23. 43 23. 52 23. 62 23. 72 23. 81
24. 11 24. 21 24. 30 24. 40 24. 50 24. 60 24. 70 24. 80
25. 10 25. 20 25. 30 25. 40 25. 50 25. 60 25. 70 2581
26. 11 26. 21 26. 32 26. 42 26. 52 26. 63 26. 73 26. 83
27. 14 27. 25 27. 35 27. 46 27. 56 27. 67 27. 77 27. 88
28. 20 28. 30 28. 41 28. 52 28. 62 28. 73 28. 84 28. 94
29. 27 29. 38 29. 48 29. 59 29. 70 29. 81 29. 92 30. 03
TABLE l.l-SQUARES OF NUMBERS (continued)
r2 =986960. l/r2 =0101321.e2=736906 r2 =9.66960. (T/Z)~ =2.46740. l/n2 =o 101321
9
7. 890
7. 947
6. 003
8. 060
8. 117
8. 174
8. 231
8. 289
8. 346
8. 404
8. 462
8. 521
8. 579
8. 638
8. 697
8. 756
8. 815
8. 874
8. 934
8. 994
9. 054
9. 114
9. 175
9. 236
9. 296
9. 357
9. 419
9. 480
9. 542
9. 604
9. 666
9. 728
9. 791
9. 853
9. 916
9. 979
10. 18
10. 82
11. 49
12. 18
12. 89
13. 62
14. 36
15. 13
15. 92
16. 73
17. 56
18. 40
19. 27
20. 16
21. 07
22. 00
22. 94
23. 91
24. 90
25. 91
26. 94
27. 98
29. 05
30. 14
Average
Di f f erence
6
8
9
10
11
(contmued on next page)
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l - 6 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NGHANDBOOK
TABLE l.l-SQUARES OF NUMBERS (continued)
Average
Di f f erence
N 0 1 2
5. 5 30. 25 30. 36 30. 47
5. 6 31. 36 31. 47 31. 58
5. 7 32. 49 32. 60 32. 72
5. 8 33. 64 33. 76 33. 87
5. 9 34. 81 34. 93 35. 05
6. 0 36. 00
6. 1 37. 21
6. 2 38. 44
6. 3 39. 69
6. 4 40. 96
36. 12
37. 33
38. 56
39.82
41. 09
36. 24 36. 36
37. 45 37. 58
38. 69 38. 81
39. 94 40. 07
41. 22 41. 34
6. 5 42. 25
6. 6 43. 56
6. 7 44. 89
6. 8 46. 24
6. 9 47. 61
42. 38 42. 51
43. 69 43. 82
45. 02 45. 16
46. 38 46. 51
47. 75
7. 0 49. 00 49. 14
7. 1 50. 41 50. 55
7. 2 51. 84 51. 98
7. 3 53. 29 53. 44
7. 4 54. 76 54. 91
47. 89
49. 28
50. 69
52. 13
53. 58
55. 06
7. 5
7. 6
7. 7
7. 8
7. 9
8. 0
8. 1
8. 2
8. 3
8. 4
8. 5
8. 6
8. 7
8. 8
8. 9
56. 25
57. 76
59. 29
60. 84
62. 41
64. 00
65. 61
67. 24
68. 89
70. 56
72. 25
73. 96
75. 69
77. 44
79. 21
56. 40 56. 55 56. 70 56. 85 57. 00 57. 15 57. 30 57. 46 57. 61
57. 91 58. 06 58. 22 58. 37 58. 52 58. 68 58. 83 58. 98 59. 14
59. 44 59. 60 59. 75 59. 91 60. 06 60. 22 60. 37 60. 53 60. 68
61. 00 61. 15 61. 31 61. 47 61. 62 61. 78 61. 94 82. 09 62. 25
6257 62. 73 62. 88 63. 04 63. 20 63. 36 63. 52 83. 68 63. 84
64. 16 64. 32 64. 48 64. 64 64. 80 64. 96 65. 12 65. 29 65. 45
65. 77 65. 93 66. 10 66. 26 66. 42 66. 59 66. 75 66. 91 67. 08
67. 40 67. 57 67. 73 67. 90 68. 06 68. 23 68. 39 68. 56 68. 72
69. 06 69. 22 69. 39 69. 56 69. 72 69. 89 70. 06 70. 22 70. 39
70. 73 70. 90 71. 06 71. 23 71. 40 71. 57 71. 74 71. 91 72. 08
72. 42 72. 59 72. 76
74. 13 74. 30 74. 48
75. 86 76. 04 76. 21
77. 62 77. 79 77. 97
79. 39 79. 57 79. 74
9. 0 81. 00 81. 18 81. 36
9. 1 82. 81 82. 99 83. 17
9. 2 84. 64 84. 82 85. 01
9. 3 86. 49 86. 68 86. 86
9. 4 88. 36 88. 55 88. 74
9. 5
9. 6
9. 7
9. 8
9. 9
90. 25 so. 44 90. 63
92. 16 92. 35 92. 54
94. 09 94. 28 94. 48 94.67
96. 04 96. 24 96. 43 96. 63
98. 01
100. 0
98. 21 98. 41 98. 60
10. 0
3 4 5 6 7
30. 80 30. 91 31. 02
8 9
31. 14
32. 26
33. 41
31. 25
32. 38
33. 52
34. 69
35. 88
32. 15
33. 29
31. 92 32. 04
33. 06 33. 18
34. 22 34. 34
35. 40 35. 52
34. 46 34. 57
35. 64 35. 76
36. 60 36. 72 36. 84 36. 97 37. 09
37. 82 37. 95 38. 07 38. 19 38. 32
39. 06 39. 19 39. 31 39. 44 39. 56
40. 32 40. 45 40. 58 40. 70 40. 83
41. 60 41. 73 41. 86 41. 99 42. 12
30. 58 30. 69 11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
31. 70
32. 83
33. 99
35. 16
31. 81
32. 95
34. 11
35. 28
36. 48
37. 70
38. 94
40. 20
41. 47
42. 77
44. 09
45. 43
46. 79
48. 16
49. 56
42. 64
43. 96
42. 90 43. 03 43. 16 43. 30 43. 43
44. 22 44. 36 44. 49 44. 62 44. 76
45. 29
46. 65
48. 02
49. 42
45. 56 45. 70 45. 83 45. 97
46. 92 47. 06 47. 20 47. 33
48. 30 48. 44 48. 58 48. 72
49. 70 49. 84 49. 98 50. 13
46. 10
47. 47
48. 86
50. 27
51. 70
53. 14
50. 84 50. 98 51. 12
52. 27 52. 42 52. 56
53. 73 53. 88 54. 02
55. 20 55. 35 55. 50
51. 27
52. 71
51. 41 51. 55
52. 85 53. 00
54. 32 54. 46
55. 80 55. 95
54. 17
55. 65
54. 61
56. 10
72. 93 73. ' 10 73. 27 73. 44 73. 62 73. 79
74. 65 74. 82 75. 00 75. 17 75. 34 75. 52
76. 39 76. 56 76. 74 76. 91 77. 09 77. 26
81. 54
83. 36
85. 19
87. 05
88. 92
90. 82
92. 74
78. 15 78. 32 78. 50 78. 68 78. 85 79. 03
79. 92 80. 10 80. 28 80. 46 80. 64 80. 82
81. 72 81. 90 82. 08 82. 26 82. 45 82. 63
83. 54 83. 72 83. 91 84. 09 84. 27 84. 46
85. 38 85. 56 85. 75 85. 93 86. 12 86. 30
87. 24 87. 42 87. 61 87. 80 87. 98 88. 17
89. 11 89. 30 69. 49 89. 68 89. 87 90. 06
91. 01 91.20 91.39 91.58 91.78 91. 97
92. 93 93.12 93.32 93.51 93. 70 93. 90
94. 87 95.06 95. 28 95. 45 95.65 95. 84
96. 83 97. 02 97. 22 97. 42 97.61 97. 81
98. 80 99. 00 99. 20 99. 40 99.60 99. 80
r =986960 lh2 =o 101321. e2 =736906
2
r2=966960.(r12)2=246740. l/r2 =o 101321
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MATHEMATI CAL TABLES & UNI TS & SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES 1- 7
TABLE1. 2- CUBESOFNUMBERS
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Average
9 Di f f erence N 0
1. 00
1. 01
1. 02
1. 03
1. 04
1. 000
1
1. 003 1. 006 1. 009 1. 012
1. 030 1. 033
1. 061 1. 064
1. 093
1. 125
1. 036
1. 067
1. 099
1. 131
1. 05
1. 06
1. 07
1. 08
1. 09
1. 10
1. 11
1. 12
1. 13
1. 14
1. 096
1. 128
1. 161
1. 194
1. 228
1. 263
1. 299
1. 335
1. 371
1. 338
1. 375
1. 412
1. 451
1. 489
1. 15
1. 16
1. 17
1. 18
1. 19
1. 20
1. 21
1. 22
1. 23
1. 24
1. 158
1. 191
1. 225
1. 260
1. 295
1. 331
1. 368
1. 405
1. 443
1. 482
1. 521
1. 561
1. 602
1. 643
1. 685
1. 728
1. 772
1. 816
1. 861
1. 907
1. 164
1. 198
1. 232
1. 267
1. 302
1. 409
1. 447
1. 485
1. 525
1. 565
1. 606
1. 529
1. 569
1. 610
1. 647 1. 651 1. 656 1. 660
1. 689 1. 694 1. 698 1. 702
1. 732 1. 737 1. 741 1. 745 1. 750
1. 776 1. 780 1. 785 1. 789 1. 794
1. 820 1. 825 1. 829 1. 834 1. 838
1. 865 1. 870 1. 075 1. 879 1. 884
1. 911 1. 916 1. 920 1. 925 1. 930
1. 25
1. 26
1. 27
1. 28
1. 29
1. 30
1. 31
1. 32
1. 33
1. 34
1. 953 1. 958 1. 983 1. 967 1. 972 1. 977
2. 000 2. 005 2. 010 2. 015 2. 019 2. 024
2. 048
2. 097
2. 147
2. 197
2. 053
2. 102
2. 152
2. 248
2. 300
2. 353
2. 406
2. 202
2. 253
2. 305
2. 358
2. 411
2. 058
2. 107
2. 157
2. 207
2. 258
2. 310
2. 363
2. 417
1. 35 2. 460 2. 466 2. 471
1. 36 2. 515 2. 521 2. 527
1. 37 2. 571 2. 577 2. 583
1. 38 2. 628 2. 634 2. 640
1. 39 2. 686 2. 691 2. 697
1. 40
1. 41
1. 42
1. 43
1. 44
2. 744 2. 750 2. 756
2. 803 2. 809 2. 815
2. 863 2. 869
2. 924 2. 930
2. 986 2. 992
1. 45 3. 049 3. 055
1. 46 3. 112 3. 119
1. 47 3. 177 3. 183
1. 48 3. 242 3. 248
1. 49 3. 308 3. 315
1. 50
1. 51
1. 52
1. 53
1. 54
3. 375 3. 382
3. 443 3. 450
3. 512 3. 519
2. 875
2. 936
2. 998
3. 081
3. 125
3. 190
3. 255
3. 321
3. 389
3. 457
3. 528
3. 582 3. 589 3. 596
3. 652 3. 659 3. 667
1. 55 3. 724 3. 731 3. 738
1. 56 3. 796 3. 804 3. 811
1. 57 3. 870 3. 877 3. 885
1. 58 3. 944 3. 952 3. 959
1. 59 4. 020 4. 027 4. 035
1. 015
1. 046
1. 077
1. 018 1. 021 1. 024 1. 027 3
1. 040 1. 043
1. 071 1. 074
1. 049
1. 080
1. 112
1. 144
1. 052
1. 083
1. 055
1. 086
1. 118
1. 151
1. 058
1. 090
1. 102 1. 106
1. 135 1. 138
1. 168 1. 171
1. 201 1. 205
1. 235 1. 239
1. 270 1. 274
1. 306 1. 309
1. 342 1. 346
1. 379 1. 382
1. 416 1. 420
1. 454 1. 458
1. 493 1. 497
1. 533 1. 537
1. 573 1. 577
1. 614 1. 618
1. 109
1. 141
1. 115
1. 148
1. 181
1. 215
1. 249
1. 284
1. 320
1. 357
1. 394
1. 431
1. 470
1. 509
1. 549
1. 589
1. 631
1. 122
1. 154
1. 188
1. 222
1. 256
1. 2Sl 4
1. 327
1. 364
1. 401
1. 174 1. 178
1. 208 1. 211
1. 242 1. 246
1. 277 1. 281
1. 313 1. 317
1. 349 1. 353
1. 386 1. 390
1. 424 1. 428
1. 462 1. 466
1. 501 1. 505
1. 541 1. 545
1. 585
1. 626
1. 668
1. 711
1. 754
1. 798
1. 843
1. 888
1. 934
1. 981
2. 029
2. 078
2. 127
2. 177
2. 228
1. 184
1. 218
1. 253
1. 288
1. 324
1. 360
1. 397
1. 435 1. 439
1. 474 1. 478
1. 672
1. 715
1. 513
1. 553
1. 593
1. 635
1. 677
1. 719
1. 758 1. 763
1. 802 1. 807
1. 847 1. 852
1. 893 1. 897
1. 939 1. 944
1. 517
1. 557
1. 598
1. 639
1. 581
1. 622
1. 664
1. 706
1. 681
1. 724
1. 986 1. 991
2. 034 2. 039
2. 082 2. 087
2. 132 2. 137
2. 182 2. 187
2. 233 2. 238
2. 274 2. 279 2. 284 2. 290
2. 326 2. 331 2. 337 2. 342
2. 395
2. 449
1. 767
1. 811
1. 856
1. 902
1. 948 5
1. 996
2. 044
2. 092
2. 142
2. 192
2. 243
2. 295
2. 347
2. 401
2. 455
2. 504 2. 510 6
2. 560 2. 566
2. 617 2. 622
2. 674 2. 680
2. 732 2. 738
2. 785 2. 791
2. 845 2. 851
2. 906 2. 912
2. 967 2. 974
3. 030 3. 036
3. 093 3. 099
3. 157 3. 164
3. 222 3. 229
3. 288 3. 295
3. 355 3. 362
3. 422 3. 429
2. 797
2. 857
2. 918
2. 980
3. 042
3. 106
3. 170
3. 235
3. 301 7
3. 368
3. 438
2. 063 2. 068
2. 112 2. 117
2. 162 2. 167
2. 212 2. 217
2. 264 2. 269
2. 316 2. 321
2. 369 2. 374
2. 422 2. 428
2. 477 2. 482
2. 532 2. 538
2. 588 2. 594
2. 645 2. 651
2. 703 2. 709
2. 762 2. 768
2. 821 2. 827
2. 881 2. 888
2. 943 2. 949
3. 005 3. 011
3. 068 3. 074
3. 131 3. 138
3. 196 3. 203
3. 262 3. 268
3. 328 3. 335
3. 395 3. 402
2. 073
2. 122
2. 172
2. 222
2. 379 2. 385 2. 390
2. 433 2. 439 2. 444
2. 480 2. 493 2. 499
2. 543 2. 549 2. 554
2. 600 2. 605 2. 611
2. 657 2. 663 2. 668
2. 715 2. 721
2. 774 2. 779
2. 833 2. 839
2. 894 2. 900
2. 955 2. 961
3. 017 3. 023
3. 080 3. 087
3. 144 3. 151
3. 209 3. 216
3. 275 3. 281
3. 341 3. 348
3. 409 3. 416
2. 726
3. 464 3. 470 3. 477 3. 484 3. 491 3. 498 3. 505
3. 533 3. 540 3. 547 3. 554 3. 561 3. 568 3. 575
3. 603 3. 610
3. 674 3. 681
3. 746 3. 753
3. 818 3. 826
3. 892 3. 900
3. 967 3. 974
4. 042 4. 050
3. 617 3. 624
3. 688 3. 695
3. 760 3. 767
3. 833 3. 840
3. 907 3. 914
3. 982 3. 989
4. 058 4. 065
3. 631 3. 638 3. 645
3. 702 3. 709 3. 717
3. 775 3. 782 3. 789
3. 848 3. 855 3. 863
3. 922 3. 929 3. 937
3. 997 4. 005 4. 012 a
4. 073 4. 081 4. 088
Expl anati on of Tabl e of Cubes
Thi s tabl e gi ves the val ue of N3 f or val ues of Nf rom 1 to 10, correct to f our f i gures. ( I nterpol ated val ues may be i n error
by 1 i n the f ourth f i gure. )
To f i nd the cube of a number Noutsi dethe range f rom1 to 10, notethatmovi ngthe deci mal poi nt one pl ace i n Col umn
Ni s equi val ent to movi ng i t three pl aces i n the body of thel abl e. For exampl e, ( 4. 852) 3 = 114. 2, ( 0. 4852) 3 =0. 1142, and
( 485. 2) 3 =114, 200. 000.
Thi s tabl e al so can be used i nversel y to gi ve cube roots.
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1- B PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NGHANDBOOK
TABLE 1.2-CUBES OF NUMBERS (continued)
Average
Di f f erence
8
9
I O
11
12
13
14
14
14
15
16
18
9 N 0 1 2
- -
3 4 5
4. 119 4. 127 4. 135
6
4. 197 4. 204 4. 212
4. 275 4. 283 4. 291
4. 355 4. 363 4. 371
4. 435 4. 443 4. 451
4. 142
4. 220
4. 299
4. 379
4. 460
4. 533 4. 541
4. 616 4. 624
4. 699 4. 708
4. 784 4. 793
4. 870 4. 878
4. 956 4. 965
5. 044 5. 053
5. 133 5. 142
5. 223 5. 232
5. 314 5. 323
7 8
4. 150 4. 158
4. 228 4. 236
4. 307 4. 315
4. 387 4. 395
4. 468 4. 476
4. 550 4. 558
4. 632 4. 641
4. 716 4. 725
4. 801 4. 810
4. 887 4. 896
4. 974 4. 983
5. 062 5. 071
5. 151 5. 160
5. 241 5. 250
5. 332 5. 341
5. 424 5. 433
5. 517 5. 526
5. 611 5. 621
5. 707 5. 716
5. 803 5. 813
5. 900 5. 910
1. 60
1. 61
1. 62
1. 63
1. 64
4.096 4. 104 4. 111
4. 189
4. 267
4. 173 4. 181
4. 252 4. 259
4. 331 4. 339
4. 411 4. 419
4. 347
4. 427
1. 65 4.492 4. 500 4. 508
1. 66 4. 574 4. 583 4. 591
1. 67 4. 657 4. 666 4. 674
1. 68 4. 742 4. 750 4. 759
1. 69 4. 827 4. 835 4. 844
1. 70 4. 913 4. 922 4. 930
1. 71 5. 000 5. 009 5. 018
1. 72 5. 088 5. 097 5. 106
1. 73 5. 178 5. 187 5. 196
1. 74 5. 268 5. 277 5. 286
1. 75
1. 76
1. 77
1. 78
1. 79
1. 80
1. 81
1. 82
1. 83
1. 84
5.359 5.369 5. 378
5. 452 5. 461 5. 470
5. 545
5. 640
5. 735
5. 832
5. 930
6. 029
6. 128
6. 230
5. 555
5. 649
5. 745
5. 842
5. 940
6. 039
6. 139
6. 240
6. 342
6. 445
6. 550
6. 655
6. 762
6. 870
6. 979
7. 089
5. 564
5. 659
5. 755
5. 851
5. 949
6. 048
6. 149
6. 250
1.85 6. 332
1. 86 6. 435
1. 87 6. 539
1. 88 6. 645
1. 89 6. 751
6. 352
6. 456
6. 560
6. 666
6. 773
1.90
1.91
1. 92
1. 93
1. 94
6. 859
6. 968
7. 078
7. 189 7. 200
7. 301 7. 313
6. 881
6. 990
7. 100
7. 211
7. 324
1.95 7. 415 7. 426 7. 438
1. 96 7. 530 7. 541 7. 553
1. 97 7. 645 7. 657 7. 669
1. 98 7. 762 7. 774 7. 786
1. 99 7. 881 7. 892 7. 904
2. 00 8. 000 8. 012
2. 01 8. 121 8. 133
2. 02 8. 242 8. 255
2. 03 8. 365 8. 378
2. 04 8. 490 8. 502
8. 024
8. 145
8. 267 8. 279 8. 291
8. 390 8. 403 8. 415
2. 05
2. 06
2. 07
2. 08
2. 09
2. 10
2. 11
2. 12
2. 13
2. 14
8. 615 8. 628
8. 742 8. 755
8. 870 8. 883
8. 999 9. 012
9. 129 9. 142
9. 261 9. 274
9.394
9. 528
8. 515
8. 640
8. 767
8. 895
9. 025
9. 156
9. 287
9.407
9.542
9. 421
9. 555
2. 15
2. 1
2. 2
2. 3
2. 4
9.664 9.677 9. 691
9. 800 9. 814 9. 828
9. 938 9. 952 9. 966
10. 65 10. 79 10. 94 11. 09 11. 24
12. 17 12. 33 12. 49 12. 65 12. 81
13. 82 14. 00 14. 17 14. 35 14. 53
4. 166
4. 244
4. 323
4. 403
4. 484
4. 566
4. 649
4. 733
4. 818
4. 904
4. 991
5. 080
5. 169
5. 259
5. 350
5. 442
5. 536
5. 630
5. 726
5. 822
5. 920
6. 019
6. 118
4. 517 4. 525
4. 599 4. 607
4. 683 4. 691
4. 767 4. 776
4. 853 4. 861
4. 939 4. 948
5. 027 5. 035
5. 115 5. 124
5. 205 5. 214
5. 295 5. 304
5. 387 5. 396
5. 480 5. 489
5. 573 5. 583
5. 668 5. 678
5. 764 5. 774
5. 861 5. 871
5. 959 5. 969
6. 058 6. 068
6. 159 6. 169
6. 260 6. 270
6. 362 6. 373
6. 466 6. 476
5. 405
5. 498
5. 415
5. 508
5.592 5. 602
5. 687 5. 697
5. 784 5. 793
5. 881 5. 891
5.979 5. 989
6. 078 6. 088
5.999 6.009
6. 098 6. 108
6. 199 6. 209
6. 301 6. 311
6. 179
6. 280
6. 383
6. 487
6. 189
6. 291
6. 393
6. 497
6. 602
6. 708
6. 816
6. 219
6. 321
6. 404 6. 414
6. 508 6. 518
6. 613 6. 623
6. 719 6. 730
6. 827 6. 837
6. 935 6. 946
7. 045 7. 056
7. 156 7. 167
7. 268 7. 279
7. 381 7. 392
7. 495 7. 507
7. 610 7. 622
7. 727 7. 739
7. 845 7. 857
7. 964 7. 976
8. 084 8. 096
8. 206 8. 218
8. 328 8. 341
8. 452 8. 465
8. 577 8. 590
8. 704 8. 716
8. 831 8. 844
6. 424
6. 529
6. 634
6. 741
6. 848
6. 957
7. 067
6. 571 6. 581 6.592
6. 677 6. 687 6. 698
6. 805 6. 783 6. 794
6. 892 6. 902
7. 001 7. 012
7. 111 7. 122
7. 223 7. 234
7. 335 7. 347
7. 449 7. 461
6. 913 6.924
7. 023 7. 034
7. 133
7. 245
7. 358
7. 472
7. 798 7. 810
7. 916 7. 928
8. 036 8. 048
8. 157 8. 169
7. 144
7. 256
7. 369
7. 484
7. 599
7. 715
7. 564 7. 576 7. 587
7. 680 7. 692 7. 704
7. 821 7. 833
7. 940 7. 952
7. 178
7. 290
7. 403
7. 518
7. 634
7. 751
7. 869
7. 988
8. 108 8. 060 8. 072
8. 181 8. 194
8. 304 8. 316
8. 427 8. 440
8. 552 8. 565
8. 653 8. 666 8. 678
8. 780 8. 793 8. 806
8. 934
9. 064
9. 195
8. 691
8. 818
8. 947
9. 077
9. 208
9. 327 9. 341
9. 461 9. 474
9. 596 9. 609
8. 230
8. 353
a. 477
8. 603
8. 729
8. 857
8. 986
9. 116
9. 248
8. 527 8. 540
8. 908 8. 921
9. 038 9. 051
9. 169 9. 182
9. 301 9. 314
9. 434 9. 447
9. 569 9. 582
9. 704 9. 718
9. 842 9. 855
9. 980 9. 994
8. 960 8. 973
9. 090 9. 103
9. 221 9. 235
9. 354 9. 367
9. 488 9. 501
9. 623 9. 636
9. 759 9. 773
9. 897 9. 911
9. 381
9. 515
9.650
9. 787
9. 925
9.732 9.745
9. 869 9. 883
10. 008
9. 94
11. 39
12. 98
14. 71
10. 08 10. 22 10. 36 10. 50
11. 54 11. 70 11. 85 12. 01
13. 14 13. 31 13. 48 13. 65
14. 89 15. 07 15. 25 15. 44
r3= 31.0063 and l/n3 =0.0322515+
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MATHEMATI CALTABLES& UNI TS& SYSTEMSOF WEI GHTS& MEASURES 1- 9
TABLE1. 2- CUEI ESOF NUMBERS( conti nued)
Average
Di f f erence N 0 3 4
- -
5 6 8 9 2 1
15. 81
17. 78
19. 90
22. 19
24. 64
27. 27
30. 08
33. 08
36. 26
39. 65
43. 24
2. 5
2. 6
2. 7
2. 8
2. 9
3. 0
3. 1
3. 2
3. 3
3. 4
3. 5
3. 6
3. 7
3. 8
3. 9
4. 0
4. 1
4. 2
4. 3
4. 4
4. 5
4. 6
4. 6
4. 7
4. 8
4. 9
5. 0
5. 1
5. 2
5. 3
5. 4
5. 5
5. 6
5. 7
5. 8
5. 9
6. 0
6. 1
6. 2
6. 3
6. 4
6. 5
6. 6
6. 7
6. 8
6. 9
7. 0
7. 1
7. 2
7. 3
7. 4
7. 5
7. 6
7. 7
7. 8
7. 9
8. 0
8. 1
8. 2
8. 3
8. 4
15. 62
17. 58
19. 68
21. 95
24. 39
27. 00
29. 79
32. 77
35. 94
39. 30
42. 88
16. 00
17. 98
20. 12
22. 43
24. 90
27. 54
30. 37
33. 39
36. 59
40. 00
43. 61
16. 19 16. 39 16. 58 16. 78 16. 97 17. 17
18. 19 18. 40 18. 61 18. 82 19. 03 19. 25
17. 37
19. 47
21. 72
24. 14
26. 73
20
21
23
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
39
40
42
44
47
49
52
54
58
59
62
64
7
7
7
7
8
9
I O
11
12
13
14
15
18
17
18
19
20
21
20. 35 20. 57 20. 80 21. 02
22. 67 22. 91 23. 15 23. 39
25. 15 25. 41 25. 67 25. 93
27. 82 28. 09 28. 37 28. 65
30. 66 30. 96 31. 26 31. 55
33. 70 34. 01 34. 33 34. 65
36. 93 37. 26 37. 60 37. 93
40. 35 40. 71 41. 06 41. 42
43. 99 44. 36 44. 74 45. 12
21. 25 21. 48
23. 64 23. 89
26. 20 26. 46
28. 93 29. 22
31. 86 32. 16
34. 97 35. 29
38. 27 38. 61
41. 78 42. 14
45. 50
49. 43
53. 58
57. 96
62. 57
67. 42
72. 51
77. 85
83. 45
89. 31
95. 44
45. 88
49. 84
54. 01
58. 41 58. 86
63. 04 63. 52
67. 92 68. 42
73. 03 73. 56
78. 40 78. 95
84. 03 84. 60
89. 92 90. 52
96. 07 96. 70
101. 8 102. 5
108. 5 109. 2
115. 5 116. 2
122. 8 123. 5
130. 3 131. 1
138. 2 139. 0
29. 50
32. 46
35. 61
38. 96
42. 51
46. 27
50. 24
54. 44
46. 66 47. 05 47. 44 47. 83 48. 23 48. 63 49. 03
50. 65 51. 06 51. 48 51. 90 52. 31 52. 73 53. 16
54. 87
59. 32
64. 00
68. 92
74. 09
79. 51
85. 18
91. 12
97. 34
103. 8
110. 6
117. 6
55. 31
59. 78
64. 48
69. 43
55. 74
60. 24
64. 96
69. 93
75. 15
80. 62
86. 35
56. 18 56. 62
60. 70 61. 16
65. 45 65. 94
70. 44 70. 96
75. 69 76. 23
81. 18 81. 75
86. 94 87. 53
92. 96 93. 58
99. 25 99. 90
105. 8 106. 5
112. 7 113. 4
119. 8 120. 6
57. 07
61. 63
66. 43
71. 47
76. 77
82. 31
88. 12
94. 20
100. 54
100. 5
107. 2
114. 1
121. 3
128. 8
136. 6
57. 51
62. 10
66. 92
71. 99
77. 31
82. 88
88. 72
94. 82
101. 2
107. 9
114. 8
122. 0
103. 2
109. 9
116. 9
124. 3
146. 4 147. 2
154. 9 155. 7
163. 7 164. 6
131. 9
139. 8
148. 0
156. 6
165. 5
172. 8 173. 7 174. 7
182. 3 183. 3 184. 2
192. 1 193. 1 194. 1
202. 3 203. 3 204. 3
212. 8 213. 8 214. 9
223. 6 224. 8 225. 9
74. 62
80. 08
85. 77
91. 73
97. 97
104. 5
111. 3
118. 4
125. 8
133. 4
92. 35
98. 61
105. 2
112. 0
119. 1
126. 5
134. 2
142. 2
150. 6
159. 2
168. 2
177. 5
187. 1
197. 1
207. 5
218. 2
229. 2
240. 6
252. 4
264. 6
277. 2
290. 1
125. 0
132. 7
140. 6
148. 9
157. 5
166. 4
175. 6
185. 2
195. 1
205. 4
216. 0
227. 0
238. 3
250. 0
262. 1
274. 6
287. 5
127. 3 128. 0
135. 0 135. 8
143. 1 143. 9
151. 4 152. 3
129. 6
137. 4
145. 5
154. 0
141. 4
149. 7
144. 7
153. 1
158. 3
167. 3
176. 6
186. 2
196. 1
206. 4
217. 1
228. 1
239. 5
251. 2
263. 4
160. 1 161. 0
169. 1 170. 0
178. 5 179. 4
188. 1 189. 1
198. 2 199. 2
208. 5 209. 6
219. 3 220. 3
161. 9
171. 0
180. 4
190. 1
200. 2
210. 6
221. 4
232. 6
244. 1
256. 0
268. 3
281. 0
294. 1
162. 8
171. 9
181. 3
191. 1
201. 2
211. 7
222. 5
230. 3 231. 5
241. 8 243. 0
233. 7 234. 9 236. 0 237. 2
245. 3 246. 5 247. 7 248. 9
253. 6 254. 8
265. 8 267. 1
257. 3 258. 5 259. 7
269. 6 270. 8 272. 1
307. 5
321. 4
282. 3 283. 6
295. 4 298. 7
308. 9 310. 3
322. 8 324. 2
284. 9
298. 1
335. 7
350. 4
365. 5
381. 1
397. 1
413. 5
337. 2
351. 9
367. 1
382. 7
398. 7
415. 2
432. 1
449. 5
467. 3
338. 6
353. 4
368. 6
384. 2
400. 3
416. 8
311. 7
325. 7
340. 1
354. 9
370. 1
385. 8
401. 9
418. 5
260. 9
273. 4
286. 2
299. 4
313. 0
327. 1
341. 5
356. 4
371. 7
387. 4
403. 6
420. 2
430. 4
447. 7
465. 5
483. 7
502. 5
435. 5
453. 0
470. 9
485. 6
504. 4
433. 8
451. 2
469. 1
487. 4
506. 3
489. 3
508. 2
437. 2
454. 8
472. 7
491. 2
510. 1
521. 7 523. 6 525. 6 527. 5 529. 5
541. 3 543. 3 545. 3 547. 3 549. 4
561. 5 583. 6 565. 6 567. 7 569. 7
582. 2 584. 3 586. 4 588. 5 590. 6
603. 4 605. 5 607. 6 609. 8 612. 0
275. 9
288. 8
302. 1
315. 8
278. 4 279. 7
291. 4 292. 8
304. 8 306. 2
318. 6 320. 0
300. 8
314. 4
328. 5
343. 0
357. 9
373. 2
389. 0
405. 2
329. 9 331. 4
344. 5 345. 9
359. 4 360. 9
374. 8 376. 4
390. 6 392. 2
406. 9 408. 5
421. 9 423. 8
439. 0 440. 7
456. 5 458. 3
303. 5
317. 2
474. 6 476. 4
493. 0 494. 9
425. 3
442. 5
460. 1
478. 2
496. 8
512. 0 513. 9 515. 8
531. 4 533. 4 535. 4
551. 4 553. 4 555. 4
571. 8 573. 9 575. 9
592. 7 594. 8 596. 9
332. 8 334. 3
347. 4 348. 9
362. 5 364. 0
377. 9 379. 5
393. 8 395. 4
410. 2 411. 8
427. 0 428. 7
444. 2 445. 9
461. 9 463. 7
480. 0 481. 9
498. 7 500. 6
517. 8 519. 7
535. 4 539. 4
557. 4 559. 5
578. 0 580. 1
599. 1 601. 2
r =310063and 1h3=O0322515+
3
( conti nued on next page)
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l - 10 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
N
8. 5 614. 1
8. 6 636. 1
8. 7 658. 5
8. 8 681. 5
8. 9 705. 0
9. 0
9. 1
9. 2
9. 3
9. 4
729. 0
753. 6
778. 7
804. 4 807. 0
830. 6 833. 2
9. 5
9. 6
9. 7
9. 8
9. 9
10. 0
857. 4 860. 1 862. 8
884. 7 887. 5 890. 3
912. 7 915. 5 918. 3
941. 2 944. 1 947. 0
970. 3 973. 2 976. 2
1000. 0
0
616. 3
638. 3
660. 8
683. 8
707. 3
731. 4
756. 1
781. 2
2
TABLE 1. 2- CUBES OF NUMBERS ( conti nued)
618. 5
640. 5
663. 1
686. 1
709. 7
733. 9
758. 6
783. 8
809. 6
835. 9
3 4
620. 7 622. 8
642. 7 645. 0
665. 3 667. 6
688. 5 690. 8
712. 1 714. 5
736. 3 738. 8
761 . O 763. 6
786. 3 788. 9
812. 2 814. 8
838. 6 841. 2
865. 5 868. 3
893. 1 895. 8
921. 2 924. 0
949. 9 952. 8
979. 1 982. 1
5
625. 0
647. 2
669. 9
693. 2
716. 9
741. 2
766. 1
791. 5
817. 4
043. 9
627. 2
649. 5
672. 2
695. 5
719. 3
743. 7
768. 6
794. 0
820. 0
846. 6
746. 1
771. 1
796. 6
822. 7
849. 3
871 . O 873. 7 876. 5
898. 6 901. 4 904. 2
926. 9 929. 7 932. 6
955. 7 958. 6 961. 5
985. 1 988. 0 991 . o
6 7
629. 4
651. 7
674. 5
697. 9
721. 7
8 9
Average
Di f f erence
631. 6 633. 8
654. 0 656. 2
678. 8 679. 2
700. 2 702. 6
724. 2 726. 6
748. 6
773. 6
799. 2
825. 3
852. 0
879. 2
907. 0
935. 4
964. 4
994. 0
751. 1
776. 2
801. 8
827. 9
854. 7
882. 0
909. 9
938. 3
967. 4
997. 0
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
T =31 0063 and 1/x3 =00322515+
3
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MATHEMATI CALTABLES &UNI TS &SYSTEMSOFWEl GHTS&MEASURES 1- 11
TABLE 1. 3- SQUARE ROOTS OF NUMBERS
Average
9 Di f f erence
1. 044 5
1. 091
1. 136 4
1. 179
1. 221
N
1. 0
1. 1
1. 2
1. 3
1. 4
0
1. 000
1. 5
1. 6
1. 7
1. 8
1. 9
1. 049
1. 095
1. 140
1. 183
1. 255
1. 265
2. 0
2. 1
2. 2
2. 3
2. 4
2. 5
2. 6
2. 7
2. 8
2. 9
3. 0
3. 1
3. 2
3. 3
3. 4
1. 789
1. 304
1. 378
1. 414
1. 342
1. 449
1. 817
1. 483
1. 517
1. 549
1. 581
1. 612
1. 643
1. 673
1. 703
1. 732
1. 761
3. 5
3. 6
3. 7
3. 8
3. 9
4. 0
4. 1
4. 2
4. 3
4. 4
4. 5
4. 6
4. 7
4. 8
4. 9
1. 844
1. 871
1. 897
1. 924
1. 949
1. 975
2. 000
2. 025
2. 049
2. 074
2. 098
2. 121
2. 145
2. 168
2. 191
2. 214
5. 0 2. 236
5. 1 2. 258
5. 2 2. 280
5. 3 2. 302
5. 4 2. 324
5. 5 2. 345
5. 6 2. 366
5. 7 2. 387
5. 8 2. 408
5. 9 2. 429
6. 0
6. 1
6. 2
6. 3
6. 4
6. 5
6. 6
6. 7
6. 8
6. 9
2. 449 2. 452 2. 454 2. 456 2. 458
2. 470 2. 472 2. 474 2. 476 2. 478
2. 490 2. 492 2. 494 2. 496 2. 498
2. 510 2. 512 2. 514 2. 516 2. 518
2. 530 2. 532 2. 534 2. 536 2. 538
2. 550
2. 569
2. 588
2. 608
2. 627
2 3 4
1. 010 1. 015 1. 020
5
1. 025
1. 072
1. 118
1. 162
1. 204
6
1. 030
1. 077
1. 122
1. 166
1. 208
1. 249
1. 288
7
1. 034
1. 082
1. 127
1. 170
1. 212
8
1. 039
1. 088
1
1. 005
1. 054
1. 100
1. 145
1. 187
1. 229
1. 269
1. 058 1. 083 1. 068
1. 105 1. 109 1. 114
1. 149 1. 153 1. 158
1. 192 1. 196 1. 200
1. 131
1. 175
1. 233
1. 273
1. 311
1. 349
1. 237
1. 277
1. 241
1. 281
1. 319
1. 356
1. 393
1. 428
1. 463
1. 497
1. 530
1. 562
1. 245
1. 285
1. 217
1. 253 1. 257 1. 261
1. 292 1. 296 1. 300
1. 315
1. 353
1. 389
1. 323
1. 360
1. 396
1. 432
1. 466
1. 500
1. 533
1. 565
1. 327
1. 364
1. 386
1. 421 1. 425
1. 456 1. 459
1. 490 1. 493
1. 523 1. 526
1. 556 1. 559
1. 400
1. 435
1. 470
1. 503
1. 536
1. 568
1. 330 1. 334 1. 338
1. 367 1. 371 1. 375
1. 404 1. 407 1. 411
1. 439 1. 442 1. 446
1. 473 1. 476 1. 480 3
1. 507 1. 510 1. 513
1. 539 1. 543 1. 546
1. 572 1. 575 1. 578
1. 587 1. 591 1. 594 1. 597 1. 600 1. 603 1. 606 1. 609
1. 619 1. 622 1. 625 1. 628 1. 631 1. 634 1. 637 1. 640
1. 649 1. 652 1. 655 1. 658 1. 661 1. 664 1. 667 1. 670
1. 679 1. 682 1. 685 1. 688 1. 691 1. 694 1. 697 1. 700
1. 709 1. 712 1. 715 1. 718 1. 720 1. 723 1. 726 1. 729
1. 382
1. 308
1. 418
1. 453
1. 345
1. 487
1. 520
1. 552
1. 584
1. 616
1. 646
1. 676
1. 706
1. 735
1. 764
1. 738 1. 741 1. 744 1. 746
1. 766 1. 769 1. 772 1. 775
1. 803
1. 830
1. 857
1. 749
1. 778
1. 806
1. 833
1. 860
1. 752
1. 808
1. 836
1. 863
1. 780
1. 889
1. 916
1. 942
1. 967
1. 992
2. 017
2. 042
2. 066
2. 090
2. 114
2. 138
2. 161
1. 811
1. 755
1. 838
1. 885
1. 783
1. 884 1. 887
1. 910 1. 913
1. 936 1. 939
1. 962 1. 965
1. 987 1. 990
1. 892
1. 918
1. 944
1. 970
1. 995
2. 012 2. 015
2. 037 2. 040
2. 062 2. 064
2. 086 2. 088
2. 110 2. 112
2. 020
2. 045
2. 069
2. 093
2. 117
2. 133
2. 156
2. 179
2. 202
2. 225
2. 247
2. 269
2. 291
2. 313
2. 335
2. 356
2. 377
2. 398
2. 140
2. 163
2. 135
2. 159
2. 182 2. 184 2. 186
2. 205 2. 207 2. 209
1. 814
1. 841
1. 758
1. 868
1. 895
1. 921
1. 947
1. 786
1. 972
1. 997
2. 022
1. 847
1. 792
1. 873
1. 900
1. 926
1. 819
1. 952
1. 977
2. 002
2. 027
2. 052
1. 794
1. 822
1. 849
1. 876
1. 903
1. 929
1. 954
1. 980
2. 005
1. 797 1. 800
1. 825 1. 828
1. 852 1. 855
1. 879 1. 881
1905 1. 908
1. 931 1. 934
1. 957 1. 960
1. 982 1. 985
2. 007 2. 010
2. 030 2. 032
2. 054 2. 057
2. 078 2. 081
2. 102 2. 105
2. 035
2. 059
2. 083
2. 107
2. 131
2. 154
2. 177
2. 200
2. 223
2. 245
2. 267
2. 289
2. 311
2. 332
2. 354
2. 047 2
2. 071
2. 076
2. 100
2. 124
2. 147
2. 170
2. 193
2. 216
2. 238
2. 261
2. 283
2. 304
2. 326
2. 347
2. 095
2. 119
2. 142
2. 166
2. 189
2. 211
2. 234
2. 256
2. 278
2. 300
2. 322
2. 343
2. 364
2. 126 2. 128
2. 149 2. 152
2. 173 2. 175
2. 195 2. 198
2. 218 2. 220 2. 227 2. 229 2. 232
2. 249 2. 252 2. 254
2. 272 2. 274 2. 276
2. 293 2. 296 2. 298
2. 315 2. 317 2. 319
2. 337 2. 339 2. 341
2. 358 2. 360 2. 382
2. 241 2. 243
2. 263 2. 265
2. 285 2. 287
2. 307 2. 309
2. 328 2. 330
2. 349 2. 352
2. 369 2. 371
2. 390 2. 392
2. 373 2. 375
2. 394 2. 398
2. 415 2. 417
2. 435 2. 437
2. 379 2. 381 2. 383 2. 385
2. 400 2. 402 2. 404 2. 406
2. 421 2. 423 2. 425 2. 427
2. 441 2. 443 2. 445 2. 447
2. 410 2. 412
2. 431 2. 433
2. 419
2. 439
2. 460 2. 462 2. 464 2. 466 2. 468
2. 480 2. 482 2. 484 2. 486 2. 488
2. 500 2. 502 2. 504 2. 506 2. 508
2. 520 2. 522 2. 524 2. 526 2. 528
2. 540 2. 542 2. 544 2. 546 2. 548
2. 557 2. 559 2. 561 2. 563 2. 565 2. 567
2. 577 2. 579 2. 581 2. 583 2. 585 2. 587
2. 596 2. 598 2. 600 2. 602 2. 604 2. 606
2. 615 2. 617 2. 619 2. 621 2. 623 2. 625
2. 634 2. 636 2. 638 2. 640 2. 642 2. 644
2. 551 2. 553 2. 555
2. 571 2. 573 2. 575
2. 590 2. 592 2. 594
2. 610 2. 612 2. 613
2. 629 2. 631 2. 632
Exol anati on of Tabl e of Sauare Roots
Thi s tabl e gi ves the val ue of f i f orval uesof Nf rom 1 to l OO, correcttof ourf i gures. ( l nterpol ated val ues maybe i nerror
by 1 i n the f ourth f i gure) .
To f i nd the square root of a number N outsi de the range f rom1 to 100, di vi de the di gi ts of the number i nto bl ocks
of two( begi nni ng wi th thedeci mal poi nt) , and note that movi ngthedeci mal
l ace i n the square root of N. For exampl e, &%- 8=1. 648,
oi nttwo pl acesi n N i s equi val ent to movi ng
i t one
+=
J - - Y=
00002718 001648, and J o7oo2718=0. 05213.
2718 5213, &%%=18. 48, ~@%3=52. 13,
( conti nued on next page)
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l - 12
PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1. 3- SQUARE ROOTS OF NUMBERS( conti nued)
7 8 9
2. 659 2. 661 2. 663
2 3 4 5 6
2. 650 2. 651 2. 653 2. 655 2. 657
2. 668 2. 670 2. 672 2. 674 2. 676 2. 678
2. 687 2. 689 2. 691 2. 693 2. 694 2. 696
2. 706 2. 707 2. 709 2. 711 2. 713 2. 715
2. 724 2. 728 2. 728 2. 729 2. 731 2. 733
2. 742 2. 744 2. 746 2. 748 2. 750 2. 751
2. 760 2. 762 2. 764 2. 766 2. 768 2. 769
2. 778 2. 780 2. 782 2. 784 2. 786 2. 787
2. 796 2. 798 2. 800 2. 802 2. 804 2. 805
2. 814 2. 816 2. 818 2. 820 2. 821 2. 823
2. 832 2. 834 2. 835 2. 837 2. 839 2. 841
2. 850 2. 851 2. 853 2. 855 2. 857 2. 858
2. 867 2. 869 2. 871 2. 872 2. 874 2. 876
2. 884 2. 886 2. 888 2. 890 2. 891 2. 893
2. 902 2. 903 2. 905 2. 907 2. 909 2. 910
2. 919 2. 921 2. 922 2. 924 2. 926 2. 927
2. 936 2. 938 2. 939 2. 941 2. 943 2. 944
2. 953 2. 955 2. 956 2. 958 2. 960 2. 961
2. 970 2. 972 2. 973 2. 975 2. 977 2. 978
2. 987 2. 988 2. 990 2. 992 2. 993 2. 995
3. 003 3. 005 3. 007 3. 008 3. 010 3. 012
3. 020 3. 022 3. 023 3. 025 3. 027 3. 028
3. 036 3. 038 3. 040 3. 041 3. 043 3. 045
3. 053 3. 055 3. 056 3. 058 3. 059 3. 061
3. 069 3. 071 3. 072 3. 074 3. 076 3. 077
3. 085 3. 087 3. 089 3. 090 3. 092 3. 094
3. 102 3. 103 3. 105 3. 106 3. 108 3. 110
3. 118 3. 119 3. 121 3. 122 3. 124 3. 126
3. 134 3. 135 3. 137 3. 138 3. 140 3. 142
3. 150 3. 151 3. 153 3. 154 3. 156 3. 158
3. 194 3. 209 3. 225 3. 240 3. 256 3. 271
3. 347 3. 362 3. 376 3. 391 3. 406 3. 421
3. 493 3. 507 3. 521 3. 536 3. 550 3. 564
3. 633 3. 647 3. 661 3. 674 3. 688 3. 701
3. 768 3. 782 3. 795 3. 808 3. 821 3. 834
3. 899 3. 912 3. 924 3. 937 3. 950 3. 962
4. 025 4. 037 4. 050 4. 062 4. 074 4. 087
4. 147 4. 159 4. 171 4. 183 4. 195 4. 207
4. 266 4. 278 4. 290 4. 301 4. 313 4. 324
4. 382 4. 393 4. 405 4. 416 4. 427 4. 438
4. 494 4. 506 4. 517 4. 528 4. 539 4. 550
4. 604 4. 615 4. 626 4. 637 4. 648 4. 658
4. 712 4. 722 4. 733 4. 743 4. 754 4. 764
4. 817 4. 827 4. 837 4. 848 4. 858 4. 868
4. 919 4. 930 4. 940 4. 950 4. 960 4. 970
5. 020 5. 030 5. 040 5. 050 5. 060 5. 070
5. 119 5. 128 5. 138 5. 148 5. 158 5. 167
5. 215 5. 225 5. 235 5. 244 5. 254 5. 263
5. 310 5. 320 5. 329 5. 339 5. 348 5. 357
5. 404 5. 413 5. 422 5. 431 5. 441 5. 450
5. 495 5. 505 5. 514 5. 523 5. 532 5. 541
5. 586 5. 595 5. 604 5. 612 5. 621 5. 630
5. 675 5. 683 5. 692 5. 701 5. 710 5. 718
5. 762 5. 771 5. 779 5. 788 5. 797 5. 805
5. 848 5. 857 5. 865 5. 874 5. 882 5. 891
5. 933 5. 941 5. 950 5. 958 5. 967 5. 975
6. 017 6. 025 6. 033 6. 042 6. 050 6. 058
6. 099 6. 107 6. 116 6. 124 6. 132 6. 140
6. 181 6. 189 6. 197 6. 205 6. 213 6. 221
6. 281 6. 269 6. 277 6. 285 6. 293 6. 301
2. 680 2. 681
2. 698 2. 700
2. 717 2. 718
2. 735 2. 737
2. 753
2. 771
2. 789
2. 807
2. 825
2. 843
2. 755
2. 773
2. 791
2. 809
2. 827
2. 844
2. 860
2. 877
2. 895
2. 912
2. 862
2. 879
2. 897
2. 914
2. 929 2. 931
2. 946 2. 948
2. 963 2. 965
2. 980 2. 982
2. 997 2. 998
3. 013 3. 015
3. 030 3. 032
3. 046 3. 048
3. 063 3. 064
3. 079 3. 081
3. 095 3. 097
3. 111 3. 113
3. 127 3. 129
3. 143 3. 145
3. 159 3. 161
3. 286 3. 302
3. 435 3. 450
3. 578 3. 592
3. 715 3. 728
3. 847 3. 860
3. 975
4. 099
4. 219
4. 336
4. 450
3. 987
4. 111
4. 231
4. 347
4. 461
4. 561
4. 669
4. 775
4. 879
4. 980
4. 572
4. 680
4. 785
4. 889
4. 990
5. 079 5. 089
5. 177 5. 187
5. 273 5. 282
5. 367 5. 376
5. 459 5. 468
5. 550 5. 559
5. 639 5. 648
5. 727 5. 736
5. 814 5. 822
5. 899 5. 908
5. 983 5. 992
6. 066 6. 075
6. 148 6. 156
6. 229 6. 237
6. 309 6. 317
Vr=i.77245+. l/V'*=O.56419, V,*/Z=l 25331, and ~e=,.64872
Average
Di f f erence
2
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
N
7. 0
7. 1
7. 2
7. 3
7. 4
0
2. 646
2. 665
2. 683
2. 702
2. 720
1
2. 648
2. 666
2. 685
2. 704
7. 5
7. 6
7. 7
7. 8
7. 9
2. 739
2. 757
8. 0
8. 1
8. 2
8. 3
8. 4
2. 775
2. 793
2. 811
2. 828
2. 722
2. 740
2. 759
2. 777
2. 795
2. 812
2. 830
2. 846 2. 848
2. 864 2. 865
2. 881 2. 883
2. 898 2. 900
8. 5 2. 915 2. 917
8. 6 2. 933 2. 934
8. 7 2. 950 2. 951
8. 6 2. 966 2. 968
8. 9 2. 983 2. 985
9. 0
9. 1
9. 2
9. 3
9. 4
3. 000 3. 002
3. 017 3. 018
9. 5
9. 6
9. 7
9. 8
9. 9
3. 033
3. 050
3. 066
3. 082
3. 098
3. 114
3. 130
3. 146
10. 0
11. 0
12. 0
13. 0
14. 0
3. 035
3. 051
3. 068
3. 084
3. 100
3. 116
3. 132
3. 148
3. 178 3. 162
3. 317 3. 332
3. 464 3. 479
3. 606
3. 742
15. 0 3. 873
16. 0 4. 000
17. 0 4. 123
18. 0 4. 243
19. 0 4. 359
3. 619
3. 755
3. 886
4. 012
4. 135
4. 254
4. 370
20. 0 4. 472
21. 0 4. 583
22. 0 4. 690
23. 0 4. 796
24. 0 4. 899
4. 483
4. 593
25. 0 5. 000
26. 0 5. 099
27. 0 5. 196
28. 0 5. 292
29. 0 5. 385
30. 0
31. 0
32. 0
33. 0
34. 0
5. 477
4. 701
4. 806
4. 909
5. 010
5. 109
5. 206
5. 301
5. 394
5. 486
5. 568 5. 577
5. 657 5. 666
35. 0
36. 0
37. 0
38. 0
39. 0
5. 745 5. 753
5. 831 5. 840
5. 916 5. 925
6. 000 6. 008
6. 083 6. 091
6. 164 6. 173
6. 245 6. 253
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MATHEMATI CALTABLES& UNI TS& SYSTEMSOFWEl GHTS& MEASURES 1- 13
TABLE 1. 3- SQUARE ROOTS OF NUMBERS( conti nued)
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Average
Di f f erence
40. 0
41 0
42. 0
43. 0
44. 0
6. 325 6. 332 6. 340 6. 348 6. 356 6. 364 6. 372 6. 380 6. 387 6. 395 8
6. 411 6. 419 6. 427 6. 434 6. 442 6. 450 6. 458 6. 465 6. 473
6. 488 6. 496 6. 504 6. 512 6. 519 6. 527 6. 535 6. 542 6. 550
6. 565 6. 573 6. 580 6. 588 6. 595 6. 603 6. 611 6. 618 6. 626
6. 641 6. 648 6. 656 6. 663 6. 671 6. 678 6. 686 6. 693 6. 701
45. 0
46. 0
47. 0
48. 0
49. 0
6. 403
6. 856
6. 481
6. 557
6. 928
6. 633
6. 708
6. 782
6. 716
6. 790
6. 731 6. 738 6. 745 6. 753
6. 804 6. 812 6. 819 6. 826
50. 0
51. 0
52. 0
53. 0
54. 0
7. 029
6. 885
7. 099
7. 169
7. 239
7. 308
6. 957
7. 376
7. 036
7. 106
6. 892
7. 176
7. 246
7. 314
7. 382
6. 964
55. 0
56. 0
57. 0
56. 0
59. 0
7. 000
7. 071
7. 141
7. 211
7. 280
7. 348
7. 416
7. 483
7. 550
7. 616
7. 681
7. 443 7. 450
7. 510 7. 517
7. 576 7. 583
7. 642 7. 649
7. 707 7. 714
6. 760
6. 834
6. 907
6. 979
7. 050
7. 120
7. 190
7. 259
7. 328
7. 396
7. 463
7. 530
7. 596
7. 662
7. 727
60. 0 7. 746
61. 0 7. 810
62. 0 7. 874
63. 0 7. 937
64. 0 8. 000
7. 772 7. 778
7. 836 7. 842
7. 899 7. 906
7. 962 7. 969
8. 025 8. 031
65. 0
66. 0
67. 0
68. 0
69. 0
8. 062
8. 124
8. 185
8. 246
8. 307
7. 007
6. 863
7. 078
7. 148
6. 935
7. 218
7. 287
7. 355
7. 423
7. 490
7. 556
7. 622
7. 688
7. 752
7. 817
7. 880
7. 944
8. 006
8. 068
8. 130
8. 191
8. 252
8. 313
6. 723
6. 797
6. 870
6. 943
7. 014
7. 085
7. 155
7. 225
7. 294
7. 362
7. 430
7. 497
7. 563
7. 629
7. 694
7. 759
7. 823
7. 887
7. 950
8. 012
8. 075
8. 136
8. 198
8. 258
8. 319
8. 087 8. 093
8. 149 8. 155
8. 210 8. 216
8. 270 8. 276
8. 331 8. 337
70. 0 8. 367 8. 373 8. 379
71. 0 8. 426 8. 432 8. 438
72. 0 8. 485 8. 491 8. 497
73. 0 8. 544 8. 550 8. 556
74. 0 8. 602 8. 608 8. 614
6. 877
7. 021
7. 092
7. 162
7. 232
6. 950
7. 301
7. 369
7. 436
7. 503
7. 570
7. 635
7. 701
7. 765
7. 829
7. 893
7. 956
8. 019
8. 081
8. 142
8. 204
8. 264
8. 325
8. 385 8. 390 8. 396
7. 043
7. 113
7. 183
6. 899
7. 253
7. 321
7. 389
7. 457
6. 971
7. 523
7. 589
7. 655
7. 720
7. 785
7. 849
7. 912
7. 975
8. 037
8. 099
8. 161
8. 222
8. 283
8. 343
8. 402
7. 791
7. 855
7. 918
7. 981
8. 044
8. 106
8. 167
8. 228
8. 289
8. 349
8. 408 8. 414
8. 444 8. 450 8. 456 8. 462 8. 468 8. 473 8. 479
8. 503 8. 509 8. 515 8. 521 8. 526 8. 532 8. 538
8. 562 8. 567 8. 573 8. 579 8. 585
8. 620 8. 626 8. 631 8. 637 8. 643
75. 0 8. 660 8. 666 8. 672 8. 678 8. 683 8. 669 8. 695 8. 701
76. 0 8. 718 8. 724 8. 729 8. 735 8. 741 8. 746 8. 752 8. 758
77. 0 8. 775 8. 781 8. 786 8. 792 8. 798 8. 803 8. 809 8. 815
78. 0 8. 832 8. 837 8. 843 8. 849 8. 854 8. 860 8. 866 8. 871
79. 0 8. 888 8. 894 8. 899 8. 905 8. 911 8. 916 8. 922 8. 927
80. 0 8. 944 8. 950 8. 955
81. 0 9. 000 9. 006 9. 011
82. 0 9. 055 9. 061 9. 066
83. 0 9. 110 9. 116 9. 121
84. 0 9. 165 9. 171 9. 176
85. 0
86. 0
67. 0
88. 0
89. 0
9. 220 9. 225 9. 230
9. 274 9. 279 9. 284
9. 327 9. 333 9. 338
9. 381 9. 386 9. 391
9. 434 9. 439 9. 445
8. 961
9. 017
9. 072
9. 127
9. 182
9. 236
9. 290
9. 343
9. 397
9. 450
90. 0
91. 0
92. 0
93. 0
94. 0
9. 487 9. 492 9. 497 9. 503
9. 539 9. 545 9. 550 9. 555
9. 592 9. 597 9. 602 9. 607
9. 077
8. 967
9. 132
9. 022
9. 187
9. 241
9. 295
9. 349
9. 402
9. 455
9. 508
9. 560
9. 612
9. 664
9. 716
9. 083
8. 972
9. 138
9. 192
9. 028
9. 247
9. 301
9. 354
9. 407
9. 460
9. 513
8. 978
9. 198
9. 252
9. 033
9. 306
9. 359
9. 088
9. 413
9. 466
9. 143
9. 518
9. 203
8. 983
9. 257
9. 311
9. 039
9. 365
9. 418
9. 094
9. 471
9. 524
9. 149
9. 644 9. 649 9. 654 9. 659
9. 695 9. 701 9. 706 9. 711
9. 566 9. 571 9. 576 9. 581 9. 586
9. 618 9. 623 9. 628 9. 633 9. 638
9. 670 9. 675 9.680
9. 721 9. 726 9. 731
95. 0 9. 747 9. 752 9. 757 9. 762 9. 767 9. 772 9. 778 9. 783
96. 0 9. 798 9. 803 9. 808 9. 813 9. 818 9. 823 9. 829 9. 834
97. 0 9. 849 9. 854 9. 859 9. 864 9. 869 9. 874 9. 879 9. 884
98. 0 9. 899 9. 905 9. 910 9. 915 9. 920 9. 925 9. 930 9. 935
99. 0 9. 950 9. 955 9. 960 9. 965 9. 970 9. 975 9. 980 9. 985
6. 768
6. 841
6. 914
6. 986
7. 057
7. 127
7. 197
7. 266
7. 335
7. 403
7. 470
7. 537
7. 603
7. 668
7. 733
7. 797
7. 861
7. 925
7. 987
8. 050
8. 112
8. 173
8. 234
8. 295
8. 355
6. 775 7
6. 848
6. 921
6. 993
7. 064
7. 134 7
7. 204
7. 273
7. 342
7. 409
7. 477
7. 543
7. 609
7. 675
7. 740 6
7. 804
7. 868
7. 931
7. 994
8. 056
8. 118
8. 179
8. 240
8. 301
8. 361
8. 420
8. 591 8. 597
8. 649 8. 654
8. 706 8. 712
8. 764 8. 769
8. 820 8. 826
8. 877 8. 883
8. 933 8. 939
8. 989 8. 994
9. 044 9. 050
9. 099 9. 105 5
9. 154 9. 160
9. 209
9. 263
9. 317
9. 370
9. 423
9. 476
9. 529
9. 214
9. 268
9. 322
9. 375
9. 429
9. 482
9. 534
9. 685 9. 690
9. 737 9. 742
9. 788 9. 793
9. 839 9. 844
9. 889 9. 894
9. 940 9. 945
9. 990 9. 995
SQUAREROOTSOFCERTAl NFRACTl ONS
N &i N J i i N v% N J - N f i N - J %
0. 7071- %
- __ -
' / 2 0. 7746 % 0. 7559 ' / 9 0. 3333 - 0. 64559/ rs- s/ 1* 0. 7500
' / a 0. 5774 a/ 5 0. 8944 % 0. 8452 2/ 0. 4714 y, p 0. 7638 "A6 0. 8292
v3 0. 8165 ' / 6 0. 4082 % 0. 9258 % 0. 6667 1%~ 0. 9574 ' 3/ G 0. 9014
' / 4 0. 5000 5/ s 0. 9129 ' / A 0. 3536 =/ g 0. 7454 ' h6 0. 2500 ' 5/ e 0. 9662
v4 0. 8660 ' / $ 0. 3780 % 0. 6124 ' / g 0. 8819 3/ l s 0. 4330 ' / ! 32 0. 1768
' / s 0. 4472 2/ 7 0. 5345 % 0. 7906 8/ s 0. 9428 %s 0. 5590 ' / 6* 0. 1250
75 0. 6325 3/ 7 0. 6547 ' / a 0. 9354 ' / ' 2 0. 2887 /,s 0. 6614 ' ho 0. 1414
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l - 14 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLEl . 4- CUBEROOTSOFNUMBERS
Average
9 Di f f erence
1. 029 3
4 5 6 7 N 0 1 2
- -
3
1. 010
8
1. 026 1. 0
1. 1
1. 2
1. 3
1. 4
1. 000 1. 003 1. 007 1. 013
1. 032 1. 035 1. 038 1. 042 1. 045
1. 063 1. 066 1. 069 1. 071 1. 074
1. 020 1. 023
1. 094 1. 097 1. 100 1. 102
1. 121 1. 124 1. 127 I . 129
1. 016
1. 048
1. 077
1. 105
1. 132
1. 051 1. 054
1. 080 1. 083
1. 108 1. 111
1. 134 1. 137
1. 5
1. 6
1. 7
1. 8
1. 9
1. 147
1. 172
1. 196
1. 219
1. 241
1. 155 1. 157 1. 160 1. 162 1. 165 1. 167 2
1. 179 1. 182 1. 184 1. 186 1. 189 1. 191
1. 203 1. 205 1. 207 1. 210 1. 212 1. 214
1. 225 1. 228 1. 230 1. 232 1. 234 1. 236
1. 247 1. 249 1. 251 1. 254 1. 256 1. 258
2. 0
2. 1
2. 2
2. 3
2. 4
2. 5
2. 6
2. 7
2. 8
2. 9
1. 091
1. 119
1. 145
1. 170
1. 193
1. 216
1. 239
1. 260
1. 281
1. 301
1. 320
1. 262
1. 283
1. 303
1. 322
1. 150
I . 174
1. 198
1. 221
1. 243
1. 264
1. 285
1. 305
1. 324
1. 339
1. 357
1. 375
1. 392
1. 409
1. 426
1. 341 1. 343
1. 359 1. 361
1. 377 1. 379
1. 394 1. 396
1. 411 1. 413
1. 428 1. 429
1. 152
I . 177
1. 200
1. 223
1. 245
1. 266
1. 287
1. 306
1. 326
1. 344
1. 363
1. 380
1. 398
1. 414
1. 431
1268 1. 270 1. 272
1. 289 1. 291 1. 293
1. 308 1. 310 1. 312
1. 328 1. 330 1. 331
1. 346 1. 348 1. 350
1. 364 1. 366 1. 368
1. 382 1. 384 1. 386
1. 399 1. 401 1. 403
1. 416 1. 418 1. 419
1. 433 1. 434 1. 436
3. 0 1. 442 1. 444 1. 445 1. 447 1. 449 1. 450 1. 452
3. 1 1. 458 1. 460 1. 461 1. 463 1. 464 1. 466 1. 467
3. 2 1. 474 1. 475 1. 477 1. 478 1. 480 1. 481 1. 483
3. 3 1. 489 1. 490 1. 492 1. 493 1. 495 1. 496 1. 498
3. 4 1. 504 1. 505 1. 507 1. 508 1. 510 1. 511 1. 512
3. 5 1. 518 1. 520 1. 521
3. 6 1. 533 1. 534 1. 535
3. 7 1. 547 1. 548 1. 549
3. 8 1. 560 1562 1. 563
3. 9 1. 574 1. 575 1. 577
1. 524
1. 538
1. 552
1. 566
1. 579
4. 0 1. 567 1. 589 1. 590
4. 1 1. 601 1. 602 1. 603
4. 2 1. 613 1. 615 1. 616
4. 3 1. 626 1627 1. 629
4. 4 1. 639 1. 640 1. 641
1. 523
1. 537
1. 551
1. 565
1. 578
1. 591
1. 604
1. 617
1. 630
1. 642
1. 593
1. 606
1. 619
1. 631
1. 644
1. 525 1. 527
1. 540 1. 541
1. 554 1. 555
1. 567 1. 569
1. 581 1. 582
1. 594 1. 595
1. 607 1. 608
1. 820 1. 621
1. 632 1. 634
1. 645 1. 646
4. 5
4. 6
4. 7
4. 8
4. 9
1. 651 1. 652 1. 653 1. 655 1. 656 1. 658
1. 663 1. 664
1. 675 1. 676
1. 687 1. 688
1. 698 1. 700
1. 666
1. 677
1. 689
1. 701
1. 657
1. 669
1. 681
1. 711 1. 712
1. 722 1. 724
1. 734 1. 735
1. 745 1. 746
1. 755 1. 757
1. 766 1. 767
1. 777 1. 778
1. 667 1. 668
1. 679 1. 680
1. 690 1. 692
1. 702 1. 703
1. 693
1. 704
1. 670
1. 682
1. 694
1. 705
5. 0 1. 710
5. 1 1. 721
5. 2 1. 732
5. 3 1. 744
5. 4 1. 754
1. 713 1. 715 1. 716 1. 717 1. 718 1. 719 1. 720
1. 725 1. 726 1. 727 1. 728 1. 729 1. 730 1. 731
1. 736 1. 737 1. 738 1. 739 I . 740 1. 741 1. 742
1. 747 1. 748 1. 749 1. 750 1. 751 1. 752 1. 753
1. 758 1. 759 1. 760 1. 761 1. 762 1. 763 1. 764
5. 5
5. 6
5. 7
5. 8
5. 9
6. 0
6. 1
6. 2
6. 3
6. 4
6. 5
6. 6
6. 7
6. 8
6. 9
1. 765
1. 776
1. 768 1. 769 I . 771
1. 779 1. 780 1. 781
1. 786 1. 787 1. 788 1. 789 1. 790 1. 792
1. 797 1. 798 1. 799 1. 800 1. 801 1. 802
1. 807 1. 808 1. 809 1. 810
1. 817 1. 818 1. 819 1. 820
1. 827 1. 828 1. 829 1. 830
1. 837 1. 838 1. 839 1. 840
1. 811
1. 847 1. 848 1. 849 1. 850
1. 857 1. 858 1. 859 1. 860
1. 821
1. 831
1. 841
1. 851
1. 860
1. 812
1. 822
1. 832
1. 842
1. 772
1. 782
1. 793
1. 803
1. 813
1. 823
1. 833
1. 843
1. 852 1. 853
1. 861 1. 862
1. 866 1. 867 1. 868 1. 869 1. 870 1. 871 1. 872 1. 873 1. 874 1. 875
1. 876 1. 877 1. 878 1. 879 1. 880 1. 881 1. 881 1. 882 1. 883 1. 884
1. 885 1. 886 1. 887 1. 888 1. 889 1. 890 1. 891 1. 892 1. 893 1. 894
1. 895 1. 895 1. 896 1. 897 1. 898 1. 899 1. 900 1. 901 1. 902 1. 903
1904 1. 905 1. 906 1. 907 1. 907 1. 908 1. 909 1. 910 1. 911 1. 912
1. 057 1. 060
1. 086 1. 089
1. 113 1. 116
1. 140 1. 142
1. 274
1. 295
1. 314
1. 333
1. 352
1. 370
1. 387
1. 404
1. 421
1. 437
1. 453
1. 277 1. 279
1. 297 1. 299
1. 316 1. 318
1. 335 1. 337
1. 354 1. 355
1. 372 1. 373
1. 389 1. 391
1. 406 1. 408
1. 423 1. 424
1. 439 1. 441
1. 455 1. 457
I . 471 1. 472
1. 486 1. 487
1. 501 1. 502
1. 515 1. 517
1. 530 1. 531
1. 544 1. 545 1
1. 469
1. 484
1. 499
1. 514
1. 528
I . 542
1. 556
1. 570
1. 583
1. 597
1. 610
1. 622
1. 635
1. 647
1. 659
1. 671
1. 683
1. 558 I . 559
1. 571 1. 573
1. 585
1. 598
1. 811
1. 624
1. 636
1. 649
1. 681
1. 673
1. 685
1. 586
1. 599
1. 612
1. 625
1. 637
1. 650
1. 662
1. 674
1. 686
1. 697
1. 709
1. 695 1. 696
1. 707 1. 708
1. 773
1. 783
1. 794
1. 804
1. 814
1. 824
1. 834
1. 844
1. 854
1. 883
1. 774
1. 784
1. 795
1. 805
1. 815
1. 825
1. 835
1. 845
1. 775
1. 785
1. 796
1. 806
1. 816
1. 826
1. 836
1. 846
1. 855 1. 856
1. 864 1. 865
Expl anati on of Tabl e of Cube Roots
Thi s tabl e gi ves the val ue of f i f or val ues of N f rom1 to 1, 000, correct to f our f i gures. ( i nterpol ated val ues may be i n
error by 1 i n the f ourth f i gure) .
To f i nd the square root of a number N outsi de the range f rom1 to 1, 000, di vi de the di gi ts of the number i nto bl ocks
of three ( begi nni ng wi th the deci mal poi nt) , and note that movi ng the deci mal poi nt f hree l aces i n col umn N i s
equi val ent to movi ng i t one
6. 477 tb- ?% =13. 96
l ace i n the cube root of N. For exampl e, %%%? = 1. 396,
&i i i 6 =30. 07, m =64. 77,
Ki t = 3. 007 ?/ zi x=
and m =0. 06477.
?0. 000002718 =0. 01396, w =0. 03007,
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MATHEMATl CALTABLES&UNl TS & SYSTEMSOFWEl GHTS& MEASURES 1- 15
TABLE 1. 4- CUBE ROOTS OF NUMBERS ( conti nued)
8
1. 920
1. 929
1. 938
1. 947
1. 956
Average
9 Di f f erence
1. 921 1
1. 930
1. 939
1. 948
1. 957
1. 964 1. 965
1. 973 1. 974
1. 981 1. 962
1. 990 1. 991
1. 998 1. 999
N 0 2 6 7
1. 918 1. 919
1. 927 1. 928
4 5
1. 917 1. 917
1. 926 1. 926
1. 935 1. 935
1. 943 1. 944
1. 952 1. 953
3
1. 916
1. 925
1
1. 914
1. 923
1. 932
1. 941
1. 950
7. 0 1. 913
7. 1 1. 922
7. 2 1. 931
7. 3 1. 940
7. 4 1. 949
1. 915
1. 924
1. 933
1. 942
1. 950
1. 934
1. 943
1. 951
1. 936 1. 937
1. 945 1. 946
1. 955
7. 5 1. 957
7. 6 1. 966
7. 7 1. 975
7. 8 1. 983
7. 9 1. 992
1. 958 1. 959 1. 960 1. 961 1. 962
1. 967 1. 968 1. 969 1. 970 1. 970
1. 964
1. 972
1. 976 1. 976 1. 977 1. 978 1. 979
1. 984 1. 985 1. 986 1. 987 1. 987
1. 992 1. 993 1. 994 1. 995 1. 996
1. 954
1. 963
1. 971
1. 980
1. 988
1. 997
2. 005
2. 013
2. 021
1. 981
1. 989
1. 997
8. 0 2. 000 2. 001 2. 002 2. 002
8. 1 2. 008 2. 009 2. 010 2. 011
8. 2 2. 017 2. 017 2. 018 2. 019
8. 3 2. 025 2. 026 2. 026 2027
8. 4 2. 033 2. 034 2. 034 2. 035
2. 003 2. 004
2. 012 2. 012
2. 020 2. 021
2. 006
2. 014
2. 022
2. 028 2. 029 2. 030 2. 030
2. 036 2. 037 2. 038 2. 038
2. 007 2. 007
2. 015 2. 016
2. 023 2. 024
2. 031 2. 032
2. 039 2. 040
8. 5 2. 041 2. 042 2. 042 2. 043 2. 044 2. 045 2. 046 2. 046 2. 047 2. 046
8. 6 2. 049 2. 050 2. 050 2. 051 2. 052 2. 053 2. 054 2. 054 2. 055 2. 056
8. 7 2. 057 2. 057 2. 058 2. 059 2. 060 2. 061 2. 061 2. 062 2. 063 2. 064
8. 8 2. 065 2. 065 2. 066 2. 067 2. 068 2. 068 2. 069 2. 070 2. 071 2. 072
8. 9 2. 072 2. 073 2. 074 2. 075 2. 075 2. 076 2. 077 2. 078 2. 079 2. 079
9. 0 2. 080 2. 081 2. 082 2. 082
9. 1 2. 088 2. 089 2. 089 2. 090
9. 2 2. 095 2. 096 2. 097 2. 098
9. 3 2. 103 2. 104 2. 104 2. 105
9. 4 2. 110 2. 111 2. 112 2. 113
2. 083 2. 084 2. 085
2. 091 2. 092 2. 092
2. 098 2. 099 2. 100
2. 106 2. 107 2. 107
2. 085 2. 086 2. 087
2. 093 2. 094 2. 095
2. 101 2. 101 2. 102
2. 108 2. 109 2. 110
2. 116 2. 116 2. 117
9. 5
9. 6
9. 7
9. 8
9. 9
10. 0
11. 0
12. 0
13. 0
14. 0
15. 0
16. 0
17. 0
18. 0
19. 0
2. 118
2. 125
2. 133
2. 140
2. 147
2. 154
2. 224
2. 289
2. 351
2. 410
2. 466
2. 119 2. 119 2. 120
2. 126 2. 127 2. 128
2. 133 2. 134 2. 135
2. 141 2. 141 2. 142
2. 148 2. 149 2. 149
2. 113 2. 114 2. 115
2. 121 2. 122 2. 122
2. 128 2. 129 2. 130
2. 136 2. 136 2. 137
2. 143 2. 144 2. 144
2. 150 2. 151 2. 152
2. 183 2. 190 2. 197
2. 251 2. 257 2. 264
2. 315 2. 321 2. 327
2. 123 2. 124 2. 125
2. 130 2. 131 2. 132
2. 138 2. 139 2. 139
2. 145 2. 146 2. 147
2. 152 2. 153 2. 154
2. 162
2. 231
2. 296
2. 357
2. 416
2. 169 2. 176
2. 237 2. 244
2. 302 2. 308
2. 204 2. 210
2. 270 2. 277
2. 333 2. 339
2. 363 2. 369 2. 375 2. 381 2. 387 2. 393 2. 399
2. 422 2. 427 2. 433 2. 438 2. 444 2. 450 2. 455
2. 217 7
2. 263 6
2. 345
2. 404
2. 461
2. 515 5
2. 520
2. 571
2. 621
2. 668
2. 472
2. 525
2. 576
2. 626
2. 673
2. 477
2. 530
2. 581
2. 630
2. 678
2. 483 2. 488
2. 535 2. 541
2. 586 2. 591
2. 635 2. 640
2. 682 2. 687
2. 728 2. 732
2. 772 2. 776
2. 815 2. 819
2. 856 2. 860
2. 896 2. 900
2. 493
2. 546
2. 596
2. 645
2. 692
2. 499
2. 551
2. 601
2. 650
2. 696
2. 741
2. 785
2. 827
2. 868
2. 908
2. 947
2. 985
3. 022
3. 058
3. 093
3. 128
3. 162
3. 195
2. 504
2. 556
2. 606
2. 654
2. 701
2. 509
2. 561 2. 566
2. 611 2. 616
2. 659 2. 664
2. 705 2. 710
20. 0
21. 0
22. 0
23. 0
24. 0
2. 714 2. 719 2. 723
2. 759 2. 763 2. 768
2. 802 2. 806 2. 811
2. 844 2. 648 2. 852
2. 884 2. 888 2. 892
2. 924 2. 928 2. 932
2. 962 2. 966 2. 970
2. 737
2. 781
2. 823
2. 864
2. 904
2. 746 2. 750 2. 755 4
2. 789 2. 794 2. 798
2. 831 2. 836 2. 840
2. 872 2. 876 2. 880
2. 912 2. 916 2. 920
25. 0
26. 0
27. 0
28. 0
29. 0
2. 936
2. 974
3. 004
3. 040
3. 000
3. 037
3. 072
3. 107
3. 141
3. 175
3. 208
3. 240
3. 271
3. 302
3. 332
3. 007
3. 044
3. 011
3. 047
2. 951
2. 989
3. 026
3. 062
2. 955 2. 959
2. 993 2. 996
3. 076 3. 079 3. 083
2. 940
2. 978
3. 015
3. 051
3. 086
3. 121
3. 155
3. 188
3. 220
3. 252
2. 943
2. 981
3. 018
3. 055
3. 090 3. 097
3. 131
3. 165
3. 198
3. 029 3. 033
3. 065 3. 069
3. 100 3. 104
30. 0
31. 0
32. 0
33. 0
34. 0
3. 111 3. 114 3. 118
3. 145 3. 148 3. 151
3. 178 3. 181 3. 185
3. 211 3. 214 3. 217
3. 243 3. 246 3. 249
3. 124
3. 158
3. 191
3. 224
3. 255
3. 135 3. 138 3
3. 168 3. 171
3. 201 3. 204
3. 227 3. 230 3. 233 3. 236
3. 259 3. 262 3. 265 3. 268
35. 0
36. 0
37. 0
38. 0
39. 0
3. 362
3. 391
3. 274 3. 277 3. 280 3. 283 3. 287 3. 290 3. 293 3. 296 3. 299
3. 305 3. 308 3. 311 3. 314 3. 317 3. 320 3. 323 3. 326 3. 329
3. 335 3. 338 3. 341 3. 344 3. 347 3. 350 3. 353 3. 356 3. 359
3. 365 3. 368 3. 371 3. 374 3. 377 3. 380 3. 382 3. 385 3. 388
3. 394 3. 397 3. 400 3. 403 3. 406 3. 409 3. 411 3. 414 3. 417
-=14&%59aI nd I/ 3- x=0 592794
(continued on next page)
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1- 16 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1. 4- CUBE ROOTS OF NUMBERS ( conti nued)
3
3. 428
3. 457
5
- -
3. 434
3. 462
6 8
Average
9 Di f f erence
N 0 1 2
- -
7
3. 440
3. 468
40. 0
41. 0
42. 0
43. 0
44. 0
3. 420 3. 423 3. 426
3. 448 3. 451 3. 454
45. 0
46. 0
47. 0
48. 0
49. 0
3. 479
3. 506
3. 533
3. 560
3. 586
3. 611
3. 482 3. 484
3. 509 3. 512
3. 536 3. 538
3. 637
3. 662
3. 562
3. 566
3. 614
3. 639
3. 664
50. 0
51. 0
52. 0
53. 0
54. 0
3. 476
3. 503
3. 530
3. 557
3. 583
3. 609
3. 634
3. 659
3. 684
3. 708
3. 733
3. 756
3. 780
3. 686 3. 689 3. 691 3. 694 3. 696
3. 711 3. 713 3. 716 3. 718 3. 721
3. 735 3. 737 3. 740 3. 742 3. 744
3. 759 3. 761 3. 763 3. 766 3. 768
3. 782 3. 784 3. 787 3. 789 3. 791
55. 0
56. 0
57. 0
58. 0
59. 0
60. 0
61. 0
62. 0
63. 0
64. 0
3. 803 3. 805
3. 826 3. 828
3. 849 3. 851
3. 871 3. 873
3. 893 3. 895
3. 808 3. 810 3. 812 3. 814 3. 817 3. 819
3. 630 3. 833 3. 835 3. 837 3. 839 3. 842
3. 915 3. 917
3. 853 3. 855 3. 857
3. 875 3. 878 3. 880
3. 897 3. 900 3. 902
3. 919 3. 921 3. 924
3. 936 3. 939 3. 941 3. 943 3. 945
3. 958 3. 960 3. 962 3. 964 3. 966
65. 0
66. 0
67. 0
68. 0
69. 0
3. 979
4. 000
4. 021
4. 041
4. 062
4. 082
4. 102
4. 121
4. 141
3. 981
4. 002
4. 023
4. 043
4. 064
4. 084
4. 104
70. 0
71. 0
72. 0
73. 0
74. 0
4. 160
4. 179
4. 198
4. 217
4. 236
4. 254
4. 273
4. 291
4. 309
4. 123
4. 143
4. 162
4. 181
4. 200
3. 983 3. 985 3. 987
4. 004 4. 006 4. 008
4. 025 4. 027 4. 029
4. 045 4. 047 4. 049
4. 066 4. 068 4. 070
4. 086 4. 088 4. 090
4. 106 4. 108 4. 109
4. 125 4. 127 4. 129
4. 145 4. 147 4. 149
4. 164 4. 166 4. 168 4. 170
4. 183 4. 185 4. 187 4. 189
75. 0
76. 0
77. 0
78. 0
79. 0
4. 219
4. 238
4. 256
4. 274
4. 293
80. 0
81. 0
82. 0
83. 0
84. 0
4. 311
4. 202 4. 204 4. 206 4. 208 4. 210 4. 212 4. 213 4. 215
4. 221 4. 223 4. 225 4. 227 4. 228 4. 230 4. 232 4. 234
4. 240 4. 241 4. 243 4. 245 4. 247 4. 249 4. 251 4. 252
4. 258 4. 260 4. 262 4. 264 4. 265 4. 267 4. 269 4. 271
4. 278 4. 278 4. 280 4. 282 4. 284 4. 285 4. 287 4. 289
4. 294 4. 296 4. 298 4. 300 4. 302 4. 303 4. 305 4. 307
4. 312 4. 314 4. 316 4. 318 4. 320 4. 321 4. 323 4. 325
4. 327 4. 329 4. 330
4. 344 4. 346 4. 348
4. 362 4. 364 4. 366
4. 380 4. 381 4. 383
85. 0 4. 397 4. 399 4. 400
86. 0 4. 414 4. 416 4. 417
87. 0 4. 431 4. 433 4. 434
88. 0 4. 448 4. 450 4. 451
89. 0 4. 465 4. 466 4. 468
90. 0 4. 481 4. 483 4. 485
91. 0 4. 498 4. 500 4. 501
92. 0 4. 514 4. 516 4. 518
93. 0 4. 531 4. 532 4. 534
94. 0 4. 547 4. 548 4. 550
95. 0 4. 563 4. 565 4. 566
96. 0 4. 579 4. 580 4. 582
97. 0 4. 595 4. 596 4. 598
98. 0 4. 610 4. 612 4. 614
99. 0 4. 626 4. 628 4. 629
3. 431
3. 459
3. 437
3. 465
3. 443
3. 471
3. 495 3. 498
3. 522 3. 525
3. 549 3. 552
3. 445 3
3. 473
3. 501
3. 528
3. 554
3. 575 3. 578 3. 580
3. 601 3. 604 3. 606
3. 627 3. 629 3. 632
3. 487
3. 514
3. 541
3. 567
3. 593
3. 619
3. 565
3. 591
3. 616
3. 642 3. 644
3. 867 3. 669
3. 490
3. 517
3. 544
3. 570
3. 493
3. 520
3. 546
3. 573
3. 599
3. 624
3. 596
3. 622
3. 647
3. 672
3. 649 3. 652 3. 654 3. 657 2
3. 674 3. 677 3. 679 3. 682
3. 699
3. 723
3. 747
3. 701
3. 725
3. 749
3. 773
3. 796
3. 704 3. 706
3. 728 3. 730
3. 752 3. 754
3. 770
3. 794
3. 775
3. 798
3. 821
3. 844
3. 866
3. 889
3. 911
3. 932
3. 777
3. 801
3. 824
3. 846
3. 869
3. 891
3. 913
3. 934
3. 860
3. 882
3. 904
3. 926
3. 947
3. 968
3. 990
4. 010
4. 031
4. 051
4. 072
4. 092
4. 111
4. 131
4. 151
3. 862 3. 864
3. 884 3. 886
3. 906 3. 908
3. 928 3. 930
3. 949 3. 951 3. 954 3. 956
3. 971 3. 973 3. 975 3. 977
3. 992
4. 012
4. 033
4. 053
4. 074
4. 094
4. 113
3. 994 3. 996 3. 998
4. 015 4. 017 4. 019
4. 035 4. 037 4. 039
4. 055 4. 058 4. 060
4. 076 4. 078 4. 080
4. 096 4. 098 4. 100
4. 115 4. 117 4. 119
4. 135 4. 137 4. 139
4. 154 4. 156 4. 158
4. 174 4. 176 4. 177
4. 193 4. 195 4. 196
4. 133
4. 152
4. 172
4. 191
4. 332 4. 334 4. 336 4. 337 4. 339 4341
4. 350 4. 352 4. 353 4. 355 4. 357 4. 359
4. 343
4. 360
4. 370
4. 395
4. 367 4. 369 4. 371 4. 373
4. 365 4. 366 4. 388 4. 390
4. 402 4. 404
4. 419 4. 421
4. 436 4. 438
4. 453 4. 455
4. 470 4. 471
4. 486 4. 488
4. 503 4. 505
4. 405
4. 423
4. 440
4. 456
4. 473
4. 490
4. 506
4. 407
4. 424
4. 441
4. 458
4. 475
4. 491
4. 508
4. 374
4. 392
4. 409
4. 426
4. 443
4. 460
4. 476
4. 493
4. 509
4. 376
4. 393
4. 411 4. 412
4. 428 4. 429
4. 445 4. 446
4. 461 4. 463
4. 478 4. 480
4. 519 4. 521 4. 523 4. 524 4. 526
4. 536 4. 537 4. 539 4. 540 4. 542
4. 555 4. 556 4. 558
4. 495 4. 496
4. 511 4. 513
4. 527 4. 529
4. 544 4. 545
4. 560 4. 561
4. 571 4. 572 4. 574 4. 576 4. 577
4. 587 4. 588 4. 590 4. 592 4. 593
4. 603 4. 604 4. 608 4. 607 4. 609
4. 618 4. 620 4. 621 4. 623 4. 625
4. 634 4. 635 4. 637 4. 638 4. 640
4. 552 4. 553
4. 568 4. 569
4. 584 4. 585
4. 599 4. 601
4. 615 4. 617
4. 631 4. 632
xc 1 46459 and II a- T = 0 682784
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MATHEMATI CAL TABLES & UNI TS & SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES 1- 17
TABLE 1.4-CUBE ROOTS OF NUMBERS (continued)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
- - - - - -
Average
Di f f erence
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
N
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
Cube roots of numbers from 100.0 to 499.0
4. 642 4. 657 4. 672 4. 688 4. 703 4. 718 4. 733 4. 747 4. 762 4. 777
4. 791 4. 806 4. 820
4. 932 4. 946 4. 960
5. 066 5. 079 5. 092
5. 192 5. 205 5. 217
5. 313 5. 325 5. 337
5. 429 5. 440 5. 451
4. 835 4.849 4. 863 4. 877 4. 891 4.905 4. 919
4. 973 4.987 5. 000 5. 013 5. 027 5. 040 5. 053
5. 104 5. 117 5. 130 5. 143 5. 155 5. 168 5. 180
5. 229 5. 241 5. 254 5. 266 5. 278 5. 290 5. 301
5. 540 5. 550 5. 561
5. 646 5. 657 5. 667
5. 346
5. 463
6. 162
5. 360
5. 474
5. 583
6. 249
5. 888
5.789
5. 887
5. 981
6. 073
5. 372 5. 363 5.395
5. 485 5. 496 5. 507
5. 406 5. 418
5. 518 5. 529
5. 625 5. 636
5. 729 5. 739
5.749 5.759
5. 848 5. 858
5. 944 5. 953
6. 037 6. 046
6. 127 6. 136
6. 214 6. 223
5.769
5. 867
5. 963
8. 055
5. 572
5. 677
5. 779
6. 145
8. 232
5. 877
5. 972
6. 064
6. 153
6. 240
5.593
6. 171
5. 604
5.698
6. 180
5. 708
5.799
8. 257
5. 809
6. 266
5.896 5. 906
5. 991 6. 000
6. 082 6. 091
5.815
5.718
5.819
5.915
6.009
6.100
6. 188
6. 274
25
26
; i
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
6. 300 6. 308 6. 316
5. 82(
5. 92!
6. Ol i
6. 109
6.197
6. 283
6. 383 6.391 6.399
6. 463 6. 471 6.479
6. 542
7. 884
6. 619
6. 694
6. 768
6. 840
6. 901
6. 980
7. 047
7. 114
7. 179
7. 243
7. 306
7. 368
7. 429
7. 489
7. 548
7. 606
7. 663
7. 719
7. 775
7. 830
6. 550
6. 627
6. 702
6. 775
6. 558
6. 634
6. 325
6. 407
6. 487
6. 565
6. 642
6. 847
6. 917
6.986
7. 054
7. 120
7. 186
6.709 6. 717
6. 782 6. 790
6. 854
6. 924
6. 993
7. 061
7. 127
7. 192
6. 333
6. 415
6. 495
6. 573
6. 649
6. 724
6. 797
6. 868
6. 938
7. 007
7. 074
7. 140
7. 205
6. 341
6. 423
6. 503
6. 581
6. 657
6. 731
6. 804
6. 875
6. 945
7. 014
7. 081
6. 350
8. 431
6. 511
8. 589
8. 664
6. 739
6. 811
8. 882
6. 952
7. 020
7. 087
6. 358 6. 366
6. 439 6. 447
6. 519 6. 527
6. 596 6. 604
6. 672 6. 679
5. 838
5. 934
8. 028
6. 118
6. 206
6. 291
6. 374
6. 455
6. 534
6. 611
6. 667
6. 861
6. 931
7. 000
7. 067
7. 133
7. 198
7. 262
7. 325
6. 746 6. 753 6. 761
6. 818 6. 826 6. 833
7. 147 7. 153
7. 211 7. 218
6.889 6.896 8.903
6.959 6.966 6.973
7. 027 7. 034 7. 041
7. 094 7. 101 7. 107
7. 250 7. 256
7. 312 7. 319
7. 268
7. 331
7. 166
7. 230
7. 374 7. 380 7. 386 7.393
7. 435 7. 441 7. 447 7. 453
7. 495 7. 501 7. 507 7. 513
7. 554 7. 560 7. 565 7. 571
7. 612 7. 617 7. 623 7. 629
7. 275 7. 281
7. 337 7. 343
7. 399 7. 405
7. 459 7. 465
7. 518 7. 524
7. 577 7. 563
7. 635 7. 640
7. 691 7. 697
7. 747 7. 753
7. 802 7. 808
7. 857 7. 862
7.910 7. 916
7. 160
7. 224
7. 287
7. 350
7. 411
7. 471
7. 530
7. 589
7. 646
7. 703
7. 758
7. 813
7. 868
7. 921
7. 294
7. 356
7. 417
7. 477
7. 536
7. 594
7. 652
7. 708
7. 764
7. 819
7. 873
7. 926
7. 173
7. 237
7. 300
7. 362
7.669
7.889
7. 674
7. 725
7.894
7. 731
7. 780 7. 786
7. 835 7. 841
7. 680 7. 686
7. 736 7. 742
7. 423
7. 463
7. 542
7. 600
7. 657
7.791 7.797
7. 846 7. 851
7. 900 7. 905
Cube roots of numbers from 500.0 to 1.000.0
7. 714
7. 769
7. 824
7. 878
7. 932
50 7.937 7.942 7.948
51 7.990 7.995 8. 000
52 8. 041 8. 047 8. 052
53 8. 093 8. 098 8. 103
54 8. 143 8. 148 8. 153
55 8. 193 8. 198 8. 203
56 8. 243 8. 247 8. 252
57 8. 291 8. 296 8. 301
58 8. 340 8. 344 a. 349
59 8. 387 8. 392 8. 397
7.953 7.958 7.963 7.969
8. 005 8. 010 8. 016 8. 021
8. 057 8. 062 8. 067 8. 072
8. 108 8. 113 8. 118 8. 123
8. 158 8. 163 8. 168 8. 173
8. 208 8. 213 8. 218 8. 223
8. 257 8. 262 8. 267 8. 272
7.974
8. 026
8. 077
8. 128
8. 178
7.979
8. 031
8. 082
8. 133
8. 183
7.984
8. 036
8. 088
8. 138
8. 188
8. 228
8. 277
8. 233
8. 282
8. 330
8. 378
8. 238
8. 286
8. 306 8. 311 8. 316 8. 320 8. 325
8. 354 8. 359 8. 363 8. 368 8. 373
8. 335
8. 382
60
61
62
6":
8. 434 8. 439 8. 444
8. 481 8. 486 8. 490
8. 527 8. 532 8. 536
8. 401 8. 406 8. 411 8. 416 8. 420 8. 425 8. 430
8. 448 8. 453 8. 458 8. 462 8. 487 8. 472 8. 476
8. 495 6. 499 8. 504 8. 509 8. 513 6. 518 8. 522
8. 541 8. 545 8. 550 8. 554 8. 559 8. 564 8. 568
8. 573 6. 577 8. 582 8. 586 8. 591 8. 595 8. 600 8. 604 8. 609 8. 613
8. 618 8. 622 8. 627 8. 631 8. 636 8. 640 8. 645 8. 649 8. 853 8. 658
65 8. 662 8. 667 8. 671 8. 676 8. 680 8. 685 8. 689 8.693 8.698 8. 702
66 8. 707 8. 711 6. 715 8. 720 8. 724 6. 729 8. 733 8. 737 8. 742 8. 746
67 8. 750 8. 755 8. 759 8. 763 8. 768 8. 772 8. 776 8. 781 8. 785 8. 789
68 8. 794 8. 798 8. 802 8. 607 8. 811 8. 815 8. 819 8. 824 8. 828 8. 632
69 8. 837 8. 841 8. 845 8. 849 8. 854 8. 858 8. 862 8. 866 8. 871 8. 875
?-i= 1 46459 and l/x= 0.662764
(contmed on next page)
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1- 18 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1. 4- CUBE ROOTS OF NUMBERS ( conti nued)
N a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6
Average
9 Di f f erence
70 8.679 8. 683
71 6. 921 6. 925
72 8. 963 8. 967
73 9. 004 9. 008
74 9. 045 9. 049
9. 066 9. 090
9. 126 9. 130
9. 166 9. 170
6. 867
6. 929
8. 971
9. 012
9. 053
9. 094
9. 134
9. 174
8. 892 8. 896 8. 900 8.904 8. 909 6. 913 8. 917 4
8. 934 6. 938 8. 924 8. 946 8. 950 6. 955 8. 959
6. 975 6. 979 8. 984 8. 968 8. 992 6. 996 9. 000
9. 016 9. 021 9. 025 9. 029 9. 033 9. 037 9. 041
9. 057 9. 061 9. 065 9. 069 9. 073 9.078 9. 062
75
76
77
76
79
9. 205 9. 209 9. 213
9. 244 9. 248 9. 252
9. 098 9. 102 9. 106 9. 110 9. 114 9. 118
9. 138 9. 142 9. 146 9. 150 9. 154 9. 158
9. 178 9. 182 9. 185 9. 189 9. 193 9. 197
9. 217 9. 221 9. 225 9. 229 9. 233 9. 237
9. 256 9. 260 9. 264 9. 268 9. 272 9. 275
9. 122
9. 162
9. 201
9.240
9.279
BO 9. 283 9. 267 9. 291 9. 295 9. 299 9. 302 9. 306 9. 310 9. 314 9. 318
81 9. 322 9. 326 9. 329 9. 333 9. 337 9. 341 9. 345 9. 348 9. 352 9. 356
82 9. 360 9. 364 9. 366 9. 371 9. 375 9. 379 9. 383 9. 366 9. 390 9. 394
83 9. 396 9. 402 9. 405 9. 409 9. 413 9. 417 9. 420 9. 424 9. 428 9. 432
64 9. 435 9. 439 9. 443 9. 447 9. 450 9. 454 9. 456 9. 462 9. 465 9. 469
85
86
87
88
69
9. 473 9. 476
9. 510 9. 513
90
91
92
93
94
9. 546 9. 550
9. 583 9. 586
9. 619 9. 623
9. 655 9. 656
9. 480 9. 484 9. 486 9. 491 9. 495 9. 499 9. 502
9. 517 9. 521 9. 524 9. 528 9. 532 9. 535 9. 539
9. 554 9. 557 9. 561 9. 565 9. 568 9. 572 9. 576
9. 590 9. 594 9. 597 9. 601 9. 605 9. 608 9. 612
9. 626 9. 630 9. 633 9. 637 9. 641 9. 644 9. 646
9. 506
9. 543
9. 662
9. 761
9. 796
9. 630
9. 865
9. 899
9. 933
9. 967
10. 00
9. 666
9. 701
9. 736
9. 771
9. 806
9. 669 9. 673 9. 676 9. 683
9. 691 9. 694 9. 698
9. 726 9. 729 9. 733
9. 705
9. 740
9. 706
9. 743
9. 712
9. 747
9. 680
9. 715
9. 750
9. 765
9. 620
9.579
9. 615
9. 651
9. 687
9. 719
9. 754
9. 722
9. 758
9. 764 9. 766
9. 799 9. 803
9. 775 9. 776 9. 762
9. 810 9. 813 9. 617
9. 789 9. 792
9. 824 9. 627
95
96
97
96
99
9. 634 9. 637 9. 841 9. 844 9. 846 9. 651 9. 655 9. 858 9. 861
9. 868 9. 872 9. 875 9. 879 9. 882 9. 885 9. 669 9. 892 9. 696
9. 902 9. 906 9. 909 9. 913 9. 916 9. 919 9. 923 9. 926 9. 930
9. 936 9. 940 9. 943 9. 946 9. 950 9. 953 9. 956 9. 960 9. 963
9. 970 9. 973 9. 977 9. 980 9. 983 9. 987 9. 990 9. 993 9. 997
100
CUBE ROOTS OF CERTAI N FRACTI ONS
%N% N% N% N
- - - - - - ~
% N %
- -
0.7469
%6
0. 8255 0. 7937 3/ 5 0. 8434 % 0. 8296 ' / 9 0. 4807 %2
0. 6934 % 0. 9263 % 0. 6939 2/ 9 0. 6057 %? 0. 6355 "/ l j 0. 6826
0. 9714 ' 3/ 16 0. 9331
0. 3969 ' s6 0. 9767
0. 5724 ' / a2 0. 3150
0. 6786 '164 0. 2500
0. 7591 %o 0. 2714
. ' -
0. 8736 ' / , 0. 5503 % 0. 9499 4/ 0. 7631 "A2
0. 6300 y6 0. 9410 ' / 6 0. 5000 79 0. 6221 %6
0. 9086 ' / , 0. 5226 %6 0. 7211 x3 0. 9196 %6
0. 5648 +$ 0. 6566 6/S 0. 8550 Y9 0. 9615 %6
0. 7368 % 0. 7539 X8 0. 9565 ' A2 0. 4368 %6
K= 146459 and li r ~=0.682764
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MATHEMATI CAL TABLES & UNI TS & SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES l - 19
Expl anati on of Tabl e
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9
1.0
2. 0
3. 0
4. 0
4. 0
1. 000 1. 154 1. 315 1. 482 1. 657 1. 837 2. 024
2. 626 3. 043 3. 263 3. 466 3. 718 3. 953 4. 192
5. 196 5. 458 5. 724 5. 995 6. 269 6. 546 6. 831
8. 000 8. 302 8. 607 8. 917 9. 230 9. 546 9. 866
2. 217
4. 437
7. 117
10. 190
10. 19
2. 415 2. 619
4. 685 4. 939
7. 408 7. 702
10. 85
5. 0 11. 18
6. 0 14. 70
7. 0 18. 52
8. 0 22. 63
9. 0 27. 00
11. 86
15. 44
19. 32
23. 46
27. 90
12. 90
16. 57
20. 54
24. 76
29. 28
10. 0 31. 62
11. 0 36. 48
12. 0 41. 57
13. 0 46. 87
14. 0 52. 38
32. 56
37. 48
42. 61
47. 96
53. 51
34. 02
39. 00
44. 19
49. 60
55. 21
14. 33
16. 12
22. 20
26. 55
31. 15
35. 99
41. 05
46. 33
51. 82
57. 51
15. 0
16. 0
17. 0
18. 0
19. 0
20. 0
21. 0
21. 0
22. 0
23. 0
24. 0
58. 09
64. 00
70. 09
76. 37
82. 82
89. 44
96. 23
11. 52
15. 07
16. 92
23. 05
27. 45
32. 10
36. 98
42. 09
47. 41
52. 95
58. 68
64. 60
70. 71
77. 00
83. 47
90. 11
96. 92
59. 26
65. 20
71. 33
77. 64
84. 13
90. 79
97. 61
12. 20 12. 55
15. 61 16. 19
19. 72 20. 13
23. 91 24. 35
26. 36 28. 82
33. 06 33. 54
37. 99 38. 49
43. 14 43. 66
48. 50 49. 05
54. 08 54. 64
59. 85 60. 43
65. 81 66. 41
71. 96 72. 58
78. 26 76. 93
84. 79 85. 45
91. 46 92. 14
98. 30 99. 00
61. 02
67. 02
73. 21
79. 57
86. 11
92. 82
99. 69
13. 61
17. 34
21. 37
25. 66
30. 21
35. 00
40. 02
45. 26
50. 71
56. 36
62. 21
68. 25
74. 47
60. 87
87. 44
94. 18
10. 52
13. 97
17. 73
21. 78
26. 11
30. 68
35. 49
40. 53
45. 79
51. 26
56. 94
62. 80
66. 66
75. 10
81. 51
88. 10
94. 86
63. 40
69. 48
75. 73
82. 17
68. 77
95. 55
103. 2 103. 9 104. 6 105. 3 106. 0 106. 7
110. 3 111. 0 111. 7 112. 5 113. 2 113. 9
117. 6 118. 3 119. 0 119. 8 120. 5 121. 3
102. 5
109. 6
116. 8
124. 3
25. 0
26. 0
27. 0
28. 0
29. 0
30. 0
31. 0
32. 0
33. 0
34. 0
35. 0
36. 0
37. 0
38. 0
39. 0
40. 0
41. 0
42. 0
43. 0
44. 0
45. 0
46. 0
47. 0
48. 0
49. 0
125. 0 125. 8 126. 5 127. 3 128. 0 128. 8
132. 6 133. 3 134. 1 134. 9 135. 6 136. 4
140. 3 141. 1 141. 9 142. 6 143. 4 144. 2
148. 2 149. 0 149. 8 150. 5 151. 3 152. 1
156. 2 157. 0 157. 8 158. 6 159. 4 160. 2
101. 8
108. 9
116. 1
123. 5
131. 0
138. 7
146. 6
154. 6
162. 7
164. 3 165. 1
172. 6 173. 4
181. 0 181. 9
189. 6 190. 4
198. 3 199. 1
207. 1
216. 0
225. 1
234. 2
243. 6
253. 0
262. 5
272. 2
282. 0
291. 9
301. 9
312. 0
322. 2
332. 6
343. 0
208. 0
216. 9
226. 0
235. 2
244. 5
166. 0
174. 3
182. 7
191. 3
200. 0
208. 8
217. 8
226. 9
236. 1
245. 4
166. 8 167. 6 168. 4
175. 1 176. 0 176. 8
183. 6 184. 4 185. 3
192. 2 193. 0 193. 9
200. 9 201. 8 202. 6
209. 7 210. 6 211. 5
218. 7 219. 6 220. 5
227. 6 226. 7 229. 6
237. 0 238. 0 238. 9
246. 4 247. 3 246. 3
255. 6 256. 8 257. 7
265. 4 266. 4 267. 3
275. 1 276. 1 277. 1
264. 9 285. 9 286. 9
294. 9 295. 9 296. 9
304. 9 305. 9 306. 9
315. 0 316. 1 317. 1
325. 3 326. 3 327. 4
335. 7 336. 7 337. 8
346. 2 347. 2 348. 3
13. 25
16. 96
20. 95
25. 22
29. 74
34. 51
39. 51
44. 73
50. 15
55. 79
61. 62
67. 63
73. 84
60. 22
66. 77
93. 50
100. 38
100. 4
107. 4
114. 6
122. 0
129. 5
137. 2
145. 0
153. 0
161. 9
169. 3
177. 6
186. 1
194. 8
203. 5
212. 4
221. 4
230. 6
239. 8
249. 2
258. 7
266. 3
278. 0
267. 9
297. 9
307. 9
318. 1
326. 4
336. 6
349. 3
359. 9
370. 7
381. 5
392. 4
403. 4
101. 1
108. 2
115. 4
122. 8
130. 3
138. 0
145. 8
153. 8
161. 9
170. 1
178. 5
187. 0
195. 6
204. 4
213. 3
222. 3
231. 5
240. 8
250. 1
259. 7
269. 3
279. 0
288. 9
298. 9
308. 9
319. 1
329. 4
339. 9
350. 4
170. 9
179. 3
187. 9
196. 5
205. 3
214. 2
223. 2
232. 4
241. 7
251. 1
131. 8
139. 5
147. 4
155. 4
163. 5
171. 8
180. 2
188. 7
197. 4
206. 2
215. 1
224. 2
233. 3
242. 6
252. 0
253. 9 254. 9
263. 5 264. 5
273. 2 274. 1
283. 0 283. 9
292. 9 293. 9
302. 9 303. 9
313. 0 314. 0
323. 2 324. 3
333. 6 334. 6
344. 0 345. 1
260. 6 261. 6
270. 2 271. 2
280. 0 281. 0
269. 9 290. 9
299. 9 300. 9
310. 0 311 . o
320. 2 321. 2
330. 5 331. 5
340. 9 342. 0
351. 4 352. 5
50. 0 353. 6 354. 6 355. 7 356. 7 357. 8 358. 9
51. 0 364. 2 365. 3 366. 4 367. 4 366. 5 369. 6
52. 0 375. 0 376. 1 377. 1 376. 2 379. 3 380. 4
53. 0 365. 6 386. 9 388. 0 389. 1 390. 2 391. 3
54. 0 396. 8 397. 9 399. 0 400. 1 401. 2 402. 3
361. 0 362. 1 363. 1
371. 7 372. 6 373. 9
362. 6 383. 7 384. 6
393. 5 394. 6 395. 7
404. 6 405. 7 406. 8
55. 0 407. 9 409. 0 410. 1 411. 2 412. 3 413. 5 414. 6 415. 7 416. 8 418. 0
56. 0 419. 1 420. 2 421. 3 422. 4 423. 6 424. 7 425. 8 426. 9 428. 1 429. 2
57. 0 430. 3 431. 5 432. 6 433. 7 434. 9 436. 0 437. 1 436. 3 439. 4 440. 6
58. 0 441. 7 442. 9 444. 0 445. 1 446. 3 447. 4 446. 6 449. 7 450. 9 452. 0
59. 0 453. 2 454. 3 455. 5 456. 6 457. 8 459. 0 460. 1 461. 3 462. 4 463. 6
TABLEl . 5- THREE- HALVES POWERS OFNUMBERS
Average
Di f f erence
183
237
280
313
33
35
38
41
44
46
49
51
53
55
57
59
: A
65
66
66
69
7
7
7
7
6
0
9
9
9
9
9
9
i
10
I O
10
10
10
I O
10
10
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
12
Thi s tabl e gi ves N3 f romN= 1 to N= 100. Movi ng the deci mal poi nt two pl aces i n N requi res movi ng i t three pl aces i n body of
tabl e. For exampl e, ( 7. 23) 3 =19. 44, ( 723. ) 3 =19, 440, ( 0. 0723) 3 2 =0. 01944, ( 72. 3) 3 2 =614. 8, ( 7, 230) 3 =614, 800, and
( 0. 723) 3' 2 =0. 6148.
Used i nversel y, thi s tabl e gwes M2 3 f romM= 1 to M=l , OOO. For exampl e, ( 0 6148) z3 =0. 7230.
(conhnued on next page)
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l - 20 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NGHANDBOOK
TABLE 1. 5- THREE- HALVES POWERS OF NUMEERS( conti nued)
N 0
--
66. 0 464. 8
61. 0 476. 4
62. 0 488. 2
63. 0 500. 0
64. 0 512. 0
65. 0 524. 0
66. 0 536. 2
67. 0 548. 4
68. 0 560. 7
69.0 573. 2
70. 0 585. 7
71. 0 598. 3
72. 0 610. 9
73. 0 623. 7
74. 0 636. 6
75. 0 649. 5
76. 0 662. 6
77. 0 6757
78. 0 688. 9
79. 0 702. 2
60. 0 715. 5
81. 0 729. 0
62. 0 742. 5
83. 0 756. 2
84. 0 769. 9
85. 0 783. 7
86. 0 797. 5
87. 0 811. 5
88. 0 825. 5
89. 0 839. 6
90. 0 853. 8
91. 0 868. 1
92. 0 882. 4
93. 0 896. 9
94. 0 911. 4
95. 0 925. 9
96. 0 940. 6
97. 0 955. 3
98. 0 970. 2
99. 0 985. 0
100. 0 l , ooo. o
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
465. 9 467. 1
477. 6 478. 7
489. 4 490. 6
501. 2 502. 4
513. 2 514. 4
472.9 474. 1 475. 3
484. 6 485. 8 487. 0
496. 5 497. 7 498. 9
508. 4 569. 6 510. 8
520. 4 521. 6 522. 8
525. 3
537. 4
549. 6
562. 0
574. 4
586. 9
599. 5
612. 2
625. 0
637. 9
650. 8
663. 9
677. 0
690. 2
703. 5
526. 5
538. 6
550. 9
563. 2
575. 7
588. 2
600. 8
613. 5
626. 3
639. 2
652. 1
665. 2
678. 3
691. 5
704. 8
468. 2 469.4 470. 6 471. 7
479. 9 481. 1 482. 3 483. 5
491. 7 492. 9 494. 1 495. 3
503. 6 504. 8 506. 0 507. 2
515. 6 516. 8 518. 0 519. 2
527. 7 528. 9 530. 1 531. 3
539. 8 541. 1 542. 3 543. 5
552. 1 553. 3 554. 6 555. 8
564. 5 565. 7 566. 9 568. 2
576. 9 578. 1 579. 4 580. 8
589. 4 590. 7 591. 9 593. 2
602. 1 603. 3 604. 6 605. 9
614. 8 616. 0 617. 3 618. 6
627. 6 628. 8 630. 1 631. 4
640. 4 641. 7 643. 0 644. 3
653. 4 654. 7 656. 0 657. 3
686. 5 867. 8 669. 1 670. 4
679. 6 680. 9 682. 3 683. 6
692. 9 694. 2 695. 5 696. 8
706. 2 707. 5 708. 8 710. 2
719. 6 720. 9 722. 3 723. 6
733. 1 734. 4 735. 8 737. 1
746. 6 748. 0 749. 3 750. 7
760. 3 761. 6 763. 0 764. 4
774. 0 775. 4 776. 8 778. 1
787. 8 789. 2 790. 6 792. 0
801. 7 803. 1 804. 5 805. 9
815. 7 817. 1 818. 5 819. 9
829. 7 831. 1 832. 6 834. 0
843. 9 845. 3 848. 7 848. 1
858. 1 859. 5 860. 9 862. 4
872. 4 873. 8 875. 2 876. 7
886. 8 888. 2 889. 6 891. 1
901. 2 902. 7 904. 1 905. 6
915. 7 917. 2 918. 6 920. 1
930. 3 931. 8 933. 3 934. 7
945. 0 946. 5 948. 0 949. 4
959. 8 961. 3 962. 7 964. 2
974. 6 976. 1 977. 6 979. 1
989. 5 991. 0 992. 5 994. 0
532. 5
544. 7
557. 0
569. 4
581. 9
533. 8
546. 0
558. 3
570. 7
583. 2
595. 7
608. 4
621. 2
634. 0
646. 9
659. 9
673. 0
686. 2
699. 5
712. 9
535. 0
547. 2
559. 5
571. 9
584. 4
594. 5
607. 1
619. 9
632. 7
645. 6
658. 6
671. 7
684. 9
898. 2
711. 5
597. 0
609. 7
622. 4
635. 3
648. 2
661. 2
674. 4
687. 6
700. 8
714. 2
716. 9 718. 2
730. 4 731. 7
743. 9 745. 3
757. 5 758. 9
771. 2 772. 6
726. 3
739. 8
753. 4
767. 1
780. 9
785. 0 786. 4
798. 9 800. 3
812. 9 814. 3
826. 9 828. 3
841. 0 842. 5
725. 0
738. 5
752. 1
765. 8
779. 5
793. 4
807. 3
821. 3
835. 4
849. 5
794. 8
808. 7
822. 7
836. 8
851. 0
855. 2 856. 7
869. 5 870. 9
883. 9 885. 3
898. 3 899. 8
912. 8 914. 3
863. 8 865. 2
878. 1 879. 6
892. 5 894. 0
907. 0 908. 5
921. 6 923. 0
727. 7
741. 2
754. 8
768. 5
782. 3
796. 1
810. 1
824. 1
838. 2
852. 4
886. 7
881. 0
895. 4
909. 9
924. 5
927. 4 928. 9
942. 1 943. 5
956. 8 958. 3
971. 6 973. 1
986. 5 988. 0
936. 2 937. 7 939. 1
950. 9 952. 4 953. 9
985. 7 967. 2 968. 7
980. 6 982. 1 983. 5
995. 5 997. 0 998. 5
AUXI LI ARY TABLE OF TWO- THI RDS POWERS
AND THREE- HALVES POWERS
(to assist in locating the decimal point)
For compl ete tabl e of three- hal ves powers, see precedi ng. That
tabl e, used i nversel y, provi des a compl etetabl eof twc- thi rds powers.
N
/J( = G)
N(= d@)
0. 0001
0. 001
0. 01
0. 1
1. 0
10.0
100. 0
l , ooo. o
10, 000. 0
0. 002154 0. 000001
0. 01 0. 00003162
0. 0464 0. 001
0. 2154 0. 03162278
1. 0 1. 0
4. 64 31. 62278
21. 54 l , ooo. o
100. 0 31, 622. 78
464. 16 1, 000, 000. 0
Average
Di f f erence
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
15
15
E
15
15
15
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MATHEMATI CAL TABLES & UNI TS 8 SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES l - 21
1 ABLE 1. 6 --RECIPR IOCALS 0 I F NUMBE : RS
N 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Average
Di f f erence
1. 00
1 . Ol
1. 02
1. 03
1. 04
0. 9901
0. 9804
0. 9709
0. 9615
0.9990 0.9980 0.9970 0.9960 0.9950 0.9940 0.9930 0.9921
0. 9891 0. 9881 0.9872 0.9862 0.9852 0.9643 0.9833 0.9823
0.9747
0. 9653
0. 9560
1. 05
1. 06
1. 07
1. 08
1. 09
1. 10
1. 11
1. 12
1. 13
1. 14
0. 9524
0. 9434
0. 9346
0. 9259
0. 9174
0.9794 0.9785 0.9775 0.9786 0.9756
0.9699 0.9690 0.9681 0. 9671 0.9662
0.9606 0.9597 0.9588 0. 9579 0.9569
0.9515 0.9506 0.9497 0. 9488 0.9479
0.9425 0. 9416 0.9407 0. 9398 0.9390
0.9337 0. 9328 0.9320 0. 9311 0. 9302
0. 9251 0. 9242 0. 9234 0. 9225 0. 9217
0. 9186 0. 9158 0. 9149 0. 9141 0. 9132
0. 9470
0. 9381
0. 9294
0. 9208
0. 9124
0. 9911
0. 9814
0. 9718
0. 9625
0. 9533
0. 9443
0. 9355
0. 9268
0. 9183
0. 9099
0. 9091 0. 9083 0. 9074 0. 9066 0. 9058 0. 9050 0. 9042
0. 9009 0. 9001 0. 8993 0. 8985 0. 8977 0. 8969 0. 8961
0. 8929 0. 8921 0. 8913 0. 8905 0. 8897 0. 8889 0. 8881
0. 8850 0. 8842 0. 8834 0. 8826 0. 8818 0. 8811 0. 8803
0. 8772 0. 8784 0. 8757 0. 8749 0. 8741 0. 8734 0. 8726
0.9737
0.8953
0.9728
0. 8945
0.9643
0. 8873
0. 9634
0. 9551
0. 8865
0. 9542
0. 9461 0. 9452
0. 9372 0. 9363
0. 9285 0. 9276
0. 9200 0. 9191
0. 9116 0. 9107
0. 9033 0. 9025
0.8937
0. 8857
0. 9017
0.8795 0. 8787 0. 8780
0. 8718 0. 8711 0. 8703
1. 15 0. 8696 0. 8688
1. 16 0. 8621 0. 8613
1. 17 0. 8547 0. 8540
1. 18 0. 8475 0. 8487
1. 19 0. 8403 0. 8398
0. 8681 0. 8673
0. 8606 0. 8598
0. 8532 0. 8525
0. 8460 0. 8453
0. 8389 0. 8382
0. 8319 0. 8313
0. 8666
0. 8591
0. 8518
0. 8446
0. 8375
0. 8658
0. 8584
0. 8511
0. 8439
0. 8388
0. 8299
0. 8651 0. 8643 0. 8636 0. 8628
0. 8576 0. 8569 0. 8562 0. 8554
0. 8503 0. 8496 0. 8489 0. 6482
0. 8432 0. 8425 0. 8418 0. 8410
0. 8361 0. 8354 0. 8347 0. 8340
1.20
1. 21
1. 22
1. 23
1. 24
0. 8333 0. 8328
0. 8258
0. 8190
0. 8123
0. 8058
0. 8306 0. 8292
0. 8264
0. 8197
0. 8251
0. 8183
0. 8237 0. 8230
0. 8170 0. 8163
0. 8130
0. 8065
0. 8000
0. 7937
0. 7874
0. 7812
0. 7752
0. 7692
0. 7634
0. 7576
0. 7519
0. 7463
0. 8117
0. 8052
0. 8244
0. 8177
0. 81 I O
0. 8045
0. 8285 0. 8278 0. 8271
0. 8217 0. 8210 0. 8203
0. 8150 0. 8143 0. 8137
0. 8104 0.8097
0. 8039 0. 8032
1.25
1. 26
1. 27
1. 28
1. 29
1.30
1. 31
1. 32
1. 33
1. 34
0. 7994 0. 7987 0.7981 0. 7974 0. 7968
0. 7930 0. 7924 0.7918 0. 7911 0. 7905
0. 7868 0. 7862 0. 7855 0. 7849 0. 7843
0. 7806 0. 7806 0. 7794 0. 7788 0. 7782
0. 7748 0. 7740 0. 7734 0. 7728 0. 7722
0. 8224
0. 8157
0. 8091
0. 8026
0. 8084 0. 8078 0. 8071
0. 8019 0. 8013 0. 8006
0. 7686 0. 7680 0. 7675 0. 7669 0. 7683
0. 7628 0. 7822 0. 7616 0. 7610 0. 7605
0. 7570 0. 7564 0.7559 0. 7553 0. 7547
0. 7513 0. 7508 0. 7502 0. 7496 0. 7491
0. 7457 0. 7452 0. 7446 0. 7440 0. 7435
0. 7962 0. 7955 0.7949
0. 7899 0. 7893 0. 7886
0. 7837 0. 7831 0. 7825
0. 7776 0. 7770 0. 7764
0. 7716 0. 7710 0. 7704
0. 7657 0. 7651 0. 7645
0. 7599 0. 7593 0. 7587
0. 7541 0. 7536 0. 7530
0. 7485 0. 7479 0. 7474
0. 7429 0. 7424 0. 7418
0. 7943
0. 7880
0. 7819
0. 7758
0. 7898
0. 7639
0. 7582
0. 7524
0. 7468
0. 7413
1. 36 0. 7407 0. 7402 0. 7396 0. 7391 0. 7386 0. 7380 0. 7375 0. 7369 0. 7364 0. 7358
1. 36 0. 7353 0. 7348 0. 7342 0. 7337 0. 7331 0. 7326 0. 7321 0. 7315 0. 7310 0. 7305
1. 37 0. 7299 0. 7294 0. 7289 0. 7283 0. 7278 0. 7273 0. 7267 0. 7262 0. 7257 0. 7252
1. 38 0. 7246 0. 7241 0. 7236 0. 7231 0. 7225 0. 7220 0. 7215 0. 7210 0. 7205 0. 7199
1. 39 0. 7194 0. 7189 0. 7184 0. 7179 0. 7174 0. 7168 0. 7163 0. 7158 0. 7153 0. 7148
1. 40
1. 41
1. 42
1. 43
1. 44
0. 7143
0.7092
0. 7042
0.6993
0.6944
0.6897
0.6849
0. 6803
0. 6757
0. 6711
0. 6667
0. 6623
0. 7138
0. 7087
0. 7037
0. 6988
0. 6940
0. 6892
0. 6845
0. 6798
0. 6752
0. 6707
0. 6662
0. 6618
0. 7133
0. 7082
0. 7032
0. 6983
0. 6935
0. 7107 0. 7102
0. 7057 0. 7052
0. 7008 0. 7003
0.6959
0. 6911
1.45
1. 48
1. 47
1. 48
1. 49
1 so
1.51
1.52
1. 53
1. 54
0. 6887
0. 8840
0. 6793
0. 6748
0. 6702
0. 6658
0. 6614
0. 7128 0. 7123
0. 7077 0. 7072
0. 7027 0. 7022
0. 6978 0. 6974
0. 6930 0. 6925
0. 6882 0. 6878
0. 8835 0. 8831
0. 6789 0. 6784
0. 6743 0. 8739
0. 6698 0. 6693
0. 6653 0. 6649
0. 6609 0. 6805
0. 7117
0. 7067
0. 7018
0. 6969
0. 6920
0. 6873
0. 6826
0. 6780
0. 8734
0. 6689
0. 6645
0. 8601
0. 6557
0. 6515
0. 6472
0. 7112
0. 7062
0. 7013
0. 6964
0. 6916
0. 6868
0. 6821
0. 6775
0. 6729
0. 6684
0. 6640
0. 8596
0. 6863
0. 6817
0. 6770
0. 6725
0. 6680
0. 6636
0. 6592
0. 7097
0. 7047
0. 6998
0. 6949
0. 6901
0. 6854
0. 6807
0. 6761
0. 6718
0. 6671
0. 6627
0. 6583
0.6579 0. 6575 0. 6570 0. 6566 0. 6562
0. 6536 0. 6532 0. 6527 0. 6523 0. 6519
0. 6954
0. 6906
0. 6859
0. 6812
0. 6766
0. 8720
0. 6676
0. 6631
0. 8588
0.6494 0.6489 0. 6485 0. 6481 0. 6477
0. 6553 0.6549 0. 6545 0. 6540
0. 6510 0.6506 0. 6502 0. 6498
0. 6468 0. 6464 0. 6460 0. 6456
- 10
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Expl anati on of Tabl e of Reci procal s
Thi s tabl e gi ves the val ues of i / Nf or val ues of N f rom1 to 10, correct to f our f i gures. ( I nterpol ated val ues may be i n
error by 1 i n the f ourth f i gure. )
To f i nd the reci procal of a number N outsi de the range f rom1 to 10, note that movi ng the deci mal poi nt any number
of pl aces i n ei ther di recti on i n Col umn N i s equi val ent to movi ng i t the same number of pl aces i n the opposite di recti on
i n the body of the tabl e. For exampl e, l / 3. 217=0. 3109, 1/ 3, 217=0. 0003109, and 1/ 0. 003217=310. 9.
( conti nued on next page)
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1- 22 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1. 6- - RECI PROCALS OF NUMBERS( conti nued)
0 1
Average
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Di f f erence
- -
N
1. 55 0. 6452
1. 56 0. 6410
1. 57 0. 8369
1. 58 0. 6329
1. 59 0. 6289
0. 6447
0. 6406
0. 6365
0. 6325
0. 6443
0. 6402
0. 6361
0. 6321
0. 6281
0. 6439 0. 6435 0. 6431 0. 6427 0. 6423
0. 6396 0. 6394 0. 6390 0. 6366 0. 6362
0. 6357 0. 6353 0. 6349 0. 6345 0. 6341
0. 6317 0. 6313 0. 6309 0. 6305 0. 6301
0. 6285 0. 6277 0. 6274 0. 6270
0. 6234 0. 6231
0. 6196 0. 6192
0. 6158 0. 6154
0. 6120 0. 6116
0. 6083 0. 6079
0. 6046 0. 6042
0. 6010 0. 6006
0. 5974 0. 5970
0. 5938 0. 5935
0. 5903 0. 5900
0. 5669 0. 5865
0. 6266 0. 6262
0. 6223
0. 6164
0. 6146
0. 6109
0. 6072
0. 6035
0. 5999
0. 6418 0. 6414
0. 6376 0. 6373
0. 6337 0. 6333
0. 6297 0. 6293
0. 6258 0. 6254
1. 60 0. 6250 0. 6246 0. 6242 0. 6238
1. 61 0. 6211 0. 6207 0. 6203 0. 6200
1. 62 0. 6173 0. 6169 0. 6165 0. 6161
1. 63 0. 6135 0. 6131 0. 6127 0. 6124
1. 64 0. 6098 0. 6094 0. 6090 0. 6086
0. 6227
0. 6168
0. 6150
0. 6112
0. 6075
0. 6219 0. 6215
0. 6180 0. 6177
0. 6143 0. 6139
0. 6105 0. 6101
0. 6068 0. 6064
1. 65
1. 66
1. 67
1. 66
1 . a9
0. 6061
0. 6024
0. 5988
0. 5952
0. 5917
0. 5882
0. 5848
0. 5814
0. 6057
0. 6020
0. 5984
0. 5949
0. 5914
0. 5879
0. 5645
0. 5811
0. 6053 0. 6050
0. 6017 0. 6013
0. 5981 0. 5977
0. 5945 0. 5942
0. 5910 0. 5907
1. 70
1. 71
1. 72
1. 73
1. 74
0. 5875 0. 5872
0. 5841 0. 5638
0. 5807 0. 5804
0. 5634 0. 5831
0. 5800 0. 5797
0. 5767 0. 5764
0. 5734 0. 5731
0. 6039
0. 6002
0. 5967
0. 5931
0. 5896
0. 5862
0. 5628
0. 5794
0. 6031 0. 6028
0. 5995 0. 5992
0. 5963 0. 5959 0. 5956
0. 5926 0. 5924 0. 5921
0. 5780
0. 5747
0. 5777
0. 5744
0. 5774
0. 5741
0. 5770
0. 5737
0. 5893 0. 5889
0. 5858 0. 5855
0. 5824 0. 5621
0. 5790 0. 5787
0. 5760 0. 5757 0. 5754
0. 5727 0. 5724 0. 5721
1. 75 0. 5714 0. 5711 0. 5708 0. 5705 0. 5701 0. 5698 0. 5695 0. 5692 0. 5688
1. 76 0. 5682 0. 5679 0. 5675 0. 5672 0. 5669 0. 5666 0. 5663 0. 5659 0. 5656
1. 77 0. 5650 0. 5647 0. 5643 0. 5640 0. 5637 0. 5634 0. 5631 0. 5627 0. 5624
1. 78 0. 5618 0. 5615 0. 5612 0. 5609 0. 5605 0. 5602 0. 5599 0. 5596 0. 5593
1. 79 0. 5587 05583 0. 5580 0. 5577 0. 5574 05571 0. 5568 0. 5565 0. 5562
1. 80
1. 81
1. 82
1. 83
1. 84
0. 5556 0. 5552 0. 5549 0. 5546 0. 5543 0. 5540 0. 5537
0. 5525 0. 5522 0. 5519 0. 5516 0. 5513 0. 5510 0. 5507
0. 5495 0. 5491 0. 5488 0. 5485 0. 5482 0. 5479
0. 5464 0. 5461 0. 5459 0. 5456 0. 5453 0. 5450
0. 5435 0. 5432 0. 5429 0. 5426 0. 5423 0. 5420
0. 5534
0. 5504
0. 5473
0. 5444
0. 5414
0. 5531
0. 5501
0. 5470
0. 5441
0. 5411
1. 85
1. 86
1. 87
1. 88
1. 89
0. 5405 0. 5402 0. 5400
0. 5376 0. 5373 0. 5371
0. 5348 0. 5345 0. 5342
0. 5319 0. 5316 0. 5313
0. 5291 0. 5288 0. 5285
1. 90 0. 5263 0. 5260 0. 5256
1. 91 0. 5236 0. 5233 0. 5230
1. 92 0. 5206 0. 5206 0. 5203
1. 93 0. 5181 0. 5179 0. 5176
1. 94 0. 5155 0. 5152 0. 5149
0. 5397
0. 5368
0. 5339
0. 5311
0. 5263
0. 5255
0. 5227
0. 5200
0. 5173
0. 5147
0. 5394 0. 5391
0. 5365 0. 5362
0. 5336 0. 5333
0. 5308 0. 5305
0. 5280 0. 5277
0. 5385 0. 5382
0. 5356 0. 5353
0. 5326 0. 5325
0. 5299 0. 5297
0. 5271 0. 5269
0. 5252
0. 5225
0. 5198
0. 5171
0. 5144
0. 5249
0. 5222
0. 5195
0. 5166
0. 5141
0. 5476
0. 5447
0. 5417
0. 5388
0. 5359
0. 5330
0. 5302
0. 5274
0. 5247
0. 5219
0. 5192
0. 5165
0. 5139
0. 5244 0. 5241
0. 5216 0. 5214
0. 5169 0. 5167
0. 5163 0. 5160 0. 5157
0. 5136 0. 5133 0. 5131
1. 95 0. 5128 0. 5126 0. 5123 0. 5120
1. 98 0. 5102 0. 5099 0. 5097 0. 5094
1. 97 0. 5076 0. 5074 0. 5071 0. 5068
1. 98 0. 5051 0. 5048 0. 5045 0. 5043
1. 99 0. 5025 0. 5023 0. 5020 0. 5018
0. 5118
0. 5092
0. 5115
0. 5066
0. 5040
0. 4975 0. 4950
0. 4739 0. 4717
0. 4525 0. 4505
0. 4329 0. 4310
0. 5089
0. 5063
0. 5038
0. 5013 0. 5015
0. 5112 0. 5110 0. 5107 0. 5105
0. 5086 0. 5084 0. 5081 0. 5079
0. 5061 0. 5058 0. 5056 0. 5053
0. 5035 0. 5033 0. 5030 0. 5028
0. 5010 0. 5006 0. 5005 0. 5003
2. 0
2. 1
2. 2
2. 3
2. 4
0. 5000
0. 4762
0. 4545
0. 4348
0. 4926 0. 4902 0. 4878 0. 4854 0. 4831 0. 4808 0. 4785
0. 4695 0. 4673 0. 4651 0. 4630 0. 4808 0. 4587 0. 4566
2. 5
2. 6
2. 7
2. 8
2. 9
0. 4167 0. 4149
0. 4000 0. 3984
0. 3846 0. 3831
0. 3704 0. 3690
0. 3571 0. 3559
0. 3448 0. 3438
0. 3333 0. 3322
0. 4132
0. 3966
0. 3817
0. 3676
0. 4484 0. 4464
0. 4292 0. 4274
0. 4115 0. 4098
0. 3953 0. 3937
0. 3802 0. 3788
0. 3663 0. 3650
0. 4444 0. 4425 0. 4405 0. 4386 0. 4367
0. 4255 0. 4237 0. 4219 0. 4202 0. 4184
0. 4082 0. 4065 0. 4049 0. 4032 0. 4016
0. 3922 0. 3906 0. 3891 0. 3676 0. 3861
0. 3774 0. 3759 0. 3745 0. 3731
0. 3636 0. 3623 0. 3610 0. 3597
0. 3546 0. 3534 0. 3521 0. 3509 0. 3497 0. 3484 0. 3472
0. 3425 0. 3413 0. 3401 0. 3390 0. 3378 0. 3367 0. 3356
3. 0
3. 1
3. 2
3. 3
3. 4
0. 3226 0. 3215
0. 3125 0. 3115
0. 3311 0. 3300 0. 3289 0. 3279 0. 3268 0. 3257 0. 3247 0. 3236
0. 3205 0. 3195 0. 3185 0. 3175 0. 3165 0. 3155 0. 3145 0. 3135
0. 3106 0. 3096 0. 3086 0. 3077 0. 3067 0. 3058 0. 3049 0. 3040
0. 3012 0. 3003 0. 2994 0. 2985 0. 2976 0. 2967 0. 2959 0. 2950
0. 2924 0. 2915 0. 2907 0. 2899 0. 2890 0. 2882 0. 2974 0. 2865
0. 3030 0. 3021
0. 2941 0. 2933
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- 2
- 24
- 21
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- 16
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- 10
- 10
- 9
- 8
0. 5886
0. 5851
0. 5617
0. 5784
0. 5750
0. 5718
0. 5685
0. 5653
0. 5621
0. 5590
0. 5559
0. 5528
0. 5496
0. 5467
0. 5438
0. 5408
0. 5379
0. 5350
0. 5322
0. 5294
0. 5266
0. 5238
0. 5211
0. 5164
0. 3717
0. 3564
0. 3460
0. 3344
l,*=O 316310 and lk?=0.367679
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MATHEMATl CALTABLES&UNl TS & SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES 1- 23
TABLE 1. 6- REC
3
: I PROCAI 3 OF NI UMBERS( < : onti nue
4
Average
Di f f erence
N
9
0 1 2 4 5 6 a
3. 5 0. 2857 0. 2849 0. 2841 0. 2833 0. 2825 0. 2817 0. 2809 0. 2801
3. 6 0. 2778 0. 2770 0. 2762 0. 2755 0. 2747 0. 2740 0. 2732 0. 2725
3. 7 0. 2703 0. 2695 0. 2688 0. 2681 0. 2674 0. 2667 0. 2660 0. 2653
3. 6 0. 2632 0. 2625 0. 2618 0. 2611 0. 2604 0. 2597 0. 2591 0. 2584
3. 9 0. 2564 0. 2558 0. 2551 0. 2545 0. 2538 0. 2532 0. 2525 0. 2519
4. 0 0. 2500
4. 1 0. 2439
4. 2 0. 2381
4. 3 0. 2326
4. 4 0. 2273
0. 2494
0. 2433
0. 2375
0. 2320
0. 2488 0. 2461
0. 2427 0. 2421
0. 2370 0. 2364
0. 2315 0. 2309
0. 2262 0. 2257
0. 2475 0. 2469 0. 2463 0. 2457
0. 2415 0. 2410 0. 2404 0. 2398
0. 2268
0. 2217
0. 2169
0. 2123
0. 2079
0. 2037
0. 1996
0. 2358 0. 2353 0. 2347 0. 2342
0. 2304 0. 2299 0. 2294 0. 2288
0. 2247 0. 2242 0. 2237 0. 2252
0. 2203
0. 2155
0. 2110
0. 2066
0. 2024
0. 1964
0. 2793
0. 2717
0. 2646
0. 2577
0. 2513
0. 2451
0. 2392
0. 2336
0. 2283
0. 2232
4. 5
4. 6
4. 7
4. 8
4. 9
0. 2222
0. 2174
5. 0
5. 1
5. 2
5. 3
5. 4
0. 2128
0. 2083
0. 2041
0. 2000
0. 2212 0. 2208
0. 2165 0. 2160
0. 2119 0. 2114
0. 2075 0. 2070
0. 2033 0. 2026
0. 1961 0. 1957
0. 1923 0. 1919
0. 1887 0. 1883
0. 1652 0. 1848
0. 1992
0. 1953
0. 1916
0. 1880
0. 1645
5. 5 0. 1818 0. 1815 a. 1812
5. 6 0. 1786 0. 1783 0. 1779
5. 7 0. 1754 0. 1751 0. 1748
5. 8 0. 1724 0. 1721 0. 1718
5. 9 0. 1695 0. 1692 0. 1669
6. 0
6. 1
6. 2
6. 3
8. 4
0. 1667 0. 1664 0. 1661 0. 1656 0. 1656 0. 1653 0. 1650 0. 1647 0. 1645
0. 1639 0. 1637 0. 1634 0. 1631 0. 1629 0. 1626 0. 1623 0. 1621 0. 1618
0. 1610 0. 1608 0. 1605 0. 1603
0. 1585 0. 1582 0. 1580 0. 1577
0. 1560 0. 1558 0. 1555 0. 1553
6. 5
6. 6
6. 7
6. 8
6. 9
0. 1536 0. 1534 0. 1531 0. 1529
0. 1513 0. 1511 0. 1508 0. 1506
0. 1490 0. 1488 0. 1486 0. 1484
0. 1468 0. 1466 0. 1464 0. 1462
0. 1447 0. 1445 0. 1443 0. 1441
7. 0
7. 1
7. 2
7. 3
7. 4
0. 1613
0. 1587
0. 1563
0. 1538
0. 1515
0. 1493
0. 1471
0. 1449
0. 1429
0. 1408
0. 1389
0. 1370
0. 1351
0. 1427 0. 1425 0. 1422 0. 1420
0. 1406 0. 1404 0. 1403 0. 1401
0. 1387 0. 1385 0. 1383 o. t38i
0. 1368 0. 1366 0. 1364 0. 1362
0. 1350 0. 1348 0. 1346 0. 1344
7. 5 0. 1333
7. 6 0. 1316
7. 7 0. 1299
7. 6 0. 1262
7. 9 0. 1266
0. 1330
0. 1312
0. 1295
0. 1279
0. 1263
8. 0
6. 1
a. 2
6. 3
8. 4
9. 5
6. 6
8. 7
8. 8
8. 9
0. 1250
0. 1235
0. 1332
0. 1314
0. 1297
0. 1260
0. 1264
0. 1248
0. 1233
0. 1216
0. 1203
0. 1189
0. 1175
0. 1161
0. 1148
0. 1135
0. 1122
9. 0
9. 1
9. 2
9. 3
9. 4
0. 1220
0. 1205
0. 1190
0. 1176
0. 1163
0. 1149
0. 1136
0. 1124
0. 1111
0. 1099
0. 1087
0. 1075
0. 1064
0. 1053
0. 1042
0. 1031
0. 1020
0. 1010
0. 1110
0. 1098
0. 1086
0. 1074
0. 1063
0. 1247
0. 1232
0. 1217
0. 1202
0. 1188
0. 1174
0. 1160
0. 1147
0. 1134
0. 1121
0. 1109
0. 1096
0. 1085
0. 1073
0. 1062
9. 5
9. 6
9. 7
9. 8
9. 9
0. 1052
0. 1041
0. 1030
0. 1019
0. 1009
0. 1050 0. 1049 0. 1048 0. 1047 0. 1046
0. 1040 0. 1038 0. 1037 0. 1036 0. 1035
0. 1029 0. 1028 0. 1027 0. 1026 0. 1025
0. 1018 0. 1017 0. 1016 0. 1015 0. 1014
0. 1008 0. 1007 0. 1006 0. 1005 0. 1004
0. 2786
0. 2710
0. 2639
0. 2571
0. 2506
0. 2445
0. 2387
0. 2331
0. 2278
0. 2227
- 8
- 6
- 7
- 7
- 6
- 6
- 6
- 6
- 5
- 5
- 5
- 5
- 4
- 4
- 4
- 4
- 3
- 2
- 1
0. 1986
0. 2198
0. 2151
0. 2105
0. 2062
0. 2020
0. 2193 0. 2188 0. 2183 0. 2179
0. 2146 0. 2141 0. 2137 0. 2132
0. 1980
0. 2101
0. 2058
0. 2016
0. 1976
0. 1938
0. 1901
0. 1866
0. 1632
0. 2096 0. 2092 0. 2088
0. 2053 0. 2049 0. 2045
0. 2012 0. 2008 0. 2004
0. 1972 0. 1969 0. 1965
0. 1934 0. 1931
0. 1696 0. 1894
0. 1882 0. 1859
0. 1626 0. 1825
0. 1927
0. 1890
0. 1855
0. 1621
0. 1799 0. 1795 0. 1792 0. 1769
0. 1767 0. 1764 0. 1761 0. 1757
0. 1736 0. 1733 0. 1730 0. 1727
0. 1706 0. 1704 0. 1701 0. 1698
0. 1676 0. 1675 0. 1672 0. 1669
0. 1949 0. 1946 0. 1942
0. 1912 0. 1906 0. 1905
0. 1876 0. 1873
0. 1642 0. 1638
0. 1808 0. 1805
0. 1776 0. 1773
0. 1745 0. 1742
0. 1715 0. 1712
0. 1686 0. 1684
0. 1869
0. 1835
0. 1802
0. 1770
0. 1592
0. 1567
0. 1543
0. 1642
0. 1616
0. 1590
0. 1565
0. 1541
0. 1520 0. 1517
0. 1497 0. 1495
0. 1475 0. 1473
0. 1453 0. 1451
0. 1433 0. 1431
0. 1412 0. 1410
0. 1393 0. 1391
0. 1374 0. 1372
0. 1739
0. 1709
0. 1681
0. 1600 0. 1597
0. 1575 0. 1572
0. 1550 0. 1548
0. 1527 0. 1524
0. 1504 0. 1502
0. 1481 0. 1479
0. 1460 0. 1458
0. 1439 0. 1437
0. 1418 0. 1416
0. 1595
0. 1570
0. 1546
0. 1522
0. 1499
0. 1477
0. 1456
0. 1435
0. 1414
0. 1399
0. 1379
0. 1397 0. 1395
0. 1377 0. 1376
0. 1359 0. 1357
0. 1340 0. 1339
0. 1361
0. 1342
0. 1325
0. 1307
0. 1290
0. 1274
0. 1258
0. 1242
0. 1227
0. 1212
0. 1196
0. 1183
0. 1170
0. 1156
Q. 1143
0. 1355
0. 1337
0. 1353
0. 1335
0. 1328 0. 1326
0. 1311 0. 1309
0. 1294 0. 1292
0. 1277 0. 1276
0. 1261 0. 1259
0. 1245 0. 1244
0. 1230 0. 1229
0. 1215 0. 1214
0. 1200 0. 1199
0. 1186 0. 1185
0. 1172 0. 1171
0. 1159 0. 1157
0. 1145 0. 1144
0. 1323 0. 1321
0. 1305 0. 1304
0. 1289 0. 1287
0. 1272 0. 1271
0. 1256 0. 1255
0. 1241 0. 1239
0. 1225 0. 1224
0. 1211 0. 1209
0. 1196 0. 1195
0. 1182 0. 1181
0. 1168 0. 1167
0. 1155 0. 1153
0. 1142 0. 1140
0. 1319 0. 1318
0. 1302 0. 1300
0. 1285 0. 1284
0. 1269 0. 1267
0. 1253 0. 1252
0. 1238 0. 1236
0. 1222 0. 1221
0. 1208 0. 1206
0. 1193 0. 1192
0. 1179
0. 1133 0. 1131 0. 1130 0. 1129 0. 1127
0. 1120 0. 1119 0. 1117 0. 1116 0. 1115
0. 1166
0. 1152
0. 1139
0. 1126
0. 1114
0. 1107 0. 1106 0. 1105 0. 1104 0. 1103 0. 1101
0. 1095 0. 1094 0. 1093 0. 1092 0. 1091 0. 1089
0. 1083 0. 1082 0. 1081 0. 1080 0. 1079 0. 1078
0. 1072 0. 1071 0. 1070 0. 1068 0. 1067 0. 1066
0. 1060 0. 1059 0. 1058 0. 1057 0. 1056 0. 1055
0. 1045 0. 1044
0. 1034 0. 1033
0. 1024 0. 1022
0. 1013 0. 1012
0. 1003 0. 1002
0. 1176
0. 1164
0. 1151
0. 1136
0. 1125
0. 1112
0. 1100
0. 1088
0. 1076
0. 1065
0. 1054
0. 1043
0. 1032
0. 1021
0. 1011
0. 1001
r=031a310 an* lie=0 367879
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1- 24 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NGHANDBOOK
TABLEl . 7- CI RCUMFERENCESOFCI RCLESSY HUNDREDTHS
3 4 6 7 8
Average
9 Di f f erence
3. 424 31
3. 738
4. 053
4. 367
4. 681
4. 995
5. 309
5. 623
5. 938
6. 252
d
1. 0
1. 1
1. 2
1. 3
1. 4
0 1
3. 173
3. 487
3. 801
2
3. 142
3. 456
3. 770
4. 084
4. 398
4. 115
4. 430
3. 204 3. 236
3. 519 3. 550
3. 633 3. 864
4. 147 4. 178
4. 461 4. 492
5
3. 299
3. 613
3. 927
3. 362 3. 393
3. 676 3. 707
4. 241
4. 555
1. 5 4. 712
1. 6 5. 027
1. 7 5. 341
1. 8 5. 655
1. 9 5. 969
4. 744
5. 058
5. 372
5. 686
6. 000
6. 315
6. 629
6. 943
7. 257
7. 571
7. 685
8. 200
8. 514
8. 828
9. 142
9. 456
9. 770
4. 775 4. 807
5. 069 5. 121
5. 484 5. 435
5. 718 5. 749
6. 032 6. 063
4. 869
5. 184
5. 498
5. 812
6. 126
6. 440
6. 754
3. 990 4. 021
4. 304 4. 335
4. 618 4. 650
4. 932 4. 964
5. 246 5. 278
5. 561 5. 592
5. 906
6. 220
2. 0
2. 1
2. 2
2. 3
2. 4
6. 283
6. 597
6. 912
7. 226
7. 540
6. 346 6. 377
6. 680 6. 692
6. 974 7. 006
7. 288 7. 320
7. 683 7. 634
7. 069
7. 383
6. 535 6. 566
6. 849 6. 660
7. 163 7. 194
7. 477 7. 508
7. 791 7. 823
2. 5 7. 854
2. 6 8. 168
2. 7 6. 462
2. 6 6. 796
2. 9 9. 111
7. 917 7. 948
6. 231 8. 262
8. 545 6. 577
8. 859 8. 891
9. 173 9. 205
8. 105 8. 137
8. 419 8. 451
6. 734 8. 765
9. 048 9. 079
9. 362 9. 393
3. 0
3. 1
3. 1
3. 2
3. 3
3. 4
9. 425
9. 739
9. 466 9. 519
9. 602 9. 833
3. 267
3. 581
3. 696
4. 210
4. 524
4. 838
5. 152
5. 466
5. 781
6. 095
6. 409
6. 723
7. 037
7. 351
7. 665
7. 980
6. 294
8. 606
8. 922
9. 236
9. 550
9. 865
7. 697
8. 011
8. 325
6. 639
8. 954
9. 266
9. 562
9. 896
3. 330
3. 644
3. 958
4. 273
4. 587
4. 901
5. 215
5. 529
5. 843
6. 158
6. 472
6. 786
7. 100
7. 414
7. 728
8. 042
8. 357
8. 671
8. 985
9. 299
9. 613
9. 927
5. 875
6. 189
6. 503
6. 817
7. 131
7. 446
7. 760
8. 074
8. 388
8. 702
9. 016
9. 331
9. 645
9. 959
9. 676
9. 990
9. 708
10. 022 31
10. 02 3
10. 05
10. 37
10. 68
10. 08
10. 40
10. 71
11. 03
10. 12 10. 15 l o. 18 10. 21
10. 43 10. 46 10. 49 10. 52
10. 74 10. 78 10. 81 10. 84
10. 24
10. 56
10. 87
11. 18
11. 50
11. 81
12. 13
12. 44
10. 27 10. 30
10. 59 10. 62
10. 90 10. 93
3. 5 11. 00
3. 6 11. 31
3. 7 11. 62
3. 8 11. 94
3. 9 12. 25
11. 34
11. 66
11. 97
12. 28
11. 06 11. 09 11. 12 11. 15
11. 37 11. 40 11. 44 11. 47
11. 69 11. 72 11. 75 11. 78
12. 00 12. 03 12. 06 12. 10
12. 32 12. 35 12. 38 12. 41
11. 22 11. 25
11. 53 11. 56
11. 84 11. 88
12. 16 12. 19
12. 47 12. 50
4. 0 12. 57 12. 60 12. 63 12. 66 12. 69 12. 72 12. 75 12. 79 12. 82
4. 1 12. 86 12. 91 12. 94 12. 97 13. 01 13. 04 13. 07 13. 10 13. 13
4. 2 13. 19 13. 23 13. 26 13. 29 13. 32 13. 35 13. 38 13. 41 13. 45
4. 3 13. 51 13. 54 13. 57 13. 60 13. 63 13. 67 13. 70 13. 73 13. 76
4. 4 13. 82 13. 85 13. 89 13. 92 13. 95 13. 98 14. 01 14. 04 14. 07
10. 34
10. 65
10. 96
11. 28
11. 59
11. 91
12. 22
12. 53
12. 85
13. 16
13. 46
13. 79
14. 11
4. 5 14. 14 14. 17 14. 20 14. 23 14. 26 14. 29 14. 33 14. 36 14. 39 14. 42
4. 6 14. 45 14. 48 14. 51 14. 55 14. 58 14. 61 14. 64 14. 67 14. 70 14. 73
4. 7 14. 77 14. 80 14. 83 14. 86 14. 89 14. 92 14. 95 14. 99 15. 02 15. 05
4. 8 15. 08 15. 11 15. 14 15. 17 15. 21 15. 24 15. 27 15. 30 15. 33 15. 36
4. 9 15. 39 15. 43 15. 46 15. 49 15. 52 15. 55 15. 58 15. 61 15. 65 15. 68
5. 0 15. 71 15. 74 15. 77 15. 80 15. 83
5. 1 16. 02 16. 05 16. 06 16. 12 16. 15
5. 2 16. 34 16. 37 16. 40 16. 43 16. 46
5. 3 16. 65 16. 68 16. 71 16. 74 16. 78
5. 4 16. 96 17. 00 17. 03 17. 06 17. 09
15. 87
16. 18
16. 49
16. 81
17. 12
15. 90
16. 21
16. 52
16. 84
17. 15
15. 93
16. 24
16. 56
16. 87
17. 18
15. 96
16. 27
16. 59
16. 90
17. 22
15. 99 3
16. 30
16. 62
16. 93
17. 25
Exotanati on of Tabl e of Ci rcumf erences
Thi s tabl e gi ves the product of %ti mes any number d ( di ameter) f rom1 to 10; i . e. , i t i s a tabl e of mul ti pl es 01 r.
Movi ng the deci mal poi nt one pl ace i n Col umn d i s equi val ent to movi ng i t one pl ace i n the body of the tabl e
Ci rcumf erence=ax d= 3. 141593xd. Conversel y, d= 1/ rrxci rcumf erence=0. 31831xci rcumf erence.
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MATHEMATI CALTABLES& UNl TS&SYSTEMSOFWEl GHTS&MEASURES 1- 25
TABLE1. 7- CI RCUMFERENCESOFCI RCLES BY HUNDREDTHS( conti nued)
Average
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 Di f f erence
- 17. 31 17. 28 17. 34 17. 37 17. 40 17. 44- 17. 47 17. 50- 17. 53 17. 56 3
17. 59 17. 62 17. 66 17. 69 17. 72 17. 75 17. 78 17. 81 17. 84 17. 88
d
5. 5
5. 6
5. 7
5. 8
5. 9
17. 91 17. 94 17. 97 18. 00 18. 03
18. 22 18. 25 18. 28 18. 32 18. 35
18. 54 18. 57 16. 60 18. 63 18. 66
18. 13 18. 16
18. 44 18. 47
18. 76 18. 79
6. 0 18. 85 18. 88
6. 1 l g. 16 19. 20
6. 2 19. 48 19. 51
6. 3 19. 79 19. 82
6. 4 20. 11 20. 14
6. 5 20. 42 20. 45
6. 6 20. 73 20. 77
6. 7 21. 05 21. 08
6. 8 21. 36 21. 39
6. 9 21. 68 21. 71
18. 91 18. 94 18. 98
19. 23 19. 26 19. 29
19. 54 19. 57 19. 60
19. 85 19. 89 19. 92
20. 17 20. 20 20. 23
20. 48 20. 51 20. 55
20. 80 20. 83 20. 86
21. 11 21. 14 21. 17
21. 43 21. 46 21. 49
21. 74 21. 77 21. 80
18. 06 18. 10
18. 38 18. 41
18. 69 18. 72
19. 01 19. 04
19. 32 19. 35
19. 63 19. 67
19. 95 19. 98
20. 26 20. 29
20. 50 20. 61
20. 89 20. 92
21. 21 21. 24
21. 52 21. 55
21. 83 21. 87
19. 07
19. 38
19. 70
20. 01
20. 33
20. 64
20. 95
21. 27
21. 58
21. 90
19. 10
19. 42
19. 73
20. 04
20. 36
20. 67
20. 99
21. 30
21. 99 22. 02 22. 05 22. 09 22. 12 22. 15 22. 18
22. 31 22. 34 22. 37 22. 40 22. 43 22. 46 22. 49
21. 61
21. 93
7. 0
7. 1
7. 2
7. 3
7. 4
22. 62
22. 93
23. 25
22. 65 22. 68 22. 71 22. 75 22. 78 22. 81
22. 97 23. 00 23. 03 23. 06 23. 09 23. 12
23. 28 23. 31 23. 34 23. 37 23. 40 23. 44
23. 59 23. 62 23. 66 23. 69 23. 72 23. 75
22. 21 22. 24
22. 53 22. 56
22. 84 22. 87
23. 15 23. 18
7. 5
7. 6
7. 7
7. 8
7. 9
23. 56
23. 88
24. 19
24. 50
24. 82
23. 91
24. 22
24. 54
24. 85
23. 94
24. 25
24. 57
24. 88
23. 97 24. 00 24. 03 24. 06
24. 28 24. 32 24. 35 24. 38
24. 60 24. 63 24. 66 24. 69
24. 91 24. 94 24. 98 25. 01
23. 47 23. 50
23. 78 23. 81
24. 10 24. 13
24. 41 24. 44
24. 72 24. 76
25. 04 25. 07
0. 0 25. 13 25. 16 25. 20 25. 23 25. 26 25. 29 25. 32 25. 35 25. 38
8. 1 25. 45 25. 48 25. 51 25. 54 25. 57 25. 60 25. 64 25. 67 25. 70
8. 2 25. 76 25. 79 25. 82 25. 86 25. 89 25. 92 25. 95 25. 98 26. 01
8. 3 26. 08 26. 11 26. 14 26. 17 26. 20 26. 23 26. 26 26. 30 26. 33
8. 4 26. 39 26. 42 26. 45 26. 48 26. 52 26. 55 26. 58 26. 61 26. 64
a. 5
8. 6
8. 7
8. 8
8. 9
26. 70 26. 73 26. 77 26. 80 26. 83 26. 86 26. 89 26. 92
27. 02 27. 05 27. 08 27. 11 27. 14 27. 17 27. 21 27. 24
27. 33
27. 65
27. 96
9. 0 28. 27
9. 1 28. 59
9. 2 28. 90
9. 3 29. 22
9. 4 29. 53
27. 36 27. 39 27. 43 27. 46 27. 49
27. 68 27. 71 27. 74 27. 77 27. 80
27. 99 28. 02 28. 05 28. 09 28. 12
28. 31 28. 34 28. 37 28. 40 28. 43
28. 62 28. 65 28. 68 28. 71 28. 75
28. 93 28. 97 29. 00 29. 03 29. 06
27. 55
27. 87
28. 18
28. 49
28. 81
29. 12
29. 44
29. 75
30. 07
30. 38
30. 69
31. 01
31. 32
26. 95
27. 27
27. 58
27. 90
28. 21 28. 24
29. 25 29. 28 29. 31 29. 34 29. 37
29. 56 29. 59 29. 63 29. 66 29. 69
27. 52
27. 83
28. 15
28. 46
28. 78
29. 09
29. 41
29. 72
28. 53 28. 56
28. 84 28. 87
29. 15 29. 19
29. 47 29. 50
29. 78 29. 81
9. 5 29. 85 29. 88 29. 91 29. 94 29. 97 30. 00 30. 03
9. 6 30. 16 30. 19 30. 22 30. 25 30. 28 30. 32 30. 35
9. 7 30. 47 30. 50 30. 54 30. 57 30. 60 30. 63 30. 66
9. 8 30. 79 30. 82 30. 85 30. 88 30. 91 30. 94 30. 98
9. 9 31. 10 31. 13 31. 16 31. 20 31. 23 31. 26 31. 29
30. 10 30. 13
30. 41 30. 44
30. 72 30. 76
31. 04 31. 07
31. 35 31. 38
10. 0 31. 42
18. 19
18. 50
18. 82
19. 13
19. 45
19. 76
20. 07
20. 39
20. 70
21. 02
21. 33
21. 65
21. 96
22. 27
22. 59
22. 90
23. 22
23. 53
23. 84
24. 16
24. 47
24. 79
25. 10
25. 42
25. 73
26. 04
26. 36
26. 67
26. 99
27. 30
27. 61
27. 93
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l - 26 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NGHANDBOOK
TABLEl . 6- AREASOFCI RCLESBY HUNDREDTHS
Average
Di f f erence d
1.0
1. 1
1. 2
1. 3
1. 4
1. 5
1. 6
1. 7
1. 8
1. 9
2. 0
2. 1
2. 2
23
2. 4
2. 5
26
2. 7
2. 8
2. 9
3. 0
3. 1
3. 2
3. 3
3. 4
3. 5
3. 6
3. 7
3. 8
3. 9
4. 0
4. 1
4. 2
4. 3
4. 4
4. 5
4. 6
4. 7
4. 8
4. 9
5. 0
5. 1
5. 2
5. 3
5. 4
0
0. 785
0. 950
1. 131
1. 327
1. 539
1. 767
2. 011
2 3
0. 817 0. 833
4 5
0. 866
6
0.985 1. 003
1. 169 1. 188
1. 368 1. 389
1. 584 1. 606
0. 849
1. 021
1. 208
1. 410
1. 629
1. 039
1. 227
1. 431
1. 651
0. 882
1. 057
1. 247
1. 453
1. 674
1. 791 1. 815 1. 839
2. 036 2. 061 2. 087
1. 887
2. 138
2. 324
2. 602
2. 895
3. 205
3. 530
3. 871
4. 227
4. 600
4. 988
5. 391
5. 811
6. 246
6. 697
7. 163
7. 645
8. 143
8. 657
9. 188
9. 731
2. 351
2. 630
2. 926
1. 863
2. 112
2. 378
2. 659
2. 956
2. 405
2. 688
2. 986
3. 301
3. 631
3. 976
4. 337
4. 714
1. 911
2. 164
2. 433
2. 717
3. 017
3. 237 3. 269
3. 563 3. 597
3. 906 3. 941
4. 264 4. 301
4. 638 4. 676
3. 333
3. 664
4. 011
4. 374
4. 753
5. 027 5. 067
5. 433 5. 474
5. 853 5. 896
6. 290 6. 335
6. 743 6. 789
7. 211 7. 258
7. 694 7. 744
8. 194 8. 245
8. 709 8. 762
9. 240 9. 294
9. 787 9. 842
5. 107
5. 515
5. 940
6. 379
6. 835
7. 306
7. 793
8. 298
8. 814
9. 348
5. 147
5. 557
5. 983
6. 424
6. 881
9. 898
7. 354
7. 843
8. 347
8. 867
9. 402
9. 954
10. 29 10. 35 10. 41 10. 46 10. 52
10. 87 10. 93 10. 99 11. 04 11. 10
11. 46 11. 52 11. 58 11. 64 11. 70
12. 07 12. 13 12. 19 12. 25 12. 32
12. 69
13. 33
13. 99
14. 66
15. 34
15. 98 16. 05
12. 76 12. 82
13. 40 13. 46
14. 05 14. 12
14. 73 14. 79
15. 41 15. 48
16. 12 16. 19
12. 88
13. 53
14. 19
14. 86
15. 55
16. 26
16. 98
17. 72
18. 47
19. 24
20. 03
20. 83
21. 65
22. 48
12. 95
13. 59
14. 25
14. 93
15. 62
16. 33
17. 06
17. 80
18. 55
19. 32
20. 11
20. 91
21. 73
22. 56
7 8 9
- -
0. 899 0. 916 0. 933
1
0. 801
0.968
1. 150
1. 348
1. 561
1. 112
1. 307
1. 517
1. 744
16
18
20
21
23
2. 270
2. 545
2. 835
3. 142
3. 464
3. 801
4. 155
4. 524
4. 909
5. 309
5. 726
6. 158
6. 605
7. 069
7. 548
8. 042
8. 553
9. 079
9. 621
2.297
2. 573
2. 865
3. 173
3. 497
3. 836
4. 191
4. 562
4. 948
5. 350
5. 768
6. 202
6. 651
1. 986
2. 243
2. 516
2. 808
3. 110
3. 431
3. 767
4. 119
4. 486
4. 870
5. 269
5. 683
6. 114
6. 560
7. 022
24
26
27
29
31
32
34
35
37
38
40
42
43
45
46
7. 116
7. 596
8. 093
8. 605
9. 133
9. 676
7. 499
7. 992
8. 501
9. 026
9. 566
10. 18 10. 24
10. 81
11. 40
12. 01
12. 63
13. 27
13. 92
14. 59
15. 27
1. 075 1. 094
1. 267 1. 287
1. 474 1. 496
1. 697 1. 720
1. 936 1. 961
2. 190 2. 217
2. 461 2. 488
2. 746 2. 776
3. 048 3. 079
3. 365 3. 398
3. 698 3. 733
4. 047 4. 083
4. 412 4. 449
4. 792 4. 831
5. 187 5. 228
5. 599 5. 641
6. 026 6. 070
6. 469 6. 514
6. 928 6. 975
7. 402 7. 451
7. 892 7. 942
8. 398 8. 450
8. 920 8. 973
9. 457 9. 511
10. 010
10. 01 10. 07
10. 58 10. 64
10. 12
10. 69
11. 28
11. 88
48
49
51
53
54
56
:
10. 75
11. 34
11. 95
12. 57
13. 20
13. 85
14. 52
15. 21
15. 90
7
16. 62 16. 69 16. 76 16. 84 16. 91
17. 35 17. 42 17. 50 17. 57 17. 65
11. 16 11. 22
11. 76 11. 82
12. 38 12. 44
13. 01 13. 07
13. 66 13. 72
14. 32 14. 39
15. 00 15. 07
15. 89 15. 76
16. 40 16. 47
12. 50
13. 14
1379
14. 45
15. 14
15. 83
16. 55
18. 10 18. 17 18. 25 18. 32
18. 86 18. 93 19. 01 19. 09
19. 63 19. 71 19. 79 19. 87
20. 43 20. 51 20. 59 20. 67
21. 24 21. 32 21. 40 21. 48
22. 06 22. 15 22. 23 22. 31
18. 40
19. 17
19. 95
20. 75
21. 57
22. 40
17. 13 17. 20 17. 28
17. 87 17. 95 18. 02
18. 78
19. 56
18. 63 18. 70
19. 40 19. 48
20. 19 20. 27
20. 99 21. 07
21. 81 21. 90
22. 65 22. 73
8
20. 35
21. 16
21. 98
22. 82
22.90 22.99 23. 07 23. 16 23. 24 23. 33 23. 41 23. 50 23. 59 23. 67 9
Expl anati on of Tabl e of Areas of Ci rcl es
Movi ng the deci mal poi nt one pl ace i n Col umn d ( di ameter) I S equi val ent to movi ng i t two pl aces i n the body of the tabl e.
For exampl e, area of ci rcl e=R/ ~XC? =0, 785398x( d' ) .
Conversel y, di ameter of ci rcl e=&x &=1. 128379x 6.
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MATHEMATI CAL TABLES & UNI TS 8 SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES
l - 27
TABLE 1. 8- AREAS OF CIRCLES BY HUNDREDTHS (continued)
Average
Di f f erence
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
d 0
5. 5
5. 6
5. 7
5. 8
5. 9
6. 0
6. 1
6. 2
6. 3
6. 4
23. 76 23. 84
24. 63 24. 72
25. 52 25. 61 25. 70 25.79 25. 88 25.97
26. 42 26. 51 26. 60 26. 69 26. 79 28. 88
27. 34 27. 43
28. 27 28. 37
29. 22 29. 32
30. 19 30. 29
31. 17 31. 27
32. 17
6. 5
6. 6
8. 7
6. 8
6. 9
33. 18
34. 21
35. 26
36. 32
37. 39
7. 0 38. 48
7. 1 39. 59
7. 2 40. 72
7. 3 41. 85
7. 4 43. 01
7. 5 44. 18
7. 6 45. 36
7. 7 46. 57
7. 8 47. 78
7. 9 49. 02
8. 0 50. 27
8. 1 51. 53
8. 2 52. 81
8. 3 54. 11
8. 4 55. 42
8. 5 56. 75
8. 6 58. 09
8. 7 59. 45
8. 8 60. 82
8. 9 62. 21
9. 0
9. 1
9. 2
9. 3
9. 4
9. 5
9. 6
9. 7
9. 8
9. 9
63. 62
65. 04
66. 48
67. 93
69. 40
70. 88
72. 38
73.90
75. 43
76.98
4 5 6 7 8 9 2 3
23. 93 24. 02
24. 81 24. 89
24. 45 24. 54
25. 34 25. 43
26. 24 26. 33
27. 15 27. 25
28. 09 28. 18
29. 03 29. 13
30. 00 30. 09
30. 97 31. 07
31. 97 32. 07
32. 98 33. 08
1
24. 11 24. 19
24. 98 25. 07
24. 28 24. 37
25. 16 25. 25
26. 06 26. 15
26. 97 27. 06
27. 90 27. 99
28. 84 28. 94
29. 80 29. 90
30. 78 30. 88
31. 77 31. 07
32. 78 32. 88
27. 53 27. 62 27. 71 27. 81
28. 46 28. 56 28. 65 28. 75
29. 42 29. 51 29. 61 29. 71
30.39 30. 48 30. 58 30. 68
31. 37 31. 47 31. 57 31. 67
32. 27
33. 29
34. 32
35. 36
36. 42
37. 50
38. 59
39. 70
40. 83
41. 97
43. 12
44. 30
45. 48
46. 69
47. 91
49. 14
50. 39
51. 66
52. 94
54. 24
55. 55
56. 88
58. 22
59. 58
32. 37 32. 47 32. 57 32. 67
33. 39 33. 49 33. 59 33. 70 33. 80 33. 90 34. 00 34. 11
34. 42 34. 52 34. 63 34. 73 34. 84 34. 94 35. 05 34. 15
35. 47
36. 53
37. 61
38. 70
39. 82
40. 94
42. 08
43. 24
44. 41
45. 60
46. 81
48. 03
49. 27
50. 52
51. 78
53. 07
54. 37
55. 68
57. 01
58. 36
59. 72
35. 57
36. 64
37. 72
38. 82
39. 93
41. 06
42. 20
43. 36
44. 53
45. 72
46. 93
48. 15
49. 39
50. 64
51. 91
53. 20
54. 50
55. 81
35. 68
36. 75
37. 83
38. 93
40. 04
41. 17
42. 31
43. 47
35. 78 35. 89 36. 00
36. 85 36. 96 37. 07
37. 94 38. 05 38. 16
39. 04 39. 15 39. 26
40. 15 40. 26 40. 38
41. 28 41. 40 41. 51
42. 43 42. 54 42. 66
43. 59 43. 71 43. 83
44. 65
45. 84
47. 05
48. 27
49. 51
44. 77
45. 96
47. 17
48. 40
49. 64
50. 90
52. 17
53. 46
54. 76
56. 08
44. 89 45. 01
46. 08 46. 20
47. 29 47. 42
48. 52 48. 65
49. 76 49. 89
36. 10
37. 18
38. 26
39. 37
40. 49
41. 62
42. 78
43. 94
45. 13
46. 32
47. 54
48. 77
50. 01
50. 77
52. 04
53. 33
54. 63
55. 95
51. 02 51. 15 51. 28 51. 40
52. 30 52. 42 52. 55 52. 68
53. 59 53. 72 53. 85 53. 98
54. 89 55. 02 55. 15 55. 29
56. 21 56. 35 56. 48 56. 61
57. 15 57. 28 57. 41 57. 55 57. 68 57. 82
58. 49 58. 63 58. 77 58. 90 59. 04 59. 17
59. 86 59. 99 60. 13 60. 27 60. 41 60. 55
36. 21
37. 28
38. 37
39. 48
40. 60
41. 74
42. 89
44. 06
45. 25
46. 45
47. 66
48. 89
50. 14
57. 95
59. 31
60. 68
62. 07
63. 48
64. 90
66. 33
67. 78
60. 96 61. 10 61. 24 61. 38 61. 51 61. 65 61. 79 61. 93
62. 35 62. 49 62. 63 62. 77 82. 91 63. 05 63. 19 63. 33
63. 76 63.90 64. 04 64. 18 64. 33 64. 47
65. 18 65. 33 65. 47 65. 61 65. 76 65. 90
68. 62 66. 77 66. 91 67. 06 67. 20 67. 35
68. 08 68. 22 68. 37 68. 51 68. 66 68. 81
69. 55 69. 69 69. 84 69. 99 70. 14 70. 29
71. 03
72. 53
74. 05
75. 58
77. 13
71. 18
72. 68
71. 33 71. 48 71. 63
72. 84 72. 99 73. 14
74. 36 74. 51 74. 66
75. 89 76. 05 76. 20
77. 44 77. 60 77. 76
71. 78
73. 29
74. 20
75. 74
77.29
74. 82 74. 97 75. 12
76. 36 76. 51 76. 67
77. 91 78. 07 78. 23
64. 61
66. 04
67. 49
88. 96
70. 44
71. 93
73. 44
64. 75
66. 19
67. 64
69. 10
70. 58
72. 08
73. 59
69. 25
70. 73
72. 23
73. 75
75. 28
76. 82
78. 38
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l - 28 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NGHANDBOOK
TABLE I.S-CIRCUMFERENCES AND AREAS OF CIRCLES BY EIGHTHS
Ci rcumf erence Area
0. 04909 0.00019
0. 09817 0. 00077
0. 1473 0.00173
0. 1963 0. 00307
0. 2454 0. 00479
0. 2945 0. 00690
0. 3436 0. 00940
0. 3927 0. 01227
0. 4418 0. 01553
0. 4909 0. 01917
0. 5400 0. 02320
0. 5890 0. 02761
0. 6381 0. 03241
0. 6872 0. 03758
0. 7363 0. 04314
0. 7854 0. 04909
0. 8345 0. 05542
0. 8836 0. 06213
0. 9327 0. 06922
0. 9817 0. 07670
1. 031 0. 08456
1. 080 0. 09281
1. 129 0. 1014
1. 178 0. 1104
1. 227 0. 1198
1. 276 0. 1296
1. 325 0. 1398
1. 374 0. 1503
1. 424 0. 1613
1. 473 0. 1726
1. 522 0. 1843
1. 571 0. 1963
1. 620 0. 2088
1. 669 0. 2217
1. 718 0. 2349
1. 767 0. 2485
1. 816 0. 2625
1. 865 0. 2769
1. 914 0. 2916
1. 963 0. 3068
2. 013 0. 3223
2. 062 0. 3382
2. 111 0. 3545
2. 160 0. 3712
2. 209 0. 3883
2. 258 0. 4057
2. 307 0. 4236
2. 356 0. 4418
2. 405 0. 4604
2. 454 0. 4794
2. 503 0. 4987
2. 553 0. 5185
2. 602 0. 5386
2. 651 0. 5591
2. 700 0. 5800
Ci rcumf erence Area
2. 749 0. 6013
2. 798 0. 6230
2. 847 0. 6450
2. 896 0. 6675
2. 945 0. 8903
2. 994 0. 7135
3. 043 0. 7371
3. 093 0. 7610
3. 142 0. 7854
3. 338 0. 8866
3. 534 0. 9940
3. 731 1. 108
3. 927 1. 227
4. 123 1. 353
4. 320 1. 485
4. 516 1. 623
4. 712 1. 767
4. 909 1. 917
5. 105 2. 074
5. 301 2. 237
5. 498 2. 405
5. 694 2. 580
5. 890 2. 761
6. 087 2. 948
6. 283 3. 142
6. 480 3. 341
6. 676 3. 547
6. 872 3. 758
7. 069 3. 976
7. 265 4. 200
7. 461 4. 430
7. 658 4. 666
7. 854 4. 909
8. 050 5. 157
8. 247 5. 412
8. 443 5. 673
6. 639 5. 940
8. 836 6. 213
9. 032 6. 492
9. 228 6. 777
9. 425 7. 069
9. 621 7. 366
9. 817 7. 870
10. 01 7. 980
10. 21 8. 296
10. 41 8. 618
10. 60 8. 946
10. 80 9. 281
11. 00 9. 621
11. 19 9. 968
11. 39 10. 32
11. 58 10. 68
i l . 78 11. 04
11. 98 11. 42
12. 17 11. 79
12. 37 12. 18
Ci rcumf erence Area
12. 57 12. 57
12. 76 12. 96
12. 96 13. 36
13. 16 13. 77
13. 35 14. 19
13. 55 14. 61
13. 74 15. 03
13. 94 15. 47
14. 14 15. 90
14. 33 16. 35
14. 53 16. 80
14. 73 17. 26
14. 92 17. 72
15. 12 18. 19
15. 32 18. 67
15. 51 19. 15
15. 71 19. 63
15. 90 20. 13
16. 10 20. 63
16. 30 21. 14
16. 49 21. 65
16. 69 22. 17
16. 89 22. 69
17. 08 23. 22
17. 28 23. 76
17. 48 24. 30
17. 67 24. 85
17. 87 25. 41
18. 06 25. 97
18. 26 26. 53
18. 46 27. 11
18. 65 27. 69
18. 85 28. 27
19. 24 29. 46
19. 63 30. 68
20. 03 31. 92
20. 42 33. 18
20. 81 34. 47
21. 21 35. 78
21. 60 37. 12
21. 99 38. 48
22. 38 39. 87
22. 78 41. 28
23. 17 42. 72
23. 56 44. 18
23. 95 45. 66
24. 35 47. 17
24. 74 48. 71
25. 13 50. 27
25. 53 51. 85
25. 92 53. 46
26. 31 55. 09
26. 70 56. 75
27. 10 58. 43
27. 49 60. 13
27. 88 61. 86
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MATHEMATl CALTABLES& UNI TS& SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES 1-29
TABLE1. 9- CI RCUMFERENCES AND AREAS OFCI RCLES BY El GHTHS( conti nued)
Ci rcumf erence
28. 27 63. 62
28. 67 65. 40
29. 06 67. 20
29. 45 69. 03
29. 85 70. 88
30. 24 72. 76
30. 63 74. 66
31. 02 76. 59
31. 42 78. 54
31. 81 80. 52
32. 20 82. 52
32. 59 84. 54
32. 99 86. 59
33. 38 88. 66
33. 77 90. 76
34. 16 92. 89
34. 56 95. 03
34. 95 97. 21
35. 34 99. 40
35. 74 101. 6
36. 13 103. 9
36. 52 106. 1
36. 91 108. 4
37. 31 110. 8
37. 70 113. 1
38. 09 115. 5
38. 48 117. 9
38. 88 120. 3
39. 27 122. 7
39. 66 125. 2
40. 06 127. 7
40. 45 130. 2
40. 84 132. 7
41. 23 135. 3
41. 63 137. 9
42. 02 140. 5
42. 41 143. 1
42. 80 145. 8
43. 20 148. 5
43. 59 151. 2
43. 98 153. 9
44. 37 156. 7
44. 77 159. 5
45. 16 162. 3
45. 55 165. 1
45. 95 168. 0
46. 34 170. 9
46. 73 173. 8
47. 12 176. 7
47. 52 179. 7
47. 91 182. 7
48. 30 185. 7
48. 69 188. 7
49. 09 191. 7
49. 48 194. 8
49. 87 197. 9
Ci rcumf erence
50. 27 201. 1 23
50. 66 204. 2
' / a
51. 05 207. 4 ' / 4
51. 44 210. 6 ' / 4
51. 84 213. 8 12
52. 23 217. 1
78
52. 62 220. 4 %l
53. 01 223. 7
%
53. 41 227. 0 24
53. 80 230. 3 ' / 4
54. 19 233. 7 ' 12
54. 59 237. 1 VI
54. 98 240. 5 25
55. 37 244. 0 ' / 4
55. 76 247. 4 ' 12
56. 16 250. 9 %l
56. 55 254. 5 26
56. 94 258. 0 ' 12
57. 33 261. 6 /2
57. 73 285. 2 3/i
58. 12 268. 8 27
58. 51 272. 4 ' A
58. 90 276. 1 12
59. 30 279. 8 3/k
59. 69 283. 5 28
60. 08 287. 3 ' h
60. 48 291. 0 ' / 2
60. 87 294. 8 v4
61. 26 298. 6 29
61. 65 302. 5 ' / a
62. 05 306. 4 ' 12
62. 44 310. 2 Y4
62. 83 314. 2 30
63. 22 318. 1 l / 4
63. 62 322. 1 ' / 2
64. 01 326. 1 3/ b
64. 40 330. 1 31
64. 80 334. 1 ' / 4
65. 19 338. 2 ' I 2
65. 58 342. 2 v4
65. 97 346. 4 32
66. 37 350. 5 ' / 4
66. 76 354. 7 12
67. 15 358. 8 %I
67. 54 363. 1 33
67. 94 367. 3 ' / 4
68. 33 371. 5 ' 12
68. 72 375. 8 =/ 4
69. 12 380. 1 34
69. 51 384. 5 ' I 4
69. 90 388. 8 %
70. 29 393. 2 v4
70. 69 397. 6 35
71. 08 402. 0 ' / 4
71. 47 406. 5 ' 12
71. 86 411. 0 3/i
Ci rcumf erence Area
72. 26 415. 5
72. 65 420. 0
73. 04 424. 6
73. 43 429. 1
7383 433. 7
74. 22 438. 4
74. 61 443. 0
75. 01 447. 7
75 40 452. 4
76. 18 461. 9
7697 471. 4
77. 75 481. 1
78. 54 490. 9
79. 33 500. 7
80. 11 510. 7
80. 90 520. 8
81. 68 530. 9
82. 47 541. 2
83. 25 551. 5
84. 04 562. 0
84. 82 572. 6
85. 61 583. 2
86. 39 594. 0
87. 18 604. 8
87. 96 615. 8
88. 75 626. 8
89. 54 637. 9
90. 32 649. 2
91. 11 660. 5
91. 89 672. 0
92. 68 683. 5
93. 46 695. 1
94. 25 706. 9
95. 03 718. 7
95. 82 730. 6
96. 60 742. 6
97. 39 754. 8
98. 17 767. 0
98. 96 779. 3
99. 75 791. 7
100. 5 804. 2
101. 3 816. 9
102. 1 829. 6
102. 9 842. 4
103. 7 855. 3
104. 5 868. 3
105. 2 881. 4
106. 0 894. 6
106. 8 907. 9
107. 6 921. 3
108. 4 934. 8
109. 2 948. 4
110. 0 962. 1
110. 7 975. 9
111. 5 989. 8
112. 3 1003. 8
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l - 30 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE l.lO-AREAS OF CIRCLES-DIAMETERS IN FEET AND INCHES, AREAS IN SQUARE FEET
I nches
Feet
0
0 1 2 3 4
0.0000 0. 0055 0. 0216 0. 0491 0. 0673
07854 09216 1. 069 1. 227 1. 396
3142 3. 409 3687 3976 4276
7. 069 7 467 7676 8. 296 8. 727
1257 13. 10 13. 64 14. 19 14. 75
19. 63 20. 29 20. 97 21. 65 2234
2627 29. 07 29 67 30. 66 31 50
3048 39. 41 40. 34 41. 26 42 24
50 27 51 32 5236 5346 54 54
6362 6460 66 00 67. 20 6842
78 54 7985 81. 16 82. 52 83. 66
95. 03 96. 48 97 93 99. 40 100. 9
113. 1 1147 1163 1179 119. 5
1327 134. 4 1362 1379 139. 6
153. 9 1556 1576 159. 5 161. 4
5 6
0. 1364 0. 1963
1. 576 1. 767
4587 4909
9. 168 9. 621
1532 15. 90
2304 23. 76
32 34 33. 18
43. 20 44. 18
55. 64 56. 75
69. 64 70. 88
85. 22 8659
1024 103. 9
121 1 122. 7
1414 143. 1
163. 2 165. 1
7 8
0. 2673
1. 969
5. 241
10. 08
16. 50
24. 48
34. 04
45. 17
57. 86
72. 13
87.97
105. 4
124. 4
144. 9
167. 0
0. 3491
2. 182
5. 585
10. 56
17. 10
25. 22
3491
46. 16
58. 99
73. 39
89. 36
106. 9
1260
146. 7
168. 9
9
0. 4416
2405 2. 640 2885
5. 940 6. 305 6681
11. 04 11. 54 1205
17. 72 18. 35 1899
25. 97 26. 73 2749
35. 78 36. 67 3757
47. 17 48. 19 49 22
60. 13 61. 28 6244
74. 66 75. 94 77 24
90. 76 92. 18 9360
108. 4 110. 0 111 5
127. 7 129. 4 131 0
148. 5 150. 3 1521
170. 9 172. 8 1748
10 11
0. 5454 06600
From I nches and Fractions of an Inch to Decimals of a Foot
I nches 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 9 10 11
Feet 0. 0833 0. 1667 0. 2500 03333 0. 4167 0. 5000 0. 5833 0. 6667 0. 7500 0. 8333 09167
I nches ' / a %
%
' 12
%
v4
%
Feet 0. 0104 0. 0208 0. 0313 00417 00521 0. 0625 0 0729
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MATHEMATI CALTABLES& UNl TS&SYSTEMSOFWEl GHTS&MEASURES 1- 31
hlc
0.00
0. 01
0. 02
0. 03
0. 04
d/c Di f f erence
25. 010
12. 520
8. 363
6. 290
0. 05
0. 06
0. 07
0. 08
0. 09
0.10
0. 11
0. 12
0. 13
0. 14
0. 15
0. 16
0. 17
0. 18
0. 19
5. 050
4. 227
3. 641
3. 205
2. 868
2. 600
2. 383
2. 203
2. 053
1. 926
1. 617
1. 723
1. 641
1. 569
1. 506
0. 20 1. 450
0. 21 1. 400
0. 22 1. 356
0. 23 1. 317
0. 24 1. 282
0. 25
0. 26
0. 27
0. 28
0. 29
0. 30
0. 31
0. 32
0. 33
0. 34
0. 35
0. 36
0. 37
0. 38
0. 39
1. 250
1. 222
1. 196
1. 173
1152
1. 133
1. 116
1. 101
1. 088
1. 075
1. 064
1. 054
1. 046
1. 038
1. 031
0. 40 1. 025
0. 41 1. 020
0. 42 1. 015
0. 43 1. 011
0. 44 1. 008
0. 45 1. 006
0. 46 1. 003
0. 47 1. 002
0. 48 1. 001
0. 49 1. 000
0. 50 1. 000
12, 490
4. 157'
2, 073'
1, 240'
823'
586"
436.
337'
268'
217'
180'
150"
127"
109'
94"
82'
72'
63'
56
50
44
39
35
32
28
26
23
21
19
17
15
13
13
11
10
8
8
7
6
5
5
4
3
2
3
1
1
1
0
Arc/ c
1. 000
1. 000
1. 001
1. 002
1. 004
1. 007
1. 010
1. 013
1. 017
1. 021
1. 026
1. 032
1. 038
1. 044
1. 051
1. 059
1. 067
1. 075
1. 084
1. 094
1. 103
1. 114
1. 124
1. 136
1. 147
1. 159
1. 171
1. 184
1. 197
1. 211
1. 225
1. 239
1. 254
1. 269
1. 284
1. 300
1. 316
1. 332
1. 349
1. 366
1. 383
1. 401
1. 419
1. 437
1. 455
1. 474
1. 493
1. 512
1. 531
1. 551
1. 571
TABLE 1 .l l-SEGMENTS OF CIRCLES, GIVEN h/c
Di f f erence
3
3
4
4
5
6
6
6
7
8
8
8
9
10
9
11
10
12
11
12
12
13
13
14
14
14
15
15
15
16
16
16
17
17
17
18
18
18
18
19
19
19
19
20
20
Areal hxc
0. 6667
0. 6667
0. 6669
0. 6671
0. 6675
0. 6680
0. 6686
0. 6693
0. 6701
0. 6710
0. 6720
0. 6731
0. 6743
0. 6756
0. 6770
0. 6785
0. 6801
0. 6818
0. 6836
0. 6855
0. 6875
0. 6896
0. 6918
0. 6941
0. 6965
0. 6989
0. 7014
0. 7041
0. 7088
0. 7096
0. 7125
0. 7154
0. 7185
0. 7216
0. 7248
0. 7280
0. 7314
0. 7348
0. 7383
0. 7419
0. 7455
0. 7492
0. 7530
0. 7568
0. 7607
0. 7647
0. 7687
0. 7728
0. 7769
0. 7811
0. 7854
Expl anati on of Tabl e of Segments of Ci rcl es, Gi ven h/c
Di f f erence
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
24
25
27
27
28
29
29
31
31
32
32
34
34
35
36
36
37
38
38
39
40
40
41
41
42
43
Central
Angl e, CY
( degrees)
0. 00
4. 58
9. 16
13. 73
18. 30
22. 84
27. 37
31. 88
36. 36
40. 82
45. 24
49. 63
53. 98
58. 30
62. 57
66. 80
70. 98
75. 11
79. 20
83. 23
87. 21
91. 13
95. 00
98. 81
102. 56
106. 26
109. 90
113. 48
117. 00
120. 45
123. 86
127. 20
130. 48
133. 70
136. 86
139. 97
143. 02
146. 01
148. 94
151. 82
154. 64
157. 41
160. 12
162. 78
165. 39
167. 95
170. 46
172. 91
175. 32
177. 69
180. 00
Di f f erence
458
458
457
457
454
453
451
448
446
442
439
435
432
427
423
418
413
409
403
399
392
387
381
375
370
364
358
352
345
341
334
328
322
316
311
305
299
293
288
282
277
271
266
261
256
251
245
241
237
231
hld
0.0000
0. 0004
0. 0016
0. 0036
0. 0064
0. 0099
0. 0142
0. 0192
0. 0250
0. 0314
0. 0385
0. 0462
0. 0545
0. 0633
0. 0727
0. 0826
0. 0929
0. 1036
0. 1147
0. 1263
0. 1379
0. 1499
0. 1622
0. 1746
0. 1873
0. 2000
0. 2128
0. 2258
0. 2387
0. 2517
0. 2647
0. 2777
0. 2906
0. 3034
0. 3162
0. 3289
0. 3414
0. 3538
0. 3661
0. 3783
0. 3902
0. 4021
0. 4137
0. 4252
0. 4364
0. 4475
0. 4584
0. 4691
0. 4796
0. 4899
0. 5000
Di f f erence
4
12
20
28
35
43
50
58
64
71
77
83
88
94
99
103
107
111
116
116
120
123
124
127
127
128
130
129
130
130
130
129
128
128
127
125
124
123
122
119
119
116
115
112
111
109
107
105
103
101
Gi ven: h= hei ght of segment and c=chord, to f i nd the drameter, d, of the ci rcl e, the l ength of the arc, or the area of the
segment, f ormthe rati o h/c, and f i nd f romthe tabl e the val ue of d/ c, arc/ c, or areal hc; then, by a si mpl e mul ti pl i cati on,
d= cx (d/c), arc=c x ( arc/ c) , and area= h x c x ( areal hc) .
The tabl e al so gi ves the angl e subtended at the center, and the rati o of h to d.
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1- 32 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1.12-SEGMENTS OF CIRCLES, GIVEN h/d
Cf?ntL4
Angl e, ( v
Arc Area
hid Arc/ d Di f f erence Area/ d' D! f f erence ( degrees) Di f f erence c/ d Di f f erence Ci rcumf erence Drf f erence Ci rcl e Di f f erence
0. 00 0. 000
0. 01 0. 2003
0. 02 0. 2638
0. 03 0. 3482
0. 04 0. 4027
0. 05 0. 4510
0. 06 0. 4949
0. 07 0. 5355
0. 08 0. 5735
0. 09 0. 6094
0. 10 0. 6435
0. 11 0. 6761
0. 12 0. 7075
0. 13 0. 7377
0. 14 0. 7670
0. 15 0. 7954
016 0. 8230
0. 17 0. 8500
0. 18 0. 8763
0. 19 0.9021
0. 20 0. 9273
0. 21 0. 9521
0. 22 0. 9764
0. 23 1. 0004
024 1. 0239
0. 25 1. 0472
0. 26 1. 0701
0. 27 1. 0928
0. 26 1. 1152
0. 29 1. 1374
0. 30 1. 1593
0. 31 1. 1810
0. 32 1. 2025
0. 33 1. 2239
0. 34 1. 2451
0. 35 1. 2661
036 12870
0. 37 1. 3078
038 1. 3284
0. 39 1. 3490
0. 40 1. 3694
0. 41 13898
0. 42 14101
043 1. 4303
044 1. 4505
0. 45 14706
046 1. 4907
047 1. 5106
0 48 1.5308
049 1. 5508
0. 50 15708
2003
835'
644'
545'
483'
439'
406'
380'
359'
341'
326'
314'
302'
293'
284'
276
270
263
256
252
248
243
240
235
233
229
277
224
222
219
217
215
214
212
210
209
208
206
206
204
204
203
202
202
201
201
201
200
200
200
0. 0000
0. 0013
0. 0037
0. 0069
0. 0105
0. 0147
0. 0192
0. 0242
0. 0294
0. 0350
0 0409
00470
00534
00600
00666
0 0739
00811
00885
00961
01039
01118
0 1199
01281
01365
0 1449
0 1535
01623
01711
01800
0. 1890
0. 1982
0. 2074
02167
0. 2260
0. 2355
02450
0. 2546
0. 2642
0 2739
02836
0 2934
03032
03130
0 3229
0 3328
0. 3428
03527
03627
03727
0. 3627
0. 3927
13
24
32
36
42
45
50
52
56
59
61
64
66
68
71
72
74
76
76
79
81
82
84
64
86
88
88
89
90
92
92
93
93
95
95
96
96
97
97
98
98
98
99
99
100
99
100
100
100
100
0. 00
22. 96
32. 52
39. 90
46. 15
51. 68
56. 72
61. 37
65. 72
69. 83
7374
77 48
81. 07
8454
87 89
91. 15
94. 31
9740
10042
103. 37
106. 26
109. 10
111 89
114. 63
117. 34
120. 00
122. 63
125. 23
127. 79
130. 33
132. 84
135. 33
13780
140. 25
14267
14506
147. 46
14986
15223
15458
15693
15926
161 59
16390
16622
16652
17082
17312
17541
17771
18000
Expl anatcon of Tabl e of Segments of Ci rcl es. Gi ven h/ d
2296
956
738'
625'
553'
504'
465'
435'
411'
391'
374,
359 *
347'
335'
326'
316
309
302
295
289
284
279
274
271
266
263
260
256
254
251
249
247
245
242
241
240
238
237
235
235
233
233
231
232
230
230
230
229
230
229
0. 1990
0. 2800
0. 3412
0. 3919
0. 4359
0. 4750
0. 5103
05426
0. 5724
0 6000
0. 6258
0. 6499
0. 6726
0. 6940
, 0. 7141
0. 7332
0. 7513
07684
0. 7846
0. 8000
0. 8146
0. 8285
0. 8417
0. 8542
0. 8660
0. 8773
0. 8879
0 8980
0. 9075
0. 9165
0. 9250
0. 9330
0. 9404
0. 9474
0. 9539
0 9600
0 9656
0. 9708
0. 9755
0. 9798
0. 9837
0. 9871
0 9902
0 9928
0. 9950
0 9968
0. 9982
0 9992
0 9998
10000
1990
810'
612'
507'
440'
391.
353'
323'
298 *
276'
258'
241'
227'
214'
201'
191'
181'
171'
162
154
146
139
132
125
118
113
106
101
95
90
85
80
74
70
65
61
58
52
47
43
39
34
31
26
22
18
14
10
6
2
0 0000
0. 0638
0. 0903
0. 1108
0. 1282
0. 1436
0. 1575
0. 1705
0. 1826
0. 1940
0. 2048
0. 2152
0. 2252
0. 2348
0. 2441
0. 2532
0. 2820
0. 2706
0 2789
0. 2871
0. 2952
0. 3031
0. 3108
0. 3184
0. 3259
0. 3333
0. 3406
0. 3478
0. 3550
0. 3820
0. 3690
0. 3759
0. 3828
0. 3898
0. 3963
0. 4030
0. 4097
0. 4163
0. 4229
0. 4294
0. 4359
0. 4424
0 4489
0. 4553
0. 4617
0. 4681
04745
0. 4809
04873
0. 4936
0. 5000
638
265'
205'
174'
154'
139.
130'
121
114
108
104
100
96
93
91
88
86
83
82
81
79
77
76
75
74
73
72
72
70
70
69
69
68
67
67
67
66
66
65
65
65
65
64
64
64
64
64
64
63
64
0. 0000
0. 0017
0. 0046
0. 0087
0. 0134
0. 0187
0. 0245
0. 0308
0. 0375
0 0446
0. 0520
0. 0598
0. 0680
0. 0764
0. 0851
0. 0941
0. 1033
0. 1127
0. 1224
0 1323
0. 1424
0. 1527
0. 1631
0. 1738
01846
01955
02066
02178
0 2292
02407
0. 2523
0. 2640
0. 2759
0. 2878
0 2998
0. 3119
03241
0. 3364
0. 3487
0. 3611
0. 3735
0. 3860
0. 3986
0. 4112
0. 4236
0. 4364
04491
0. 4618
04745
0. 4873
0. 5000
17
31
39
47
53
58
63
67
71
74
78
82
84
87
90
92
94
97
99
101
103
104
107
108
109
111
112
114
115
116
117
119
119
120
121
122
123
123
124
124
125
126
126
126
126
127
127
127
128
127
Gwen: h=hel ght of segment and d= dtameter of ci rcl e, to f i nd the chord, the l ength of arc, or the area of the segment, f ormthe ratl o h/ d
and f i nd f rom the tabl e the val ue of (c/ d), ( arc/ d) , or ( area/ d*) , then by a si mpl e mul ti pl l catl on. c=dx(cld), arc=dx( arc/ d) , and
area=d' x ( area/ d' )
The tabl e al so gi ves the angl e subtended at the center. the ratl o of the arc of the segment to the whol e ci rcumf erence. and the ratl o of
the area 01 the segment to the area of the whol e cvcl e
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MATHEMATI CAL TABLES & UNI TS & SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES
l - 33
h/d
0.00
0. 01
0. 02
0. 03
0. 04
Vol ume segment
d3 Di f f erence
0. 0000
0. 05
0. 06
0. 07
0. 08
0. 09
0.10
0. 11
0. 12
0. 13
0. 14
0. 0002
0. 0006
0. 0014
0. 0024
0. 0038
0. 0054
0. 0073
0. 0095
0. 0120
0. 0147
0. 0176
0. 0208
0. 0242
0. 0279
0. 15 0. 0318
0. 16 0. 0359
0. 17 0. 0403
0. 18 0. 0448
0. 19 0. 0495
0. 20
0. 21
0. 22
0. 23
0. 24
0. 25
0. 26
0. 27
0. 28
0. 29
0. 30
0. 31
0. 32
0. 33
0. 34
0. 0545
0. 0596
0. 0649
0. 0704
0. 0760
0. 0818
0. 0878
0. 0939
0. 1002
0. 1066
0. 1131
0. 1198
0. 1265
0. 1334
0. 1404
0. 35 0. 1475
0. 36 0. 1547
0. 37 0. 1620
0. 38 0. 1694
0. 39 0. 1768
0. 40 0. 1843
0. 41 0. 1919
0. 42 0. 1995
0. 43 0. 2072
0. 44 0. 2149
0. 45 0. 2227
0. 46 0. 2305
0. 47 0. 2383
0. 48 0. 2461
0. 49 0. 2539
0. 50 0. 2618
TABLE 1.13~SEGMENTS OF SPHERES
2
4
8
10
14
16
19
22
25
27
29
32
34
37
39
41
44
45
47
50
51
53
55
56
58
60
61
63
64
65
67
67
69
70
71
72
73
74
74
75
76
76
77
77
78
78
78
78
78
79
Vol ume segment
Vol ume sphere
0. 0000
0.0003
0. 0012
0. 0026
0. 0047
0. 0073
0. 0104
0. 0140
0. 0182
0. 0228
0. 0260
0. 0336
0. 0397
0. 0463
0. 0533
0. 0607
0. 0686
0. 0769
0. 0855
0. 0946
0. 1040
0. 1138
0. 1239
0. 1344
0. 1452
0. 1562
0. 1676
0. 1793
0. 1913
0. 2035
0. 2160
0. 2287
0. 2417
0. 2548
0. 2682
0. 2817
0. 2955
0. 3094
0. 3235
0. 3377
0. 3520
0. 3665
0. 3810
0. 3957
0. 4104
0. 4252
0. 4401
0. 4551
0. 4700
0. 4850
0. 5000
Volume segment= 1/6rh2(3c-2h)
Expl anati on of Tabl e of Segments of Spheres
Di f f erence
3
9
14
21
26
31
36
42
46
52
56
61
66
70
74
79
83
86
91
94
98
101
105
108
110
114
117
120
122
125
127
130
131
134
135
138
139
141
142
143
145
145
147
147
148
149
150
149
150
150
Gi ven: h =hei ght of segment and d =di ameter of sphere, to f i nd the vol ume
of the segment, f ormthe rati o h/d and f i nd f romthe tabl e the val ue of
( vol ume/ d3) : then. by a si mpl e mul ti pl i cati on, vol ume segment=
d3 x ( vol ume/ d3) .
The tabl e al so gi ves the rati o of the vol ume of the segment to the enti re
vol ume of the sphere. Note that the area of zone= ?TX hx d.
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1- 34
d 0
-0.5236 1. 0
1. 1 0. 6969
1. 2 0. 9048
1. 2
1. 3 1. 150
1. 4 1. 437
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Di f f erence
0. 5395 0. 5556
0. 7161 0. 7356
0. 9276 0. 9508
0. 5722
0. 7555
0. 6236 0. 6414 0. 6596 0. 6781
0. 8173 0. 8386 0. 8603 0. 8823
0. 9743
0. 5890
0. 7757
0. 9983
1. 177 1. 204 1. 232 1. 260
1. 468 1. 499 1. 531 1. 563
0. 6061
0. 7963
1. 0227
1. 023
1. 288
1. 596
1. 047 1. 073 1. 098 1. 124
1. 317 1. 346 1. 376 1. 406
1. 630 1. 663 1. 697 1. 732
173
208
236
25
29
33
1. 5 1. 767 1. 803 1. 839 1. 875 1. 912 1. 950 1. 988 2. 026 2. 065 2. 105
1. 6 2. 145 2. 185 2. 226 2. 268 2. 310 2. 352 2. 395 2. 439 2. 483 2. 527
1. 7 2. 572 2. 618 2. 664 2. 711 2. 758 2. 806 2. 855 2. 903 2. 953 3. 003
1. 8 3. 054 3. 105 3. 157 3. 209 3. 262 3. 315 3. 369 3. 424 3. 479 3. 535
1. 9 3. 591 3. 648 3. 706 3. 764 3. 823 3. 882 3. 942 4. 003 4. 064 4. 126
38
43
48
: ;
2. 0 4. 189 4. 252 4. 316 4. 380 4. 445 4. 511 4. 577 4. 644 4. 712 4. 780 66
2. 1 4. 849 4. 919 4. 989 5. 060 5. 131 5. 204 5. 277 5. 350 5. 425 5. 500 73
2. 2 5. 575 5. 652 5. 729 5. 806 5. 885 5. 964 6. 044 6. 125 6. 206 6. 288 80
2. 3 6. 371 6. 454 6. 538 6. 623 6. 709 6. 795 6. 882 6. 970 7. 059 7. 148 87
2. 4 7. 238 7. 329 7. 421 7. 513 7. 606 7. 700 7. 795 7. 890 7. 986 8. 083 94
2. 5 8. 181
2. 6 9. 203
2. 6
2. 7 10. 31
2. 8 11. 49
2. 9 12. 77
8. 280 8. 379 8. 478 8. 580 8. 682 8. 785 8. 888
9. 309 9. 417 9. 525 9. 634 9. 744 9. 855 9. 966
9. 097
10. 42 10. 54 10. 65 10. 77 10. 89 11. 01 11. 13
11. 62 11. 74 11. 87 11. 99 12. 12 12. 25 12. 38
12. 90 13. 04 13. 17 13. 31 13. 44 13. 58 13. 72
8. 992
10. 079
10. 08
i l . 25
12. 51
13. 86
10. 19
11. 37
12. 64
14. 00
102
110
11
12
13
14
3. 0 14. 14 14. 28 14. 42 14. 57 14. 71 14. 86 15. 00 15. 15 15. 30 15. 45 15
3. 1 15. 60 15. 75 15. 90 16. 06 16. 21 16. 37 16. 52 16. 68 16. 84 17. 00 16
3. 2 17. 16 17. 32 17. 48 17. 64 17. 81 17. 97 18. 14 18. 31 18. 48 18. 65 17
3. 3 18. 82 18. 99 19. 16 19. 33 19. 51 19. 68 19. 86 20. 04 20. 22 20. 40 18
3. 4 20. 58 20. 76 20. 94 21. 13 21. 31 21. 50 21. 69 21. 88 22. 07 22. 26 19
3. 5 22. 45 22. 64 22. 84 23. 03 23. 23 23. 43 23. 62 23. 82 24. 02 2423 20
3. 6 24. 43 24. 63 24. 84 25. 04 25. 25 25. 46 25. 67 25. 88 26. 09 26. 31 21
3. 7 26. 52 26. 74 26. 95 27. 17 27. 39 27. 61 27. 83 28. 06 28. 28 2850 22
3. 8 28. 73 28. 96 29. 19 29. 42 29. 65 29. 88 30. 11 30. 35 30. 58 30. 82 23
3. 9 31. 06 31. 30 31. 54 31. 78 32. 02 32. 27 32. 52 32. 76 33. 01 33. 26 25
4. 0 33. 51 33. 76 34. 02 34. 27 34. 53 34. 78 35. 04 35. 30 35. 56 35. 82 26
4. 1 36. 09 36. 35 36. 62 36. 88 37. 15 37. 42 37. 69 37. 97 38. 24 38. 52 27
4. 2 38. 79 39. 07 39. 35 39. 63 39. 91 40. 19 40. 48 40. 76 41. 05 41. 34 28
4. 3 41. 63 41. 92 42. 21 42. 51 42. 80 43. 10 43. 40 43. 70 44. 00 44. 30 30
4. 4 44. 60 44. 91 45. 21 45. 52 45. 83 46. 14 46. 45 46. 77 47. 08 47. 40 31
4. 5 47. 71 48. 03 48. 35 48. 67 49. 00 49. 32 49. 65 49. 97 50. 30 50. 63 33
4. 6 50. 97 51. 30 51. 63 51. 97 52. 31 52. 65 52. 99 53. 33 53. 67 54. 02 34
4. 7 54. 36 54. 71 55. 06 55. 41 55. 76 56. 12 56. 47 56. 83 57. 19 57. 54 35
4. 8 57. 91 58. 27 58. 63 59. 00 59. 37 59. 73 60. 10 60. 48 60. 85 61. 22 37
4. 9 61. 60 61. 98 62. 36 62. 74 63. 12 63. 51 63. 89 64. 28 64. 67 65. 06 38
5. 0 65. 45 65. 64 66. 24 66. 64 67. 03 67. 43 67. 83 68. 24 68. 64 69. 05 40
5. 1 69. 46 69. 87 70. 28 70. 69 71. 10 71. 52 71. 94 72. 36 72. 78 73. 20 42
5. 2 73. 62 74. 05 74. 47 74. 90 75. 33 75. 77 76. 20 76. 64 77. 07 77. 51 43
5. 3 77. 95 78. 39 78. 84 79. 28 79. 73 80. 18 80. 63 81. 08 81. 54 81. 99 45
5. 4 82. 45 82. 91 83. 37 83. 83 84. 29 84. 76 85. 23 85. 70 86. 17 86. 64 47
PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1. 14- VOLUMES OF SPHERES BY HUNDREDTHS
Expl anati on of Tabl e of Vol umes of Spheres
Movi ng the deci mal poi nt one pl ace i n Col umn d ( di ameter) i s equi val ent to movi ng i t three pl aces i n the body of the tabl e.
For exampl e, vol ume of sphere= ~/ 6x (d3)=0.523599x(d3). Conversel y, d= ?/ %x $k%%= 1. 240701 x %%r%e.
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1- 35 MATHEMATI CALTABLES & UNI TS& SYSTEMSOFWEI GHTS & MEASURES
TABLE1. 14- VOLUMESOF SPHERES BY HUNDREDTHS( conti nued)
d 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Di f f erence
- ~
5. 5
87. 11
5. 6
91. 95
5. 7
96. 97
5. 7
5. 8
102. 2
5. 9
107. 5
87. 59 88. 07 88. 55 89. 03 89. 51
92. 45 92. 94 93. 44 93. 94 94. 44
97. 48 97. 99 98. 51 99. 02 99. 54
90. 00
94. 94
100. 06
100. 1
105. 4
110. 9
90. 48 90. 97 91. 49
95. 44 95. 95 96. 46
102. 7 103. 2 103. 8 104. 3 104. 8
108. 1 108. 6 109. 2 109. 7 110. 3
100. 6 101. 1 101. 6
105. 9 106. 4 107. 0
111. 4 112. 0 112. 5
6. 0
113. 1 113. 7 114. 2 114. 8 115. 4 115. 9 116. 5 117. 7 117. 1 118. 3
6. 1
118. 8 119. 4 120. 0 120. 6 121. 2 121. 8 122. 4 123. 6 123. 0 124. 2
6. 2
124. 8 125. 4 126. 0 126. 6 127. 2 127. 8 128. 4 129. 1 129. 7 130. 3
6. 3
130. 9 131. 5 132. 2 132. 8 133. 4 134. 1 134. 7 135. 3 136. 0 136. 6
6. 4
137. 3 137. 9 138. 5 139. 2 139. 8 140. 5 141. 2 141. 8 142. 5 143. 1
6. 5
143. 8 144. 5 145. 1 145. 8 146. 5 147. 1 147. 8 148. 5 149. 2 149. 6
6. 6
150. 5 151. 2 151. 9 152. 6 153. 3 154. 0 154. 7 155. 4 156. 1 156. 8
8. 7
157. 5 158. 2 158. 9 159. 6 160. 3 161. 0 161. 7 162. 5 163. 2 163. 9
6. 8 164. 6 165. 4 166. 1 166. 8 167. 6 168. 3 169. 0 169. 8 170. 5 171. 3
6. 9
172. 0 172. 8 173. 5 174. 3 175. 0 175. 8 176. 5 177. 3 178. 1 178. 8
7. 0
179. 6
7. 1 187. 4
7. 2 195. 4
7. 3 203. 7
7. 4 212. 2
7. 5 220. 9
7. 6 229. 8
7. 7 239. 0
7. 8 248. 5
7. 9 258. 2
8. 0 268. 1
8. 1 278. 3
8. 2 288. 7
8. 3 299. 4
8. 4 310. 3
180. 4 181. 1 181. 9 182. 7 183. 5 184. 3 185. 0 185. 8 186. 6
188. 2 189. 0 189. 8 190. 6 191. 4 192. 2 193. 0 193. 8 194. 6
196. 2 197. 1 197. 9 198. 7 199. 5 200. 4 201. 2 202. 0 202. 9
204. 5 205. 4 206. 2 207. 1 207. 9 208. 8 209. 6 210. 5 211. 3
213. 0 213. 9 214. 8 215. 6 216. 5 217. 4 218. 3 219. 1 220. 0
221. 8 222. 7 223. 6 224. 4 225. 3 226. 2 227. 1 228. 0 228. 9
230. 8 231. 7 232. 6 233. 5 234. 4 235. 3 236. 3 237. 2 238. 1
240. 0 240. 9 241. 8 242. 8 243. 7 244. 7 245. 6 246. 6 247. 5
249. 4 250. 4 251. 4 252. 3 253. 3 254. 3 255. 2 256. 2 257. 2
259. 1 260. 1 261. 1 262. 1 263. 1 264. 1 265. 1 266. 1 267. 1
269. 1 270. 1 271. 1 272. 1 273. 1 274. 2 275. 2 276. 2 277. 2
279. 3 280. 3 281. 4 282. 4 283. 4 284. 5 285. 5 286. 6 287. 6
289. 8 290. 8 291. 9 292. 9 294. 0 295. 1 296. 2 2972 298. 3
300. 5 301. 6 302. 6 303. 7 304. 8 305. 9 307. 0 308. 1 309. 2
311. 4 312. 6 313. 7 314. 8 315. 9 317. 0 318. 2 319. 3 320. 4
8. 5 321. 6
8. 6 333. 0
8. 7 344. 8
8. 6 356. 8
8. 9 369. 1
9. 0 381. 7
9. 1 394. 6
9. 2 407. 7
9. 3 421. 2
9. 4 434. 9
9. 5 448. 9
9. 6 463. 2
9. 7 477. 9
9. 8 492. 8
9. 9 508. 0
10. 0 523. 6
322. 7 323. 8 325. 0 326. 1 327. 3 328. 4 329. 6 330. 7 331. 9
334. 2 335. 4 336. 5 337. 7 338. 9 340. 1 341. 2 342. 4 343. 6
346. 0 347. 2 348. 4 349. 6 350. 8 352. 0 353. 2 354. 4 355. 6
358. 0 359. 3 360. 5 361. 7 362. 9 364. 2 365. 4 366. 6 367. 9
370. 4 371. 6 372. 9 374. 1 375. 4 376. 6 377. 9 379. 2 380. 4
383. 0 384. 3 385. 5 386. 8 388. 1 389. 4 390. 7 392. 0 393. 3
395. 9 397. 2 398. 5 399. 8 401. 1 402. 4 403. 7 405. 1 406. 4
409. 1 410. 4 411. 7 413. 1 414. 4 415. 7 417. 1 418. 4 419. 8
422. 5 423. 9 425. 2 426. 6 428. 0 429. 4 430. 7 432. 1 433. 5
436. 3 437. 7 439. 1 440. 5 441. 9 443. 3 444. 7 446. 1 447. 5
450. 3 451. 8 453. 2 454. 6 456. 0 457. 5 458. 9 460. 4 461. 8
464. 7 466. 1 467. 6 469. 1 470. 5 472. 0 473. 5 474. 9 476. 4
479. 4 480. 8 482. 3 483. 8 485. 3 486. 8 488. 3 489. 8 491. 3
494. 3 495. 8 497. 3 498. 9 500. 4 501. 9 503. 4 505. 0 506. 5
509. 6 511. 1 512. 7 514. 2 515. 8 517. 3 518. 9 520. 5 522. 0
48
50
52
5
5
6
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
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l - 36
PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
n
3
4
5
6
7
a
9
10
12
15
16
20
24
32
48
64
DI
1200
900
72O
600
510. 43
450
400
36"
300
24'
220. 50
l a0
150
110. 25
70. 50
5O. 625
Area Area Area
L2 R2 r2
R R L
L r R
0.4330 1.299 5196 0. 5774 2000 1. 732
1. 000 2. 000 4. 000 0. 7071 1. 414 1. 414
1. 721 2. 378 3633 0. 8507 1. 236 1. 176
2. 598 2. 598 3464 1. 000 1. 155 1. 000
3. 634 2. 736 3. 371 1. 152 1. 110 0. 8678
4. 828 2. 828 3314 1307 1. 082 0.7654
6. 182 2 a93 3276 1. 462 1. 064 0.6840
7. 694 2. 939 3249 I . 618 1. 052 0. 61 a0
11. 20 3. 000 3215 1. 932 1. 035 0. 5176
17. 64 3. 051 3 188 2. 405 1. 022 0. 4158
20. 11 3. 062 3 i a3 2. 563 1. 020 0. 3902
31. 57 3. 090 3. 168 3196 1. 013 0. 3129
45. 58 3. 106 3160 3. 831 1. 009 0. 2611
al . 23 3. 121 3152 5. 101 1. 005 0. 1960
183. 1 3. 133 3146 7. 645 1. 002 0. 1308
325. 7 3. 137 3144 10. 19 1. 001 0. 0981
TABLE 1. 15- REGULAR POLYGONS
L r r
r R L
3. 464 0. 5000 0. 2887
2. 000 0. 7071 0. 5000
1 453 0. 8090 0. 6882
1. 155 0. 8660 0. 8660
0. 9631 0. 9010 1. 038
0. 8284 0. 9239 1. 207
0. 7279 0. 9397 1. 374
0. 6498 0. 9511 1. 539
0. 5359 0. 9659 1. 866
0.4251 0. 9781 2.352
0. 3978 0. 9808 2. 514
0. 3168 0. 9877 3. 157
0.2633 0. 9914 3. 798
0. 1970 0. 9952 5. 077
0. 1311 0. 9979 7. 629
0. 0983 0. 9968 10. 18
n = number of si des,
N = 3600/ n =angl e subtended at the center by one si de,
1 = l ength of one si de =R ( 2 si n ( ~12) =r( 2 tan a/ 2) ,
R = radi us of ci rcumscri bed ci rcl e =L(% csc u/2) =r(sec a/2).
r = radi us of i nscri bed ci rcl e =R ( cos a/ 2) =L(% cot ~12) . and
area = L* ( l / 4 n cot ( u/ 2) =R2 ( %n si n ( u) =r2 ( n tan 0( / 2) .
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MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES
1- 37
TABLE 1. 16- BI NOMI AL COEFFI CI ENTS
( n) , =I . ( n) , =R. ( n) ? =[ n( n l ) ] / ( l x 2) . ( r~) ~=[ n( n l ) ( n 2) ] / ( 1 x 2 x 3) . etc. , m general , ( n) , = n( n - l ) ( n - 2)
[ n - (r- l ) ] / ( l x 2 x 3 xr) Other
notati ons nCr=( ni r) =(nJ r

cm, (n). m, w,
1 I 1
2 1 2
3 1 3 ; 1
4 1 4 6 4
5 1 5 10 10
6 1 6 15 20
7 1 7 21 35
8 1 a 28 56
9 1 9 36 a4
10 1 10 45 120
11 1 11 55 165
12 1 12 66 220
13 1 13 78 286
14 1 14 91 364
I 5 1 15 105 455
bi d
5 1
15 6
35 21
70 56
126 126
210 252
330 462
495 792
715 1,287
1.001 2, 002
1.365 3. 003
ml,
1
7
28
64
210
462
924
1. 716
3, 003
5. 005
Hi m 8
21 1
36 9
120 45
330 165
792 495
1. 716 I ,287
3, 432 3. 003
6, 435 6, 435
11 1
2: :
12 1
78 13 1
1 001 364 91 14
3. 003 1. 365 455 105
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l - 38 PETRC I LEUM E : NGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1. 17- COMMON LOGARI THMS ( 1 . OOTO 2. 00)
Average
9 Di f f erence
0. 0039 4
0. 0082
0. 0124
0. 0166
0. 0208
Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0. 0009 0. 0013 o. 0017 o. 0022 0. 0026 1. 00
1. 01
1. 02
1. 03
1. 04
0. 0000
0. 0043
0. 0086
0. 0128
00170
0. 0004
0. 0048
0. 0090
0. 0133
00175
0. 0030
0. 0052 0. 0056 0. 0060 0. 0065 0. 0069
0. 0095 a0099 0. 0103 0. 0107 0. 0111
8
0. 0035
0. 0137 6. 0141 0. 0145
0. 0179 0. 0183 0. 0187
1. 05 0. 0212 0. 0216 0. 0220 0. 0224 0. 0228
1 06 0. 0253 0. 0257 0. 0261 0. 0265 0. 0269
1. 07 0. 0294 0. 0298 0. 0302 0. 0306 0. 0310
1. 08 0. 0334 0. 0338 0. 0342 0. 0346 0. 0350
109 0. 0374 0. 0378 0. 0382 0. 0386 0. 0390
0. 0149
0. 0191
0. 0233
0. 0273
0. 0314
0. 0354
0. 0394
0. 0154
0. 0195
0. 0073 0. 0077
0. 0116 00120
0. 0158 0. 0162
0. 0199 0. 0204
0. 0237 0. 0241
0. 0278 0. 0282
0. 0318 0. 0322
0. 0358 0. 0362
0. 0398 0. 0402
00245 0. 0249
0. 0286
0. 0326
0. 0366
00406
0. 0290
0. 0330
0. 0370
0. 0410
1. 10 0. 0414 0. 0418 0. 0422 00426 00430 0. 0434 0. 0438 0. 0441 00445 0. 0449
1. 11 0. 0453 0. 0457 0. 0461 00465 0 0469 0. 0473 0. 0477 0. 0481 00484 0. 0488
1. 12 0. 0492 0 0496 0 0500 00504 00508 0. 0512 0. 0515 0. 0519 00523 0. 0527
1. 13 0. 0531 0. 0535 0. 0538 0. 0542 00546 0. 0550 0. 0554 0. 0558 00561 0. 0565
1 14 0. 0569 00573 0. 0577 00580 00584 00588 0. 0592 0. 0596 0 0599 0. 0603
1. 15
1. 16
1. 17
1. 18
1. 19
1. 20
1 21
1. 22
1. 23
1. 24
0. 0607
0. 0645
00682
0. 0719
0. 0755
0. 0792
0. 0828
0. 0864
0. 0899
0. 0934
1. 25 0. 0969
1. 26 0. 1004
1. 27 0. 1038
1. 28 0. 1072
1. 29 01106
1. 30
1. 31
1. 32
1. 33
1. 34
0. 1139
0. 1173
0. 1206
0. 1239
0. 1271
1. 35
1. 36
1. 37
1. 38
1. 39
0. 1303 0. 1307 0. 1310 01313 01316 0. 1319 0. 1323 0. 1326
0. 1335 0. 1339 0. 1342 0. 1345 0 1348 0. 1351 0. 1355 0. 1358
1. 40
1. 41
1. 42
1. 43
1. 44
1. 45
1. 46
1. 47
1. 48
1. 49
0. 1367
0. 1399
0. 1430
0. 1461
01492
0. 1523
0. 1553
0. 1584
0. 1614
0 1644
0. 1673
0. 1703
0. 1732
0. 0633
0. 0671
0. 0708
0. 0745
0. 0781
0. 0817
0. 0853
0. 0888
0. 0924
0. 0959
0. 0993
00637
00674
00711
0. 0748
00785
0. 0821
00856
0 0892
0 0927
0 0962
0. 0997
0. 0641
0. 0678
0. 0715
0. 0752
0. 0788
0. 0611 0. 0615 0. 0618 0. 0622 0. 0626 0. 0630
0. 0648 0. 0652 00656 0. 0660 0. 0663 0. 0667
0. 0686 0. 0689 0. 0693 0 0697 0. 0700 0. 0704
0. 0722 0. 0726 0. 0730 00734 0. 0737 0. 0741
0. 0759 0. 0763 0. 0766 00770 0. 0774 0. 0777
0 0795 0. 0799 0. 0803 00806 0. 0810 0. 0813
0. 0831 0. 0835 0. 0839 00842 0. 0846 0. 0849
0. 0867 0. 0871 0. 0874 0. 0878 0. 0881 0. 0885
0. 0903 0. 0906 0. 0910 0. 0913 0. 0917 0. 0920
0. 0938 0. 0941 0. 0945 0. 0948 0. 0952 0. 0955
0. 0973 0. 0976 0. 0980 0 0983 0. 0986 0. 0990
0. 1011 0. 1014 01017 0. 1021 0. 1024
0. 1045 0. 1048 0. 1052 0. 1055 0. 1059
0. 1079 0. 1082 01086 0. 1089 0. 1092
0. 1113 0. 1116 01119 0. 1123 0. 1126
0. 1146 0. 1149 01153 0. 1156 0. 1159
0. 1179 0. 1183 01186 0. 1189 0. 1193
0. 0824
0. 0860
0. 0896
0. 0931
0. 0966
0. 1000 3
0. 1007
0 1041
0. 1028 01031 0. 1035
0. 1062 01065 0. 1069
01075
0. 1109
0. 1143
01176
0. 1209
0. 1242
0. 1274
0. 1096
0. 1129
0. 1163
0. 1196
0. 1229
0. 1261
0. 1294
0. 1099
0. 1133
01166
0. 1199
01232
01265
01297
01329
01361
0. 1103
0. 1136
0. 1169
0. 1202
0. 1235
0. 1268
0. 1300
0. 1332
0. 1364
0. 1396
0. 1427
0. 1458
0. 1489
0. 1520
0. 1550
01581
0. 1611
0. 1641
0 1670
01700
0. 1729
0. 1758
0. 1212 0. 1216 0. 1219 0. 1222 0. 1225
0. 1245 0. 1248 0 1252 0. 1255 0. 1258
0. 1278 0. 1281 01284 0. 1287 0. 1290
0. 1370
0. 1402
0. 1433
0. 1464
0. 1495
0. 1526
0. 1556
0. 1587
0. 1617
0. 1647
0. 1676
0. 1706
0. 1735
0. 1374 0. 1377
0 1405 0. 1408
0. 1436 0. 1440
0. 1467 0. 1471
0. 1498 01501
0. 1529 01532
01559 0. 1562
0. 1590 0. 1593
0. 1620 0. 1623
0. 1380 0. 1383
01411 0. 1414
0 1443 0. 1446
01474 0. 1477
01504 01508
01535 0. 1538
0. 1565 0. 1569
01596 0. 1599
0. 1626 0. 1629
0. 1386 0. 1389
0. 1418 0. 1421
0. 1449 0. 1452
0. 1480 0. 1483
0. 1511 0. 1514
0. 1541 0. 1544
0. 1572 0. 1575
0. 1602 0. 1605
0. 1632 0. 1635
01392
01424
01455
01486
01517
01547
01578
01608
01638
0. 1649 0. 1652 0 1655 0. 1658 0. 1661
0. 1679 0. 1682 0. 1685 0. 1688 0. 1691
0. 1664 01667
0. 1694 0. 1697
0. 1723 01726
0. 1752 01755
01708 01711 01714 01717 0. 1720
0. 1738 0. 1741 0. 1744 0. 1746 0. 1749
Movi ng the deci mal pol ntn pl aces to the ri ght ( or l ef t) I n the number requi res addi ng +n ( or- n) i n the body of the tabl e
See Tabl e 1. 18.
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N
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MATHEMATI CALTABLES & UNI TS &SYSTEMSOFWEl GHTS& MEASURES I - 39
Number
1 so
1. 51
1. 52
1. 53
1. 54
Average
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Di f f erence
0. 1761 0. 1764 0. 1767 0. 1770 0. 1772 0. 1775 0. 1778 0. 1781 01784 0. 1787 3
0. 1790 0. 1793 0. 1796 0. 1798 0 1801 0. 1804 0. 1807 0. 1810 0 1813 0. 1816
0. 1818 0. 1821 0. 1824 0. 1827 0. 1830 0. 1833 0. 1836 0. 1838 0. 1841 0. 1844
0. 1847 0. 1850 0. 1853 0. 1855 0. 1858 0. 1861 0. 1864 0. 1867 0 1870 0 1872
0. 1875 0. 1878 0. 1881 0. 1884 0. 1886 0. 1889 0. 1892 0. 1895 0. 1898 0. 1901
1. 55 0. 1903 0. 1906 0. 1909 0. 1912 0. 1915 0. 1917 0. 1920 0. 1923 01926 0. 1928
1. 56 01931 0. 1934 0. 1937 0. 1940 0. 1942 0. 1945 0. 1948 0. 1951 01953 0. 1956
1. 57 0. 1959 0. 1962 0. 1965 0. 1967 0. 1970 0. 1973 0. 1976 0. 1978 0. 1981 0. 1984
1. 58 0. 1987 0. 1989 0. 1992 0. 1995 0. 1998 0. 2000 0. 2003 0. 2006 0. 2009 0. 2011
1. 59 02014 0. 2017 0. 2019 0. 2022 0. 2025 0. 2028 0. 2030 0. 2033 0. 2036 0. 2038
1. 60 02041 0. 2044
1. 61 0. 2068 0. 2071
1 62 0. 2095 0. 2098
1 63 02122 0. 2125
1. 64 02148 0. 2151
0. 2052 0. 2055 0. 2057 0. 2060 0. 2063 0. 2066
0. 2079 0. 2082 0. 2084 0. 2087 0. 2090 0. 2092
0. 2106 0. 2109 0. 2111 0. 2114 0. 2117 0. 2119
0. 2133 0. 2135 0. 2138 0. 2140 0. 2143 0. 2146
0. 2159 0. 2162 0. 2164 0. 2167 0. 2170 0. 2172
1. 65
1. 66
167
1. 68
1. 69
1.70
1. 71
1 72
1 73
1. 74
02175 0. 2177
0. 2201 0. 2204
02227 0. 2230
02253 0. 2256
0 2279 0. 2281
0. 2047 0. 2049
0. 2074 0. 2076
0. 2101 0. 2103
0. 2127 0. 2130
0. 2154 0. 2156
0. 2180 0. 2183
0. 2206 0. 2209
0. 2232 0. 2235
0. 2258 0. 2261
0. 2284 0. 2287
0. 2185 0. 2188 0. 2191 0. 2193 0. 2196 0. 2198
0. 2212 0. 2214 0. 2217 0. 2219 0. 2222 0. 2225
0. 2238 0. 2240 0. 2243 0. 2245 02248 0. 2251
0. 2263 0. 2266 0. 2269 0. 2271 02274 0. 2276
0. 2289 0. 2292 0. 2294 0. 2297 0. 2299 0. 2302
1. 75
176
1. 77
1. 78
1. 79
02304 0. 2307 0. 2310 0. 2312 0. 2315 0. 2317 0. 2320 0. 2322 02325 0. 2327
02330 0. 2333 0. 2335 0. 2338 0. 2340 0. 2343 0. 2345 0. 2348 0. 2350 0. 2353
0. 2355 0. 2358 0. 2360 0. 2363 0. 2365 0. 2368 0. 2370 0. 2373 02375 0. 2378
0. 2380 0. 2383 0. 2385 0. 2388 0. 2390 0. 2393 0. 2395 0. 2398 02400 0. 2403
0. 2405 0. 2408 0. 2410 0. 2413 0. 2415 0. 2418 0. 2420 0. 2423 0. 2425 0. 2428 2
02430 0. 2433 0. 2435 0. 2438 0. 2440 0. 2443 0. 2445 0. 2448 0. 2450 0. 2453
0. 2455 0. 2458 0. 2460 0. 2463 0. 2465 0. 2467 0. 2470 0. 2472 0. 2475 0. 2477
0. 2480 0. 2482 0. 2485 02487 0. 2490 0. 2492 0. 2494 0. 2497 0 2499 0. 2502
0. 2504 0. 2507 0. 2509 0. 2512 0. 2514 0. 2516 0. 2519 0. 2521 02524 0. 2526
0. 2529 0. 2531 0. 2533 0. 2536 0. 2538 0. 2541 0. 2543 0. 2545 0. 2548 0. 2550
1. 80 0. 2553 0. 2555 0. 2558 0. 2560 0. 2562 0. 2565 0. 2567 0. 2570 0. 2572 0. 2574
1. 81 0 2577 0. 2579 0. 2582 0. 2584 0. 2586 0. 2589 0. 2591 0. 2594 0. 2596 0. 2598
1. 82 0. 2601 0. 2603 0. 2605 02608 0. 2610 0. 2613 0. 2615 0. 2617 0. 2620 0. 2622
1. 83 0. 2625 0. 2627 0. 2629 0. 2632 0. 2634 0. 2636 0. 2639 0. 2641 02643 0. 2646
1. 84 0. 2648 0. 2651 0. 2653 02655 0. 2658 0. 2660 0. 2662 0. 2665 0. 2667 0. 2669
1. 85
1. 86
1. 87
1. 88
1 89
0. 2672 0. 2674 0. 2676 02679 0. 2681 0. 2683 0. 2686 0. 2688 0. 2690 0. 2693
0 2695 0. 2697 0. 2700 0. 2702 0. 2704 0. 2707 0. 2709 0. 2711 0 2714 0. 2716
0. 2718 0. 2721 0. 2723 0. 2725 0. 2728 0. 2730 0. 2732 0. 2735 0. 2737 0. 2739
0. 2742 0. 2744 0. 2746 0 2749 0. 2751 0. 2753 0. 2755 0. 2758 0. 2760 0. 2762
1. 90
1. 91
1 92
1 93
194
195
196
197
1 98
1 99
0. 2765
0. 2788
0. 2810
0. 2833
0. 2856
0. 2878
0. 2900
0. 2923
0. 2945
0. 2967
0. 2989
0. 2767
0. 2790
0. 2813
0. 2835
0. 2858
0. 2880
0. 2903
0. 2925
0. 2947
0. 2969
0. 2991
0.2769
0.2792
0. 2815
0. 2838
0. 2860
0. 2882
0. 2772
0. 2794
0. 2817
02840
02862
02885
0. 2905
0. 2927
0. 2949
0. 2971
0. 2993
0 2907
0 2929
0. 2951
0. 2973
0. 2995
0. 2774
0. 2797
0. 2819
0. 2842
0. 2865
0. 2887
0. 2909
0. 2931
0. 2953
0. 2975
0. 2997
0. 2776 0. 2781 0. 2783 0. 2785
0. 2799
0. 2822
0. 2844
0. 2867
0. 2889
0. 2778
0. 2801
0. 2824
0. 2847
0. 2869
0. 2891
0. 2914
0. 2936
0. 2958
0. 2980
0. 3002
0. 2804
0. 2826
0. 2849
0. 2871
0. 2894
0. 2911
0. 2934
0. 2956
0. 2978
0. 2999
0. 2916
0. 2938
0. 2960
0. 2982
0. 3004
02806 0. 2808
0. 2828 0 2831
0. 2851 0. 2853
0. 2874 0. 2876
0. 2896 0. 2898
0. 2918 0. 2920
0. 2940 0. 2942
0. 2962 0. 2964
0. 2984 0. 2986
0. 3006 0. 3008
TABLE 1.17-COMMON LOGARITHMS (1.00 TO 2.00) (continued)
Mowng the deci mal poi nt n pl aces 10 the ri ght [ or l ef t) i n the number requi res addi ng +n ( or- r?) i n the body of the tabl e
See Tabl e 1. 18
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I - 40 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLEl . l B- COMMON LOGARI THMS
Average
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Di f f erence
__ ~ ~
0. 0000 0. 0043 0. 0086 0. 0128 0 0170 0. 0212 0. 0253 0. 0294 0. 0334 0. 0374 See Tabl e 1. 17
Number
1. 0
1. 1
1. 2
1. 3
1. 4
1. 5
1. 6
1. 7
1. 8
1. 9
0. 0414 0. 0453
0. 0792 0. 0828
0. 1139 0. 1173
0. 1461 0. 1492
0. 1761 0. 1790
0. 2041 0. 2068
0. 2304 0. 2330
0. 2553 0. 2577
0. 2788 0. 2810
2. 0 0. 3010 0. 3032
2. 1 0. 3222 0. 3243
2. 2 0. 3424 0. 3444
2. 3 03617 0. 3636
2. 4 0. 3802 0. 3820
2. 5 0. 3979 0. 3997
2. 6 0. 4150 0. 4166
2. 7 04314 0. 4330
2. 8 04472 04487
2. 9 0. 4624 0. 4639
3. 0
31
3. 2
3. 3
3. 4
0. 4771 0. 4786
0 4914 0. 4928
0. 5051 0. 5065
0. 5185 0. 5198
0. 5315 0. 5328
3. 5
3. 6
3. 7
3. 8
3. 9
4. 0
4. 1
4. 2
4. 3
4. 4
0. 5441 0. 5453
0. 5563 0. 5575
0. 5682 0. 5694
0. 5798 0. 5809
0. 5911 0. 5922
0. 6021 0. 6031
0. 6128 0. 6138
0. 6232 0. 6243
0. 6335 0. 6345
0. 6435 0. 6444
4. 5
4. 6
4. 7
4. 8
4. 9
5. 0
5. 1
52
5. 3
5. 4
0. 6532 0. 6542 0. 6551
0. 6628 0. 6637 0. 6646
0. 6721 0. 6730 0. 6739
0. 6812 0. 6812 0. 6830
0. 6902 0. 6911 0. 6920
0. 6990 0. 6998 0. 7007
0. 7076 0. 7084 0. 7093
0. 7160 0. 7168 0. 7177
0. 7243 0. 7251
0. 7324 0. 7332
5. 5 0. 7404 0. 7412
5. 6 0. 7482 0 7490
5. 7 0. 7559 0. 7566
5. 8 0. 7634 0. 7642
59 0. 7709 0. 7716
0. 0492
0. 0864
0. 1206
0. 1523
0. 1818
0. 2095
0. 0531
0. 0899
0. 1239
0. 1553
0. 1847
0. 2122
0. 0569 0. 0607 0. 0645 0. 0682 0. 0719
0 0934 0. 0969 0. 1004 0. 1038 0. 1072
0. 1271 0. 1303 0. 1335 0. 1367 0. 1399
0. 1584 0. 1614 0. 1644 0. 1673 0. 1703
01875 0. 1903 0. 1931 0. 1959 0. 1987
0. 2148 0. 2175 0. 2201 0. 2227 0. 2253
0. 0755
0. 1106
0. 1430
0. 1732
0. 2014
0. 2279
0. 2355 0. 2380 0. 2405 0. 2430 0. 2455 0. 2480 0. 2504 0. 2529
0. 2601 0. 2625 0. 2648 0. 2672 0. 2695 0. 2718 0. 2742 0. 2765
0. 2833 0. 2856
0. 3483
0. 3674
0. 3856
0. 4031
04200
0. 4362
0. 2878
0. 3096
0. 3304
0. 3502
0. 3692
0. 3874
0. 4048
04216
0. 4378
0. 2900
0. 3054 0. 3075
0. 3263 0. 3284
0. 3464
0. 3655
0. 3838
0. 4014
0. 4183
0. 4346
0. 4502
0. 4654
0. 3118
0. 3324
0. 3522
0. 3711
0. 3892
0. 4065
0. 2923
0. 3139
0. 3345
0. 3541
0. 3729
0. 3909
0. 4082
0. 2945 0. 2967 0. 2989
See Tabl e 1. 17
See Tabl e 1. 17
See Tabl e 1. 17
See Tabl e 1. 17
See Tabl e 1. 17
See Tabl e 1. 17
See Tabl e 1. 17
See Tabl e 1. 17
See Tabl e 1. 17
0. 3160
0. 3365
0. 3560
0. 3747
0. 3927
0. 4232 0. 4249
0. 4393 0. 4409
0. 4548 0. 4564
0. 4698 0. 4713
0. 4099
0. 4265
0. 4425
0. 4579
0. 4728
0. 3181
0. 3385
0. 3579
0. 3766
0. 3945
0. 4116
04281
0. 4440
0. 3201
0. 3404
0. 3598
0. 3784
0. 3962
0. 4133
0. 4298
0. 4456
0. 4609
0. 4757
21
20
19
18
17
04518 0. 4533
0. 4669 0. 4683
0. 4594
0. 4742
17
16
16
15
15
0. 4800 0. 4814 0. 4829 0. 4843 0. 4857 0. 4871 0. 4886 0. 4900 14
0. 4942 0. 4955 0. 4969 0. 4983 0. 4997 0. 5011 0. 5024 0. 5038 14
0. 5079 0. 5092 0. 5105 0. 5119 0. 5132 0. 5145 0. 5159 0. 5172 13
0. 5211 0. 5224 0. 5237 0. 5250 0. 5263 0. 5276 0. 5289 0. 5302 13
0. 5340 0. 5353 0. 5366 0. 5378 0. 5391 0. 5403 0. 5416 0. 5428 13
0. 5465 0. 5478
0. 5587 0. 5599
0. 5705 0. 5717
0. 5821 0. 5832
0. 5933 0. 5944
0. 5490 0. 5502
0. 5611 0. 5623
0. 5729 0. 5740
0. 5843 0. 5855
0. 5527 0. 5539 0. 5551
0. 5647 0. 5658 0. 5670
0. 5955 0. 5966
0. 5514
0. 5635
0. 5752
0. 5866
0. 5977
0. 5763 0. 5775 0. 5786
0. 5877 0. 5888 0. 5899
12
12
12
11
11
0. 6042
0. 6149
0. 6253
0. 6355
0. 6454
0. 6053 0. 6064 0. 6075
0. 6160 0. 6170 0. 6180
0. 6274 0. 6284
0. 6375 0. 6385
0. 6474 0. 6484
06571 0. 6580
0. 6263
0. 6365
0. 6464
0. 6561
0. 6656
0. 6749
0. 6839
0 6928
0. 7016
0. 7101
0. 7185
07267
07348
07427
0. 7505
07582
07657
07731
0. 6085
0. 6191
0. 6294
0. 6395
0. 6493
0. 5988 0. 5999 0. 6010
0. 6096 0. 6107 0. 6117
0. 6201 0. 6212 0. 6222
0. 6304 0. 6314 0. 6325
0. 6405 0. 6415 0. 6425
0. 6503 0. 6513 0. 6522
0. 6599 0. 6609 0. 6618
11
10
10
10
10
0. 6590
0. 6665 0. 6675 0. 6684 0. 6693 0. 6702 0. 6712
0. 6758 0. 6767 0. 6776 0. 6785 0. 6794 0. 6803
0. 6848 0. 6857 0. 6866 0. 6875 0. 6884 0. 6893
0. 6937 0. 6946 0. 6955 0. 6964 0. 6972 0. 6981
10
10
9
9
9
0. 7259
0. 7340
0. 7419
0. 7497
0. 7574
0. 7649
0. 7723
0. 7024 0. 7033 0. 7042 0. 7050 0. 7059 0. 7067
07110 0. 7118 0. 7126 0. 7135 0. 7143 0. 7152
0. 7193 0. 7202 0. 7210 0. 7218 0. 7226 0. 7235
0. 7275 0. 7284 0. 7292 0. 7300 0. 7308 0. 7316
07356 0. 7364 0. 7372 0. 7380 0. 7388 0. 7396
0. 7435 0. 7443 0. 7451 0. 7459 0. 7466 0. 7474
0. 7513 0. 7520 0. 7528 0. 7536 0. 7543 0. 7551
0. 7589 0. 7597 0. 7604 0. 7612 0. 7619 0. 7627
0. 7664 0. 7672 0. 7679 0. 7686 0. 7694 0. 7701
0. 7738 0. 7745 0. 7752 0. 7760 07767 0. 7774
9
8'
8
8
8
8
8
8
7
7
Thi s tabl e gi vesthecommon l ogari thms of numbers between 1 and 10, correcl to f our pl aces. Movi ng the deci mal poi ntn pl aces
to the ri ght ( or l ef t) i n the number i s equi val ent to addi ng n ( or - n) to the l ogari thm. Thus, l og 0. 017453=0. 2419- 2, whi ch
may al so be wri tten 2. 2419 or 8. 2419- 10.
For exampl e, l og( ab) =l og a+l og b, l og ( aN) =N l og a, l og( al b) =l og a- l og b, and l og( ?' a) =l / Nl og a.
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MATHEMATl CALTABLES& UNl TS&SYSTEMSOFWEl GHTS& MEASURES
l - 41
TABLE 1. 18- - COMMON LOGARI THMS ( conti nued)
Average
Di f f erence Number
6. 0
6. 1
6. 2
6. 3
6. 4
0 1 2 3
0. 7782 0. 7789 07796 0. 7803
0. 7853
0. 7924
0. 7993
0. 8062
0. 7860 07868 0. 7875
0. 7931 0.7938 0.7945
0. 8000 0. 8007 0. 8014
0. 8069 0. 8075 0. 8082
6. 5 0. 8129 0. 8136
6. 6 0. 8195 0. 8202
6. 7 0. 8261 0. 8267
6. 8 0. 8325 0. 8331
6. 9 0. 8388 0. 8395
7. 0 0. 8451 0. 8457
7. 1 0. 8513 0. 8519
7. 2 0. 8573 0. 8579
7. 3 0. 8633 0. 8639
7. 4 0. 8692 0. 8698
7. 5
76
7. 7
7. 8
7. 9
0. 8751
0. 8808
0. 8865
0. 8756
0. 8814
0. 8871
0. 8927
0. 8982
8. 0
81
82
8. 3
8. 4
0. 8921
0. 8976
0. 9031
0. 9085
09138
0. 9191
0 9243
0. 9036 0. 9042 0. 9047 0 9053 0. 9058 0. 9063 0. 9069 0. 9074
0. 9090 0. 9096 0. 9101 0. 9106 0. 9112 0. 9117 0. 9122 0. 9128
09143 0. 9149 0. 9154 09159 0. 9165 0. 9170 0. 9175 09180
0. 9196 0. 9201 0. 9206 0. 9212 0. 9217 0. 9222 0. 9227 0. 9232
0 9248 0. 9253 0. 9258 0. 9263 0 9269 0. 9274 0. 9279 0. 9284
85
8. 6
8. 7
8. 8
8. 9
0 9294
0. 9345
0. 9395
0. 9445
0. 9494
9. 0
9. 1
9. 2
9. 3
9. 4
0. 9542
0. 9590
0. 9638
0. 9685
0. 9731
9. 5 0. 9777
9. 6 0. 9823
9. 7 0. 9868
9. 8 0. 9912
9. 9 0. 9956
0. 9299
0. 9350
0. 9400
0. 9450
0. 9499
0. 9547
0. 9595
0. 9643
0. 9689
0. 9736
0. 9782
0. 9827
0. 9872
0. 9917
0. 9961
4 5 6 7 8 9
0. 7810 0. 7818 0. 7825 0. 7832 0. 7839 0. 7846
0. 7882 0. 7889 0. 7896 0. 7903 0. 7910 0. 7917
0. 7952 0. 7959 0. 7966 0. 7973 0. 7980 0. 7987
0. 8021 0. 8028 0. 8035 0. 8041 0. 8048 0. 8055
0. 8089 0. 8096 0. 8102 0. 8109 0. 8116 0. 8122
0. 8189
0. 8254
0. 8319
0. 8382
0. 8445
0. 8506
0. 8567
0. 8627
0. 8686
0. 8745
0. 8802
0. 8859
0. 8915
0. 8971
0. 9025
0. 9079
0. 9133
0. 9186
0. 9238
0. 9289
0. 9340
0. 9390
0. 9440
0. 9489
0. 8142 0. 8149 0. 8156 0. 8162 0. 8169 0. 8176 0. 8182
0. 8209 0. 8215 0. 8222 0. 8228 0. 8235 0. 8241 0. 8248
0. 8274 0. 8280 0. 8287 0. 8293 0. 8299 0. 8306 0. 8312
0. 8338 0. 8344 0. 8351 0. 8357 0. 8363 0. 8370 0. 8376
0. 8401 0. 8407 0. 8414 0. 8420 0. 8426 0. 8432 0. 8439
0. 8463 0. 8470
0. 8525 0. 8531
0. 8585 0. 8591
0. 8645 0. 8651
0. 8704 0. 8710
0. 8762 0. 8768
0. 8820 0. 8825
0. 8876 0. 8882
0. 8932 0. 8938
0. 8987 0. 8993
0. 8476 0. 8482 0. 8488 0. 8494 0. 8500
0. 8537 0. 8543 0. 8549 0. 8555 0. 8561
0. 8597 0. 8603 0. 8609 0. 8615 0. 8621
0. 8657 0. 8663 0. 8669 0. 8675 0. 8681
0. 8716 0. 8722 0. 8727 0. 8733 0. 8739
0. 8774 0. 8779 0. 8785 0. 8791 0. 8797
0. 8831 0. 8837 0. 8842 0. 8848 0. 8854
0. 8887 0. 8893 0. 8899 0. 8904 0. 8910
0. 8943 0. 8949 0. 8954 0. 8960 0. 8965
0. 8998 0. 9004 0. 9009 0. 9015 0. 9020
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
4
4
4
0. 9304 0. 9309 0. 9315 0. 9320 0. 9325 0. 9330 0. 9335
0. 9355 0. 9360 0. 9365 0. 9370 0. 9375 0. 9380 0. 9385
0. 9405 0. 9410
0. 9832 0. 9836
0. 9877 0. 9881
0. 9921 0. 9926
0. 9965 0. 9969
0. 9455 0. 9460
0. 9504 0. 9509
0. 9552 0. 9557
0. 9600 0. 9605
0. 9647 0. 9652
0. 9694 0. 9699
0. 9741 0. 9745
0. 9786 0. 9791
0. 9841 0. 9845 0. 9850 0. 9854 0. 9859
0. 9415
0. 9886 0. 9890 0. 9894 0. 9899 0. 9903
0. 9420 0. 9425 0. 9430
0. 9465 0. 9469 0. 9474 0. 9479
0. 9513 0. 9518 0. 9523 0. 9528
0. 9562 0. 9566 0. 9571 0. 9576
0. 9609 0. 9614 0. 9619 0. 9624
0. 9657 0. 9661 0. 9666 0. 9671
0. 9703 0. 9708 0. 9713 0. 9717
0. 9750 0. 9754 0. 9759 0. 9763
0. 9795 0. 9800 0. 9805 0. 9809
0. 9435
0. 9484
0. 9533
0. 9581
0. 9628
0. 9675
0. 9722
0. 9768
0. 9814
0. 9538
0. 9586
0. 9633
0. 9680
0. 9727
0. 9773
0. 9818
0. 9863
0. 9908
0. 9952
0. 9996
0. 9930 0. 9934 0. 9939 0. 9943 0. 9948
0. 9974 0. 9978 0. 9983 0. 9987 0. 9991
109 v=o 4971 log &2=0 1961, log $t2=09943 log \,<=02466. log e-04343, and log (04343)=06378- 1
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1- 42 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1. 19- DEGREES AND MI NUTES EXPRESSED I NRADI ANS
1 00175
2 0. 0349
3 0. 0524
4 0. 0698
5 0. 0873
6 0. 1047
L
0. 1222
0 1396
9 01571
10 0. 1745
11 0. 1920
12 0. 2094
13 0. 2269
14 02443
15 02618
16 0 2793
17 0. 2967
18 0. 3142
19 0. 3316
20 0. 3491
21 0. 3665
22 0. 3840
23 0. 4014
24 0. 4189
25 0. 4363
26 0. 4538
27 0. 4712
28 0. 4887
29 0. 5061
30 0. 5236
31 0. 5411
32 0. 5585
33 0. 5760
34 0. 5934
35 0. 6109
36 0. 6283
37 0. 6458
38 0. 6632
39 0. 6807
40 0. 6981
41 0. 7156
42 0. 7330
43 0. 7505
44 0. 7679
45 0. 7854
46 0. 8029
47 0. 8203
48 0. 8378
49 0. 8552
50 0. 8727
51 0 8901
52 0. 9076
53 0. 9250
54 0. 9425
55 0 9599
56 0. 9774
57 0 9948
58 1. 0123
59 1. 0297
60 1. 0472
Degrees
61 1. 0647
62 1. 0821
63 1. 0996
64 1. 1170
65 1. 1345
66 1. 1519
67 1. 1694
68 1. 1868
69 1. 2043
70 1. 2217
71 1. 2392
72 1. 2566
73 1. 2741
74 12915
75 1. 3090
76 1. 3265
77 1. 3439
78 1. 3614
79 1. 3788
80 1. 3963
81 1. 4137
82 1. 4312
83 1. 4486
84 1. 4661
a5 1. 4835
86 1. 5010
87 1. 5184
88 1. 5359
89 1. 5533
90 1. 5708
91 1. 5882
92 1. 6057
93 1. 6232
94 1. 6406
95 1. 6581
96 1. 6755
97 1. 6930
98 1 7104
99 1. 7279
100 1. 7453
101 1. 7628
102 1. 7802
103 1. 7977
104 1. 8151
105 18326
106 18500
107 1. 8675
108 1. 8850
109 1. 9024
110 1. 9199
111 1. 9373
112 1. 9548
113 1. 9722
114 1. 9897
115 20071
116 2. 0246
117 2. 0420
118 2. 0595
119 2. 0769
120 2. 0944
121 2. 1118
122 2. 1293
123 2. 1468
124 21642
125 2. 1817
126 21991
127 2. 2166
128 22340
129 2. 2515
130 22689
131 2. 2864
132 23038
133 2. 3213
134 2. 3387
135 23562
136 2. 3736
137 2. 3911
138 24086
139 24260
140 2. 4435
141 2. 4609
142 2. 4784
143 2. 4958
144 2. 5133
145 25307
146 25482
147 2. 5656
148 2. 5831
149 2. 6005
150 2. 6180
151 2. 6354
152 2. 6529
153 2. 6704
154 2. 6878
155 27053
156 27227
157 2. 7402
158 2. 7576
159 2. 7751
160 2. 7925
161 2. 8100
162 2. 8274
163 28449
164 2. 8623
165 28798
166 2. 8972
167 29147
168 2. 9322
169 2. 9496
170 2. 9671
171 2. 9845
172 3. 0020
173 3. 0194
174 3. 0369
175 3. 0543
176 3. 0718
177 3. 0892
178 3. 1067
179 3. 1241
180 3. 1416
O. Ol 00002 OO. 51
00. 02 00003 OO. 52
00 03
00. 04
00. 05
OO. 06
00. 07
O" 08
00. 09
00. 10
00. 11
00 12
00. 13
00. 14
00. 15
OO. 16
00. 17
OO. 18
00. 19
00. 20
00. 21
00. 22
OO. 23
OO. 24
OO. 25
0". 26
00. 27
OO. 28
00 29
0". 30
00. 31
0". 32
00. 33
00. 34
00. 35
OO. 36
00. 37
0". 38
00. 39
OO. 40
00. 41
OO. 42
0043
00. 44
00. 45
OO. 46
00 47
OO. 48
00. 49
00. 50
Hundredths Mi nutes
0. 0005 00. 53
00007 00 54
0. 0009 00. 55
0. 0010 OO. 56
00012 00. 57
00014 OO. 58
0. 0016 00. 59
00017 OO. 60
0. 0019 OO. 61
00021 OO. 62
0. 0023 OO. 63
00024 OO. 64
00026 0". 65
00028 00. 66
00030 OO. 67
0. 0031 00. 68
00033 OO. 69
00035 00. 70
00037 00. 71
0. 0038 OO. 72
0. 0040 00. 73
0. 0042 00. 74
00044 00. 75
00045 OO. 76
00047 00. 77
0. 0049 00. 78
0. 0051 00. 79
0. 0052 00. 80
0. 0054 OO. 81
00056 0". 82
0. 0058 OO. 83
0. 0059 0". 84
0. 0061 OO. 85
0. 0063 00. 86
0. 0065 OO. 87
0. 0066 00. 88
0. 0068 OO. 89
0. 0070 00. 90
0. 0072 00. 91
0. 0073 00. 92 0. 0161
0. 0075 00. 93 0. 0162
0. 0077 00. 94 0. 0164
0. 0079 00. 95 0. 0166
0. 0080 OO. 96 0. 0168
00082 00. 97 0. 0169
0. 0084 0". 98 0. 0171
0. 0086 00. 99 0. 0173
0. 0087 10. 00 0. 0175
0. 0089
0. 0091
0. 0093
0. 0094
0. 0096
0. 0098
0. 0099
0. 0101
0. 0103
0. 0105
0. 0106
0. 0108
0. 0110
0. 0112
0. 0113
0. 0115
0. 0117
0. 0119
0. 0120
0. 0122
0. 0124
0. 0126
0. 0127
0. 0129
0. 0131
0. 0133
0. 0134
0. 0136
0. 0138
0. 0140
0. 0141
0. 0143
0. 0145
0. 0147
0. 0148
0. 0150
0. 0152
0. 0154
0. 0155
0. 0157
0. 0159
1 0. 0003
2 0. 0006
3 00009
4 0. 0012
5 0. 0015
6 0. 0017
7 0. 0020
8 00023
9 0. 0026
10 0. 0029
11 0. 0032
12 0. 0035
13 0. 0038
14 0. 0041
15 0. 0044
16 00047
17 0. 0049
18 00052
19 0. 0055
20 0. 0058
21 0. 0061
22 0. 0064
23 0. 0067
24 0. 0070
25 0. 0073
26 0. 0076
27 0. 0079
28 0. 0081
29 00084
30 0. 0087
31 0. 0090
32 0. 0093
33 0. 0096
34 0. 0099
35 0. 0102
36 0. 0105
37 00108
38 0. 0111
39 0. 0113
40 0. 0116
41 0. 0119
42 0. 0122
43 0. 0125
44 0. 0128
45 0. 0131
46 00134
47 0. 0137
48 0. 0140
49 00143
50 0. 0145
51 00148
52 0. 0151
53 00154
54 00157
55 00160
56 0. 0163
57 0. 0166
58 0. 0169
59 0. 0172
60 0. 0175
Arc ,=00,74533. Arc ,=0000290888,Arc 1~=000000484814 1 radnn = 570295780=571707468=57017440806
See aim Table 1 40
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MATHEMATI CALTABLE ! S & UI Vl TS& SYSTEMSOFWEI GHTS & MEASURES 1- 43
TABLEl . PO- RADI ANSEXPRESSED
36O 67 1. 27 72O. 77 1. 90 108O. 86
37". 24 1. 28 730. 34 1. 91 1090. 43
I NDEGREES
2. 53 144O96
2. 54 1450 53
l nterpol atl on
0. 0002 00. 01
0. 01 00. 57
0. 02 10. 15
0 64
0. 65
066
0 67
0. 68
0 69
0. 03 I " 72
0. 04 20. 29
0. 05 20. 86
0. 06 30. 44
0. 07 40. 01
0. 08 4O. 58
37O. 82 1. 29 73" 91 1. 92 110~. 01 2. 55 146O I O 0. 0004 00. 02
38O. 39 1. 30 74' 48 1. 93 I l OO. 2. 56 146O. 68 0. 0006 00. 03
38O. 96
5OO. 42
1. 31
1. 51
39". 53 1. 32
400. 11
500. 99
1. 33
4OO. 68
1. 52
1. 34
41O. 25 1. 35
41". 83
510. 57
1. 36
1. 53
42O. 40 1. 37
42O. 97
52O. 14
1. 38
430. 54
1. 54
1. 39
44O. 12 1. 40
44O. 69 1. 41
45O. 26 1. 42
45O. 84 1. 43
46O. 41 1. 44
46O. 98 1. 45
47O. 56 1. 46
480. 13 1. 47
48O. 70 1. 48
49O. 27 1. 49
49O. 85 1. 50
75O. 06 1. 94
86O. 52
1110. 15
2. 14
2. 57
122O. 61
147O25
75' 63 1. 95
87O. 09
1110. 73
2. 15
2. 58
123O. 19
147' 82
76O. 20 1. 96
87O. 66
112O. 30
2. 16
2. 59
123O. 76
148O. 40
76". 78 1. 97
88O. 24
112O. 87
2. 17
2. 60
124O. 33
148O. 97
770. 35 1. 98 1130. 45 2. 61 1490. 54
770. 92 1. 99 114O. 02 2. 62 150~11
780. 50 2. 00 1140. 59 2. 63 15069
790. 07 2. 01 115". 16 2. 64 151 26
79O. 64 2. 02 1150. 74 2. 65 151O. 83
8OO. 21 2. 03 116O. 31 2. 66 152O. 41
8OO. 79 2. 04 1160. 88 2. 67 152O. 98
81O. 36 2. 05 117O. 46 2. 68 1530. 55
81O. 93 2. 06 118. 03 2. 69 1540. 13
82O. 51 2. 07 1180. 60 2. 70 154O. 70
83O. 08 2. 08 119O. 18 2. 71 155O. 27
83O. 65 2. 09 1190. 75 2. 72 155O. 84
84O. 22 2. 10 12OO. 32 2. 73 156O. 42
84O. 80 2. 11 12OO. 89 2. 74 156O. 99
85". 37 2. 12 121O. 47 2. 75 157O. 56
85O. 94 2. 13 1220. 04 2. 76 158O. 14
2. 77 158O. 71
2. 78 159O. 28
2. 79 1590. 86
2. 80 16OO. 43
2. 81 161' . 00
2. 82 161O. 57
2. 83 162O. 15
2. 84 162O. 72
2. 85 163O. 29
2. 86 163O87
2. 87 164O. 44
2. 88 165O 01
2. 89 165O. 58
2. 90 166O16
2. 91 166O. 73
0. 0008 00 05
0. 0010 0". 06
0. 0012 00. 07
0. 0014 0". 08
0. 0016 OO. 09
0. 0018 00. 10
0. 0020 00. 11
0. 0022 00. 13
0. 0024 OO. 14
0. 0026 00. 15
0. 0028 OO. 16
0. 0030 00. 17
0. 0032 OO. 18
0. 70
0. 71
0. 09 5O. 16
0. 10 50. 73
0. 72
0. 73
0. 74
0. 75
0. 76
0. 77
0. 78
0. 79
0. 80
0. 11 6O. 30
0. 12 60. 88
0. 13 70. 45
0. 14 8O. 02
0. 15 8O. 59
0. 16 90. 17
0. 17 90. 74
0. 18 100. 31 081
0. 19 l o". 89 0. 82
0. 0034 00. 19
0. 0036 00. 21
0. 20 I I =' . 46 0. 83
0. 21 12O. 03 0. 84
0. 22 12O. 61 0. 85
0. 23 13O. 18 0. 86
0. 24 130. 75 0. 87
0. 25 14O. 32 0. 88
0. 26 140. 90 0. 89
0. 27 150. 47 0. 90
0. 28 16O. 04 0. 91
0. 29 16O. 62 0. 92
0. 30 170. 19 0. 93
0. 31 17". 76 0. 94
0. 32 18O. 33 0. 95
0. 33 18O. 91 0. 96
0. 34 I gO. 0. 97
0. 35 2OO. 05 0. 98
0. 36 2OO. 63 0. 99
0. 37 210. 20 1. 00
0. 38 210. 77 1. 01
0. 39 22O. 35 1. 02
0. 40 220. 92 1. 03
0. 41 230. 49 1. 04
042 24O. 06 1. 05
0. 43 24O. 64 1. 06
0. 0038 00. 22
0. 0040 0". 23
0. 0042 OO. 24
0. 0044 OO. 25
0. 0046 OO. 26
0. 0048 00. 28
0. 0050 00. 29
0. 0052 00. 30
0. 0054 00. 31
52O. 71 1. 55
530. 29 1. 56
53O. 86 1. 57
540. 43 1. 58
550. 00 1. 59
55O. 58 1. 60
56O. 15 1. 61
56O. 72 1. 62
570. 30 1. 63
57O. 87 1. 64
58". 44 1. 65
590. 01 1. 66
590. 59 1. 67
880. 81 2. 18 124O. 90
89O. 38 2. 19 125O. 48
89". 95 2. 20 126O. 05
900. 53 2. 21 126O. 62
910. 10 2. 22 127O. 20
91 67 2. 23 127O. 77
920. 25 2. 24 128O. 34
92O 82 2. 25 128O. 92
930. 39 2. 26 1290. 49
930 97 2. 27 130a. 06
940. 54 2. 28 13OO. 63
950. 11 2. 29 131O. 21
95O. 68 2. 30 131O. 78
0. 0056 OO. 32
0. 0058 00. 33
0. 0060 00. 34
0. 0062 OO. 36
0. 0064 00. 37
0. 0066 OO. 38
0. 0068 00. 39
00070 00. 40
0. 0072 00. 41
0. 0074 OO. 42
0. 0076 00. 44
0. 0078 OO. 45
0. 0080 On. 46
2. 92 167O. 30
2. 93 167O. 88
2. 94 168O. 45
2. 95 169O. 02
600. 16 1. 68 96O. 26 2. 31 132O. 35
6OO. 73 1. 69 96O. 83 2. 32 132O. 93
0. 0082 00. 47
0. 0084 OO. 48
0. 44 25O. 21
0. 45 25". 78
0. 46 26O. 36
0. 47 26O. 93
1. 07
1. 08
61O. 31 1. 70 97O. 40 2. 33 133O. 50 2. 96 169O. 60
610. 88 171 97O. 98 2. 34 134O. 07 2. 97 170~. 17
62O. 45 172 98O. 55 2. 35 134O. 65 2. 98 1700. 74
63' =. 03 173 99O. 12 2. 36 135O. 22 2. 99 1710. 31
0. 0086 00. 49
0. 0088 00. 50
0. 0090 OO. 52
0. 0092 00. 53
0. 0094 00. 54
0. 0096 OO. 55
0. 0098 OO. 56
Mul ti pl es of r
1. 09
1. 10
0. 48 27O. 50 1. 11 63O. 60 1. 74 99O. 69 2. 37 1350. 79 3. 00 71O. 89
0. 49 28". 07 1. 12 64O. 17 1. 75 l OOO. 27 2. 38 136O. 36 3. 01 72O. 46
0. 50 28O. 65 1. 13 64O. 74 1. 76 l oo=' . 84 2. 39 136O. 94 3. 02 730. 03
0. 51 290. 22 1. 14 65O. 32 1. 77 1010. 41 2. 40 1370. 51 3. 03 73O. 61
0. 52 290. 79 1. 15 65O. 89 1. 78 1010. 99 2. 41 138O. 08 3. 04 74O. 18
0. 53 300. 37 1. 16 66' =. 46 1. 79 102O. 56 2. 42 138O. 66 3. 05 740. 75
0. 54 30". 94 1. 17 67O. 04 1. 80 1030. 13 2. 43 1390. 23 3. 06 750. 33
0. 55 310. 51 1. 18 67O. 61 1. 81 1030. 71 2. 44 139O. 80 3. 07 750. 90
0. 56 320. 09 1. 19 680. 18 1. 82 104O. 28 2. 45 1400. 37 3. 08 76O. 47
0. 57 32O. 66 1. 20 68O. 75 1. 83 104O. 85 2. 46 140". 95 3. 09 1770. 04
0. 58 33O. 23 1. 21 69". 33 1. 84 105O. 42 2. 47 141O. 52 3. 10 177O. 62
0. 59 33O. 80 1. 22 69". 90 1. 85 106. 00 2. 48 142O. 09 3. 11 178O. 19
0. 60 34O. 38 1. 23 7OO. 47 1. 86 106O. 57 2. 49 142O. 67 3. 12 178O. 76
0. 61 34O. 95 1. 24 71O. 05 1. 87 107O. 14 2. 50 143O. 24 3. 13 1790. 34
0. 62 35O. 52 1. 25 71O. 62 1. 88 107O. 72 2. 51 144O. 81 3. 14 1790. 91
1 3. 1416 180
2 6. 2832 360
3 9. 4248 5400
4 12. 5664 720
5 15. 7080 9000
6 18. 8496 1, 080
7 21. 9911 1, 260"
8 25. 1327 1, 4400
9 28. 2743 1, 620"
0. 63 36O. 10 1. 26 72O. 19 1. 89 108O. 29 2. 52 144O. 39 3. 15 18OO. 48 I O 31. 4159 1. 800
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l - 44 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1 . Pl - NATURAL SI NES AND COSI NES
Natural Stnes at I nterval s of O0 01 or 6"
00070
0. 0244
00419
0 0593
00767
0. 0941
01115
00087 0. 0105 0. 0122 00140 00157
00262 0 0279 0 0297 00314 00332
00436 00454 0. 0471 0. 0488 00506
00610 0 0628 0. 0645 00663 0. 0680
00785 0 0802 00819 00837 00854
0 0958
01132
01 0
( 60' )
0 0000
0. 0175
0 0349
0. 0523
0. 0698
0. 0872
17
17
17
17
17
01305
01478
01650
0 0976 0 0993 0. 1011 0. 1028 0. 1045
01149 01167 0 1184 01201 0. 1219
01323 0 1340 0. 1357 01374 0. 1392
01495 01513 0 1530 01547 0. 1564
01668 01685 0 1702 01719 0. 1736
17
17
17
17
17
01822 0. 1840
0. 1994 0. 2011
02164 0 2181
0. 2334 02351
0. 2504 0 2521
0. 1857
02028
0 2198
0. 2368
0 2538
0. 1874 0. 1891 0. 1908
0. 2045 0. 2062 0. 2079
0. 2215 0. 2233 0. 2250
0. 2385 0. 2402 0.2419
0. 2554 0. 2571 0. 2588
Degrees
90
89
E
86
a5
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
75
17
17
17
17
17
0. 2672 0. 2689 0. 2706 02723 0. 2740 0. 2756 74 17
0. 2840 02857 02074 0. 2890 0. 2907 0. 2924 73 17
0. 3007 0. 3024 0. 3040 0 3057 0. 3074 0. 3090 72 17
0. 3173 03190 0. 3206 0. 3223 0. 3239 0. 3256 71 17
0. 3338 03355 0. 3371 0. 3387 0. 3404 0. 3420 70 16
0. 9
154' 1
0. 0000 0. 0017 00035 00052
0. 0175 00192 00209 00227
0. 0349 00366 00384 0. 0401
0. 0523 00541 0. 0558 00576
0. 0698 0. 0715 00732 00750
( 498' ) Degrees
Average
Di f f erence
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
0. 0872 0. 0889 00906 0. 0924
0. 1045 01063 0. 1080 0. 1097
0. 1219 01236 0. 1253
01392 01409 0. 1426
0. 1564 01582 0. 1599
0. 1736 0. 1754 0. 1771
01908 0. 1925 01942
02079 02096 02113
0 2250 0. 2267 0. 2284
02419 02436 02453
0. 2588 02605 0. 2622
02756 0. 2773 0. 2790
0 2924 0. 2940 0 2957
03090 03107 0. 3123
0. 3256 03272 0. 3289
0. 1271
0. 1444
0. 1616
01288
01461
0. 1788
01959
02130
0. 2300
02470
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
0. 2639
0. 2807
0 2974
0. 3140
03305
01633
01805
01977
02147
02317
02407
0. 2656
02823
0 2990
03156
03322
0. 3420 0. 3437 0. 3453 0 3469
0 3584 0. 3600 0. 3616 0. 3633
03746 0. 3762 0. 3778 0 3795
0. 3907 0. 3923 0. 3939
0. 4067 04083 04099
0. 3955
0. 4115
03486
0. 3649
03811
0. 3971
04131
03502
0. 3665
0. 3827
0. 3987
0. 4147
0. 3518 0. 3535 03551 0. 3567 0. 3584 69 16
0. 3681 0 3697 0. 3714 0. 3730 03746 68 16
03843 0. 3859 0. 3875 0. 3891 0. 3907 67 16
0. 4003 04019 0 4035 0. 4051 0. 4067 66 16
04163 04179 04195 04210 0. 4226 65 16
25 0. 4226 04242 04258 04274 0 4289 04305 0. 4321 04337 04352 0. 4368 0. 4384 64 16
26 04384 0. 4399 0. 4415 0. 4431 0. 4446 0. 4462 04478 0. 4493 0. 4509 0. 4524 0. 4540 63 16
27 0 4540 04555 0. 4571 0. 4586 04602 0. 4617 04633 04648 0. 4664 0. 4679 0 4695 62 16
28 04695 04710 0. 4726 04741 04756 0. 4772 04787 0. 4802 0. 4818 0. 4833 0. 4848 61 15
29 0 4848 0. 4863 0. 4879 0. 4894 0. 4909 0. 4924 0 4939 0 4955 0. 4970 0. 4985 0. 5000 60 15
30 05000 0. 5015 0. 5030 0. 5045 0. 5060 0. 5075
31 0. 5150 0. 5165 0. 5180 0. 5195 05210 0. 5225
32 05299 0. 5314 0. 5329 0. 5344 05358 0. 5373
33 0 5446 0. 5461 0. 5476 0. 5490 0. 5505 0. 5519
34 05592 05606 05621 05635 05650 0. 5664
0 5090 05105 0. 5120 0. 5135
0. 5240 0 5255 0. 5270 0. 5284
0. 5388
0. 5534
0. 5678
0. 5402 0. 5417
0 5548 0. 5563
0 5693 0. 5707
0. 5432
0. 5577
0. 5721
59
58
57
56
55
35 05736 05750 05764
36 0. 5878 0. 5892 0. 5906
37 06018 06032 0. 6046
38 06157 06170 06184
39 06293 06307 0. 6320
0 5779
0. 5920
0. 6060
06198
0 5793 0. 5807 05821
0 5934 0. 5948 0. 5962
06074 06088 0. 6101
06211 06225 0 6239
06347 0. 6361 0. 6374
0. 5835
0. 5976
0. 6115
0. 6252
0. 6388
0. 5850 0. 5864
0. 5990 0. 6004
0. 6129 0. 6143
0. 6266 0. 6280
54
53
52
51
50
40 06428 06441 0. 6455
41 0. 6561 0. 6574 0. 6587
42 0. 6691 0. 6704 06717
43 0 6820 0. 6833 06845
44 0. 6947 0. 6959 06972
0. 6334
0. 6468
0. 6600
0. 6730
06858
0 6984
0. 6401
06481 0. 6494 0. 6508 0. 6521 0. 6534
06613 06626 0. 6639 0. 8652 06665
06743 06756 0. 6769 0. 6782 0. 6794
06871 06884 0. 6896 0. 6909 06921
0 6997 0 7009 0. 7022 0. 7034 0. 7046
0. 5150
0. 5299
0. 5446
0 5592
05736
0. 5878
06018
0. 6157
0. 6293
0. 6428
0. 6561
06691
0. 6820
0. 6947
07071
49
48
47
46
45
45 0 7071 07083 07096 07108 0 7120 0. 7133 0. 7145 0. 7157 0. 7169
46 07193 07206 07218 07230 07242 07254 0. 7266 0 7278 0 7290
47 07314 0. 7325 07337 0 7349 07361 07373 07385 0 7396 0 7408
48 0 7431 0. 7443 07455 07466 07478 0 7490 0 7501 0. 7513 0 7524
49 07547 0. 7559 07570 07581 0 7593 07604 0. 7615 0. 7627 0 7638
0. 6414
0. 6547
0 6678
0 6807
0 6934
0. 7059
0 7181
0 7302
0 7420
0 7536
0 7649
07193 44
07314 43
07431 42
07547 41
0 7660 40
15
15
15
15
14
14
14
14
14
13
13
13
13
13
12
12
12
12
12
11
0. 0
( 0' )
Comes
01
=; 5: )
8
( 46' ) (6)
Natural
'For IO' mtervals. see Table 1 24
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MATHEMATI CAL TABLES & UNI TS & SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES
TABLE 1. 21- NATURAL SI NES AND COSI NES ( conti nued)
Natural Smes at I nterval s 01 O" 01 or 6"
l - 45
(i3)
04
( 24 )
0 7694 0. 7705 07716
07804 0 7615 0 7826
07912 0 7923 0 7934
0 8018 0 8028 0 8039
0. 8121 0. 8131 0 8141
08221 0. 8231 0 8241
0. 8320 0 8329 08339
0. 8415 0. 8425 08434
0. 8508 08517 0 8526
0. 8599 0. 8607 08616
0.7727
07837
0 7944
0 8049
08151
08251
08348
08443
08536
08625
08712
0 8796
0. 8678
0 8957
0 9033
07738 0 7749 0. 7760 07771
07848 0 7859 0. 7869 0. 7880
0 7955 0 7965 0. 7976 0. 7986
0 8059 08070 0. 8080 0. 8090
08161 08171 0. 8181 0. 8192
08261
0. 8358
0. 8453
08545
0. 8634
08686 0 8695 0 8704
0. 8771 0. 8780 0. 8788
0. 8854 0. 8862 0. 8670
0 8934 0 8942 0 8949
0. 9011 09018 0 9026
08721
0. 8805
0. 8886
08965
0. 9041
0 9085 0 9092 09100 0. 9107 09114
0. 9157 0. 9164 0. 9171 0. 9178 0. 9184
0. 9225 0. 9232 a. 9239 0. 9245 0 9252
0. 9291 0. 9298 0. 9304 0. 9311 0. 9317
0. 9354 0. 9361 0 9367 0 9373 0. 9379
0. 9415
0. 9472
0. 9527
0. 9578
0. 9627
0. 9673
09715
0. 9755
0. 9792
0. 9826
0. 9421 0. 9426 0. 9432 0. 9438
0. 9478 0. 9483 0 9489 0. 9494
0. 9532 0. 9537 0. 9542 0 9548
0. 9583 0. 9588 0. 9593 0. 9598
0. 9632 0. 9636 09641 0 9646
0. 9677 0 9681 0 9686
0. 9728
09767
0. 9803
0 9836
0 9866
0. 9893
0. 9917
0. 9938
0. 9956
0. 9971
0 9982
0. 9991
0 9997
10000
0 9690
"6
( 36' ) (2) ( i 88' )
01. 0
Wl
Degrees
Average
Di f f erence
0. 8281 0. 8290
08377 0. 8387
08471
08563
0. 8652
0. 8480
0. 8572
0. 8660
08738 0. 8746
0. 8821 0. 8829
0. 8902 0. 8910
0. 8980 0. 8988
0. 9056 0. 9063
39
38
2
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
11
11
11
10
10
10
10
9
9
9
09128 0. 9135 24 7
0. 9198 0. 9205 23 7
0. 9265 0. 9272 22 7
0. 9330 0. 9336 21 6
0. 9391 0. 9397 20 6
0. 9449
0. 9505
0. 9558
0. 9608
0. 9655
0. 9699
0. 9740
0. 9778
0. 9813
0. 9845
0. 9455
0. 9511
0. 9563
0. 9613
0. 9659
19 6
18 6
17 5
16 5
15 5
0. 9703 14
0. 9744 13
0. 9781 12
0. 9816 11
0. 9848 10
0. 9874
0. 9900
0. 9923
0. 9943
0. 9960
0. 9974
0 9985
0. 9993
0. 9998
10000
0. 9877
0 9903
0. 9925
0. 9945
0 9962
0. 9976 4
0 9986 3
0 9994 2
0. 9998 1
10000 0
4
4
4
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
1
1
: ,
0
Degrees
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
0 7672 0. 7683
0 7782 07793
0 7891 0. 7902
0. 8007 0 7997
08100
0 8202
08300
0. 8396
0 8490
0. 8581
08111
0. 8211
0. 8310
0. 8406
0. 8499
0. 8590
08678
08763
0. 8846
08926
0. 9003
0. 9078
0. 9150
0. 9219
0. 9285
0. 9348
07660
07771
07880
0. 9732
09770
0. 9806
0. 9839
0. 9869
0. 9895
0. 9919
0. 9940
0. 9957
0 8271
08368
08462
08554
08643
0 8729
08813
0 8894
0 8973
0 9048
09121
09191
0 9259
09323
0 9385
09444
0. 9500
0 9553
09603
0 9650
0 9694
0. 9736
0. 9774
09810
0. 9842
09871
0. 9898
09921
0. 9942
0. 9959
0. 9972 0. 9973
0. 9983 0 9984
0. 9992 0 9993
0. 9997 0. 9998
10000 10000
0 7986
0 8090
0 8192
08290
0. 8387
08480
08572
08660
0. 8746
0. 8829
08910
0 8988
0 9063
0. 9135
0. 9205
0. 9272
0 9336
0. 9397
0. 9455
0. 9511
0. 9563
0. 9613
0. 9659
0. 9703
0. 9744
0. 9781
0. 9816
0. 9848
0 9877
0. 9903
0 9925
0. 9945
0 8669
0. 8755
0. 8830
08918
0. 8996
0. 9070
0. 9143
0. 9212
0. 9278
0. 9342
0. 9403 0. 9409
09461 0. 9466
09516 0. 9521
0. 9568 0. 9573
0. 9617 0. 9622
0. 9664 0. 9668
0 9707 0. 9711
0 9748 09751
0 9785 0. 9789
0. 9820 0 9823
0. 9851 0. 9854 0. 9857
0 9880 0 9882 0 9885
0 9905 0 9907 0. 9910
0 9928 0 9930 0 9932
0 9947 0 9949 09951
0 9720
0. 9796
0. 9829
0. 9759
0. 9799
0 9724
0. 9833
0. 9863
0. 9763
0 9890
09914
0 9936
0. 9954
0. 9969
09981
0 9990
0 9997
10000
0. 9860
0. 9888
09912
0 9934
0. 9952
0. 9968
0 9980
0 9990
0 9996
0 9999
0. 9962
0 9976
0 9986
0. 9994
0 9998
1. 0000
0 9963 0 9965 0. 9966
0 9977 0 9978 0 9979
0 9987 0 9988 0. 9989
0 9995 0 9995 0 9996
0 9999 0 9999 0 9999
03
( 18' )
, , "%,
01
(6 )
Natural
09
=(54 )
' For I O i nterval s see Tabl e 1 24
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l - 46 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1.22-NATURAL TANGENTS AND COTANGENTS
Natural Tangents at I nterval s of On. 1 or 6"
0. 0 ". 6 0. 7 0.9 "1 0
Degrees =( O' ) ( ; 8' )
(361 ( 42' ) ( 54' ) 630 1
Average
Degrees Di f f erence
0 0000 0. 0017 00035
00175 0. 0192 0. 0209
0 0349 00367 0. 0384
00524 0. 0542 0 0559
0 0699 0. 0717 0 0734
0. 0052
0. 0227
0. 0402
0. 0577
0. 0752
0. 0070 0. 0087 00105 0. 0122 0 0140 0. 0157
00244 00262 0. 0279 0. 0297 0. 0314 0. 0332
0. 0419 0. 0437 00454 0. 0472 0. 0489 0. 0507
0. 0594 00612 00629 0. 0647 0. 0664 0. 0682
0. 0769 00787 00805 0. 0822 0 0840 00857
0.0000 90
00175 89
0 0349 88
0. 0524 07
0 0699 86
0. 0675 65
17
17
17
18
18
5 00875 0. 0892 00910 0.0928 0. 0945 00963 00981 0. 0998 0. 1016
6 0 1051 01069 0 1086 0. 1104 0. 1122 0. 1139 0. 1157 0. 1175 0. 1192
7 0 1228 0. 1246 01263 0. 1281 0. 1299 0. 1317 01334 0. 1352 0. 1370
a 01405 0. 1423 01441 01459 0. 1477 01495 01512 0. 1530 01548
9 0 1584 0. 1602 0. 1620 01638 0. 1655 01673 0 1691 0. 1709 0. 1727
0. 1033
0. 1210
0. 1388
0 1566
01745
01051 64 18
01228 63 18
0. 1405 82 18
0. 1584 81 18
01763 80 18
10 01763 0. 1761 01799 01817 0. 1835 01853 0. 1871
11 01944 0. 1962 01980 0. 1996 0. 2016 02035 02053
12 02126 02144 02162 0. 2180 0. 2199 0. 2217 02235
13 0 2309 02327 02345 0. 2364 0. 2382 02401 02419
14 0 2493 02512 0. 2530 0 2549 02566 02586 0. 2605
01690
0. 2071
0. 2254
0. 2438
02623
0. 1908 0. 1926 01944 79 18
0. 2089 0. 2107 0. 2126 78 18
0. 2272 0. 2290 02309 77 18
0. 2456 0. 2475 0 2493 76 19
0. 2642 0. 2661 0 2679 75 19
15
16
17
18
19
0 2679
02867
0 2698 0. 2717 02736 0. 2754 02773
0. 2886 0 2905 0 2924 0. 2943 0 2962
0. 3076 0. 3096 03115 0. 3134 03153
0. 3269 03268 0 3307 03327 03346
0. 3463 0. 3462 0 3502 03522 03541
0 2792
03057
0 3249
03443
0. 2981
03172
0. 3365
0. 3561
0. 2811 0. 2630 0. 2849 0. 2867 74 19
0 3000 0. 3019 0. 3038 03057 73 19
0 3191 0. 3211 0. 3230 03249 72 19
03385 0. 3404 0. 3424 0. 3443 71 19
0. 3561 03600 03620 0. 3640 70 20
20 03640 0 3659 0 3679 0 3699 0. 3719 03739 0.3759 0 3779 0. 3799 0. 3819 0 3839 69 20
21 0 3839 0. 3859 0 3879 0 3099 0. 3919 0 3939 0.3959 0. 3979 0. 4000 0. 4020 0. 4040 68 20
22 04040 0. 4061 04061 04101 0. 4122 04142 0. 4163 0. 4163 0. 4204 0. 4224 04245 67 21
23 04245 04265 0. 4266 04307 04327 04348 0. 4369 0. 4390 0. 4411 0. 4431 04452 66 21
24 04452 04473 0. 4494 04515 04536 04557 0. 4578 0. 4599 0. 4621 0. 4642 04663 65 21
25 04663 04664 04706 0. 4727 0. 4746 04770 04791
26 04877 0 4899 04921 0 4942 0 4964 0 4986 05008
27 0 5095 05117 0. 5139 0. 5161 05184 05206 0. 5228
28 0. 5317 05340 0. 5362 0 5364 05407 05430 05452
29 0. 5543 05566 0. 5589 0 5612 05635 05658 05681
0. 4813
0.5029
0. 5250
0.5475
0. 5704
30 0. 5774 05797 0. 5820 0. 5844 0. 5067 0 5890 05914 0. 5938
31 0. 6009 06032 06056 0 6080 06104 06128 06152 0. 6176
32 0. 6249 06273 0. 6297 0 6322 06346 06371 0. 6395 0. 6420
33 0. 6494 0. 6519 06544 0 6569 0 6594 06619 0 6644 0. 6669
34 0. 6745 06771 0. 6796 0. 6822 0. 6847 06873 0 6899 0. 6924
0. 4834 04856 0. 4877 64 21
0. 5051 05073 0 5095 63 22
0. 5272 0. 5295 05317 62 22
0. 5498 05520 05543 61 23
0. 5727 05750 05774 60 23
0. 5961
0. 6200
0. 6445
0.6694
0.6950
05985 06009 59 24
06224 06249 58 24
0 6469 0. 6494 57 25
06720 06745 56 25
06976 07002 55 26
35 0. 7002 07028 07054 07080
36 0. 7265 07292 07319 0 7346
37 0. 7536 07563 0 7590 07618
38 0. 7813 07841 0 7869 0. 7898
39 0 8098 08127 08156 0. 8185
0. 7107
0. 7373
0. 7646
0 7926
08214
07133
0 7400
07673
0 7954
08243
07159
0. 7427
07701
0.7983
08273
0. 7186 0. 7212 0. 7239 07265 54 26
0. 7454 0. 7481 0. 7508 07536 53 27
0. 7729 0. 7757 07785 07813 52 28
08012 0. 8040 0. 8069 0 8098 51 28
0. 8302 0. 8332 08361 06391 50 29
40 06391 08421 08451 0. 8481 08511 08541 0. 8571 0. 8601
41 0. 6693 08724 08754 08785 08816 08847 0. 8678 0 8910
42 0 9004 0 9036 0. 9067 0. 9099 09131 09163 0. 9195 0. 9228
43 0 9325 0. 9358 09391 0. 9424 0 9457 0. 9490 09523 0 9556
44 0 9657 09691 0 9725 0. 9759 0 9793 0 9827 0. 9661 0. 9896
08632
0. 8941
0.9260
0.9590
0.9930
0. 8662 0. 8693 49 30
08972 0 9004 46 31
0. 9293 0 9325 47 32
0 9623 0 9657 46 33
0 9965 10000 45 34
". 8 07 ' . 6
( 48' )
142' )
136)
(2,
0. 4 0. 3
( 24' ) (18) (6)
Natural Cotangents
'For 10 intervals see Table I 24
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MATHEMATI CAL TABLES & UNI TS & SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES
TABLE 1.22-NATURAL TANGENTS AND COTANGENTS (continued)
Natural Tanaenl s al I nterval s of 0" 1 0' 6 '
I - 47
02 00
=(O 1
16 I I 12 /
45 10000 10035 1. 0070
46 10355 10392 1. 0428
47 10724 10761 1. 0799
40 11106 1 1145 1. 1184
49 11504 1 1544 1. 1585
1. 0141
"3
(18 1
10105
10464
10837
1 1224
11626
07
( 42 I
1. 0501
10875
10176
10538
10913
1 1263 1 1303
11667 1 1708
10212 1. 0247
10575 10612
10951 1. 0990
1 1343 1. 1383
11750 1. 1792
8 9 01 0
( 48 ) ( 54 ) (60 )
1. 0283 1. 0319 1. 0355
10649 10686 1. 0724
11028 1 1067 1. 1106
1 1423 I 1463 1 1504
11833 1 1875 1. 1918
Average
Degrees Di f f erence
44
43
42
41
40
35
37
38
40
41
50 11918 1. 1960 1. 2002 12045 1. 208R 1. 2131 12174 1. 2218 1. 2261 12305 1. 2349 39 43
51 12349 12393 12437 12482 1. 2527 12572 12617 1. 2662 12708 12753 12799 38 45
52 1. 2799 1. 2846 1. 2892 1. 2938 12985 13032 13079 1. 3127 13175 1. 3222 13270 37 47
53 1. 3270 1. 3319 1. 3367 13416 13465 1. 3514 13564 1. 3613 13663 13713 1. 3764 36 49
54 1. 3764 13814 1. 3865 13916 13968 14019 14071 1. 4124 14176 14229 1. 4281 35 52
55
56
57
58
59
14281
14826
1. 5399
1. 6003
1. 6643
14335 1. 4388 14442 1. 4496 14550
14882 14938 14994 1. 5051 1. 5108
15458 1. 5517 1. 5577 15637 15697
16066 1. 6128 16191 16255 16319
16709 1. 6775 16842 1. 6909 16977
1. 4605 1. 4659
1. 5166 15224
1. 5757 15818
1. 6383 1. 6447
1. 7045 1. 7113
1775 1. 782
1. 849 1. 857
1. 929 1937
2. 014 2023
2. 106 2. 116
14715 14770 1. 4826 34 55
15282 1. 5340 15399 33 57
15880 15941 16003 32 60
16512 1. 6577 16643 31 64
17182 17251 17321 30 67
1789 1797 1804 29 7
1865 1873 1. 881 28 a
1946 1. 954 1. 963 27 8
2 032 2. 041 2. 050 26 9
2 125 2. 135 2. 145 25 9
2204 2. 215 2225 2236
2. 311 2. 322 2 333 2. 344
2450 2. 463
2578 2592
2 718 2 733
2. 246 24 10
2356 23 11
2475 22 12
2605 21 13
2747 20 14
2. 872 2. 888 2. 904 19 16
3 042 3. 060 3. 078 16 17
3 230 3. 251 3 271 17 19
3 442 3465 3487 16 22
3 681 3 706 3. 732 15 24
3952 3. 981 4. 011 14 28
4 264 4. 297 4. 331 13 32
4 625 4. 665 4. 705 12 37
5050 5. 097 5. 145 11 44
5 558 5. 614 5 671 10 53
6174 6. 243 6. 314 9
6 940 7. 026 7115 a
7916 8. 028 8. 144 7
9205 9. 357 9. 514 6
1099 11. 20 11. 43 5
1362
1789
2603
4774
2865
13. 95 1430
18. 46 1908
2727
52. 08
573. 0
2864
5729
m
60 1732 1739 1746 1753 1. 760 1767
61 1804 1811 1819 1827 1. 834 1842
62 1881 1889 1. 897 1905 1. 913 1. 921
63 1 963 1 971 1980 1988 1. 997 2006
64 2. 050 2. 059 2069 2078 2. 087 2097
65
66
ti 7
68
69
2. 145 2. 154 2 164 2174
2 246 2. 257 2267 2278
2. 356 2. 367 2379 2391
2 475 2. 488 2. 500 2513
2 605 2. 619 2 633 2646
2. 184
2. 289
2. 402
2. 526
2. 660
2194
2. 300
2414
70 2747 2 762
71 2. 904 2921
72 3078 3. 096
73 3271 3. 291
74 3. 487 3. 511
2 778
2937
2.539
2. 675
3. 115
3312
3534
2793
2. 954
3133
3333
3558
2808
2. 971
3152
3354
3582
75 3. 732 3. 758 3. 785 3. 812 3839
76 4. 011 4. 041 4. 071 4102 4 134
77 4331 4. 366 4402 4. 437 4. 474
78 4705 4. 745 4. 787 4. 829 4. 872
79 5. 145 5. 193 5. 242 5292 5. 343
80 5 671 5. 730 5 789 5. 850
81 6. 314 6. 386 6. 460 6. 535
82 7. 115 7. 207 7300 7396
83 8. 144 8. 264 8386 a513
84 9 514 9. 677 9 845 1002
5 912
2. 824
2. 989
3. 172
3. 376
3606
3. 867
4 165
4. 511
4915
5396
5 976
6 691
7 596
8777
10. 39
12 71
1635
6612
7495
8. 643
10. 20
85 11. 43 11. 66 11. 91 12. 16 1243
86 1430 14. 67 1506 15. 46 15. 90
87 19 0. 3 19. 74 2045 21 20 22 02
88 2864 30. 14 31 82 33. 69 3580
89 57. 29 63. 66 71 62 81 a5 95 49
2290
38. 19
1146
90 oc
2. 426 2. 438
2. 552 2. 565
2. 689 2. 703
2. 840 2. 856
3. 006 3. 024
3. 191 3. 211
3 398 3420
3. 630 3. 655
3. 895 3. 923
4. 198 4. 230
4. 548 4586
4959 5. 005
5. 449 5. 503
6. 041 6. 107
6. 772 6. 855
7. 700 7806
8. 915 9. 058
10. 58 1078
13. 00 13. 30
16. 83 17. 34
2386 2490
40. 92 4407
143. 2 191. 0
0. 2 01 0. 0 0.9 0. 8
=( 54' )
( 48' )
(2,
( 12 ) (6) ( 0 )
Natural Cotanoents
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l - 48 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1. 23- NATURAL SECANTS AND COSECANTS
Degrees
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
0.0
=(O) (61,
0.2
(12)
10000 1 0000 10000
10002 10002 1. 0002
10006 10007 10007
10014 1. 0015 1. 0016
10024 10026 10027
10038 1. 0040 10041
1. 0055 10057 10059
1. 0075 10077 10079
1 0098 10101 10103
1. 0125 10127 10130
1. 0154 1. 0157 1. 0161
1. 0187 1. 0191 1. 0194
1. 0223 1. 0227 1. 0231
1. 0263 1. 0267 10271
10306 1. 0311 10315
10353 10358 10363
10403 1. 0408 10413
10457 1. 0463 1. 0468
10515 10521 10527
10576 1. 0583 10589
10642 1. 0649 10655
10711 10719 1 0726
t 0785 10793 10801
10864 1. 0872 1 0880
10946 1. 0955 1. 0963
1 1034 1. 1043 1. 1052
1 1126 11136 1. 1145
11223 11233 1. 1243
1 1326 1 1336 1. 1347
1 1434 1 1445 1. 1456
11547 11559 1. 1570
1. 1666 1 1679 1. 1691
1. 1792 11805 1. 1818
1. 1924 1 1937 1. 1951
1. 2062 12076 1. 2091
1. 2208 12223 12238
1. 2361 1. 2376 12392
12521 1. 2538 12554
12690 12708 1. 2725
1. 2868 1. 2886 1. 2904
1. 3054 1. 3073 1. 3093
13250 13270 13291
13456 1. 3478 1. 3499
13673 13696 1. 3718
1 3902 13925 13949
10000 10000 10000 10001 1. 0001 10001
1. 0003 1. 0003 1. 0003 10004 10004 1. 0005
1. 0008 10009 10010 10010 10011 1. 0012
1. 0017 1. 0018 10019 10020 10021 1. 0022
1. 0028 10030 10031 10032 10034 10035
1. 0043 10045 10046 10048 10050 10051
1. 0061 10063 10065 10067 10069 1. 0071
1. 0082 10084 10086 10089 1. 0091 10093
1. 0106 1. 0108 10111 10114 1. 0116 1. 0119
10133 1. 0136 10139 10142 1. 0145 1. 0148
1. 0164 10167 1. 0170 10174 10177 10180
1. 0198 10201 1. 0205 10209 1. 0212 10216
1. 0235 10239 1. 0243 10247 10251 10255
10276 1. 0280 1. 0284 10288 10293 1. 0297
10320 10324 1. 0329 10334 1. 0338 10343
1. 0367 10372 10377 10382 1. 0388 1. 0393
1. 0419 10424 1. 0429 1. 0435 1. 0440 1. 0446
1. 0474 10480 1. 0485 10491 1. 0497 1. 0503
1. 0533 10539 1. 0545 10551 1. 0557 1. 0564
1. 0595 10602 10608 10615 1. 0622 1. 0628
1. 0662 10669 10676 10683 1. 0690 1. 0697
1. 0733 10740 1. 0748 1. 0755 1. 0763 1. 0770
10808 10816 10824 10832 10840 1. 0848
1. 0888 10896 10904 10913 1. 0921 1. 0929
10972 10981 1. 0989 10998 1. 1007 1. 1016
1. 1061 1 1070 1. 1079 1 1089 1. 1098 1. 1107
1. 1155 1 1164 1. 1174 11184 1 1194 . 1203
1. 1253 11264 1 1274 1 1284 1. 1294 . I 305
1. 1357 1. 1368 11379 1 1390 1. 1401 . 1412
1 1467 1. 1478 1 1490 1 1501 1. 1512 1524
1. 1582 11594 11606 1 1618 1. 1630 1 1642
11703 1. 1716 1 1728 1. 1741 1. 1753 1766
11831 1. 1844 1 1857 1 1870 1. 1883 1897
1 1964 1. 1978 1 1992 12006 12020 . 2034
12105 1. 2120 12134 12149 1. 2163 2178
1. 2253 12268 1. 2283 12299 1. 2314 1. 2329
1. 2408 12424 12440 12456 12472 12489
12571 12588 12605 12622 1. 2639 1. 2656
1. 2742 12760 12778 12796 1. 2813 1. 2831
12923 1. 2941 1. 2960 1. 2978 12997 13016
13112 1. 3131 1. 3151 1. 3171 1. 3190 1. 3210
13311 13331 1. 3352 13373 13393 1. 3414
13520 13542 1. 3563 1. 3585 13607 13629
13741 13763 1. 3786 13809 13832 13855
13972 13996 14020 14044 1. 4069 1. 4093
0. 9 a. 0 07 06 a. 5 04 03 02
=( 54 )
( 48' ) (42) ( 36 I ( 30' ) ( 24' ) ( 18' ) (12)
". 6 0. 7 ". 8
(361 ( 42' ) ( 48' )
9 01 0
( 54' ) (60 I
10000
10002
10006
Average
Degrees Di f f erence
10001
1. 0006
1. 0013
10023
10037
10014
10024
10038
90
89
88
87
86
85
10053 10055 04
10073 10075 83
10096 10098 82
10122 10125 81
10151 10154 80
10184 10187 79
10220 10223 78
1. 0259 10263 77
10302 10306 76
10348 10353 75
10398 10403 74 5
1. 0451 10457 73 5
10509 10515 72 6
1. 0570 10576 71 6
1. 0635 10642 70 7
1. 0704 10711 69 7
1. 0778 10785 68 7
1. 0856 10864 67 8
1. 0938 10946 66 8
1. 1025 1 1034 65 9
1. 1117
1 . 1213
1 . I 315
1 . 1423
1 1535
1 1126 64
1 1223 63
1 1326 62
1 1434 61
11547 60
9
10
10
11
11
1 1654 1 1666 59
1 1779 1 1792 58
1 . 1910 1 1924 57
1 2048 12062 56
1 2193 12208 55
12
13
13
14
15
12345 12361 54 15
12505 12521 53 16
12673 1 2690 52 17
1. 2849 12868 51 18
13035 13054 50 19
1. 3230 13250 49 20
13435 13456 48 21
13651 1. 3673 47 22
13878 13902 46 23
14118 14142 45 24
00
( 0' )
Natural Cotanoents
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I - 49 MATHEMATI CAL TABLES & UNI TS & SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES
TABLE 1.23-NATURAL SECANTS AND COSECANTS (continued)
Natural Secants at I nterval s of OO. 1 or 6"
"0 0 1 02 "3 04 05
=10 ) ( 6 ) I12 1 (18 1 ( 24 I ( 30 I
6
Deqrees ( 36 J
07 00 09 "10 Average
( 42 ) ( 48 1 ( 54 I (60 1
Deqrees Di f f erence
45 14142 1. 4167 14192 14217 14242 14267 1. 4293 1. 4318 14344 1. 4370 1 4396 44 25
46 1. 4396 1. 4422 1. 4440 1. 4474 14501 14527 1. 4554 1. 4561 1. 4608 14635 1. 4663 43 27
47 14663 1. 4690 1. 4718 1. 4746 14774 1. 4802 1. 4830 14659 1. 4867 14916 1. 4945 42 28
48 14945 1. 4974 15003 1. 5032 15062 15092 15121 1. 5151 1. 5182 1. 5212 1. 5243 41 30
49 15243 1. 5273 1. 5304 1. 5335 15366 15398 1. 5429 1. 5461 15493 1. 5525 15557 40 31
50 15557 1. 5590 1. 5622 1. 5655 1. 5686 15721
51 15890 1. 5925 1. 5959 1. 5994 1. 6029 16064
52 16243 16279 16316 16353 16390 16427
53 16616 16655 16694 1. 6733 1. 6772 1. 6812
54 17013 17054 1 7095 1. 7137 1. 7179 17221
1. 5755
1. 6099
1. 6464
16852
17263
1. 5788 1. 5822 15856 1. 5890 39 33
1. 6135 1. 6171 1. 6207 1. 6243 38 35
1. 6502 1. 6540 1. 6578 16616 37 37
16892 1. 6932 1. 6972 1. 7013 36 40
17305 1. 7348 1. 7391 1. 7434 35 42
55 17434 1. 7476 1. 7522 1. 7566 17610 17655 1. 7700 1. 7745 17791
56 17883 1. 7929 1. 7976 1. 8023 18070 18118 18166 1. 6214 18263
57 18361 18410 1. 9460 1. 8510 1. 8561 1. 8612 18663 18714 18766
58 18871 1. 8924 18977 1. 9031 19064 19139 1. 9194 19249 19304
59 19416 1. 9473 1 9530 19587 19645 19703 1. 9762 1. 9821 19880
34 45
33 48
32 51
31 54
30 58
60 2 000 2006 2. 012 2016 2025 2031 2037 2. 043 2. 050
61 2063 2069 2. 076 2082 2089 2096 2. 103 2 109 2. 116
62 2 130 2. 137 2. 144 2. 151 2 158 2166 2. 173 2. 180 2. 188
63 2 203 2. 210 2. 218 2. 226 2233 2. 241 2249 2. 257 2. 265
64 2. 261 2. 289 2. 298 2306 2314 2323 2331 2. 340 2. 349
2366 2375
2459 2468
2 559 2570
1. 7637 17863
1. 8312 1. 6361
18618 18871
1. 9360 1. 9416
1. 9940 20000
2. 056 2. 063
2 123 2. 130
2 195 2. 203
2 273 2. 261
2. 357 2. 366
29 6
28 7
27 7
26 8
25 8
65
66
67
68
69
2. 449 2. 459
2 549 2. 559
2669 2661
2 790 2. 603
2. 364
2. 478
2. 581
2693
2. 816
2 393 2402
2488 2498
2591 2602
2 705 2716
2. 829 2842
2. 411 2. 421 2. 430 2439
2. 508 2 518 2 528 2. 536
2. 613 2. 624 2. 635 2. 647
2. 729 2. 741 2 753 2. 765
2. 855 2669 2. 682 2. 896
2. 658 2. 669
2. 778 2. 790
2. 910 2. 924
24 9
23 10
22 11
21 12
20 13
3. 041 3. 056 3. 072 19 15
3. 202 3. 219 3. 236 18 16
3. 382 3. 401 3. 420 17 16
3. 564 3. 606 3. 628 16 21
3. 814 3. 839 3. 864 15 24
4. 077
4. 379
4. 732
5. 148
5647
14 27
13 31
12 36
11 43
10 52
5996 6. 059 6. 123 6. 188 6255
6687 6765 6. 845 6. 927 7. 011
7561 7661 7 764 7670 7. 979
8 700 8. 834 8. 971 9. 113 9 259
1025 1043 10. 63 10. 83 11 03
4. 105 ' 4. 134
4. 412 4. 445
4. 771 4. 610
5. 194 5. 241
5. 702 5. 759
6. 323 6. 392
7. 097 7. 185
8091 8. 206
9. 411 9. 567
11. 25 1147
1365 1399 1434
1791 18. 49 19. 11
26. 05 2729 28. 65
47. 75 5209 57. 30
2865 573. 0 m
2. 952
3. 103
70 2924 2938
71 3072 3087
72 3 236 3. 254
73 3420 3. 440
74 3 628 3650
3. 271
3. 460
3 673
2967
3 119
3. 289
3. 480
3 695
2 981
3135
3307
2. 996
3152
3. 326
3521
3742
3. 011
3. 168
3500
3 719
3. 344
3542
3. 766
75 3. 864 3. 889 3. 915 3. 941 3967 3994 4. 021
76 4134 4163 4 192 4222 4253 4284 4315
77 4445 4. 479 4. 514 4549 4584 4. 620 4. 657
78 4 810 4. 850 4 890 4931 4973 5016 5059
79 5 241 5. 288 5337 5386 5436 5487 5540
80
81
: :
84
5759 5. 816 5875
6 392 6. 464 6. 537
7 185 7. 276 7 368
8 206 a. 324 8 446
9567 9. 728 9 895
5935
6611
7. 463
8571
1007
85
66
a7
88
89
11. 47
14. 34
1911
2865
5730
11. 71 11 95 12. 20 1247 1275
14. 70 15. 09 1550 1593 1636
19. 77 20 47 21 23 22 04 2293
30. 16 31 84 33 71 35 81 3820
6366 71 62 81 85 95 49 114 6
13. 03
16. 86
2368
4093
143. 2
90 m
3. 026
3. 185
3. 363
3. 563
3. 790
4. 049
4347
4. 694
5. 103
5. 593
13. 34
17. 37
24. 92
4408
191. 0
04
124' 1
02
112' 1
Natural Cotangents
09
=154' )
' For 10' i nterval s see Tabl e 1 24
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I - 50 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1. 24- TRI GONOMETRI C FUNCTI ONS( ATI NTERVALS OF 10' ) '
Si nes Cosi nes Tangents Cotangents
Degrees Radi ans Natural Log" Natural Log' * Natural Log" Natural Log' *
~_____
00 00' 0. 0000 0. 0000 03 1 .oooo 0.0000
1. 0000 0. 0000 00 10' 0. 0029 0. 0029 7. 4637
00 20' 0. 0058 0. 0058 7. 7648
00 30' 0. 0087 0. 0087 7. 9408
0. 0000
0. 0029 7. 400637
1 .oooo 0.0000 0. 0058 7. 7648
1. 0000 0. 0000 0. 0087 7. 9409
343po77 2. 5: 63
171. 89 2. 2352
114. 59 2. 0591
1. 5708 900 00
1. 5679 900 50
1. 5650 900 40'
1. 5621 90" 30'
1. 5592 900 20'
1. 5563 90" 10'
1. 5533
1. 5504
1. 5475
1. 5446
1. 5417
1. 5388
1. 5359
1. 5330
1. 5301
880 30'
880 20'
89" 00'
89O 50'
89" 40'
890 30'
890 20'
89O 10'
880 00'
880 50'
88O 40'
00 40'
00 50'
10 00'
10 10'
10 20'
10 30'
1" 40'
I O50'
20 00'
20 10'
20 20'
0. 0116 0. 0116 8. 0658 0. 9999 0. 0000
0. 0145 0. 0145 8. 1627 0. 9999 0. 0000
0. 0175 0. 0175 8. 2419
0. 0204 0. 0204 8. 3088
0. 0233 0. 0233 8. 3668
0. 0262 0. 0262 8. 4179
0. 0291 0. 0291 8. 4637
0. 0320 0. 0320 8. 5050
0. 0349 0. 0349 8. 5428
0. 0378 0. 0378 8. 5776
0. 0407 0. 0407 8. 6097
0. 9998 9. 9999
0. 9998 9. 9999
0. 9997 9. 9999
0. 9997 9. 9999
0. 9996 9. 9998
0. 9995 9. 9998
0. 9994 9. 9997
0. 9993 9. 9997 0. 0378 8. 5779
0. 9992 9. 9996 0. 0407 8. 6101
0. 0116 8. 0658
0. 0145 8. 1627
0. 0175 8. 2419
0. 0204 8. 3089
0. 0233 8. 3669
0. 0262 8. 4181
0. 0291 8. 4638
0. 0320 8. 5053
0. 0349 8. 5431
85. 940 1. 9342
68. 750 1. 8373
57. 290 1. 7581
49. 104 1. 6911
42. 964 1. 6331
38. 188 1. 5819
34. 368 1. 5362
31. 242 1. 4947
28. 636 1. 4569
26. 432 1. 4221
24. 542 13899
22. 904 1. 3599
21. 470 1. 3318
29 30' 0. 0436 0. 0436 8. 6397
20 40' 0. 0465 0. 0465 8. 6677
0. 9990 9. 9996
0. 9989 9. 9995
0. 9988 9. 9995
0. 9986 9. 9994
0. 9985 9 9993
0. 9983 9. 9993
0. 0437 8. 6401
0. 0466 8. 6682
0. 0495 8. 6945
0. 0524 8. 7194
0. 0553 8. 7429
0. 0582 8. 7652
1. 5272
1. 5213
1. 5243
2" 50' 0. 0495 0. 0494 8. 6940
3" 00' 0. 0524 0. 0523 8. 7188
30 10' 0. 0553 0. 0552 8. 7423
3" 20' 0. 0582 0. 0581 8. 7645
20. 206 1. 3055
19. 081 1. 2806
18075 12571
17. 169 1. 2348
16350 12135
15. 605 1. 1933
14. 924 1. 1739
1. 5184
1. 5155
1. 5126
1. 5097
1. 5068
1. 5039
1. 5010
1. 4981
1. 4952
1. 4923
1. 4893
1. 4864
1. 4835
1. 4806
1. 4777
1. 4748
1. 4719
1. 4690
1. 4661
1. 4632
1. 4603
1. 4574
1. 4544
1. 4515
1. 4486
1. 4457
1. 4428
1. 4399
1. 4370
1. 4341
880 I O'
87" 00'
870 50'
870 40'
870 30'
870 20'
87O 10'
860 00'
86" 50'
860 40'
86O 30'
860 20'
860 10'
850 00'
85O 50'
850 40'
85' 30'
85O 20'
850 10'
840 00'
84O 50'
84" 40'
840 30'
840 20'
84' I O'
83O 00'
83O 50'
830 40'
83" 30'
83O 20'
830 10'
30 30' 0. 0611 0. 0610 8. 7857 09981 9 9992 0. 0612 8. 7865
3" 40' 0. 0640 0. 0640 8. 8059 0. 9980 9. 9991 0. 0641 8. 8067
3" 50' 0. 0669 0. 0669 8. 8251 0. 9978 9. 9990 0. 0670 8. 8261
0. 9976 9. 9989 0. 0699 8. 8446
0. 9974 9. 9989 0. 0729 8. 8624
0. 9971 9. 9988 0. 0758 8. 8795
0. 9969 9. 9987 0. 0787 8. 8960
0. 9967 9. 9986 0. 0816 8. 9118
0. 9964 9. 9985 0. 0846 8. 9272
0. 9962 9. 9983 0. 0875 8. 9420
0. 9959 9. 9982 0. 0904 8. 9563
0. 9957 9. 9981 0. 0934 8. 9701
0. 9954 9. 9980 0. 0963 8. 9836
40 00' 0. 0698 0. 0698 8. 8436
40 10' 0. 0727 0. 0727 8. 8613
14. 301 1. 1554
13. 727 1. 1376
40 20'
40 30'
40 40'
40 50'
50 00'
5" 10'
50 20'
50 30'
50 40'
50 50'
6O 00'
6O I O'
6" 20'
6' 30'
6" 40'
6O 50'
70 00'
70 10'
70 20'
0. 0756 0. 0756 8. 8783
0. 0785 0. 0785 8. 8946
0. 0814 0. 0814 8. 9104
0. 0844 0. 0843 8. 9256
0. 0873
0. 0902
0. 0931
0. 0960
0. 0989
0. 1018
0. 1047
0. 1076
0. 1105
0. 1134
0. 1164
0. 1193
0. 1222
0. 1251
0. 1280
0. 0872 8. 9403
0. 0901 8. 9545
0. 0929 8. 9682
0. 0958 8. 9816
0. 0987 8. 9945
0. 1016 9. 0070
0. 1045 9. 0192
0. 1074 9. 0311
0. 1103 9. 0426
0. 1132 9. 0539
0. 1161 9. 0648
0. 1190 9. 0755
0. 1219 9. 0859
0. 1248 9. 0961
0. 1276 9. 1060
13. 197 1. 1205
12. 706 1. 1040
12251 1. 0882
11. 826 1. 0728
11. 430 1. 0580
11. 059 1. 0437
10. 712 1. 0299
10. 385 1. 0164
10078 1. 0034
9. 7882 0. 9907
9. 5144 0. 9784
9. 2553 0. 9664
9. 0098 0. 9547
8. 7769 0 9433
8. 5555 0. 9322
8. 3450 0. 9214
8. 1443 0. 9109
7. 9530 0. 9005
7. 7704 0. 8904
7. 5958 0. 8806
7. 4287 08709
7. 2687 0. 8615
0. 9951 9. 9979 0. 0992 8. 9966
0. 9948 9. 9977 0. 1022 9. 0093
0. 9945 9. 9976 0. 1051 9. 0216
0. 9942 9. 9975 0. 1080 9. 0336
0. 9939 9. 9973 0. 1110 9. 0453
0. 9936 9. 9972 0. 1139 9. 0567
0. 9932 9. 9971 0. 1169 9. 0678
0. 9929 9. 9969 0. 1198 9. 0786
0. 9925 9. 9968 0. 1228 9. 0891
0. 9922 9. 9966 0. 1257 9. 0995
0. 9918 9. 9964 0. 1287 9. 1096
0. 9914 9. 9963 0. 1317 9. 1194
0. 9911 9. 9961 0. 1346 9. 1291
0. 9907 9. 9959 0. 1376 9. 1385
0 9903 9. 9958 0. 1405 9. 1478 7. 1154 0. 8522
0. 9899 9. 9956 0. 1435 9. 1569 6. 9682 08431
0. 9894 9. 9954 0. 1465 9. 1658 6. 8269 08342
0. 9890 9. 9952 0. 1495 9. 1745 66912 08255
0. 9886 9. 9950 0. 1524 9. 1831 6. 5606 0. 8169
09881 9 9948 0. 1554 9. 1915 64348 08085
0 9877 9. 9946 0. 1584 9. 1997
0. 9872 9. 9944 0. 1614 9. 2078
63138 08003
6. 1970 0. 7922
60844 07842
5. 9758 0. 7764
70 30' 0. 1309 0. 1305 9. 1157
70 40' 0. 1338 0. 1334 9. 1252
70 50' 0. 1367 0. 1363 9 1345
8" 00' 0. 1396 0. 1392 9. 1436
8O I O' 0. 1425 0. 1421 9. 1525
8" 20' 0. 1454 0. 1449 9. 1612
8O 30' 01484 0. 1478 9. 1697
80 40' 0. 1513 0. 1507 9. 1781
8O 50' 0. 1542 0. 1536 91863
90 00' 01571 0. 1564 91943
9" 10' 0. 1600 0. 1593 9. 2022
1. 4312
1. 4283
1. 4254
1. 4224
1. 4195
1. 4166
820 00'
82O 50'
82" 40'
82O 30'
820 20'
820 10'
810 00'
81' 50'
810 40'
810 30'
81 20'
810 10'
14137
1. 4108
14079
1. 4050
1. 4021
1. 3992
9' 1 20' 0. 1629 0. 1622 9. 2100
90 30' 0. 1658 0. 1650 92176
90 40' 0. 1687 0. 1679 9. 2251
90 50' 0. 1716 0. 1708 9. 2324
0. 9868 9. 9942
0 9863 9. 9940
0. 1644 9. 2158
0. 1673 9. 2236
0. 1703 9. 2313
0. 1733 9. 2389
0. 9858 9. 9938
0. 9853 9. 9936
5. 8708 0. 7687
5. 7694 07611
Natural Loo** Natural Loa" Natural Log" Natural Log"
Cosi nes Si nes Cotangents Tangents Radi ans Degrees
'Far OD 1 mtervals, see Tables 1 21. 1 22. and 1 23
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MATHEMATI CALTABLES& UNl TS&SYSTEMSOFWEl GHTS &MEASURES
TABLE 1.24-TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS (AT INTERVALS OF 10) (continued)
nes Si l
Natural
Tange
Natural
nts Cotangents
Natural Log"
~~
5. 6713 0. 7537
5. 5764 0. 7464
5. 4845 0. 7391
5. 3955 0. 7320
5. 3093 0. 7250
5. 2257 0. 7181
I - 51
Log"
9. 2463
92536
9. 2609
92680
9. 2750
92819
0. 1763
0. 1793
0. 1823
0. 1853
0. 1883
0. 1914
Degrees Radi ans Loo" Natural
100 00'
100 10'
0. 1745
0. 1774
0. 1736 9. 2397 0. 9848
0. 1765 92468 0. 9843
0. 1794 9. 2538 0. 9838
0. 1822 92606 0. 9833
0. 1851 9. 2674 0. 9827
0. 1880 92740 0. 9822
1. 3963 80" 00'
1. 3934 80 50'
1. 3904 80' 40'
1. 3875 80 30'
1. 3846 80' 20'
1. 3817 80 10'
I O" 20'
100 30'
10" 40'
100 50'
11~00'
110 I O'
110 20'
110 30'
11" 40'
110 50'
120 00'
0. 1804
0. 1833
0. 1862
0. 1891
0. 1920 0. 1908
0. 1949 0. 1937
92806
92870
9. 2934
9. 2997
93058
93119
09816
0. 9811
99919 0. 1944 9. 2887 5. 1446 0. 7113 1. 3788
9. 9917 0. 1974 9. 2953 5. 0658 0. 7047 1. 3759
9. 9914 0. 2004 9. 3020 4.9894 0.6980 1. 3730
9. 9912 0. 2035 9. 3085 4. 9152 0. 6915 1. 3701
790 00
790 50'
0. 1978
0. 2007
0. 2036
0. 2065
0. 2094
02123
0. 2153
0. 2182
0. 2211
0. 2240
0. 2269
0. 2298
0. 2327
0. 1965
0. 1994
0. 2022
0. 2051
0. 9805
0. 9799
0. 9793
0. 9787
0. 2079 9. 3179 0. 9781
0. 2108 9. 3238 0. 9775
0. 2136 0 3296 0. 9769
0. 2164 93353 0. 9763
0. 2193 9. 3410 0. 9757
0. 2221 9. 3466 0. 9750
9. 9909
9. 9907
9. 9904
9. 9901
9. 9899
9. 9896
9. 9893
9. 9890
0. 2250
0. 2278
0. 2306
0. 2334
0. 2363
0. 2391
93521 0. 9744 9. 9887
0. 2065 9. 3149 4. 8430 0. 6851 1. 3672
0. 2095 9. 3212 4. 7729 0. 6788 1. 3643
790 40'
790 30'
790 20'
790 I O'
0. 2126 9. 3275 4. 7046 0. 6725 1. 3614 78O 00'
0. 2156 9. 3336 4. 6382 0. 6664 1. 3584 78' 50'
0. 2186 9. 3397 4. 5736 0. 6603 1. 3555 78O 40'
0. 2217 9. 3458 4. 5107 0. 6542 1. 3526 7%" 30'
0. 2247 9. 3517 4. 4494 0. 6483 1. 3497 78O 20'
0. 2278 9. 3576 4. 3897 0. 6424 1. 3468 78" 10'
0. 2309 9. 3634 4. 3315 0. 6366 1. 3439 770 00'
0. 2339 9. 3691 4. 2747 0. 6309 1. 3410 770 50'
0. 2370 9. 3748 4. 2193 0. 6252 1. 3381 77" 40'
0. 2401 9. 3804 4. 1653 0. 6196 1. 3352 770 30'
0. 2432 9. 3859 4. 1126 0. 6141 1. 3323 770 20'
0. 2462 9. 3914 4. 0611 0. 6086 1. 3294 770 I O'
0. 2419 9. 3837 0. 9703 9. 9869 0. 2493 9. 3968
0. 2447 9. 3887 0. 9696 9. 9866 0. 2524 9. 4021
0. 2476 9. 3937 0. 9689 9. 9863 0. 2555 9. 4074
4. 0108 0. 6032
3. 9617 0. 5979
3. 9136 0. 5926
3. 8667 0. 5873
3. 8208 0. 5822
3. 7760 0. 5770
1. 3265
1. 3235
1. 3206
0. 2531 0. 2504 9. 3986 0. 9681 9. 9859 0. 2586 9. 4127
0. 2560 0. 2532 94035 0. 9674 9. 9856 0. 2617 9. 4178
0. 9667 9. 9853 0. 2648 9. 4230
0. 9659 9. 9849 0. 2679 9. 4281
0. 9652 9. 9846 0. 2711 9. 4331
3. 7321 0. 5719
3. 6891 0. 5669
3. 6470 0. 5619
3. 6059 0. 5570
3. 5656 0. 5521
3. 5261 0. 5473
1. 3177
1. 3148
1. 3119
1. 3090
1. 3061
76O 00'
76" 50'
76O 40'
76' 30'
76O 20'
76" I O'
75" 00'
750 50'
3. 4874 0. 5425
3. 4495 0. 5378
3. 4124 0. 5331
3. 3759 0. 5284
3. 3402 0. 5238
3. 3052 0. 5192
3. 2709 0. 5147
3. 2371 0. 5102
3. 2041 0. 5057
3. 1716 0. 5013
3. 1397 0. 4969
3. 1084 0. 4925
3. 0777 0. 4882
3. 0475 0. 4839
3. 0178 0. 4797
2. 9887 0. 4755
2. 9600 0. 4713
2. 9319 0. 4671
2. 9042 0. 4630
2. 8770 0. 4589
2. 8502 0. 4549
2. 8239 0. 4509
2. 7980 0. 4469
2. 7725 0. 4429
120 10'
120 20'
120 30'
120 40'
120 50'
130 00'
130 I O'
130 20'
93575 0. 9737 9. 9884
9. 3629 0. 9730 9. 9881
130 30'
130 50'
140
130 40'
00
140 10'
140 20'
140 30'
140 40'
140 50'
150 00'
150 10'
150 20'
150 30'
150 40'
150 50'
16O 00'
16" I O'
16O20'
16' 30'
16O 40'
16O 50'
170 00'
170 I O'
170 20'
170 30'
170 40'
170 50'
18O00'
18' 10'
18O20'
18' 30'
l a0 40'
18O 50'
190 00'
190 I O'
190 20'
19" 30'
190 40'
19" 50'
0. 2414
0. 2356
0. 2443
0. 2473
0. 2502
0. 2385
9. 3682 0. 9724 9. 9878
9. 3734 0. 9717 9. 9875
93786 0. 9710 9. 9872
0. 2589 0. 2560 9. 4083
0. 2618 0. 2588 9. 4130
0. 2647 0. 2616 9. 4177
0. 2676 0. 2644 9. 4223
0. 2705 0. 2672 9 4269
0. 9644 9. 9843 0. 2742
0. 9636 9. 9839 0. 2773
0. 9628 9. 9836 0. 2805
0. 9621 9. 9832 0. 2836
9. 4381
9. 4430
1. 3032 75" 40'
1. 3003 750 30'
0. 2734 0. 2700 9. 4314
0. 2763 0. 2728 9 4359
9. 4479
9. 4527
9. 4575
9. 4622
9. 4669
9. 4716
9. 4762
9. 4808
9. 4853
1. 2974 75" 20'
1. 2945 750 I O'
1. 2915 740 00'
1. 2886 740 50'
1. 2857 740 40'
1. 2828 740 30'
1. 2799 740 20'
1. 2770 74" I O'
1. 2741 730 00'
1. 2712 730 50'
1. 2683 730 40'
1. 2654 730 30'
1. 2625 730 20'
0. 2793
0. 2822
0. 2851
0. 2880
0. 2909
0. 2938
0. 2967
0. 2996
0. 3025
0. 3054
0. 3083
0. 3113
0. 2756
0. 2784
0. 2812
0. 2840
0. 2868
0. 2896
0. 2924
94403 0. 9613
9. 4447 0. 9605
94491 0. 9596
94533 0. 9588
94576 0. 9580
9. 4618 0. 9572
9. 4659
9. 4700
9. 4741
9. 4781
9. 4821
9. 4861
0. 9563
0. 9555
0. 9546
0. 9537
0. 9528
9. 4900
9. 4939
0. 9520
0. 9511
0. 9502
0. 9492
0. 9483
0. 9474
0. 9465
0. 9455
0. 9446
9. 9828
9. 9825
9. 9821
9. 9817
9. 9814
9. 9810
9. 9806
0. 2867
0. 2899
0 2931
0. 2962
0 2994
0. 3026
0. 3057
0. 2952
0. 2979
9. 9802
9. 9798
0. 3089 9. 4898
0. 3121 9. 4943
0. 3153 9. 4987
0. 3185 9. 5031
0. 3007
0. 3035
0. 3062
9. 9794
9. 9790
9. 9786
9. 9782
9. 9778
9. 9774
9. 9770
9. 9765
9. 9761
9. 9757
9. 9752
0. 3217 9. 5075
0. 3249 9. 5118
0. 3281 9. 5161
0. 3314 9. 5203
0. 3346 9. 5245
0. 3378 9. 5287
03411 9. 5329
0. 3443 9. 5370
0. 3476 9. 5411
1. 2595
1. 2566
1. 2537
1. 2508
1. 2479
1. 2450
1. 2421
1. 2392
1. 2363
730 I O'
72' 00'
72' 50'
72O 40'
72O 30'
72O 20'
72O I O'
710 00'
710 50'
710 40'
710 30'
710 20'
710 10'
0. 3142 0. 3090
0. 3171 0. 3118
0. 3200 0. 3145
0. 3229 0. 3173
9. 4977
9. 5015
0. 3258 0. 3201 9. 5052
0. 3287 0. 3228 9. 5090
0. 3316 0. 3256 9. 5126
0. 3345 0. 3283 9. 5163
0. 3374 0. 3311 9. 5199 0. 9436 9. 9748 0. 3508 9. 5451
0. 3403 0. 3338 9. 5235 0. 9426 9. 9743 0. 3541 9. 5491
1. 2334
1. 2305
1. 2275
1. 2246
0. 3432 0. 3365 9. 5270 0. 9417 9. 9739 0. 3574 9. 5531
0. 3462 0. 3393 9. 5306 0. 9407 9. 9734 0. 3607 9. 5571
Natural Log" Natural Log" Natural Log' * Natural Log**
Cosi nes Si nes Cotangents Tangents Radi ans Degrees
' For 0' 1 ~nl erval s. see Tables 1 21. 1 22. and 1 23
"Add 10 I" these columns
( conti nued on next page)
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1- 52
PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1. 24- - TRI GONOMETRI C FUNCTI ONS ( AT I NTERVALS OF 10 ) ( conti nued)
CotangE
Natural
2. 7475
2. 7228
2. 6985
2. 6746
2. 6511
2. 6279
Cow i es
Natural Log' *
0. 9397 9. 9730
0. 9387 9. 9725
Tang{
Natural
0. 3640
0. 3673
0. 3706
0. 3739
0. 3772
0. 3805
Si nes
Natural Log"
~ ~
f nts
Log"
9. 5611
9. 5650
! rl ts
Log"
0. 4389
0. 4350
Dearees Radi ans
200 00' 0. 3491 0. 3420
200 10' 0. 3520 0. 3448
200 20' 0. 3549 0. 3475
20" 30' 0. 3578 0. 3502
200 40' 0. 3607 0. 3529
200 50' 0. 3636 0. 3557
210 00'
210 10'
21" 20'
210 30'
210 40'
21" 50'
0. 3665
0. 3694
0. 3723
0. 3752
0. 3782
0. 3811
0. 3840
0. 3869
0. 3898
0. 3927
0. 3956
0. 3985
0. 3584
0. 3611
0. 3665
0. 3692
0. 3638
0. 3719
220 00'
220 I O'
220 20'
220 30'
220 40'
220 50'
0. 3746
0. 3773
0. 3800
0. 3827
0. 3854
0. 3881
23O 00' 0. 4014
23O I O' 0. 4043
23O 20' 0. 4072
23' 30' 0. 4102
23O 40' 0. 4131
23" 50' 0. 4160
24" 00' 0. 4189
24O 10' 0. 4218
24O 20' 0. 4247
24' 30' 0. 4276
24" 40' 0. 4305
24' 50' 0. 4334
250 00'
25' 10'
25O 20'
25' 30'
25O 40'
25' 50'
26' 00'
26O I O'
26' 20'
26O 30'
260 40'
26O 50'
270 00'
27' 10'
270 20'
27" 30'
27O 40'
27O 50'
0. 4363
0. 4392
0. 4422
0. 4451
0. 4480
0. 4509
0. 4538
04567
0. 4596
04625
0. 4654
04683
0. 4712
0. 4741
0. 4771
0. 4800
0. 4829
0. 4858
280 00'
280 10'
28" 20'
28O 30'
28O 40'
28O 50'
290 00'
290 10'
290 20'
290 30'
290 40'
290 50'
04887 0 4695
0. 4916 04720
0. 4945 04746
0. 4974 0. 4772
0. 5003 0 4797
05032 0. 4823
05061 04848
0. 5091 04874
0. 5120 0. 4899
05149 0. 4924
0. 5178 0. 4950
0. 5207 0. 4975
9. 5341
9. 5375
9. 5409
9. 5443
9. 5477
9. 5510
9. 5543
0. 4311
0. 4273
0. 4234
0. 4196
1. 2217
1. 2188
12159
1. 2130
12101
1. 2072
0. 4158 1. 2043
700 00'
70" 50'
700 40'
7o" 30'
700 20'
700 10'
0. 9377
0. 9367
9. 9721
9. 9716
9. 9711
9. 9706
9. 5689
9. 5727
9. 5766
9. 5804
0. 9356
0. 9346
0. 9336
12014
1. 1985
1. 1956
1 1926
1. 1897
1. 1868
1. 1839
1. 1810
1 1781
1 1752
1. 1723
69" 00'
69O 50'
69O 40'
69O 30'
69O 20'
69O 10'
680 00'
680 50'
68O 40'
680 30'
680 20'
680 10'
1. 1694 67O 00'
1. 1665 67" 50'
1 1636 67O 40'
1 1606 67O 30'
1. 1577 67' =20'
1. 1548 67O 10'
1. 1519
1 1490
1 1461
1 1432
1. 1403
1. 1374
1. 1345
1 1316
1. 1286
1. 1257
1. 1228
1. 1199
1. 1170
1. 1141
1. 1112
1. 1083
1. 1054
1. 1025
660 00'
660 50'
66" 40'
66" 30'
66" 20'
660 I O'
9. 9702 0. 3839 9. 5842 2. 6051
9. 9697 0. 3872 9. 5879 2. 5826
9. 9692 0. 3906 9. 5917 2. 5605
9. 5641
9. 5576
9. 5673
9. 5704
9. 5609
9. 5736
9. 5767
9. 5798
9. 5828
9. 5859
9. 5889
0. 9325
0. 9315
0. 9304
0. 9293
0. 4121
0. 4083
0. 4046
0. 4009
0. 4173
0. 4200
0. 3907
0. 3934
0. 3961
0. 3987
0. 4014
0. 4041
0. 4067
0. 4094
0. 4120
0. 4147
0. 9283 9. 9677 0. 4006 9. 6028 2. 4960 0. 3972
0. 9272 9. 9672 0. 4040 9. 6064 2. 4751 0. 3936
0. 9261 9. 9667 0. 4074 9. 6100 2. 4545 0. 3900
0. 9250 9. 9661 0. 4108 9. 6136 2. 4342 0. 3864
0. 9239 9. 9656 0. 4142 9. 6172 2. 4142 0. 3828
0. 9228 9. 9651 0. 4176 9. 6208 2. 3945 0. 3792
0. 9216 9. 9646 0. 4210 9. 6243 2. 3750 0. 3757
9. 5919 0. 9205
9. 5948 0. 9194
9. 5978 0. 9182
9. 6007 0. 9171
9. 6036 0. 9159
9. 6065 0. 9147
9. 6205
9. 6232
9. 6093
9. 6121
9. 6149
9. 6177
0. 9135 9. 9607 0. 4452 9. 6486
0. 9124 9. 9602 0. 4487 9. 6520
0. 9112 9. 9596 0. 4522
0. 9100 9. 9590 0. 4557
0. 9088 9. 9584 0. 4592
0. 9075 9. 9579 0. 4628
9. 9687 0. 3939 9. 5954 2. 5386
9. 9682 0. 3973 9. 5991 2. 5172
2. 3559
2. 3369
2. 3183
2. 2998
0. 3721
0. 3686
0. 3652
0. 3617
2. 2817 0. 3583
2. 2637 0. 3548
2. 2460 0. 3514
2. 2286 0. 3480
2. 2113 0. 3447
2. 1943 0. 3413
2. 1775 0. 3380
2. 1609 0. 3346
2. 1445
2. 1283
2. 1123
2. 0965
2. 0809
2. 0655
2. 0503
2. 0353
2. 0204
2. 0057
1. 9912
0. 3313
0. 3280
0. 3248
0. 3215
0. 3183
0. 3150
0. 3118
0. 3086
0. 3054
0. 3023
0. 2991
1. 9768 0. 2960
65O 00'
65O 50'
65O 40'
65O 30'
65O 20'
65O I O'
64O 00'
64O 50'
64" 40'
64O 30'
64O 20'
64O 10'
1. 9626 0. 2928 1. 0996 63O 00'
1. 9486 0. 2897 1. 0966 63O 50'
1. 9347 0. 2866 1. 0937 63O 40'
1. 9210 0. 2835 1. 0908 63O 30'
1. 9074 0. 2804 1. 0879 63' =20'
1. 8940 0. 2774 1. 0850 63O I O'
1. 8807
1. 8676
1. 8546
1. 8418
1. 8291
1. 8165
1. 8040
1. 7917
1. 7796
1. 7675
1. 7556
1. 7437
0. 2743 1. 0821 62O 00'
0. 2713 1. 0792 62' =50'
0. 2683 1. 0763 62O 40'
0. 2652 1. 0734 62O 30'
0. 2622 1. 0705 62O 20'
0. 2592 1. 0676 62O 10'
0. 2562 1. 0647 61 00'
61 50'
61' 40'
61 30'
61' =20'
61 10'
9. 6279
9. 6314
9. 6348
9. 6383
9. 6417
9. 6452
9. 9640 0. 4245
9. 9635 0. 4279
9. 9629 0. 4314
9. 9624 0. 4348
9. 9618 0. 4383
9. 9613 0. 4417
9. 6553
9. 6587
9. 6620
9. 6654
9. 6687
9. 6720
9. 6752
9. 6785
9. 6817
9. 6850
9. 6882
0. 4226 9. 6259
0. 4253 9. 6286
0. 4279 9. 6313
04305 9. 6340
0. 4331 9. 6366
0. 4358 9. 6392
0. 4384 9. 6418
04410 9. 6444
0. 4436 9. 6470
0. 9063 9. 9573
0. 9051 9. 9567
0. 9038 9. 9561
0. 9026 9. 9555
0. 9013 9. 9549
0. 9001 9. 9543
0. 8988 9. 9537
0. 4663
0. 4699
0. 4734
0. 4770
04806
04841
04877
0. 8975 9. 9530
0. 8962 9. 9524
0 8949 9. 9518
0. 8936 9. 9512
0. 4913 9. 6914
0. 4950 9. 6946
04462 9. 6495
04488 9. 6521
0. 8923 9. 9505
0. 8910 0. 9499
0. 8897 9. 9492
0. 8884 9. 9486
0. 8870 9. 9479
0. 8857 9. 9473
0. 8843 9. 9466
0 4986 9. 6977
0. 5022 9. 7009
0 5059 9. 7040
0 5095 9. 7072
0. 5132 9. 7103
05169 9. 7134
05206 9. 7165
0. 5243 9. 7196
0. 5280 9. 7226
9. 9459 0. 5317 9. 7257
9. 9453 0. 5354 9. 7287
9. 9446 0. 5392 9. 7317
9. 9439 0 5430 9. 7348
9. 9432 0. 5467 9. 7378
9 9425 0. 5505 9. 7408
9. 9418 0. 5543 9. 7438
9. 9411 0. 5581 9. 7467
9. 9404 0. 5619 9. 7497
9. 9397 0. 5658 9. 7526
9. 9390 0. 5696 9. 7556
9. 9383 0. 5735 9. 7585
04514
04540
04566
0 4592
0. 4617
0. 4643
0 4669
9. 6546
9. 6570
9. 6595
0. 8829
0. 8816
0. 8802
0. 8788
0. 8774
0. 8760
0. 8746
0 8732
0. 8718
0. 8704
0. 8689
0. 8675
9.6620
9.6644
9. 6668
9. 6692
9. 6716
9. 6740
9. 6763
9. 6787
9. 6810
9. 6833
9. 6856
9. 6878
9. 6901
9. 6923
9. 6946
9. 6968
0. 2533 1. 0617
0. 2503 1. 0588
0. 2474 1. 0559
0. 2444 1. 0530
0. 2415 1. 0501
Natural Log" Natural Log' * Natural Log* * Natural Log"
Cosi nes Si nes Cotangents Tangents Radi ans Degrees
For 0 1 intervals. see Tables 1 21 1.22. and I 23
Add 10 I these columns
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MATHEMATl CALTABLES& UNl TS&SYSTEMSOFWEl GHTS & MEASURES 1- 53
TABLE 1. 24- TRI GONOMETRI C FUNCTI ONS ( AT I NTERVALS OF 10' ) ' ( conti nued)
Si nes Comes Tangents Cotangents
Degrees Radi ans Natural Log" Natural Log" Natural Log*' Natural Log"
300 00' 0. 5236 0. 5000 9. 6990 0. 8660 9. 9375 0. 5774 9. 7614 1. 7321 0. 2386 1. 0472 60a 00'
30" 10' 0. 5265 0. 5025 9. 7012 0. 8646 9. 9368 0. 5812 9. 7644 1. 7205 0. 2356 1. 0443 60 50'
300 20' 0. 5294 0. 5050 9. 7033 0. 8631 9. 9361 0. 5851 9. 7673 1. 7090 0. 2327 1. 0414 60 40'
30" 30' 0. 5323 0. 5075 9. 7055 0. 8616 9. 9353 0. 5890 9. 7701 1. 6977 0. 2299 1. 0385 60 30'
300 40' 0. 5352 0. 5100 9. 7076 0. 8601 9. 9346 0. 5930 9. 7730 1. 6864 0. 2270 1. 0356 60 20'
300 50' 0. 5381 0. 5125 9. 7097 0. 8587 9. 9338 0. 5969 9. 7759 1. 6753 0. 2241 1. 0327 60' 10'
310 00' 0. 5411 0. 5150 9. 7118 08572 9. 9331 0. 6009 9. 7788 1. 6643 0. 2212 1. 0297 590 00'
310 I O' 0. 5440 0. 5175 9. 7139 0. 8557 9. 9323 0. 6048 9. 7816 1. 6534 0. 2184 1. 0268 590 50'
31" 20' 0. 5469 0. 5200 9. 7160 0. 8542 9. 9315 0. 6088 9. 7845 1. 6426 0. 2155 1. 0239 59" 40'
31' 1 30' 0. 5498 0. 5225 9. 7181 0. 8526 9. 9308 0. 6128 9. 7873 1. 6319 0. 2127 1. 0210 590 30'
31" 40' 0. 5527 0. 5250 9. 7201 0. 8511 9. 9300 0. 6168 9. 7902 1. 6212 0. 2098 1. 0181 590 20'
310 50' 0. 5556 0. 5275 9. 7222 0. 8496 9. 9292 0. 6208 9. 7930 1. 6107 0. 2070 1. 0152 590 10'
32O 00' 0. 5585 0. 5299 9. 7742 0. 8480 9. 9284 0. 6249 9. 7958 1. 6003 0. 2042 1. 0123 58O 00'
32" 10' 0. 5614 0. 5324 9. 7262 0. 8465 9. 9276 0. 6289 9. 7986 1. 5900 0. 2014 . I . 0094 58" 50'
32O 20' 0. 5643 0. 5348 9. 7282 0 8450 9. 9268 0. 6330 9. 8014 1. 5798 0. 1986 1. 0065 58O 40'
32" 30' 0. 5672 0. 5373 9. 7302 0. 8434 9. 9260 0. 6371 9. 8042 1. 5697 0. 1958 1. 0036 58' 30'
32O 40' 0. 5701 0. 5398 9. 7322 0 8418 9. 9252 0. 6412 9. 8070 1. 5597 0. 1930 1. 0007 58O 20'
32' 50' 0. 5730 0. 5422 9. 7342 0. 8403 9. 9244 0. 6453 9. 8097 1. 5497 0. 1903 0. 9977 58' I O'
330 00'
330 10'
33" 20'
339 30'
330 40'
330 50'
340 00'
34" 10'
340 20'
0. 5760 0. 5446 9. 7361 0. 8387 9.9236 0.6494 9. 8125 1. 5399
0. 5789 0. 5471 9. 7380 0. 8371 9.9228 0. 6536 9. 8153 1. 5301
0. 5818 0. 5495 9. 7400 0. 8355 9. 9219 0. 6577 9. 8180 1. 5204
0. 5847 0. 5519 9. 7419 0. 8339 9. 9211 0. 6619 9. 8208 1. 5108
0. 5876 0. 5544 9. 7438 0. 8323 9. 9203 0. 6661 9. 8235 1. 5013
0. 5905 0. 5568 9. 7457 0. 8307 9. 9194 0. 6703 9. 8263 1. 4919
0. 5934 0. 5592 9. 7476 0. 8290 9. 9186 0. 6745 9. 8290 1. 4826
0. 5963 0. 5616 9. 7494 0. 8274 9. 9177 0. 6787 9. 8317 1. 4733
0. 5992 0. 5640 9. 7513 0. 8258 9. 9169 0. 6830 9. 8344 1. 4641
0. 1875
0. 1847
0. 1820
0. 1792
0. 1765
0. 1737
0. 1710
0. 1683
0. 1656
0.9948
0. 9919
0. 9890
0. 9861
0. 9832
0. 9803
0. 9774
0. 9745
0. 9716
57" 00'
570 50'
570 40'
570 30'
570 20'
570 I O'
56O 00'
56O 50'
56' =40'
340 30' 0. 6021 0. 5664 9. 7531 0. 8241 9. 9160 0. 6873 9. 8371 1. 4550 0. 1629 0. 9687 56O 30'
340 40' 0. 6050 0. 5688 9. 7550 0. 8225 9. 9151 0. 6916 9. 8398 1. 4460 0. 1602 0. 9657 56" 20'
340 50' 0. 6080 0. 5712 9. 7568 0. 8208 9. 9142 0. 6959 9. 8425 1. 4370 0. 1575 0. 9628 56O I O'
350 00' 0. 6109 0. 5736 9. 7586 0. 8192 9. 9134 0. 7002 9. 8452 1. 4281 0. 1548 0. 9599 559 00'
350 I O' 0. 6138 0. 5760 9. 7604 0. 8175 9. 9125 0. 7046 9. 8479 1. 4193 0. 1521 0. 9570 550 50'
350 20' 0. 6167 0. 5783 9. 7622 0. 8158 9. 9116 0. 7089 9. 8506 1. 4106 0. 1494 0. 9541 550 40'
350 30' 0. 6196 0. 5807 9. 7640 0. 8141 9. 9107 0. 7133 0. 8533 1. 4019 0. 1467 0. 9512 550 30'
350 40' 0. 6225 0. 5831 9. 7657 0. 8124 9. 9098 0. 7177 9. 8559 1. 3934 0. 1441 0. 9483 550 20'
35" 50' 0. 6254 0. 5854 9. 7675 0. 8107 9. 9089 0. 7221 9. 8586 1. 3848 0. 1414 0. 9454 550 10'
36" 00' 0. 6283 0. 5878 9. 7692 0. 8090 9. 9080 0. 7265 9. 8613 1. 3764 0. 1387 0. 9425 540 00'
36O I O' 0. 6312 0. 5901 9. 7710 0. 8073 9. 9070 0. 7310 9. 8639 1. 3680 0. 1361 0. 9396 540 50'
36' 20' 0. 6341 0. 5925 9. 7727 0. 8056 9. 9061 0. 7355 9. 8666 1. 3597 0. 1334 0. 9367 540 40'
36O 30' 0. 6370 0. 5948 9. 7744 0. 8039 9. 9052 0. 7400 9. 8692 1. 3514 0. 1308 0. 9338 540 30'
36" 40' 0. 6400 0. 5972 9. 7761 0. 8021 9. 9042 0. 7445 9. 8718 1. 3432 0. 1282 0. 9308 54" 20'
36O 50' 0. 6429 0. 5995 9. 7778 0. 8004 9. 9033 0. 7490 9. 8745 1. 3351 0. 1255 0. 9279 540 10'
370 00' 0. 6458 0. 6018 9.7795 0.7986 9.9023 0. 7536 9. 8771 1. 3270 0.1229 0.9250 530 00'
37" 10' 0. 6487 0. 6041 9. 7811 0.7969 9.9014 0. 7581 9. 8797 1. 3190 0. 1203 0. 9221 530 50'
370 20' 0. 6516 0. 6065 9. 7828 0. 7951 9.9004 0. 7627 9. 8824 1. 3111 0. 1176 0. 9192 530 40'
370 30' 0. 6545 0. 6088 9. 7844 0. 7934 9.8995 0. 7673 9. 8850 1. 3032 0. 1150 0. 9163 53" 30'
370 40' 0. 6574 0. 6111 9. 7861 0. 7916 9.8985 0. 7720 9. 8876 1. 2954 0. 1124 0. 9134 530 20'
370 50' 0. 6603 0. 6134 9. 7877 0. 7898 9.8975 0. 7766 9. 8902 1. 2876 0. 1098 0. 9105 53" 10'
38O 00' 0. 6632 0. 6157 9. 7893 0. 7880 9.8965 0. 7813 9. 8928 1. 2799 0. 1072 0. 9076 52O 00'
38O I O' 0. 6661 0. 6180 9. 7910 0. 7862 9.8955 0. 7860 9. 8954 1. 2723 0. 1046 0. 9047 52O 50'
38O 20' 0. 6690 0. 6202 9. 7926 0. 7844 9.8945 0. 7907 9. 8980 1. 2647 0. 1020 0. 9018 52' 40'
38O 30' 0. 6720 0. 6225 9. 7941 0. 7826 9.8935 0. 7954 9. 9006 1. 2572 0. 0994 0. 8988 52O 30'
38O 40' 0. 6749 0. 6248 9. 7957 0. 7808 9.8925 0. 8002 9. 9032 1. 2497 0. 0968 0. 8959 52" 20'
38O 50' 0. 6778 0. 6271 9. 7973 0. 7790 9. 8915 0. 8050 9. 9058 1. 2423 0. 0942 0. 8930 52O 10'
390 00 0. 6807 0. 6293 9. 7989 0. 7771 9. 8905 0. 8098 9. 9084 1. 2349 0. 0916 0. 8901 510 00'
390 10' 0. 6836 0. 6316 9. 8004 0. 7753 9. 8895 0. 8146 9. 9110 1. 2276 0. 0890 0. 8872 51" 50'
39" 20' 0. 6865 0. 6338 9. 8020 0. 7735 9. 8884 0. 8195 9. 9135 1. 2203 0. 0865 0. 8843 510 40'
390 30' 0. 6894 0. 6361 9. 8035 0. 7716 9. 8874 0. 8243 9. 9161 1. 2131 0. 0839 0. 8814 510 30'
390 40' 0. 6923 0. 6383 9. 8050 0. 7698 9. 8864 0. 8292 9. 9187 1. 2059 0. 0813 0. 8785 51" 20'
390 50' 0. 6952 0. 6406 9. 8066 0. 7679 9. 8853 0. 8342 9. 9212 1. 1988 0. 0788 0. 8756 510 I O'
Natural Log*' Natural Log** Natural Log"' Natural Log"'
Cosi nes Smes Cotangents Tangents Radi ans Degrees
(contmued on next page)
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l - 54 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
Degrees Radtans
400 00'
400 10'
400 20'
400 30'
400 40'
400 50'
410 00'
410 10'
41" 20'
410 30'
410 40'
410 50'
42O 00'
42' I O'
42O 20'
42O 30'
42O 40'
420 50'
430 00'
430 10'
430 20'
430 30'
430 40'
43" 50'
0.6981
0. 7010
0. 7039
0. 7069
0. 7098
0. 7127
0. 7156
0. 7185
0. 7214
0. 7243
0. 7272
0. 7301
0. 7330
0. 7359
0. 7389
0. 7418
0. 7447
0. 7476
0. 7505
0. 7534
0. 7563
0. 7592
0. 7621
0. 7650
44" DO'
440 I O'
44" 20'
440 30'
44" 40'
440 50'
450 00'
0. 7679
0. 7709
0. 7738
0. 7767
0. 7796
0. 7825
0. 7854
TABLE 1. 24- TRI GONOMETRI C FUNCTI ONS( AT I NTERVALS OF 10' ) ' ( conti nued)
Si nes
Natural Log** Natural Log"
Tangents
Natural Log** Natural
0. 6428 9. 8081 0. 7660 9. 8843 0. 8391 9. 9238 1. 1918
0. 6450 9. 8096 07642 9. 8832 0. 8441 9. 9264 1. 1847
0. 6472 9. 8111 0. 7623 9. 8821 0. 8491 9. 9289 1. 1778
0. 6494 9. 8125 0. 7604 9. 8810 0. 8541 9. 9315 1. 1708
0. 6517 9. 8140 0. 7585 9. 8800 0. 8591 9. 9341 1. 1640
0. 6539 9. 8155 0. 7566 9. 8789 0. 8642 9. 9366 1. 1571
Log*'
0. 0762
0. 0736
00711
0. 0685
0. 0659
0. 0634
0. 8727 500 00'
0. 8698 50" 50'
0. 8668 500 40'
0. 8639 50" 30'
0. 8610 500 20'
0. 8581 500 10'
0. 6561 9. 8169 0. 7547 9. 8778 0. 8693 9. 9392 1. 1504 0. 0608 0. 8552 490 00'
0. 6583 9. 8184 07528 9. 8767 0. 8744 9. 9417 1. 1436 0. 0583 0. 8523 490 50'
0. 6604 9. 8198 0. 7509 9. 8756 0. 8796 9. 9443 1. 1369 0. 0557 0. 8494 49" 40'
0. 6626 9. 8213 0 7490 9. 8745 0. 8847 9. 9468 1. 1303 0. 0532 0. 8465 490 30'
0. 6648 9. 8227 0. 7470 9. 8733 0. 8899 9. 9494 1. 1237 0. 0506 0. 8436 49" 20'
0. 6670 9. 8241 074. 51 9. 8722 0 8952 9. 9519 1. 1171 0. 0481 0. 8407 490 10'
0. 6691 9. 8255 0 7431 9. 8711 0. 9004 9. 9544 1. 1106 00456 0. 8378 48O 00'
0. 6713 9. 8269 07412 9. 8699 0. 9057 9. 9570 1. 1041 0. 0430 0. 8348 48" 50'
0. 6734 9. 8283 0. 7392 9. 8688 0. 9110 9. 9595 1. 0977 00405 0. 8319 48O 40'
0. 6756 9. 8297 0. 7373 9. 8676 0. 9163 9. 9621 1. 0913 0. 0379 0. 8290 480 30'
0. 6777 9. 8311 0. 7353 9. 8665 0. 9217 9. 9646 1. 0850 0. 0354 0. 8261 48O 20'
0. 6799 9. 8324 0. 7333 9. 8653 0. 9271 9. 9671 1. 0786 0. 0329 0. 8232 48" I O'
0. 6820 9. 8338 0. 7314 9. 8641 0. 9325 9. 9697 1. 0724 0. 0303 0. 8203
0. 6841 9. 8351 0. 7294 9. 8629 0. 9380 9. 9722 1. 0661 0. 0278 0. 8174
0. 6862 9. 8365 0. 7274 9. 8618 0. 9435 9. 9747 1. 0599 0. 0253 0. 8145
0. 6884 9. 8378 0. 7254 9. 8606 0. 9490 9. 9772 1. 0538 0. 0228 0. 8116
0. 6905 9. 8391 0. 7234 9. 8594 0. 9545 9. 9798 1. 0477 0. 0202 0. 8087
0. 6926 9. 8405 07214 9. 8582 0. 9601 9. 9823 1. 0416 0. 0177 0. 8058
0. 6947 9. 8418 0. 7193 9. 8569
0. 6967 9. 8431 0. 7173 9. 8557
0. 6988 9. 8444 0. 7153 9. 8545
0. 7009 9. 8457 0. 7133 9. 8532
0. 7030 9. 8469 0. 7112 9. 8520
0. 7050 9. 8482 0. 7092 9. 8507
1. 0355 0. 0152 0. 8029
1. 0295 0. 0126 0. 7999
1. 0235 0. 0101 0. 7970
1. 0176 0. 0076 0. 7941
1. 0117 0. 0051 0. 7912
1. 0058 0. 0025 0. 7883
0. 7071 9. 8495 0. 7071 9. 8495
Natural Loq" Natural LOCI "
0. 9657 9. 9848
0. 9713 9. 9874
0. 9770 9. 9899
0. 9827 9. 9924
0. 9884 9. 9949
0. 9942 9. 9975
1. 0000 0. 0000
Natural Log' *
Cotangents
47" 00'
470 50'
470 40'
470 30'
470 20'
470 I O'
46O 00'
46O 50'
46' 40'
46O 30'
46' 20'
46O I O'
1 . oooo 0. 0000
Natural Log"
0. 7854 450 00'
Si nes
Cotangents
Tangents Radi ans Degrees
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MATHEMATI CAL TABLES & UNI TS & SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES I-55
TABLE 1. 25- EXPONENTI ALS ( e and em)
e
0. 00 1000
Dl l l erence
10
10
10
11
10
11
11
10
11
11
11
11
12
11
12
12
11
12
12
12
13
12
13
12
13
13
13
13
13
14
13
14
14
14
14
14
15
14
15
14
15
15
15
16
15
16
16
16
16
17
n e Otf f erenc~ D~i i erence r> e n e
_n 0. 50 0 607 1. 0 0368"

1. 0
11
12
13
14
e
2 718'
3 004
3 320
0 01 0 990
002 0980
3669 003 0970
4055 0 04 0 961
15 4 482
16 4 953
1 7 5 474
18 6050
19 6 686
005 0951
0 06 0. 942
007 0932
0 08 0 923
009 0914
2. 0 7389 0. 10 0 905
21 8 166 0 11 0 896
22 9025 012 0887
23 9 974 013 0878
24 11 02 014 0869
25 1218 015 0861
26 1346 016 0852
27 1488 017 0844
28 1644 018 0835
29 1817 019 0827
3. 0
31
32
33
34
20 09
2220
24 53
27 11
2996
0. 20 0 819
0 21 0 811
022 0803
023 0795
0 24 0 787
35 3312 025 0779
36 3660 026 0771
37 4045 027 0763
38 44 70 028 0756
39 4940 029 0748
4. 0
41
42
43
44
5460 0. 30 0 741
60 34 0 31 0 733
6669 032 0726
7370 033 0719
81 45 034 0712
45 9002 035 0705
036 0698
5. 0 1484
60 4034
70 1097
80 2. 981
90 8 103
10. 0 22 026
; I 2
2si 2
3r/ 2
4ri 2
5i i 2
6ri 2
7~12
7112
4 810
23 14
111 3
5355
2. 576 0
037 0691
038 0684
0 39 0 677
0. 40 0 670
0 41 0 664
042 0657
043 0651
044 0644
12. 392 0
59. 610 0
286. 751 0
045 0638
046 0631
047 0625
048 0619
049 0613
0. 50 0 607
e
* 0.00 1000
0 01 1010
0. 02 1020
003 1030
0 04 1041
005 1051
0 06 1062
007 1073
0 08 1083
0 09 1094
0. 10 1 105
0 11 1116
0 12 1127
0 13 1139
014 1150
0 15 1 162
0 16 1 174
017 i 185
0 18 1197
0 19 1209
0. 20 1221
0 21 1234
0 22 1 246
023 1259
0 24 1. 271
025 1284
0 26 1 297
027 1310
028 1323
0 29 1 336
0. 30 1. 350
0 31 1. 363
032 1377
0 33 1391
034 1405
035 1419
0 36 1433
0 37 i 448
0. 38 1 462
0 39 1477
0. 40 1492
0 41 1 507
042 1522
043 1537
044 1553
0 45 1 568
0 46 i 584
047 1600
048 1616
049 1632
0. 50 1649
0. 50 1649
051 1 665
0 52 1682
0 53 1699
0 54 1716
0 55 1733
0 56 1751
0 57 1 768
0 58 1786
0 59 1804
0. 60 1822
061 1840
0 62 1859
0 63 i a78
064 1896
0 65 1916
066 1935
067 1954
0 68 1974
0 69 1994
0. 70 2 014
0 71 2034
0 72 2054
0 73 2 075
0 74 2 096
0 75 2 117
0 76 2 138
0 77 2 160
0 78 2181
0 79 2203
0. 80 2226
081 2248
082 2 270
0 83 2 293
0 64 2 316
085 2340
0 86 2363
087 2 387
088 2411
0 89 2 435
0. 90 2460
091 2484
0 92 2 509
0 93 2535
0 94 2560
0 95 2 586
0 96 2612
0 97 2638
0 98 2664
0 99 2691
1. 00 2718
16
17
17
17
17
18
17
18
18
18
18
19
19
18
20
19
19
20
20
20
20
20
21
21
21
21
22
21
22
23
22
22
23
23
24
23
24
24
24
25
24
25
26
25
26
26
26
26
27
27
- I
- 10 051 0600 11 0333
- 10 052 0595 12 0301
9
053 0 589 13 0213
- 10 054 0583 14 0247
0
055 0577 15 0223
J
- 10 0 56 0 571 16 0202
n 057 0566 17 0183
I ; 058 0560 18 0165
059 0554 19 0150
- 9
0. 60 0 549 2. 0 0135
- 9
n 061 0543 21 0122
- 3
9
062 0538 22 0111
-
9
063 0533 23 0100
-
- 8
064 0 527 24 00907
25 00821
26 00743
27
28
29
3. 0
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
00672
00608
00550
0 0498
00450
00408
0 0369
00334
00302
00273
00247
00224
00202
00183
00166
00150
00136
00123
00111
000674
000248
0000912
0000335
0. 000123
- 8 0. 80 0 449 4. 0
- 7
081 0445 4 1
- 7
082 0440 42
- 7
083 0436 4. 3
- 7 084 0432 44
- 7 085 0427 45
7
086 0423
- 7 087 0419 5. 0
- 7
088 0415 60
- 7
089 0411 70
- 6
0. 90 0 407 8 0
_ 091 0403 90
I
6
092 0399 10. 0 0000045
-
7
093 0 395
-
6
094 0391 r; / 2 0 208
2712 00432
- 7
095 0387 3~12 000898
6
096 0383 4~12 000187
-
^ 097 0379 5~12 0000388
1; 098 0375 6ni 2 0000081
^ 099 0372 7~12 0000017
b
l . oo 0368 8~12 0000003
*e=pj y828, I , ~=o. s~~Ts, l ag, , e=04343. l / ( 04343) =2. 3026. l og, , ( O4343) =1. 6378. l og, , e" =n( O4343) . For tabl es of mul ti pl es of 0. 4343, see Tabl e 1 30
"Do not ~nterpcdate mthi s col umn
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l - 56 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
RALLOGARI THMS'
n( 0. 6974- 3)
TABLE 1. 26- NATUI
" n( 2 3026)
1 2. 3026
2 4. 6052
3 6. 9078
4 9. 2103
5 11. 5129
6 13. 8155
7 16. 1181
8 18. 4207
9 20. 7233
0 6974- 3
0 3948- 5
0. 0922 - 7
0. 7897- 10
0. 4871- 12
0. 1845- 14
0. 8819- 17
0. 5793- 19
0 2767- 21
8 9
0. 0770
0. 1655
0. 2469
0. 3221
0. 3920
0. 0862
0. 1740
0. 2546
0. 3293
0. 3988
Average
Di f f erence
95
87
80
74
69
0. 4574 0. 4637 65
0. 5188 0. 5247 61
0. 5766 0. 5822 57
0. 6313 0. 6366 54
0. 6831 0. 6881 51
0. 7324 0. 7372
0. 7793 0 7839
0. 8242
0. 9083
1. 3029
0. 9478
0. 8671
0. 9858
1. 3297
1. 0225
1. 0578
1. 0919
1 . I 249
1. 1569
1. 1878
1. 2179
1. 2470
1. 2754
0. 9123
09517
0. 8286
0 9895
0. 8713
1. 0260
10613
1. 0953
1. 1282
1 1600
1. 1909
1. 2208
1. 2499
1. 2782
49
47
44
43
41
39
38
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
1. 3558
1. 3813
28
27
27
26
25
1. 4061
1. 4303
1. 4540
1. 4770
1. 4996
1. 3584
1. 3056
1. 3838
1. 4085
1. 3324
1. 4327
14563
1. 4793
15019
15239
1. 5454
1. 5665
1. 5872
1. 6074
1. 6273
1. 6467
1. 6658
1. 6845
1. 7029
25
24
23
23
22
1. 5217
1. 5433
1. 5644
1. 5851
1. 6054
1. 6253
1. 6448
1. 6639
1. 6827
1. 7011
22
; 1
20
20
20
19
19
18
18
Number 0 2 3 4 5 6 7
0. 0198 0. 0296 0. 0392 0. 0488 0. 0583 0. 0677
1
0. 0100
01044
0. 1906
02700
0. 3436
0. 4121
0. 4762
1. 0
1. 1
1. 2
1. 3
1. 4
1. 5
1. 6
1. 7
1. 8
1. 9
0. 0000
0. 0953
0. 1823
0. 2624
0. 3365
0. 4055
0. 4700
0. 5306
0. 5878
0. 6419
0. 6931
0. 7419
0. 7885
0. 8329
0. 8755
0. 9163
0. 1133 01222 01310
0. 1989 0. 2070 0. 2151
0. 6471
0. 6981
0. 7467
0. 7930
0. 8372
0. 8796
0. 2776 0. 2852 0. 2927
0. 3507 0. 3577 0. 3646
0. 4187 0. 4253 0. 4318
0. 4824 0. 4886 0. 4947
0. 5423 0. 5481 0. 5539
0. 5988 0. 6043 0. 6098
0. 6523 06575 0. 6627
0. 5365
0. 5933
2. 0
2. 1
2. 2
2. 3
2. 4
0. 7031 07080 0. 7129
0. 7514 0. 7561 0. 7608
2. 5
2. 6
2. 7
2. 8
2. 9
0. 9203
0. 7975 0. 8020 0. 8065
0. 8416 0. 8459 0. 8502
0. 8838 0. 8879 0. 8920
0. 9243 0. 9282 0. 9322
0. 9555 0. 9594 0. 9632 0. 9670 0. 9708
0. 9933 0. 9969 1. 0006 1. 0043 1. 0080
1. 0296 1. 0332 1. 0367 1. 0403 1. 0438
1. 0647 1. 0682 1. 0716 1. 0750 1. 0784
3. 0 1. 0986
3. 1 1. 1314
3. 2 1. 1632
3. 3 1. 1939
3. 4 1. 2238
1. 1019
1. 1346
1. 1663
1 . I 969
1. 2267
1. 1053 1. 1086 1. 1119
1. 1378 1. 1410 1. 1442
1. 1694 1. 1725 1. 1756
1. 2000 1. 2030 1. 2060
1. 2296 1. 2326 1. 2355
3. 5 1. 2528 1. 2556 1. 2585 1. 2613 1. 2641
3. 6 1. 2809 1. 2837 1. 2865 1. 2892 1. 2920
3. 7 1. 3083 13110 1. 3137 13164 1. 3191
3. 8 1. 3350 1. 3376 1. 3403 1. 3429 1. 3455
3. 9 13610 13635 1. 3661 13686 1. 3712
4. 0 1. 3863 1. 3888 1. 3913 13938 1. 3962
4. 1 1. 4110 1. 4134 1. 4159 1. 4183 1. 4207
4. 2 1. 4351 1. 4375 1. 4398 1. 4422 1. 4446
4. 3 1. 4586 1. 4609 1. 4633 1. 4656 1. 4679
4. 4 1. 4816 1. 4839 1. 4861 1. 4884 1. 4907
4. 5
4. 6
4. 7
4. 8
4. 9
5. 0
5. 1
5. 2
5. 3
5. 4
1. 5041 1. 5063 1. 5085 1. 5107 1. 5129 1. 5151 1. 5173 1. 5195
1. 5261 1. 5282 1. 5304 1. 5326 1. 5347 1. 5369 1. 5390 1. 5412
1. 5476 1. 5497 1. 5518 1. 5539 1. 5560
1. 5686 1. 5707 1. 5728 1. 5748 1. 5769
1. 5892 1. 5913 1. 5933 15953 1. 5974
1. 6094 1. 6114 1. 6134 1. 6154 1. 6174
1. 6292 1. 6312 1. 6332 1. 6351 1. 6371
1. 6487 1. 6506 1. 6525 1. 6544 1. 6563
1. 6677 1. 6696 1. 6715 1. 6734 1. 6752 1. 6771 1. 6790 1. 6808
1. 6864 1. 6882 1. 6901 1. 6919 1. 6938 1. 6956 1. 6974 1. 6993
01398 0. 1484 0. 1570
0. 2231 0. 2311 0. 2390
0. 3001 0. 3075 0. 3148
0. 3716 0. 3784 0. 3853
0. 4383 0. 4447
0. 5008 0. 5068
0. 5596 0. 5653
0. 6152 0. 6206
0. 6678 0. 6729
0. 7178 0. 7227
07655 0. 7701
0. 8109 0. 8154
0. 8544 0. 8587
0. 8961 0. 9002
0. 4511
0. 5128
0. 5710
0. 6259
0. 6780
0. 7275
0. 7747
0. 8198
0. 8629
0. 9042
0. 9361 0. 9400 0. 9439
0. 9746 0. 9783 0. 9821
1. 0116 1. 0152 1. 0188
1. 0473 1. 0508 1. 0543
1. 0818 1. 0852 1. 0886
1. 1151 1. 1184 1. 1217
1. 1474 1. 1506 1. 1537
1. 1787 1. 1817 1. 1848
1. 2090 1. 2119 1. 2149
1. 2384 1. 2413 1. 2442
1. 2669 1. 2698 1. 2726
1. 2947 1. 2975 1. 3002
13218 1. 3244 1. 3271
1. 3481 1. 3507 1. 3533
13737 1. 3762 1. 3788
13987 1. 4012 1. 4036
1. 4231 1. 4255 1. 4279
1. 4469 1. 4493 1. 4516
1. 4702 1. 4725 1. 4748
1. 4929 1. 4951 1. 4974
1. 5581 1. 5602 1. 5623
1. 5790 1. 5810 1. 5831
1. 5994 1. 6014 1. 6034
1. 6194 1. 6214 1. 6233
1. 6390 1. 6409 1. 6429
1. 6582 1. 6601 1. 6620
Thi s tabl e gi ves the natural or Napi eri an l ogari thms ( I n) of numbers between 1 and 10, correct to f our pl aces. Moving
the deci mal poi ntn pl aces to the ri ght ( or l ef t) i n the number i s equi val ent to addi ng R ti mes 2 3026 ( or n ti mes 3. 6974)
to the l ogari thm. Base e=2. 71828+.
,nw=(2.3026,,og,,x, ,og,,x=(O4343),nx, whete23026=ln 10 andO4343=log,:e
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MATHEMATl CALTABLES&UNl TS& SYSTEMSOFWEl GHTS&MEASURES 1- 57
Number
5. 5
5. 6
5. 7
5. 8
5. 9
6. 0
6. 1
6. 2
6. 3
6. 4
6. 5
6. 6
6. 7
6. 8
6. 9
7. 0
7. 1
7. 2
7. 3
7. 4
7. 5
7. 6
77
78
79
8. 0
8. 1
8. 2
8. 3
8. 4
8. 5
8. 6
8. 7
8. 8
8. 9
9. 0
9. 1
9. 2
9. 3
9. 4
9. 5
9. 6
9. 7
9. 8
9. 9
10. 0
TABLE 1. 26 - NATURAL LOGARI THMS' ( conti nued)
n nf 2. 30261 n( 0. 6974- 31
2. 3026 0. 6974- 3
4. 6052 0. 3948- 5
6. 9078 0. 0922- 7
9. 2103 0. 7897- 10
11. 5129 0. 4871- 12
13. 8155 0. 1845- 14
16. 1181 0. 8819- 17
18. 4207 0. 5793- 19
20. 7233 0. 2767- 21
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
____
1. 7047 1. 7066 1. 7084 1. 7102 1. 7120 1. 7138 1. 7156 1. 7174 1. 7192 1. 7210
1. 7228 1. 7246 1. 7263 1. 7281 1. 7299 1. 7317 1. 7334 1. 7352 1. 7370 1. 7387
1. 7405 1. 7422 1. 7440 1. 7457 1. 7475
1. 7579 1. 7596 1. 7613 1. 7630 1. 7647
1. 7750 1. 7766 1. 7783 1. 7800 1. 7817
1. 7918 1. 7934 1. 7951 1. 7967 1. 7984
1. 8083 1. 8099 1. 8116 1. 8132 1. 8148
1. 8245 1. 8262 1. 8278 1. 8294 1. 8310
1. 8405 1. 8421 1. 8437 1. 8453 1. 8469
1. 8563 1. 8579 1. 8594 1. 8610 1. 8625
1. 8718 1. 8733 1. 8749 1. 8764 1. 8779
1. 7492 1. 7509
1. 7664 1. 7681
1. 7834 1. 7851
1. 8001 1. 8017
1. 8165 1. 8181
1. 8326 1. 8342
1. 8485 1. 8500
1. 8641 1. 8656
1. 8795 1. 8810
1. 7527 1. 7544 1. 7561
1. 7699 1. 7716 1. 7733
1. 7867 1. 7884 1. 7901
1. 8034 1. 8050 1. 8066
1. 8197 1. 8213 1. 8229
1. 8358 1. 8374 1. 8390
1. 8516 1. 8532 1. 8547
1. 8672 1. 8687 1. 8703
1. 8825 1. 8840 1. 8856
1. 8871 1. 8886 1. 8901 1. 8916 1. 8931 1. 8946 1. 8961 1. 8976 1. 8991 1. 9006
1. 9021 1. 9036 1. 9051 1. 9066 1. 9081 1. 9095 1. 9110 1. 9125 1. 9140 1. 9155
1. 9169
1. 9315
1. 9459
1. 9601
1. 9741
1. 9879
2. 0015
2. 0149
2. 0281
2. 0412
2. 0541
2. 0669
1. 9184
1. 9330
1. 9473
1. 9615
1. 9755
1. 9892
2. 0028
1. 9199
1. 9344
1. 9488
1. 9629
1. 9769
1. 9906
2. 0042
2. 0162 2. 0176
2. 0295 2. 0308
2. 0425 2. 0438
2. 0554 2. 0567
2. 0681 2. 0694
1. 9213 1. 9228 1. 9242 1. 9257 1. 9272 1. 9286 1. 9301
1. 9359 1. 9373 1. 9387 1. 9402 1. 9416 1. 9430 1. 9445
1. 9502
1. 9643
1. 9782
1. 9920
20055
2. 0189
2. 0321
2. 0451
2. 0580
2. 0707
1. 9516 1. 9530 1. 9544 1. 9559
1. 9657 1. 9671 1. 9685 1. 9699
1. 9796 1. 9810 1. 9824 19838
1. 9933 1. 9947 1. 9961 1. 9974
2. 0069 2. 0082 2. 0096 20109
2. 0202 2. 0215 2. 0229 20242
2. 0334 2. 0347 2. 0360 2. 0373
2. 0464 2. 0477 2. 0490 2. 0503
2. 0592 2. 0605 2. 0618 2. 0631
2. 0719 2. 0732 2. 0744 2. 0757
1. 9573
1. 9713
1. 9851
1. 9988
2. 0122
2. 0255
2. 0386
2. 0516
2. 0643
2. 0769
1. 9587
1. 9727
1 9865
2. 0001
2. 0136
2. 0268
2. 0399
2. 0528
2. 0656
2. 0782
2. 0794 2. 0807 2. 0819 2. 0832 2. 0844 2. 0857 2. 0869 2. 0882 2. 0894 2. 0906
2. 0919 2. 0931 2. 0943 2. 0956 2. 0966 2. 0980 2. 0992 2. 1005 2. 1017 2. 1029
2. 1041
2. 1163
2. 1282
2. 1401
2. 1518
2. 1633
2. 1748
2. 1861
2. 1972
2. 1054 2. 1066 2. 1078 2. 1090 2. 1102
2. 1175 2. 1187 2. 1199 2. 1211 2. 1223
2. 1294 2. 1306 2. 1318 2. 1330 2. 1342
2. 1412 2. 1424 2. 1436 2. 1448 2. 1459
2. 1529 2. 1541 2. 1552 2. 1564 2. 1576
2. 1645 2. 1656 2. 1668 2. 1679 2. 1691
2. 1759 2. 1770 2. 1782 2. 1793 2. 1804
2. 1872 2. 1883 2. 1894 2. 1905 2. 1917
2. 1983 2. 1994 2. 2006 2. 2017 2. 2028
2. 1114
2. 1235
2. 1353
2. 1471
2. 1587
2. 1702
2. 1815
2. 1928
2. 2039
2. 1126 2. 1138 2. 1150
2. 1247 2. 1258 2. 1270
2. 1365 2. 1377 2. 1389
2. 1483 2. 1494 2. 1506
2. 1599 2. 1610 2. 1622
2. 1713 2. 1725 2. 1736
2. 1827 2. 1838 2. 1849
2. 1939 2. 1950 2. 1961
2. 2050 2. 2061 2. 2072
2. 2083 2. 2094 2. 2105 2. 2116 2. 2127 2. 2138 2. 2148 2. 2159 2. 2170 2. 2181
2. 2192 2. 2203 2. 2214 2. 2225 2. 2235 2. 2246 2. 2257 2. 2268 2. 2279 2. 2289
2. 2300 2. 2311 2. 2322 2. 2332 2. 2343 2. 2354 2. 2364 2. 2375 2. 2386 2. 2396
2. 2407 2. 2418 2. 2428 2. 2439 2. 2450 2. 2460 2. 2471 2. 2481 2. 2492 2. 2502
2. 2513 2. 2523 2. 2534 2. 2544 2. 2555 2. 2565 2. 2576 2. 2586 2. 2597 2. 2607
2. 2618 2. 2628 2. 2638 2. 2649 2. 2659 2. 2670 2. 2680 2. 2690 2. 2701 2. 2711
2. 2721 2. 2732 2. 2742 2. 2752 2. 2762 2. 2773 2. 2783 2. 2793 2. 2803 2. 2814
2. 2824 2. 2834 2. 2844 2. 2854 2. 2865 2. 2875 2. 2885 2. 2895 2. 2905 2. 2915
2. 2925 2. 2935 2. 2946 2. 2956 2. 2966 2. 2976 2. 2986 2. 2996 2. 3006 2. 3016
2. 3026
Average
Di f f erence
18
18
17
17
17
16
16
16
16
15
15
15
15
15
14
14
14
14
13
13
13
13
13
13
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
11
11
11
I I
11
11
11
11
I O
I O
10
I O
10
Thts tabl e gi ves the natural or Napreri an l ogari thms ( I n) of numbers between 1 and 10, correct to f our pl aces. Movi ng
the deci mal pornt n pl aces to the ri ght ( or l ef t) I n the number i s equi val ent to addi ng n ti mes 2. 3026 ( or n ti mes 3. 6974)
to the l ogari thm. Base e=2 71828+
-In x=/2 3026) log .>x bg ,,x=(O 4343)ln x. where 2 3026=In 10 and 0 4343=log,,e
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1- 58 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1. 27- HYPERBOLI C SI NES [ si nh x =Xte - e - ) I
x 0
0. 0 0. 0000
0. 1 0 1002
0. 2 0. 2013
0. 3 0. 3045
04 0. 4108
0. 5 0. 5211
0. 6 0. 6367
0. 7 0. 7586
0. 8 0. 8881
0. 9 1. 027
1 . o 1. 175
1. 1 1. 336
1. 2 1. 509
1. 3 1. 698
1. 4 1. 904
1. 5 2. 129
1. 6 2. 376
1. 7 2 646
1. 8 2 942
1. 9 3 268
2. 0 3 627
2. 1 4. 022
2. 2 4457
2. 3 4. 937
2. 4 5. 466
2. 5 6. 050
2. 6 6. 695
2. 7 7. 406
2. 8 8. 192
2. 9 9. 060
3. 0 10. 02
3. 1 11. 08
3. 2 12. 25
3. 3 13. 54
3 4 14. 97
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0. 0100 0. 0200
0. 1102 0. 1203
0. 2115 0. 2218
0. 3150 0. 3255
0. 4216 0. 4325
0. 0400 0. 0500 0. 0600 0. 0701 0. 0801 0. 0901 100
0. 1405 0. 1506 0. 1607 0. 1708 0. 1810 0. 1911 101
0. 2423 0. 2526 0. 2629 0. 2733 0. 2837 0. 2941 103
0. 3466 0. 3572 0. 3678 0. 3785 0. 3892 0. 4000 106
0. 4543 0. 4653 0. 4764 0. 4875 0. 4986 0. 5098 110
0. 5324 05438
0. 6485 0. 6605
0. 7712 0. 7838
0. 9015 0. 9150
1. 041 1055
0. 0300
0. 1304
0. 2320
0. 3360
0. 4434
0. 5552
0. 6725
0. 7966
0. 9286
1. 070
1. 222
0. 5666 0. 5782 0. 5897 0. 6014 0. 6131 0. 6248 116
0. 6846 0. 6967 0. 7090 0. 7213 0. 7336 0. 7461 122
0. 8094 0. 8223 0. 8353 0. 8484 0. 8615 0. 8748 130
0. 9423 0. 9561 0. 9700 0. 9840 0. 9981 1. 012 138
1. 085 1. 099 1. 114 1. 129 1. 145 1. 160 15
1. 191 1206
1. 352 1369
1. 528 1546
1. 718 1. 738
1. 926 1948
1. 238
1. 386 1. 403
1. 564 1. 583
1. 758
1. 970
1. 779
1992
1. 254 1. 270 1. 286 1. 303 1. 319 16
1. 421 1. 438 1. 456 1. 474 1. 491 17
1. 602 1. 621 1. 640 1. 659 1. 679 19
1. 799 1. 820 1. 841 1. 862 1. 883 21
2. 014 2. 037 2. 060 2. 083 2. 106 22
2. 153 2 177 2. 201 2. 225 2. 250 2. 274 2. 299
2401 2428 2. 454 2. 481 2. 507 2. 535 2. 562
2. 674 2 703 2 732 2 761 2. 790 2820 2. 850
2973 3. 005 3. 037 3069 3. 101 3. 134 3. 167
3303 3 337 3372 3. 408 3. 443 3479 3. 516
3665 3 703 3741 3. 780
4. 064 4. 106 4. 148 4 191
4. 503 4549 4. 596 4643
4. 988 5. 039 5. 090 5. 142
5. 522 5 578 5. 635 5. 693
6. 112 6. 174 6. 237 6. 300
6. 763 6. 831 6. 901 6. 971
7. 481 7. 557 7. 634 7. 711
8. 275 8. 359 8. 443 8. 529
9. 151 9. 244 9. 337 9 431
3. 820
4. 234
4. 691
5. 195
5. 751
6. 365
7. 042
7. 789
8. 615
9. 527
3. 859 3. 899
4. 278 4. 322
4739 4. 780
5. 248 5. 302
5810 5. 869
6. 429 6. 495
7. 113 7. 185
7. 868 7. 940
8. 702 8. 790
9623 9. 720
10. 12 10. 22
11. 19 11. 30
12. 37 12. 49
13. 67 13 81
15. 12 15. 27
10. 32 10. 43
11. 42 11. 53
12. 62 12. 75
13. 95 14. 09
15. 42 15. 58
10. 53 1064 10. 75 10. 86 10. 97 11
1165 11 76 11. 88 12. 00 12. 12 12
12. 88 13. 01 13. 14 13. 27 13. 40 13
14. 23 14. 38 14. 52 14. 67 14. 82 14
15. 73 15. 89 16. 05 16. 21 1638 16
3. 5 16. 54 16. 71 16. 88 17. 05 17. 22 17. 39 17. 57 17. 74
3. 6 18. 29 18. 47 18. 66 18. 84 19. 03 19. 22 19. 42 19. 61
3. 7 20. 21 20. 41 20. 62 20. 83 21. 04 21 25 21 46 21. 68
3 8 22. 34 22. 56 22. 79 2302 23. 25 23. 49 2372 23. 96
3. 9 24. 69 24. 94 2519 25. 44 25. 70 25. 96 26. 22 26. 48
4. 0 27. 29 27. 56
4. 1 30. 16 30. 47
42 33. 34 33. 67
43 36. 84 37. 21
4. 4 40. 72 41 13
27. 64
30. 77
34. 01
3759
41. 54
45. 91
50. 74
5608
61 98
68. 50
28. 12
31. 08
28. 40
31. 39
34. 70
38. 35
42 30
28. 69
31. 71
34. 35
37. 97
35. 05
38. 73
41. 96 42. 81
28. 98
32. 03
3540
39. 12
43. 24
4. 5 45. 00 45. 46
4 6 49. 74 50. 24
4. 7 54. 97 55. 52
4. 8 60. 75 61. 36
4. 9 67. 14 67. 82
4637
51. 25
56. 64
62. 60
69. 19
46. 84 47. 31
51. 77 52. 29
57. 21 57. 79
63. 23 63. 87
69. 88 70. 58
47. 79
52. 81
58. 37
64 51
71 29
29. 27
32. 35
35. 75
39. 52
43. 67
48. 27
53. 34
58. 96
65. 16
72. 01
5. 0 74. 20
Average
Di f f erence
2. 324
2. 590
2. 881
3. 200
3. 552
3. 940
4. 367
4. 837
5. 356
5. 929
6. 561
7. 258
8. 028
8. 879
9. 819
2. 350 25
2. 617 27
2. 911 30
3. 234 33
3. 589 36
3. 981
4. 412
4. 887
5. 411
5. 989
6. 627
7. 332
8. 110
8. 969
9. 918
39
44
48
53
58
64
71
79
87
96
17. 92
19. 81
21. 90
24. 20
26. 75
29. 56
32. 68
36. 11
39. 91
44. 11
18. 10 17
20. 01 19
22. 12 21
24. 45 24
27. 02 26
29. 86 29
33. 00 32
36. 48 35
4031 39
44. 56 43
40. 75 49. 24 47
53. 88 54. 42 52
59. 55 60. 15 58
65. 81 67. 47 64
72. 73 73. 46 71
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MATHEMATI C : AL TAB1 - ES&UNl TS&SYSTEMSOFWEl GHTS& MEASURES
0
I - 59
TABLE 1. 28- HYPERBOLI C COSI NES [ cash x
, =M( e* +e- ) I
Average
Di f f erence 9 x 1 2 3 4 5 6
1. 000 1 . ooo 1. 000 1. 001- 1. 001 1. 002
7 8
1. 002 1. 003
1. 014 1. 016
1. 037 1. 039
1. 069 1. 073
1. 112 1. 117
1. 167 1. 173
1. 233 1. 240
1. 311 1. 320
1. 403 1. 413
1. 509 1. 520
1. 629 1. 642
1. 766 1. 781
0. 0
01
0. 2
0. 3
0. 4
0. 5
1. 000 1. 004
1. 018
1. 042
1. 077
1. 122
1. 179
1. 248
1. 329
1. 423
1. 531
1. 655
1. 796
6
;
10
11
1. 921 1. 937 1. 954
2. 095 2. 113 2. 132
2. 331
13
14
16
18
20
2. 554
2. 802
3. 078
3. 385
3. 726
23
25
28
31
34
4. 104
4. 524
4. 988
5. 503
6. 072
38
42
47
52
58
6. 702 64
7. 400 70
a. 171 78
9. 024 86
9. 968 95
11. 01 11
12. 16 12
13. 44 13
14. 85 14
16. 41 16
l a. 13 17
20. 03 19
22. 14 21
24. 47 23
27. 04 26
29. 88 29
33. 02 32
36. 49 35
40. 33 39
44. 57 43
49. 25 47
54. 43 52
60. 15 58
66. 48 64
73. 47 71
1. 005 1. 006 1. 007 1. 008 1. 010 1. 011 1. 013
1. 020 1. 022 1. 024 1. 027 1. 029 1. 031 1. 034
1. 045
1. 081
1. 128
0. 6 1. 185
0. 7 1. 255
1. 052
1. 090
1. 138
1. 055 1. 058 1. 062 1. 066
1 094 1. 098 1. 103 1. 108
1. 198
1. 271
0. 8
0. 9
1. 337
1. 433
1. 048
1. 085
1. 133
1. 192
1. 263
1. 346
1. 443
1. 355
1. 454
1. 144 1. 149 1. 155 1. 161
1. 205 1. 212 1. 219 1. 226
1. 278 1. 287 1. 295 1. 303
1. 365 1. 374 1. 384 1. 393
1. 465 1. 475 1. 486 1. 497
1 . o 1. 543 1. 555 1. 567 1. 579 1. 591 1. 604 1. 616
1. 1 1. 669 1. 682 1. 696 1. 709 1. 723 1. 737 1. 752
1. 2 1. 811 1. 826 1. 841 1. 857 1. 872 1. 888 1. 905
1. 3 1. 971 1. 988 2. 005 2. 023 2. 040 2. 058 2. 076
1. 4 2. 151 2. 170 2. 189 2. 209 2. 229 2. 249 2. 269
1. 5 2. 352
1. 6 2. 577
1. 7 2. 828
1. 8 3. 107
1. 9 3. 418
2. 0 3. 762
2. 1 4. 144
2. 2 4. 568
2. 3 5. 037
2. 4 5. 557
2. 5
2. 6
2. 7
2. 8
2. 9
6. 132
6. 769
7. 473
8. 253
9. 115
10. 07
11. 12
12. 29
13. 57
15. 00
16. 57
18. 31
2. 290 2. 310
2. 507 2. 530
2. 750 2. 776
3. 021 3. 049
3. 321 3. 353
3. 655 3. 690
4. 026 4. 065
4. 436 4. 480
4. 891 4. 939
5. 395 5. 449
5. 954 6. 013
6. 571 6. 636
7. 255 7. 327
8. 011 a. 091
8. 847 8. 935
9. 772 9. 869
10. 79 10. 90
11. 92 12. 04
13. 17 13. 31
14. 56 14. 70
16. 08 16. 25
17. 77 17. 95
19. 64 19. 84
21. 70 21. 92
23. 98 24. 22
26. 50 26. 77
29. 29 29. 58
32. 37 32. 69
35. 77 36. 13
39. 53 39. 93
43. 68 44. 12
48. 28 48. 76
2 374 2. 395 2. 417 2. 439 2. 462 2. 484
2. 601 2. 625 2. 650 2. 675 2. 700 2. 725
2. 855 2. 882 2. 909
3. 137 3. 167 3. 197
3. 451 3. 484 3. 517
3. 799 3. 835 3. 873
4. 185 4. 226 4. 267
4. 613 4. 658 4. 704
5. 087 5. 137 5. 188
5. 612 5. 667 5. 723
2. 936 2. 964 2. 992
3. 228 3. 259 3. 290
3. 551 3. 585 3. 620
3. 910 3. 948 3. 987
4. 309 4. 351 4. 393
4. 750 4. 797 4. 844
5. 239 5. 290 5. 343
5. 780 5. 837 5. 895
6. 193 6. 255 6. 317 6. 379 6. 443 6. 507
6. 836 6. 904 6. 973 7. 042 7. 112 7. 183
7. 548 7. 623 7. 699 7. 776 7. 853 7. 932
8. 335 8. 418 8. 502 8. 587 8. 673 8. 759
9. 206 9. 298 9. 391 9. 484 9. 579 9. 675
10. 17 10. 27 10. 37 10. 48 10. 58 10. 69
11. 23 11. 35 11. 46 11. 57 11. 69 11. 81
12. 41 12. 53 12. 66 12. 79 12. 91 13. 04
13. 71 13. 85 13. 99 14. 13 14. 27 14. 41
15. 15 15. 30 15. 45 15. 61 15. 77 15. 92
16. 74 16. 91 17. 08 17. 25 17. 42 17. 60
18. 50 18. 68 18. 87 19. 06 19. 25 19. 44
20. 44 2064 20. 85 21. 06 21. 27 21. 49
22. 59 22. 81 23. 04 23. 27 23. 51 23. 74
24. 96 2521 25. 46 25. 72 25. 98 26. 24
27. 58
30. 48
33. 69
37. 23
41. 14
45. 47
50. 25
55. 53
61 37
67. 82
27. 86
30. 79
3402
3760
41 55
4592
5075
56. 09
61 99
68. 50
28. 14 28. 42 28. 71
31. 10 31 41 31. 72
34. 37 34 71 35. 06
3798 3836 38. 75
41. 97 4239 42. 82
46. 38 46. 85 47. 32
51. 26 51 78 52. 30
56. 65 57. 22 57. 80
62. 61 63. 24 63. 87
69. 19 69 a9 70. 59
29. 00
3204
3541
39. 13
4325
4780
5282
58. 38
64. 52
71. 30
3. 0
3. 1
3. 2
3. 3
3. 4
3. 5
3. 6
3. 7
3. 8
3. 9
20. 24
22. 36
24. 71
4. 0
4. 1
4. 2
4. 3
4. 4
4. 5
4. 6
4. 7
4. 8
4. 9
27. 31
30. 18
33. 35
36. 86
40. 73
45. 01
49. 75
54. 98
60 76
67. 15
5. 0 74. 21
57. 35 57. 89
58. 96 59. 56
65. 16 65. 82
72. 02 72. 74
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I - 60 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1. 29- HYPERBOLI C TANGENTS [ tanh x =( e - e - ) / ( e +e - ) =si nh xkosh x]
x 0
0. 0 0. 0000
0. 1 0. 0997
0 2 0. 1974
0. 3 0. 2913
0. 4 0. 3800
0. 5 0. 4621
0. 6 0. 5370
2 3
0. 0200 0. 0300
4
0. 0400
0. 1391
0. 2355
03275
04137
0 4930
0. 5649
5
0. 0500
6
0. 0599
0. 1587
0. 2543
0. 3452
0. 4301
0. 5080
0. 5784
a 9
0. 0898
0. 1878
0. 2821
0. 3714
0. 4542
Average
Di f f erence
0. 0699 0. 0798
0. 1684 01781
0. 2636 0. 2729
0. 3540 0. 3827
0. 4382 0. 4462
100
98
94
89
82
0. 5154 05227 0. 5299 75
0. 5850 0. 5915 0. 5980 67
0. 6469 0. 6527 0. 6584 60
0. 7014 0. 7064 0. 7114 52
0. 7487 0. 7531 0. 7574 45
39
33
28
24
20
17
14
11
9
8
0. 0100
0. 1096
0. 2070
0. 3004
0. 3885
0. 4700
0. 5441
0. 1194
0. 2165
0. 3095
0. 3969
0. 4777
0. 5511
0. 1293
0. 2260
0. 3185
0. 4053
0. 4854
0. 5581
0. 6231
0. 6805
0. 7306
0. 1489
0. 2449
0. 3364
0. 4219
0. 5005
0. 5717
0. 6352
0. 6911
0. 7398
0. 7 0. 6044 0. 6107 0. 6169
0. 8 0. 6640 0. 6696 0. 6751
0. 6291
0. 6858
0. 6411
0. 6963
0 9 0. 7163
1. 0 07616
1. 1 0. 8005
1. 2 0. 8337
1. 3 0. 8617
1. 4 0. 8854
1. 5 0. 9052
1. 6 0. 9217
1. 7 0. 9354
1. 8 0. 9468
1. 9 09562
2. 0 0. 9640
2. 1 0. 9705
2. 2 0 9757
2. 3 0 9801
2. 4 0 9837
0. 7211 0 7259
0. 7658
0. 8041
0. 8367
0. 8643
0. 8875
0. 9069
0. 9232
0. 9367
0. 9478
0. 9571
0. 7699
0. 8076
0. 8397
0. 8668
0. 8896
0. 9087
0. 9246
0. 9379
0. 9488
0. 9579
0. 9647 0. 9654
0. 9710 0. 9716
0. 9762 0. 9767
0. 9805 0. 9809
0. 9840 0. 9843
2. 5 0 9866 0. 9869
2. 6 0 9890 0. 9892
2. 7 0 9910 0. 9912
28 09926 0. 9928
0. 9871
0. 9895
0. 9914
0. 9929
0. 7352 0. 7443
0. 7739 0. 7779
0. 8110 0. 8144
0. 7818
0. 8178
0. 8483
0. 8741
0. 8957
0. 7857 0. 7895
0. 8210 0. 8243
0. 7932
0. 8275
0. 8565
0. 8810
0. 9015
0. 9186
0. 9329
0. 9447
0. 9545
0. 9626
0. 7969
0. 8306
0. 8591
0. 8832
0. 9033
0. 9202
0. 9342
0. 9458
0. 9554
0. 9633
0. 9699
0. 9753
0. 9797
0. 9834
0. 9863
0. 9888
0. 9908
0. 9925
0. 9938
0. 9950
0. 9992
0. 9999
0. 8426 0. 8455
0. 8693 0. 8717
0. 8917 0. 8937
0. 9104 0. 9121
0. 9261 0 9275
0. 9391 0. 9402
0. 9498 0. 9508
0. 9587 0. 9595
0. 9661 0 9668 0. 9674 0. 9680
0. 9727 0. 9732 0. 9738
0. 9776 0. 9780 0. 9785
0. 9816 0. 9820 0. 9823
0 9849 0. 9852 0. 9855
0. 8511
0. 8764
0. 8977
0. 9138 0. 9154
0. 9289 0. 9302
0. 9414 0. 9425
0. 9518 0. 9527
0. 9603 0. 9611
09876 0. 9879 0. 9881
09899 0. 9901 0. 9903
0. 8538
0. 8787
0. 8996
0. 9170
0. 9316
0. 9436
0. 9536
0. 9619
0. 9687
0. 9743
0. 9789
0. 9827
0. 9858
0. 9884
0. 9905
0. 9922
0. 9936
0. 9947
0. 9722
0. 9771
0. 9812
0. 9846
0. 9874
0. 9897
0. 9915
0. 9931
0. 9693
0. 9748
0. 9793
0. 9830
0. 9861
0. 9917
0. 9932
0. 9919
0. 9933
0. 9920
0. 9935
0. 9942 0. 9943 0. 9944 0. 9945 0. 9946
0. 9886
0. 9906
0. 9923
0. 9937
0. 9949
0. 9967 0. 9973 0. 9978 0. 9982 0. 9985 0. 9988 0. 9990
0. 9996 0. 9996 0. 9997 0. 9998 0. 9998 0. 9998 0. 9999
2. 9 0. 9940
3. 0 0. 9951
4. 0 0. 9993
5. 0 0. 9999
0. 9941
0. 9959
0. 9995
TABLE 1 J O- MULTI PLES OF 0. 4343 ( 0. 43429448 =
109 roe)
2
0. 0869
3 4 6
0. 0
5
0. 2171
8 9
0. 3474 0. 3909
1 . o
2. 0
0. 8252
1. 2595
3. 0
4. 0
0. 0000 0. 0434
0. 4343 0. 4777
0. 8686 0. 9120
1. 3029 1. 3463
1. 7372 1. 7806
0. 5212
0. 9554
1. 3897
1. 8240
0. 1303 0. 1737
0. 5646 0. 6080
0. 9989 1. 0423
14332 1. 4766
1. 8675 1. 9109
0. 6514
1. 0857
1. 5200
1. 9543
0. 2606 0. 3040
0. 6949 0. 7383
1. 1292 1. 1726
1. 5635 1. 6069
1. 9978 2. 0412
0. 7817
1. 2160
1. 6503
2. 0846
1. 6937
2. 1280
5. 0 2. 1715 2. 2149 2. 2583 2. 3018 2. 3452 2. 3886 2. 4320 2. 4755 2. 51 a9 2. 5623
6. 0 2. 6058 2. 6492 2. 6926 2. 7361 2. 7795 2. 8229 2. 8663 2. 9098 2. 9532 2. 9966
70 3. 0401 3. 0835 3. 1269 3. 1703 3. 2138 3. 2572 3. 3006 33441 3. 3875 3. 4309
80 3. 4744 3. 5178 3. 5612 3. 6046 3. 6481 3. 6915 3. 7349 3. 7784 3. 8218 3. 8652
9. 0 3. 9087 3. 9521 3. 9955 40389 4. 0824 4. 1258 4. 1692 4. 2127 4. 2561 4. 2995
TABLE 1. 31- MULTI PLES OF 2. 3026 ( 2. 3025851 =I n, , =110. 4343)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0. 2303 0. 4605 0. 6908 0. 9210 1. 1513 1. 3816 1. 6118 1. 8421
2. 5328 2. 7631 2. 9934 3. 2236 3. 4539 3. 6841 3. 9144 4. 1447
4. 8354 5. 0657 5. 2959 5. 5262 5. 7565 59867 6. 2170 6. 4472
7. 1380 7. 3683 75985 7. 8288 8. 0590 8. 2893 8. 5196 8. 7498
9. 4406 9. 6709 9 9011 10. 131 10. 362 10. 592 10. 822 11. 052
11. 743 11. 973 12. 204 12. 434 12. 664 12. 894 13. 125 13. 355
14046 14. 276 14. 506 14. 737 14967 15. 197 15. 427 15. 658
16. 348 16. 579 16 809 17039 17269 17. 500 17. 730 17. 960
18651 l a. 881 19111 19342 19572 19. 802 20. 032 20. 263
20. 954 21. 184 21 414 21. 644 21 875 22. 105 22. 335 22. 565
9 Y 0
0. 0000 0. 0 2. 0723
4. 3749
6. 6775
8. 9801
11 283
1. 0
2. 0
3. 0
4. 0
23026
4. 6052
6. 9078
9. 2103
5. 0 11 513
6. 0 13. 816
7. 0 16. 118
8. 0 18421
90 20. 723
13585
15. 888
18. 190
20. 493
22. 796
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MATHEMATl CALTABLES& UNl TS&SYSTEMSOFWEl GHTS& MEASURES
I - 61
TABLE 1. 32- STANDARD DI STRI BUTI ON
TABLE1. 33- FACTORS FORCOMPUTI NG
OFRESI DUALS
PROBABLEERROR
a/r yin
Di f f erence
Bessel Peters
0. 0 0. 000
0. 1 0. 054
0. 2 0. 107
0. 3 0. 160
0. 4 0. 213
0. 5 0264
0. 6 0. 314
0. 7 0 363
0. 8 0. 411
0. 9 0 456
1. 0 0. 500
1. 1 0. 542
1. 2 0. 582
1. 3 0. 619
1. 4 0. 655
1. 5 0. 688
1. 6 0. 719
1. 7 0748
1. 8 0. 775
1. 9 0. 800
2. 0 0823
2. 1 0. 843
2. 2 0 862
2. 3 0. 879
2. 4 0. 895
2. 5 0. 908
2. 6 0 921
2. 7 0. 931
2. 8 0. 941
2. 9 0. 950
3. 0 0. 957
3. 1 0. 963
3. 2 0 969
3. 3 0. 974
3. 4 0 978
3. 5 0 982
36 0985
3. 7 0 987
38 0990
3. 9 0991
4. 0 0993
5. 0 0. 999
54
53
53
53
51
50
49
48
45
44
42
40
37
36
33
31
29
27
25
23
20
19
17
16
13
13
10
I O
9
7
6
a = any posi ti ve quanti ty,
y = number of resi dual s that are
numeri cal l y smal l er than 1,
r = probabl e error of a si ngl e
observati on. and
n = number of observati ons.
0. 6745
n/ 2
W)
-
2 0. 6745
3 0. 4769
4 0. 3894
5 0. 3372
6 0. 3016
7 0. 2754
a 0. 2549
9 0. 2385
I O 0. 2248
11 0. 2133
12 0. 2034
13 0. 1947
14 o. l a7l
15 0. 1803
16 0. 1742
17 0. 1686
i a 0. 1636
19 0. 1590
20 0. 1547
21 0. 1508
22 0. 1472
23 0. 1438
24 0. 1406
25 0. 1377
26 0. 1349
27 0. 1323
28 0. 1298
29 0. 1275
30 0. 1252
31 0. 1231
32 0. 1211
z:
0. 1192
0. 1174
35 01157
36 0. 1140
37 0. 1124
38 0. 1109
39 0. 1094
40 0. 1080
45 0. 1017
50 0. 0964
55 0. 0918
60 0. 0878
65 0. 0843
70 0. 0812
75 0. 0784
a0 0. 0759
a5 0. 0736
90 0. 0715
95 0. 0696
100 0. 0678
0. 6745
\ l ; r( n- 1)
0. 4769
0. 2754
0. 1947
0. 1508
0. 1231
0. 1041
0. 0901
0. 0795
0. 0711
0. 0643
0. 0587
0. 0540
0. 0500
0. 0465
0. 0435
0. 0409
0. 0386
0. 0365
0. 0346
0. 0329
0. 0314
0. 0300
0. 0287
0. 0275
0. 0265
0. 0255
0. 0245
0. 0237
0. 0229
0. 0221
0. 0214
0. 0208
0. 0201
0. 0196
0. 0190
0. 0185
0. 0180
0. 0175
0. 0171
0. 0152
0. 0136
0. 0124
0. 0113
0. 0105
0. 0097
0. 0091
0. 0085
0. 0080
0. 0075
0. 0071
0. 0068
0. 8453 0. 8453
~~)
0. 5978
0. 3451
0. 2440
0. 1890
0. 1543
0. 1304
0. 1130
0. 0996
0. 0891
0. 0806
0. 0736
0. 0677
0. 0627
0. 0583
0. 0546
0. 0513
0. 0483
0. 0457
0. 0434
0. 0412
0. 0393
0. 0376
0. 0360
0. 0345
0. 0332
0. 0319
0. 0307
0. 0297
0. 0287
0. 0277
0. 0268
0. 0260
0. 0252
0. 0245
0. 0238
0. 0232
0. 0225
0. 0220
0. 0214
0. 0190
0. 0171
0. 0155
0. 0142
0. 0131
0. 0122
0. 0113
0. 0106
0. 0100
0. 0094
0. 0089
0. 0085
nm
04227
01993
0. 1220
0. 0845
00630
0 0493
0 0399
00332
00282
00243
0. 0212
00188
00167
00151
00136
00124
00114
00105
0 0097
0 0090
00084
00078
0. 0073
0 0069
00065
00061
00058
00055
00052
00050
00047
00045
0. 0043
00041
00040
00038
00037
00035
00034
00028
0. 0024
0. 0021
00018
0. 0016
00015
0. 0013
0. 0012
0. 0011
0. 0010
0. 0009
0. 0008
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1- 62 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK
TABLE1. 34- COMPOUND I NTEREST- AMOUNTOFAGI VEN PRI NCI PAL
The amount A at the end of n years of a gi ven pri nci pal P pl aced at compound I nterest today
i sA =Px xor A =Px yorA =P xz, accordi ng asi hei nterest( atthe rateof i percentperannum)
i scompounded annual l y, semtannual l y, or quarterl y; the f actorx or yorz bei ng taken f romthe
f ol l owi ng tabl es.
Val ues of x- I nterest Compounded Annual l y: A=Pxx
Years 2' / 2 3
1. 0300
1. 0609
1. 0927
11255
1. 1593
1. 1941
1. 2299
12668
13048
13439
1. 3842
3' 12
1. 0350
1. 0712
1. 1087
1. 1475
4 4' 12 5 6
1. 0400 10450 1. 0500 1. 0600
1. 0816 1. 0920 1. 1025 1. 1236
1. 1249 1. 1412 1. 1576 1. 1910
1. 1699 1. 1925 1. 2155 1. 2625
1. 1877 1. 2167 1. 2462 1. 2763 1. 3382
1. 2293 1. 2653 1. 3023 1. 3401 1. 4185
1. 2723 1. 3159 1. 3609 1. 4071 1. 5036
1. 3168 1. 3686 1. 4221 1. 4775 1. 5938
1. 3629 1. 4233 14861 1. 5513 1. 6895
7
1. 0700
1. 1449
12250
1. 3108
1. 4026
1. 5007
1. 6058
1. 7182
1. 8385
1. 9672
2. 1049
1. 0200 1. 0250
1. 0404 1. 0506
1. 0612
1. 0824
1. 1041
1. 1262
1. 1487
1. 1717
11951
1. 2190
1. 2434
1. 0769
1. 1038
8
9
10
11
1. 1314
1. 1597
1. 1887
1. 2184
1. 2489
12 1. 2682
13 1. 2936
14 1.3195
1.3459
1. 3728
1. 4002
1. 4282
1. 4568
1. 2801
1. 3121
1. 3449
1. 3785
1. 4130
15
16
17
18
19
1. 4483
1. 4845
1. 5216
1. 5597
1. 5987
20 1. 4859 1. 6386
25 1. 6406 1. 8539
30 1. 8114 2. 0976
40 2. 2080 2. 6851
50 2. 6916 3. 4371
60 3. 2810 4. 3998
1. 4106 1. 4802 1. 5530 1.6289 1.7908
1. 4600 1. 5395 1. 6229 1. 7103 1.8983
14258
14685
1. 5111
1. 5640
1. 6187
22522
2. 4098
2. 5785
1. 6753
1. 7340
1. 7947
18575
1. 9225
1. 6010 1. 6959 1.7959
1. 6651 1. 7722 1. 8856
1. 7317 1. 8519 1. 9799
1. 8009 1. 9353 2. 0789
1. 8730 2. 0224 2. 1829
1. 9479 2. 1134 2. 2920
2. 0258 2. 2085 2. 4066
2. 1068 2. 3079 2. 5270
2. 0122
2. 1329
2. 2609
2. 3966 2. 7590
2. 5404 2. 9522
2. 6928 3. 1588
2. 8543 3. 3799
3. 0256 3. 6165
1. 9898 2. 1911 2. 4117 2. 6533 3. 2071 3. 8697
2. 3632 2. 6658 3. 0054 3. 3864 4. 2919 5. 4274
2. 8068 3. 2434 3. 7453 4. 3219 5. 7435 7. 6123
3. 9593 4. 8010 5. 8164 7. 0400 10. 286 14. 974
5. 5849 7. 1067 9. 0326 11. 467 18. 420 29. 457
7. 8781 10. 520 14. 027 18. 679 32. 988 57. 946
15126
15580
1. 6047
1. 6528
1. 7024
1. 7535
1. 8061
20938
2. 4273
32620
43839
5. 8916
This table IS computed from the formula Y= 1 +(!/lClO)
Val ues of y- i nterest Compounded Semi annual l y: A =Pxy
Years i =2 2' / 2 3 3% 4 4%
~ 1. 0201 1. 0252 1. 0302 1. 0353 1 1. 0404 1. 0455
2 1. 0406 1. 0509 1. 0614 1. 0719 1. 0824 1. 0931
3 1. 0615 1. 0774 1. 0934 1. 1097 1. 1282 1. 1428
4 1. 0829 1. 1045 1. 1265 1. 1489 1. 1717 1. 1948
5 1. 1046 1. 1323 1. 1605 1. 1894 1. 2190 1. 2492
6 1. 1268 1. 1608 1. 1956 1. 2314 1. 2682 1. 3060
7 1. 1495 1. 1900 1. 2318 1. 2749 1. 3195 1. 3655
8 1. 1728 1. 2199 1. 2690 1. 3199 1. 3728 1. 4276
9 1. 1961 1. 2506 1. 3073 1. 3665 1. 4282 1. 4926
I O 1. 2202 1. 2820 1. 3469 1. 4148 1. 4859 1. 5605
11 1. 2447 1. 3143 1. 3876 1. 4647 1. 5480 1. 6315
12 2. 2697 1. 3474 1. 4295 1. 5164 1. 6084 1. 7058
13 1. 2953 1. 3812 1. 4727 1. 5700 1. 6734 1. 7834
14 1. 3213 1. 4160 1. 5172 1. 6254 1. 7410 1. 8645
15 1. 3478 1. 4516 1. 5631 1. 6828 1. 8114 1. 9494
16 1. 3749 1. 4881 1. 6103 1. 7422 1. 8845 2. 0381
17 1. 4026 1. 5256 1. 6590 1. 8037 1. 9607 2. 1308
18 1. 4308 1. 5639 1. 7091 1. 8674 2. 0399 2. 2278
19 1. 4595 1. 6033 1. 7608 1. 9333 2. 1223 2. 3292
20 1. 4889 1. 6436 1. 8140 2. 0016 2. 2080 2. 4352
25 1. 6446 1. 8610 2. 1052 2. 3808 2. 6916 3. 0420
30 1. 8167 2. 1072 2. 4432 2. 8318 3. 2810 3. 8001
40 2. 2167 2. 7015 3. 2907 4. 0064 4. 8754 5. 9301
50 2. 7048 3. 4634 4. 4320 5. 6682 7. 2446 9. 2540
60 3. 3004 4. 4402 5. 9693 8. 0192 10. 765 14. 441
This table IS computed from the formula y = t + (WOO)
6 7 5
1. 0506
1. 1038
1. 1597
12184
1. 2801
1. 3449
1. 4130
1. 4845
1. 5597
16386
1. 7216
1. 0609
I . 1255
1. 1941
1. 2668
1. 0712
1. 1475
1. 2293
1. 3168
1. 3439 1. 4106
1. 4258 1. 5111
1. 5126 1. 6187
1. 6047 1. 7340
17024 1. 8575
1. 8061
1. 9161
2. 0328
2. 1566
2. 2879
2. 4273
2. 5751
2. 7319
2. 8983
3. 0748
1. 9898
2. 1315
2. 2833
2. 4460
2. 6202
2. 8068
3. 0067
3. 2209
3. 4503
3. 6960
3. 2620
4. 3839
5. 8916
10. 641
19. 219
34. 711
3. 9593
5. 5849
7. 8781
15. 676
31. 191
62. 064
18087
1. 9003
1. 9965
2. 0976
2. 2038
2. 3153
2. 4325
2. 5557
2. 6851
3. 4371
4. 3998
7.2096
11. 814
19. 358
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MATHEMATl CALTABLES8, UNI TS& SYSTEMSOF WEI GHTS & MEASURES 1- 63
TABLE 1. 34- COMPOUND I NTEREST- AMOUNT OF A GI VEN PRI NCI PAL ( conti nued)
Values of z- - I nterest Compounded Quarterl y: A=Pxz'
Years 1=2
1.0202
1. 0407
1. 0617
1. 0831
1. 1049
1. 1272
1. 1499
1 1730
1. 1967
1. 2208
1. 2454
1. 2705
2112
1. 0252
1. 0511
1. 0776
1. 1048
1. 1327
1 1613
1. 1906
12206
12514
1. 2830
13154
1. 3486
1. 3826
14175
1. 4533
3
10303
1. 0616
10938
1 1270
3% 4
1. 0406
4% 5
1. 0355
1. 0722
1. 1102
1. 1496
1. 0458 1. 0509
1. 0829 1. 0936 1. 1045
1. 1268 1. 1437 1. 1608
1. 1726
1. 1612 1. 1903 12202
11964 12326 1. 2697
1. 2327 1. 2763 1. 3213
12701 1. 3215 1. 3749
1. 3086 1. 3684 1. 4308
1. 1960 1. 2199
1. 2508 1. 2820
1. 3080 1. 3474
1. 3679 1. 4160 1. 5172
14305 1. 4881 1. 6103
1. 4959 1. 5639
1. 3483 1. 4169 1. 4889 1. 5644 1. 6436
13893 14672 1. 5493 1. 6360 1. 7274
14314 1. 5192 1. 6122 1. 7108 1. 8154
14748 1. 5731 16777 1. 7891 1. 9078
1. 5196 1. 6288 1. 7458 1. 8710 2. 0050
1. 5657 1. 6866 1. 8167
1. 7464 1. 8905
1. 8063 1. 9672
1. 9566 2. 1072 2. 4432 2. 8318
2. 0462 22145 2. 5931 3. 0353
2. 1398 2. 3274 2. 7523 3. 2534
22378 2. 4459 2. 9212 3. 4872
2. 3402 2. 5705 3. 1004 3. 7378
6
1. 0614
1. 1265
1. 1956
1. 2690
1. 3469
1. 4295
7
1. 0719
1. 1489
1. 2314
1. 3199
1. 4146
1. 5164
1. 6254
1. 7422
1. 8674
2. 0016
2. 1454
2. 2996
2. 4648
2
4
5
6
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
1. 7091
1. 8140
1. 9253
2. 0435
2. 1689 1. 2961
1. 3222
2. 3020 2. 6420
1. 3489
16 1. 3760 1. 4900 1. 6132
17 1. 4038 1. 5276 1. 6621
18 1. 4320 1. 5661 17126 1. 8725 2. 0471
19 1. 4609 1. 6056 17645 1. 9389 2. 1302
20 1. 4903 1. 6462 1 8180 2. 0076 2. 2167 2. 4473 2. 7015 3. 2907 4. 0064
25 1. 6467 1. 8646 2. 1111 23898 2. 7048 3. 0609 3 4634 4. 4320 5. 6682
30 18194 2. 1121 2. 4514 28446 3. 3004 3. 8285 4. 4402 5. 9693 8. 0192
40 2. 2211 2. 7098 3. 3053 4. 0306 49138 5. 9892 7. 2980 10. 828 16051
50 27115 3. 4768 4. 4567 5. 7110 7. 3160 9. 3693 11. 995 19. 643 32. 128
60 3. 3102 44608 6. 0092 8. 0919 10893 14. 657 19. 715 35. 633 64. 307
'Th,s table IS compuled from ,he formula z= 1 +(,,400)111
TABLE 1. 35- AMOUNT OF AN ANNUI TY
The amount S accumul ated at the end of n years by a gi ven annual payment Y set asi de at the end of
each year i s S= Yx v. where the f actor \ I i s taken f romthe f ol l owi ng tabl e. ( I nterest at i percent per
annum, compounded annual l y)
Val ues of V*
Years
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
25
30
40
50
60
2% 3 A 7. 3%
1. 0000
2. 0350
3 1062
4. 2149
53625
65502
7. 7794
90517
10368
11 731
13. 142
14602
16113
17677
4 4' h 5
10000 10000 1 0000
2 0400 20450 20500
3. 1216 3. 1370 3. 1525
4. 2465 4. 2782 4. 3101
5. 4163 5. 4707 55256
66330 6. 7169 6. 8019
7. 8983 8. 0192 8. 1420
9. 2142 9. 3800 9. 5491
10. 583 10. 802 11. 027
12006 12. 288 12. 578
13. 486 13. 841 14. 207
15026 15. 464 15. 917
16627 17. 160 17. 713
18 292 18. 932 19. 599
20024 20. 784 21 579
21. 825 22. 719 23. 657
r=2
10000
20200
30604
41216
52040
63081
74343
85830
9. 7546
10. 950
12169
13. 412
14. 680
15974
17293
18639
10000 1. 0000
20250 2. 0300
1. 0000 1. 0000
2. 0600 2. 0700
3. 0756
4. 1525
5. 2563
3. 0909
41836
5. 3091
64684
7. 6625
8. 8923
10. 159
11. 464
12808
14192
15. 618
17086
18599
20157
3. 1836 3. 2149
4. 3746 4. 4399
5. 6371 5. 7507
6. 9753 7. 1533
8. 3938 8. 6540
9 8975 10260
11. 491 11. 978
13. 181 13. 816
14972 15784
16870 17888
18882 20. 141
21 015 22550
23276 25129
25673 27. 668
6. 3877
7. 5474
87361
9 9545
11. 203
12. 483
13. 796
15. 140
16519
17. 932
19. 380
19296
20971
22705
24500
20012 20. 865 21 762
21 412 22386 23. 414
23 698
27. 671
24. 742
29. 064
25840
30. 539
29. 778 31 371
25. 645
33. 066
41. 646
26. 855
44. 565
28. 132
47. 727
56. 085 61. 007 66. 439
95. 026 107. 03 120. 80
152. 67 17850 209. 35
237. 99 289 50 353. 58
33 760 37. 379
28213 30840
30906 33. 999
22. 841 23. 946 25. 117 26357
26 870 28280
36. 459 38950
47. 575 51 623
75. 401 84. 550
112. 80 131 00
163. 05 19652
24297 25545
32030 34. 158
36786 40. 995
54865 63249
40568 43. 903
60. 402 67403
84. 579 97484
11405 135. 99
79058 94461
154. 76 19964
290. 34 406. 53
533. 13 81352
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1- 64 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1. 36- PRI NCI PAL AMOUNTI NG TO A GI VEN SUM
The pnnci pal P whrch. tf pl aced at compound i nterest today, wi l l amount to a gi ven sum A at the
end of n years I S P=A xx' or P=A xy' or P= A xz' , accordi ng as the i nterest ( at the rate of i percent
per annum) i s compounded annual l y, semi annual l y, orquarterl y; thef actorx' or y' orz' bei ngtaken
f romthe f ol l owi ng tabl es.
Val ues of x, - I nterest Compounded Annual l y: P=A xx
Years
9
10
i =2
0. 98039
0. 96117
0 94232
0. 92385
0 90573
0. 88797
0. 87056
0. 85349
0. 83676
0. 82035
2%
0. 97561
0. 95181
0. 92860
0. 90595
3
0 97087
0 94260
091514
0 88849
3%
0. 96618
0. 93351
0. 90194
0. 87144
0. 88385 0. 86261 0. 84197
0. 86230 083748 0. 81350
0. 84127 0 81309 0. 78599
0. 82075 0. 78941 0. 75941
0. 80073 0. 76642 0. 73373
0. 78120 0. 74409 0. 70892
4 4%
0. 96154 0. 95694
0. 92456 0. 91573
0. 88900 0. 87630
0. 85480 0. 83856
0. 82193 0. 80245
0. 79031 0. 76790
0. 75992 0. 73483
0. 73069 0. 70319
0. 70259 0. 67290
0. 67556 0. 64393
5 6 7
0. 95238 0. 94340 0. 93458
0. 90703 0. 89000 0. 87344
0. 86384 0. 83962 0. 81630
0. 82270 0. 79209 0. 76290
0. 78353 0. 74726 0. 71299
074622 0. 70496 0. 66634
0. 71068 0. 66506 0. 62275
067684 0. 62741 0. 58201
0. 64461 0. 59190 0. 54393
0. 61391 0. 55839 0. 50835
11 0. 80426 076214 0. 72242 068495 0. 64958 0. 61620 0. 58468 0. 52679 0. 47509
12 0. 78849 0. 74356 0. 70138 0. 66178 0. 62460 0. 58966 0. 55684 0. 49697 0. 44401
13 0. 77303 0. 72542 0. 68095 0. 63940 0. 60057 0. 56427 0. 53032 0. 46884 0. 41496
14 0. 75788 0. 70773 0. 66112 0. 61778 0. 57748 0. 53997 0. 50507 0. 44230 0. 38783
15 0. 74301 0. 69047 0. 64186 0. 59689 0. 55526 0. 51672 0. 48102 0. 41727 0. 36245
16 0. 72845 0. 67362 0. 62317 0. 57671 0. 53391 0. 49447 0. 45811 0. 39365 0. 33873
17 0. 71416 0. 65720 0. 60502 0. 55720 0. 51337 0. 47318 0. 43630 0. 37136 0. 31657
18 0. 70016 0. 64117 0. 58739 0. 53839 0. 49363 0. 45280 0. 41552 0. 35034 0. 29586
19 0. 68643 0. 62553 0. 57029 0. 52016 0. 47464 0. 43330 0. 39573 0. 33051 0. 27651
20 0. 67297 0 61027 0. 55368 0. 50257 0. 45639 0. 41464 0. 37689 0. 31180 0. 25842
25 0. 60953 0. 53939 0. 47761 0. 42315 0. 37512 0. 33273 0 29530 0. 23300 0. 18425
30 0. 55207 0. 47674 0. 41199 0. 35628 0. 30832 0. 26700 0. 23138 0. 17411 0. 13137
40 0. 45289 0. 37243 0. 30656 0. 25257 0. 20829 0. 17193 0. 14205 0. 09722 0. 06678
50 0. 37153 0. 29094 0. 22811 0. 17905 0. 14071 0. 11071 0. 08720 0. 05429 0. 03395
60 0 30478 0. 22728 0. 16973 0. 12693 0. 09506 0. 07129 0. 05354 0. 03031 0. 01726
Val ues of y' - I nterest Compounded Semi annual l y: P=Axy
Years i =2 2% 3 3% 4 4% 5 6 7
1 0. 98030 0. 97546 097066 0. 96590 0. 96117 0. 95647 0. 95181 0. 94260 0. 93351
2 0. 96098 0. 95152 094218 0. 93296 0. 92385 0. 91484 0. 90595 0. 88849 0. 87144
3 0. 94205 0. 92817 0. 91454 0 90114 0. 88797 0. 87502 0. 86230 0. 83748 0. 81350
4 0. 92348 0. 90540 0. 88771 0 87041 0. 85349 0. 83694 0. 82075 0. 78941 0. 75941
5 0. 90529 0. 88318 0. 86167 0 84073 0. 82035 0. 80051 0. 78120 0. 74409 0. 70892
6 0. 88745 0. 86151 0. 83639 0 81206 0. 77849 0. 76567 0. 74356 0. 70138 0. 66178
7 0. 86996 0. 84037 0. 81185 0 78436 0. 75788 0. 73234 0. 70773 0. 66112 0. 61778
8 0. 85282 0. 81975 0. 78803 0. 75762 0. 72845 0. 70047 0. 67362 062317 0. 57671
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
0. 83602 0. 79963 0. 76491 0 73178 0. 70016 0. 66998 0. 64117 0 58739 0. 53836
0. 81954 0. 78001 0. 74247 0. 70682 0. 67297 0. 64082 0. 61027 055368 0. 50257
0. 80340 0. 76087 0. 72069 0. 68272 0. 64684 0. 61292 0. 58086 052189 0. 46915
0. 78757 0. 74220 0. 69954 0. 65944 0. 62172 0. 58625 0. 55288 049193 0. 43796
077205 0. 72398 0. 67902 0 63695 0. 59758 0. 56073 0. 52623 0 46369 0. 40884
0. 75684 0. 70622 0. 65910 061523 0. 57437 0. 53632 0. 50088 043708 0. 38165
0. 74192 0. 68889 0. 63976 0 59425 0. 55207 0. 51298 0. 47674 041199 0. 35628
0. 72730 0. 67198 0. 62099 0 57398 0. 53063 0. 49065 045377 038834 0 33259
0. 71297 0. 65549 0. 60277 0 55441 0. 51003 0. 46930 0. 43191 0. 36604 0. 31048
18 069892 0. 63941 058509 0. 53550 0. 49022 0. 44887 0. 41109 0. 34503 0. 28983
19 0. 68515 0. 62372 056792 051724 0. 47119 0. 42933 0. 39128 0. 32523 0. 27056
20 0. 67165 0. 60841 0 55126 0. 49960 0. 45289 0. 41065 0. 37243 0. 30656 0. 25257
25 060804 0. 53734 047500 042003 0. 37153 032873 0. 29094 0. 22811 0. 17905
30 055045 0. 47457 040930 035313 030478 0. 26315 0. 22728 0. 16973 0. 12693
40 0. 45112 0. 37017 0 30389 0. 24960 0. 20511 0. 16863 0. 13870 0. 09398 0. 06379
50 0. 36971 0. 28873 0 22563 0. 17642 0. 13803 0. 10806 0. 08465 0. 05203 0. 03206
60 0. 30299 0. 22521 016752 0. 12470 0. 09289 0. 06925 005166 002881 001611
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MATHEMATI CALTABLES & UNI TS &SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES 1- 65
TABLE 1. 36- PRI NCI PAL AMOUNTI NG TO A GI VEN SUM ( conti nued)
Val ues of z - I nterest Comoounded Quarterl v: P=A xz*
Years i =2 2% 3 3% 4 4% 5 6 7
1 0. 98025 0. 97539 0. 97055 0. 96575 0. 96098 0. 95624 0. 95152 0. 94218 0. 93296
2 0. 96089 0. 95138 0. 94198 0. 93266 0. 92348 0. 91439 0. 90540 0. 88771 0. 87041
3 0. 94191 0. 92796 0. 91424 0. 90074 0. 88745 0. 87437 0. 86151 0. 83639 0. 81206
4 0. 92330 0. 90512 0. 88732 0. 86989 0. 85282 0. 83611 0. 81975 0. 78803 0. 75762
5 0. 90506 0. 88284 086119 0. 84010 0. 81954 0. 79952 0. 78001 074247 0. 70682
6 0. 88719 0. 86111 0. 83583 0. 81132 0. 78757 0. 78453 0. 74220 0. 69954 0. 65944
7 0. 86966 0. 83991 0. 81122 0 78354 0. 75684 0. 73107 0. 70622 0. 65910 0. 61523
8 0. 85248 0. 81924 0. 78733 0 75670 0. 72730 0.89908 0. 87198 0.62099 0.57390
9 0. 83564 0. 79908 0. 76415 0 73079 0. 69892 0.66849 0. 63941 0.58509 0. 53550
I O 0. 81914 0. 77941
11 0. 80296 0. 76022
12 0. 78710 0. 74151
13 0. 77155 0. 72326
14 0. 75631 0. 70546
0. 60841 0. 55126 0. 49960
0. 57892 0. 51939 0. 46611
0. 55086 0 48936 0. 43486
0. 52415 046107 0. 40570
0. 49874 0. 43441 0. 37851
15
16
17
18
19
20
25
30
40
50
60
0. 74137 0. 68809
0. 72673 0. 67115
0. 71237 0. 65464
0. 69830 0. 63852
0. 68451 0. 62281
0. 74165 070576 0. 67165 0.63923
0. 71981 068159 0. 64545 0. 61126
0. 69861 065825 0. 62026 0. 58451
0. 67804 0. 63570 0. 59606 0. 55893
0. 65808 0. 61393 0. 57280 0. 53447
0. 63870 0. 59291 0. 55045 0. 51108
0. 61989 0. 57260 0. 52897 0. 48871
0. 60164 0 55299 0. 50833 0. 46733
0. 58392 0. 53405 0. 48850 0. 44687
0. 56673 0. 51576 0. 46944 0. 42732
0. 47457
0. 45156
0. 42967
0. 40884
0. 38903
0. 67099 0. 60748
0. 60729 0. 53630
0. 54963 0. 47347
0. 45023 0. 36903
0. 36880 0. 28762
0. 30210 0. 22417
0. 55004 0. 49810 0. 45112 0. 40862 0. 37017
0. 47369 041845 0. 36971 0. 32670 0. 28873
0. 40794 035154 0. 30299 0. 26120 0. 22521
0. 30255 0. 24810 0. 20351 0. 16697 0. 13702
0. 22438 0. 17510 0. 13669 0. 10673 0. 08337
0. 16641 012358 0. 09181 0. 06823 0. 05072
0. 40930 0. 35313
0. 38563 0. 32946
0. 36334 0. 30737
0. 34233 0. 28676
032254 0. 26754
0. 30389 0. 24960
0. 22563 0. 17642
0. 16752 0. 12470
0. 09235 0. 06230
0. 05091 0. 03113
0. 02806 0. 01555
'The formula used for this lable IS L'= [l +(1/100)] = l/z
TABLE 1. 37- ANNUI TY AMOUNTI NG TO A GI VEN SUM ( SI NKI NG FUND)
The annual payment, V, whi ch, i f set asi de at the end of each year, wi l l amount wi th accumul ated
i nteresttoagi vensumSattheendof nyearsi s Y=Sxv' , wherethef actorv' i sgi ven bel ow. I nterest
i s i percent per annum, compounded annual l y. )
Val ues of v"
Years
2
3
4
5
6
8
9
i=2
0.49505
0. 32675
024262
019216
015853
013451
0. 11651
010252
2% 3 3% 4 4% 5 6 7
0. 49383 0. 49261 0. 49140 0. 49020 0. 48900 0. 48780 0. 48544 0 48309
0. 32514 0. 32353 0. 32193 0. 32035 0. 31877 0. 31721 0. 31411 031105
0. 24082 0. 23903 0. 23725 0. 23549 0. 23374 0. 23201 0. 22859 022523
0. 19025 0. 18835 0. 18648 0 18463 0. 18279 0. 18097 0. 17740 017389
0. 15655 0. 15460 0. 15267 0. 15076 0. 14888 0. 14702 0. 14336 0 13980
013250 013051 0. 12854 012661 0. 12470 0. 12282 011914 011555
0. 11447 0. 11246 0. 11048 0. 10853 0. 10661 0. 10472 0. 10104 0 09747
0. 10046 0. 09843 0. 09645 0. 09449 0. 09257 0. 09069 0. 08702 0 08349
10 009133 0. 08926 0. 08723 0. 08524 008329 0. 08138 0. 07950 0. 07587 007238
11 0. 08218 0. 08011 0. 07808 0. 07609 0. 07415 0. 07225 0. 07039 0. 06679 0. 06336
12 0 07456 0. 07249 0. 07046 0. 06848 0. 06655 0. 06467 0. 06283 0. 05928 0. 05590
13 006812 0. 06605 0. 06403 0. 06206 0. 06014 0. 05828 0. 05646 0. 05296 004965
14
15
16
17
18
19
0. 06260
0. 05783
0. 05365
0 04997
0. 04670
0. 04378
20 0. 04116
25 003122
30 0. 02465
40 0. 01656
50 0. 01182
60 0. 00877
0. 06054
0. 05577
0. 05160
0. 04793
0. 04467
0. 04176
0. 03915
0. 02928
0. 02278
0. 01484
0. 01026
0. 00735
0. 05853
0. 05377
0. 04961
0. 04595
0. 04271
0. 03981
0. 03722
0. 02743
0. 02102
0. 01326
0. 00887
0. 00613
0. 05657 005467 0. 05282
0. 05183 0. 04994 0. 04811
0. 04768 0. 04582 0. 04402
0. 04404 0. 04220 0. 04042
0. 04082 0. 03899 0. 03724
0. 03794 003614 0. 03441
0. 03536 003358 0. 03188
0. 02567 002401 0. 02244
0. 01937 001783 0. 01639
0. 01183 0. 01052 0. 00934
0. 00763 000655 0. 00560
0. 00509 0. 00420 0. 00345
0. 05102
0. 04634
0. 04227
0. 03870
0. 03555
0. 03275
0. 03024
0. 02095
0. 01505
0. 00828
0. 00478
0. 00283
0. 04758
0. 04296
0. 03895
0. 03544
0. 03236
0. 02962
0. 02718
0. 01823
0. 01265
0. 00646
0. 00344
0. 00188
0. 04434
0. 03979
0. 03586
003243
0. 02941
0. 02675
0. 02439
0. 01581
0. 01059
0. 00467
000238
0. 00121
'The fctmula used for this table IS v'=(1/100111~[1 +(r/IOOJ] - 1 I = II"
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l - 66 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1. 38- PRESENT WORTHOFAN ANNUI TY
Thecaprtal C, whi ch. tf pl aced al i nteresttoday, wrl l provi de f or a gi ven annual payment Yf or a term
of "years bef ore i t I S exhausted i s C= YX w, wherethef actor w I S gi ven bel ow ( I nterestati percent
per annum, compounded annual l y. )
Val ues of w*
Years / =2 2% 3 3% 4 4% 5 6 7
1 0. 9804 0. 9756 0. 9709 0. 9662 0. 9615 0. 9569 0. 9524 0. 9434 0. 9346
2 1. 9416
3 2. 8839
4 3. 8077
5 4. 7135
6 5. 6014
i
6. 4720
7. 3255
9 8. 1622
10 8. 9826
11 9. 7868
1.9274
2. 8560
3. 7620
4. 6458
5. 5081
6. 3494
7. 1701
7. 9709
1. 9135 1. 8997 1. 8861 1. 8727 1. 8594 1. 8334
2. 8286 2. 8016 2. 7751 2. 7490 2. 7232 2. 6730
3. 7171 3. 6731 3. 6299 3. 5875 3. 5460 3. 4651
4. 5797 4. 5151 4. 4518 4. 3900 4. 3295 4. 2124
5. 4172 5. 3286 5. 2421 5. 1579 5. 0757 4. 9173
6. 2303 6. 1145 6. 0021 5. 8927 5. 7864 5. 5824
7. 0197 6. 8740 6. 7327 6. 5959 6. 4632 6. 2098
7. 7861 7. 6077 7. 4353 7. 2688 7. 1078 6. 8017
1. 8080
2. 6243
3. 3872
4. 1002
4. 7665
5. 3893
5. 9713
6. 5152
8. 7521 8. 5302 8. 3166 8. 1109 7. 9127 7. 7217 7. 3601 7. 0236
9. 5142 9. 2526 9. 0016 8. 7605 8. 5289 8. 3064 7. 8869 7. 4987
12 10. 575 10. 258 9. 9540 9 6633 9 3851 9. 1186 8. 8633 8. 383% 7. 9427
13 11. 348 10983 10. 635 10303 9. 9856 9. 6829 9. 3936 8. 8527 8. 3577
14 12. 106 11. 691 11. 296 10921 10. 563 10. 223 9. 8986 9. 2950 8. 7455
15 12. 849 12. 381 11. 938 11. 517 11. 118 10. 740 10. 380 9. 7122 9 1079
16 13. 578 13. 055 12. 561 12. 094 11. 652 11. 234 10. 838 10 106 9. 4466
17 14. 292 13. 712 13. 166 12. 651 12. 166 11. 707 i l . 274 10. 477 9. 7632
18 14992 14. 353 13. 754 13190 12. 659 12. 160 11. 690 10. 828 10. 059
19 15. 678 14. 979 14. 324 13. 710 13. 134 12. 593 12065 11. 158 10. 336
20 16. 351 15. 589 14. 877 14. 212 13. 590 13. 008 12. 462 11. 470 10. 594
25 19. 523 18. 424 17. 413 16. 482 1562' 2 14. 828 14093 12. 783 11. 654
30 22. 396 20. 930 19. 600 18. 392 17. 292 16. 289 15. 372 13. 765 12. 409
40 27. 355 25. 103 23. 115 21 355 19. 793 18. 402 17. 159 15. 046 13. 332
50 31. 424 28. 362 25. 730 23. 456 21. 482 19. 762 18. 256 15. 762 13 801
60 34. 761 30. 909 27. 676 24. 945 22. 623 20. 638 18. 929 16. 161 14. 039
The formula used lor thls t abl e I S w = : 1 - [ 1 +( l / l OO) ] I / ( r / l oo, =" i x
TABLEl . 39- ANNUI TY PROVI DED FOR BYAGI VENCAPI TAL
The annual payment Yprovi ded f or f or a termof n years by agi ven capi tal cpl aced ati nteresttoday
i s Y=Cx w' . I nterest at i percent per annum, compounded annual l y; the f und i s supposed l o be
exhausted at the end of the term.
Val ues of w"
Years i=2 2% 3 3% 4 4% 5 6 7
~ 2 0. 51505 0. 51883 0. 52261 0. 52640 0. 53020 0. 53400 0. 53780 0. 54544 0. 55309
3 0. 34675 0. 35014 0. 35353 035693 0. 36035 0. 36377 0. 36721 0. 37411 0. 38105
4 0. 26262 0. 26582 0. 26903 0. 27225 0. 27549 0. 27874 0. 28201 0. 28859 0. 29523
E 0. 21216 0. 17853 0. 21525 0. 18155 021835 018460 0. 22148 0. 18767 0. 22463 0. 19076 0. 22779 0. 19388 0. 23097 019702 0. 23740 0. 20336 0. 24389 0. 20980
7 0. 15451 0. 15750 0 16051 0. 16354 0. 16661 0. 16970 0. 17282 0. 17914 0. 18555
8 0. 13651 0. 13947 0. 14246 0. 14548 0. 14853 0. 15161 0 15472 0. 16104 0. 16747
9 0. 12252 0. 12546 0. 12843 0. 13145 0. 13449 0. 13757 0. 14069 0. 14702 0. 15349
10 0. 11133 0. 11426 0. 11723 0. 12024 0. 12329 0. 12638 0. 12950 0. 13587 0. 14238
11 0. 10218 0. 10511 0. 10808 0. 11109 0. 11415 0. 11725 0. 12039 0. 12679 0. 13336
12 0. 09456 0. 09749 0. 10046 0. 10348 0. 10655 0. 10967 0. 11283 0. 11928 0. 12590
13 0. 08812 0. 09105 0. 09403 0. 09706 0. 10014 0. 10328 0. 10646 0. 11296 0. 11965
14 0. 08260 0. 08554 0. 08853 0. 09157 0. 09467 0. 09782 0. 10102 0. 10758 0. 11434
15 0. 07783
16 0. 07365
17 0. 06997
18 0. 06670
19 0. 06378
20 0. 06116
25 0. 05122
30 0. 04465
40 0. 03656
50 0. 03182
60 0. 02877
0. 08077
0. 07660
0. 07293
0. 06967
0. 06676
0. 06415
0. 05428
0. 04778
0. 03984
0. 03526
0. 03235
0. 08377 0. 08683 0. 08994 0. 09311 0. 09634 0. 10296 0. 10979
0. 07961 0. 08268 0. 08582 0. 08902 0. 09227 0. 09895 0. 10586
0. 07595 0. 07904 0. 08220 0. 08542 008870 0. 09544 0. 10243
0. 07271 0. 07582 0. 07899 0. 08224 0. 08555 0. 09236 0. 09941
0. 06981 0. 07294 0. 07614 0 07941 0. 08275 0. 08962 0. 09675
0. 06722 0. 07036 0. 07358 0. 07688
0. 05743 0. 06067 0. 06401 0. 06744
0. 05102 0. 05437 0. 05783 0. 06139
0. 04326 0. 04683 0. 05052 0. 05434
0. 03887 0. 04263 0. 04655 0. 05060
0. 03613 0. 04009 0. 04420 0. 04845
0. 08024 0. 08718
0. 07095 0. 07823
0. 06505 0. 07265
0. 05828 0. 06646
0. 05478 0. 06344
0. 05283 0. 06188
0. 09439
0. 08581
0. 08059
0. 07467
0. 07238
0. 07121
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MATHEMATl CALTABLES&UNl TS&SYSTEMSOFWEl GHTS& MEASURES 1- 67
0
2'
3'
4'
5'
6'
7'
8'
9'
I O'
11'
12'
13'
14'
15'
16'
17'
18'
19'
20'
21'
22'
23'
24'
25'
26'
27'
20'
29'
30'
31'
32'
33'
34'
35'
36'
37'
30'
39'
40'
41'
42'
43'
44'
45'
46'
47'
40'
49'
50'
51'
52'
53'
54'
55'
56'
57'
58'
59'
60'
From Mrnutes and
Seconds i nto Deci mal
Parts of a Degree
0~. 0000 0' 00 . oooo
0~0167 1 " 0?0003
00. 0333 2" 0. 0006
00. 05 3" 0" 0008
00. 0667 4" 0~. 0011
00. 0833 5" 0~. 0014
00. 10 6" 0~. 0017
O". 1167 7" 0". 0019
00. 1333 8" 000022
0". 15 9" 0". 0025
00 1667 10" 0" 0028
OO. 1833 11" 0~. 0031
00 20 12" 000033
OO. 2167 13" On. 0036
OO. 2333 14" 00. 0039
OO. 25 1 5" 0' . 0042
OO. 2667 16" 00. 0044
O" 2833 17" 00 0047
00. 30 1 8" 00. 005
00. 3167 19" 00. 0053
00. 3333 20" 0' . 0056
00. 35 21" O". 0058
0". 3667 22" 0". 0061
OO. 3833 23" 0?0064
00. 40 24" 0". 0067
0. 4167 25" 0~. 0069
OO. 4333 26" 0". 0072
00. 45 27" 00. 0075
OO. 4667 28" 0' . 0078
OO. 4833 29" 00081
00. 50 30" O". 0083
OO. 5167 31" OO. 0086
OO. 5333 32" 0" 0089
00. 55 33" 00 0092
OO. 5667 34" 0" 0094
OO. 5833 35" 0?0097
OO. 60 36" O". Ol
OO. 6167 37" 0?0103
OO. 6333 38" 0". 0106
OO. 65 39" O". 0108
OO. 6667 40" O?Ol l l
OO. 6833 41" 0~. 0114
00. 70 42 " 00. 0117
OO. 7167 43" 0?0119
00. 7333 44" 00. 0122
00. 75 45 I ' OO. 0125
OO. 7667 46" OO. 0128
O" 7833 47" 0?0131
O". l 30 48" 00. 0133
0' =. 8167 49 " 0?0136
OO. 8333 50" 0". 0139
OO. 85 51 " 0. 0142
OO. 8667 52" oa. 0144
OO. 8833 53" 000147
0". 90 54 VI 0". 015
OO. 9167 55 ' I 00. 0153
00 9333 56" OO. 0156
00 95 57" 0' . 0158
OO. 9667 58" O". 0161
OO. 9833 59" OYO164
10. 00 60" 00. 0167
TABLE 1. 40- DECI MAL EQUI VALENTS
Common Fractrons
From Decrmal Parts of
a Degree i nto Mi nutes
and Seconds ( exact val uesi
30.00
I O. 01
I O. 02
I O. 03
I O. 04
I O. 05
I O. 06
30. 07
I O. 08
Y. 09
30. 10
I O. 11
30. 12
Y. 13
I O. 14
I O. 15
I O. 16
I O. 17
I O. 18
I O. 19
I O. 20
10 21
I O. 22
I O. 23
I " 24
I O. 25
I O. 26
I O. 27
I O. 28
10 29
I O. 30
I O. 31
I " 32
I O. 83
I O. 34
I O. 35
I O. 36
I O. 37
I O. 38
I O. 39
30. 40
I F. 41
I O. 42 25' 12" 00. 92 55' 12"
I O. 43 25' 48" 00 93 55' 48"
I O. 44
I O. 45
I O. 46
I O. 47
I O. 48
30 49
I ". 50
0
0' 36"
1' 12"
1' 48"
2' 24"
3'
3' 36"
4' 12"
4' 48"
5' 24"
6'
6' 36"
7' 12"
7' 48"
8' 24"
9'
9' 36"
I O' 12"
10' 48"
11' 24"
12'
12' 36"
13' 12"
13' 48"
14' 24"
15'
15' 36"
16' 12"
16' 48"
17' 24"
18'
18' 36"
19' 12"
19' 48"
20' 24"
21'
21' 36"
22' 12"
22' 48"
23' 24"
24'
24' 36"
26' 24"
27'
27' 36"
28' 12"
28' 48"
29' 24"
30'
00. 50
00 51
OO. 52
00. 53
00. 54
00. 55
O" 56
00. 57
OO. 58
00. 59
OO. 60
OO. 61
00 62
OO. 63
OO. 64
0". 65
00 66
OO. 67
00. 68
O" 69
OO. 70
00. 71
O" 72
00 73
0" 74
00. 75
0" 76
00 77
0". 78
00. 79
00. 80
OO. 81
0". 82
OO. 83
0". 84
OO. 85
00. 86
0' 87
00 88
O" 89
00. 9c
00 91
00. 94 56' 24"
00 95 57'
0". 96 57' 36"
00. 97 58' 12"
0". 98 58' 48"
00. 99 59' 24"
I ". 00 60'
30
30' 36"
31' 12"
31' 48"
32' 24"
33'
33' 36"
34' 12"
34' 48"
35' 24"
36'
36' 36"
37' 12"
37' 48"
38' 24"
39'
39' 36"
40' 12"
40' 48"
41' 24"
42'
42' 36"
43' 12"
43' 48"
44' 24"
45'
45' 36"
46' 12"
46' 48"
47' 24"
48'
48' 36"
49' 12"
49' 48"
50' 24"
51'
51' 36"
52' 12"
52' 48"
53' 24"
54'
54' 36"
0.000 0 .o
O%OOl 3" 6
0". 002 7" 2
00. 003 10" . 8
00. 004 14" . 4
0?005 1 8"
O". 006 21" . 6
00. 007 25" . 2
0. 008 28" 8
00. 009 32" 4
O". OI O 36"
16ths 32nds
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Exact
Decrmal
64ths Val ues
1 0. 01 5625
2 0. 03 125
3 0. 04 6875
4 0. 06 25
5 0. 07 8125
6 009 375
7 0. 10 9375
8 0. 12 5
9 0. 14 0625
10 0. 15 625
11 017 1875
12 0. 18 75
13 0. 20 3125
14 0. 21 875
15 0. 23 4375
16 0. 25
17 026 5625
18 0. 28 125
19 0. 29 6875
20 031 25
21 0. 32 8125
22 0. 34 375
23 035 9375
24 0. 37 5
25 0. 39 0625
26 0. 40 625
27 0. 42 1875
28 0. 43 75
29 0. 45 3125
30 0. 46 875
31 0. 48 4375
32 0. 50
33 051 5625
34 0. 53 125
35 0. 54 6875
36 0. 56 25
37 0. 57 8125
38 059 375
39 060 9375
40 0. 62 5
41 0. 64 0625
42 0. 65 625
43 0. 67 1875
44 068 75
45 0. 70 3125
46 0. 71 a75
47 0. 73 4375
48 0. 75
49 0. 76 5625
50 0. 78 125
51 0. 79 6875
52 0. 81 25
53 0. 82 8125
54 0. 84 375
55 0. 85 9375
56 0. 87 5
57 0. 89 0625
58 0. 90 625
59 0. 92 1875
60 0. 93 75
61 0. 95 3125
62 0. 96 875
63 0. 98 4375
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Units and Systems of Weights
and Measures
L.E. Barbrow. U.S. N,itl Bureau of Standards
The U.S. Natl. Bureau of Standards was established by
act of congress in 1901 to serve as a national scientific
laboratory in the physical sciences and to provide fun-
damental measurement standards for science and indus-
try. In carrying out these related functions the bureau
conducts research and development in many fields of
physics, mathemstics, chemistry, and engineering. At the
time of its founding, the bureau had custody of two
primary standards-the meter bar for length and the kilo-
gram cylinder for mass (or weight). With the phenome-
nal growth of science and technology over the past half
century, the bureau has become a major research institu-
tion concerned not only with everyday weights and meas-
ures but also with hundreds of other scientific and
engineering standards that have become necessary to the
industrial progress of the U.S. Nevertheless, the U.S.
still looks to the bureau for information on the units of
weights and measures. particularly their definitions and
equivalents.
The subject of weights and measures can be treated from
several different standpoints. Scientists and engineers are
interested in the methods by which precision meas-
urements are made. general knowledge of weights and
measures, the present status of units and standards, and
miscellaneous facts that will be useful in their everyday
professional life.
The expression weights and measures is used here
in its basic sense of referring to measurements of length,
mass, and capacity, thus excluding such topics as electri-
cal and time measurements and thermometry. This sec-
tion on units and systems of weights and measures presents
some fundamental information to clarify thinking on this
subject and to eliminate erroneous and misleading use of
terms.
Unit and Standard Definitions
A unit is a value, quantity, or magnitude in terms of
which other values, quantities, or magnitudes are ex-
pressed. In general, a unit is fixed by definition and is
independent of such physical conditions as temperature.
Examples include the yard. the pound. the gallon, the
meter, the liter, the gram.
A .stumlurd is a physical embodiment of a unit. In gener-
al it is not independent of physical conditions, and it is
a true embodiment of the unit only under specified con-
ditions. For example, a yard standard has a length of one
yard when at some definite temperature and supported in
a certain manner. If supported in a different manner, it
might have to be at a different temperature in order to
have a length of I yard.
The Metric System
Definition, Origin, and Development
The metric system* is the international system of weights
and measures based on the meter and the kilogram. The
essential features of the system were embodied in a report
made to the French Natl. Assembly by the Paris Acade-
my of Sciences in 1791. The definitive action taken in
1791 was the outgrowth of recommendations along simi-
lar lines dating back to 1670. The adoption of the system
in France was slow, but its desirability as an internation-
al system was recognized by geodesists and others. On
May 20, 1875. an international treaty known as the Intl,
Metric Convention was signed providing for an Intl.
Bureau of Weights and Measures, thus ensuring the in-
ternational unification and improvement of the metric sys-
tem. The metric system is now either obligatory or
permissible throughout the world.
Although the metric system is a decimal system, the
words *metric and decimal are not synonymous, and
care should be taken not to confuse the two terms.
It is essential that there be established and kept in mind
the distinction between the terms units and standards
of weights and measures. See also Chap 58
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MATHEMATICAL TABLES & UNITS & SYSTEMS OF WEIGHTS & MEASURES l-69
Units and Standards of the Metric System
In the metric system, the fundumcntai units of length and
mass arc the tneter and the kilogram. The other units of
length and mass. as well as all units ofarea. volume. and
compound units such as density. are derived from thcxc
two fundamental units.
From I960 to 1983. the meter was defined as the length
equal to I 650 763.73 vvavelengths in vacuum of the radi-
ation corresponding to the transition between the levels
21?tn and 5d5 of the krypton 86 atom. Since 1983. the
meter has been defined as the length of the path travelled
by light in a vacuum during a time interval of
I1299 792 458 of a second. The kilogram previously dc-
fined as the mass of I cubic decimeter of water at the tem-
pcraturc of maximum density was known as the Kilogram
of the Archives. It was replaced after the Intl. Metric Con-
vention in 1875 by the Intl. Prototype Kilogram. which
became the unit of mass vvithout reference to the mass
of a cubic decimeter of water or to the Kilogram of the
Archives.
The liter is a unit of capacity. In 1964 the 12th General
Conference on Weights and Measures redefined the liter
as being I cubic decimeter. By its previous definition-
the volume occupied. under standard conditions. by a
quantity of pure water having a mass of I kilogram-the
liter was larger than the cubic decimeter by 28 parts in
I 000 000; except for determinations of high precision,
this difference is so small as to be of no consequence.
The tnodernized metric system includes base units
such as units of temperature and time. as well as many
derived units such as units of force and work. For de-
tails, see Chap. 58.
The Intl. Bureau of Weights and Measures
The lntl. Bureau of Weights and Measures was established
at Scvres, a suburb of Paris, in accordance with the Intl.
Metric Convention of May 20. 1875. At the bureau are
kept the Intl. Prototype kilogram, many secondary stan-
dards of all sorts. and equipment for comparing standards
and making precision measurements. The Bureau, main-
tained by assessed contributions of the signatory govcrn-
merits, is truly international.
In recent years the scope of the work at the Intl. Bureau
has been considerably broadened. It now carries on re-
starch in the fields of electricity and photometry in addi-
tion to its former work in weights and measures, which
included such allied fields as thermometry and the meas-
urement of barometric pressures.
Present Status of the Metric System in the U.S.
The use of the metric system in this country was legal-
ized by act of congress in 1866. but was not made ob-
ligatory.
The speed of light in a vacuum and U.S. Prototype Kilo-
gram No. 20 are recognized as the primary standards of
length and mass for both the metric and the inch-pound
(customary) systems of measurement in this country be-
cause these standards are the most precise and reliable
standards available. Since I893 in the U.S. the yard has
been defined in terms of the meter and the pound in tertns
of the kilogram. There is in the U.S. no primary stan-
dard either of length or mass in the inch-pound system.
From 1893 until 1959. the yard was defined as being
equal exactly to 360013937 111. In 1959 a small change
was tnade in the definition of the yard to resolve discrepan-
cies both in the U.S. and abroad. Since 1959. the yard
is defined as being equal exactly to 0.9144 m; the new
yard is shorter than the old vard by exactly two parts in
a million. At the same time,*it was decided that anv data
expressed in feet derived from geodetic survey within
the U.S. would continue to bear the relationship as dc-
fined in 1893 (I ft equals 1200/3937 m). This foot is called
the U.S. survey foot, while the foot defined in 1959 is
called the international foot. Measurements expressed in
statute miles, survey feet, rods, chains, links. or the
squares thereof, and also acres should therefore be con-
vcrted to the corresponding metric values by using
pre-1959 conversion factors whet-c more than tivc-
significant-figure accuracy is involved.
In 1971 the Natl. Bureau of Standards completed a
3-year study of the impact of increasing worldwide met-
ric use on the U.S. The study ended with a report to the
Congress entitled A MmYc Auwrictr-A Dwi.sio~t W/MN
Ti/irc Hus Cornc. In the last few years metric USC has been
increasing rapidly in the U.S., principally in the tnanu-
facturing and educational sectors. Public Law 93-380.
enacted Aug. 2 I, 1974, states that It IS the policy of the
U.S. to encourage educational agencies and institutions
to prepare students to use the tnetric system of mcasure-
tnent with ease and facility as a part ofthe regular educa-
tion program. On Dec. 23. 1975. President Gerald Ford
signed Public Law 94-168. the Metric Conversion Act
of 1975. This act declares a national policy of coordinat-
ing the increasing use of the metric system in the U.S.
It established a U.S. Metric Board. whose functions as
of Oct. I. 1982 were transferred to the Dept. of Con-
mercc, Office of Metric Progratns, to coordinate the
voluntary conversion to the tnetric system.
British and U.S. Systems
The implication is sometimes made that the inch/pound
system of weights and measures in the British Common-
wealth countries and the U.S. system are identical. It is
true that the U.S. and the British inch are defined identi-
cally for scientific work. that they are practically identi-
cal in commercial usage, that a similar situation exists for
the U.S. and the British pound, and that many tables. such
as 12 in. = I ft, 3 ft= I yd, and 1,760 yd= I international
mile, arc the same in both countries; but there are some
very important differences.
First. the U.S. bushel. the U.S. gallon. and their sub-
divisions differ from the corresponding British units. Also.
the British ton is 2,240 Ibm. whereas the ton generally
used in the U.S. is the short ton of 2,000 Ibm. The Ameri-
can colonists adopted the English wine gallon of 23 I cu
in. The English of that period used this wine gallon. but
they also had another gallon. the ale gallon of 282 cu in.
In 1824 these two gallons were abandoned by the British
when they adopted the British imperial gallon. which is
defined as the volume of IO Ibtn of water. at a tempera-
ture of 62F. which, by calculation, is equivalent to
277.42 cu in. At the same time, the bushel was rcdcfined
as 8 gal, In the British system. the units of dry mcasurc
are the sdtne as those of liquid muasurc. In the U.S. these
two are not the same. the gallon and its subdivisions being
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I-70
PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK
used in the measurement of liquids, while the hushcl, with
its subdivisions. is used in the measurement of certain dry
commodities. The U.S. gallon is divided into 4 liquid
quarts and the U.S. bushel into 32 dry quarts. All the units
of capacity mentioned thus far are larger in the British
system than in the U.S. system. But the British fluid ounce
is smaller than the U.S. fluid ounce. because the British
quart is divided into 40 fluid ounces. whereas the the U.S.
quart is dlvlded into 32 fluid ounces.
From the foregoing it is seen that in the British system
an avoirdupois ounce of water at 62F has a volume of
I fluid oz. because 10 Ibm is equivalent to I60 avoirdupois
oz. and I gal is equivalent to 4 quarts, or 160 fluid oz.
This convenient relation does not exist in the U.S. sys-
tem because a U.S. gallon of water at 62F weighs about
8% Ibm, or 133% avoirdupois oz, and the U.S. gallon
is cquivalcnt to 4 X 32, or 128 fluid oz. In comparison.
I U.S. fluid oz=1.041 British fluid oz; I British fluid
oz=O.961 U.S. fluid oz; 1 U.S. gal=0.833 British in-
pcrial gal: and I British imperial gal= I.201 U.S. gal.
Subdivision of Units
In general, units are subdivided by one of three systems:
(I) decimal, i.e.,
into tenths; (2) duodecimal, into
twelfths; or (3) binary, into halves. Usually the subdivi-
sion is continued by use of the same system. Each method
has advantages for certain purposes, and it cannot prop-
erly be said that any one method is best unless the use
to which the unit and its subdivisions are to be put is
known.
For example, if we are concerned only with measure-
ments of length to moderate precision, it is convenient
to measure and to express these lengths in feet, inches,
and binary fractions of an inch, thus 9 ft 4% in. If, how-
ever. these measured lengths are to be used subsequently
in calculations of area or volume, that method of subdi-
vision at once becomes extremely inconvenient. For that
reason, engineers, instead of dividing the foot into inches
and binary subdivisions of the inch, divide it decimally:
that is. into tenths, hundredths, and thousandths of a foot.
The method of subdivision of a unit is thus made largely
on the basis of convenience to the user. The fact that units
have commonly been subdivided into certain subunits for
centuries does not preclude their also having another mode
of subdivision in some frequently used cases where con-
venience indicates the value of such other method. Thus
the gallon is usually subdivided into quarts and pints, but
the majority of gasoline-measuring pumps of the price-
computing type are graduated to show tenths of a gallon.
Although the mile has for centuries been divided into rods,
yards, feet, and inches. the odometer part of an automo-
bile speedometer indicates tenths of a mile. Although our
dollar is divided into 100 parts, we habitually use and
speak of halves and quarters.
Standards
Length
A specified spectral line emitted by krypton 86 is the
international standard on which all length measurements
are based. To obtain a constant and uniform wavelength,
krypton lamps are operated at the temperature of the triple
point of nitrogen.
One yard is defined as 0.9144 m. The inch is thcrcfore
exactly equal to 25.4 mm.
Mass
The primary standard of mass for this country is U.S.
Prototype Kilogram 20, which is a platinum-iridium cyl-
inder kept at the Natl. Bureau of Standards. The value
of this mass standard is known in terms of the Intl.
Prototype Kilogram, a platinum-iridium standard, which
is kept at the Intl. Bureau of Weights and Measures.
The avoirdupois pound is defined in terms of the kilo-
gram by the relation I avoirdupois lbm=0.453 592 37 kg.
Mass vs. Weight. The mass of a body is a measure of
its inertial property. The ,t~i#r of a body has in the past
been used at times to designate its mass and at other times
to designate a force that is related to gravitational attrac-
tion. Because these two concepts of weight are incorn-
patible, and have therefore resulted in confusion, the term
weight should be avoided in technical practice except
under circumstances in which its meaning is completely
clear. When the term is used, it is important to know
whether mx~ orfbrw is intended and to use SI units prop-
erly by using kilograms for mass and newtons for force.
See also Chapter 58.
As weighing and measuring are important factors in our
everyday lives, it is quite natural that questions arise about
the use of various units and terms and about the magni-
tude of quantities involved.
The ton is used as a unit of measure in two distinct
senses: (I) as a unit of weight. and (2) as a unit of capac-
ity or volume.
In the weight sense the term means: (I) the shorr. or
rzet ton of 2,000 Ibm; (2) the long, ~KLKY, or .shipprr.r
ton of 2240 Ibm; (3) the n?~vic ton of 1000 kg, or 2204.6
Ibm. In the capacity sense ton is restricted to uses re-
lated to ships.
In the U.S. and Canada the ton (weight) most commonly
used is the shor t ton, in Great Britain it is the /orzg ton,
and in countries using the metric system it is the metric,
ton.
Effect of Air Buoyancy. Another point to consider in the
calibration and use of standards of mass is the buoyancy
or lifting effect of the air. A body immersed in any fluid
is buoyed up by a force equal to the force of gravity on
the displaced fluid. Two bodies of equal mass. if placed
one on each pan of an equal-arm balance. will balance
each other in a vacuum. A comparison in a vacuum against
a known mass standard gives true mass. If compared
in air, however, they will not balance each other unless
they are of equal volume. If of unequal volume, the larg-
er body will displace the greater volume of air and will
be buoyed up by a greater force than will than will the
smaller body, and the larger body will appear to be of
less mass than the smaller body. The greater the differ-
ence in volume, and the greater the density of the air in
which the comparison weighing is made, the greater will
be the apparent difference in mass. For that reason. in
assigning a precise numerical value of mass to a standard,
it is necessary to base this value on definite values for
the air density and the density of the mass standard of
reference.
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MATHEMATI CAL TABLES & UNI TS & SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES 1- 71
TABLE 1.41-LENGTH EGUIVALENTS
I nches
39. 37
i . 59517
Feet
3.261
0.51598
Yards
1.0936
0. 03886
Chai ns
0. 04971
2. 69644
Meters
1
Centi meters
100
2. 00000
Ki l ometers Mi l es
0.001
3.00000
0. 0, 6214
6. 79335
0.01
2. 00000
1 0.3937 0. 03281 0. 01094
1. 59517 2. 51598 2. 03886
0.0,4971 10-5
4.69644
0. 0, 6214
5.00000 4. 79335
0. 0254 2. 540
2. 40483 0. 40483
1 0. 08333 0. 02770 0. 001263 0. 0, 254
5. 40483
0. 0, 1578
2. 92082 2. 44370 3. 10127 5. 19818
0. 3048 30. 46 12 ( 1. 3333 6. 01515
1. 48402 1. 48402 1. 07918 1. 52288 2. 18046
Q. Q, 3048
4. 48402
0. 0, 1894
4. 27736
0. 9144 91.44 36 3
1. 96114 1. 96114 1. 55630 0. 47712
1 0. 04545
2. 65758
0.0,9144
4. 96114
0. 0, 5682
4. 75449
20. 12 2012 792 66 22 0. 02012 0.0125
1. 30356 3. 30356 2. 89873 1. 81954 1. 34242 2. 30356 2.09691
1000 100 000 39, 370 3, 281 1, 093. 6 49.71
3. 00000 5.00000 4. 59517 3. 51598 3. 03886 1. 69644
1
1609 160 935 63, 360 5, 280 1,760 80 1. 609
3. 20665 5. 20665 4. 80182 3. 72263 3. 24551 1. 90309 0. 20665
0.6214
i.79335
The equi val ents are gi ven i n the bol d- f aced type. Logari thms of the equi val ents are gi ven
i mmedi atel y bel owwi th the characteri sti c of the l ogari thm( i . e. , 1. 59517 =0. 59517) . I n some cases,
theequi val ents have been rounded of f , whtl e the l ogari thmcorresponds to the equi val ent carri ed
to a greater number of deci mal pl aces. Subscri pts af ter any f i gure- O, , 9, - mean that that
f i gure I S to be repeated the i ndi cated number of ti mes.
TABLE 1.42-CONVERSION OF LENGTHS
I nches
to
Mi l l i meters
1 25. 40
2 50. 80
3 76. 20
4 101. 60
Mi l l i meters
to
I nches
0.03937
0. 07874
0. 1181
0. 1575
Feet
to
Meters
0. 3048
0. 6096
0. 9144
1. 219
Meters
to
Feet
3. 281
6. 562
9. 842
13. 12
Yards
to
Meters
0. 9144
1. 829
2. 743
3. 658
Meters
to
Yards
1. 094
2. 187
3. 281
4. 374
Mi l es
to
Ki l ometers
1. 609
3. 219
4. 828
6. 437
5 127. 00 0. 1968 1. 524 16. 40 4. 572 5. 468 8. 047
6 152. 40 0. 2362 1. 829 19. 68 5. 486 6. 562 9. 656
7 177. 80 0. 2756 2. 134 22.97 6. 401 7. 655 11. 27
8 203. 20 0. 3150 2. 438 26. 25 7. 315 8. 749 12. 87
Ki l ometers
to
Mi l es
0. 6214
1. 243
1. 864
2. 485
3. 107
3. 728
4. 350
4. 971
9 228. 60 0. 3543 2. 743 29. 53 8. 230 9. 842 14. 48 5.592
For ewampl e, 1 I =25 40 mm
The corrections furnished by the U.S. Natl. Bureau of
Standards (NBS) for the more precise mass standards are
given on two bases: comparison in vacuum and compari-
son against normal brass standards in air under standard
conditions. with no correction applied for the buoyant ef-
fect of the air. By definition, brass standards have a
density of 8400 kg per m3 at 0C and a coefficient of
cubical thermal expansion of 0.000 054 per C. Standard
conditions are defined as air of I .2 kg per m3 and tem-
perature of 20C. The corrections to be used with pre-
cise analytical weights are ordinarily given only in terms
of apparent mass against normal brass standards.
A full discussion of this topic is given in NBS Mono-
graph 133, Mass and Mass Values, by Paul E. Pontius
(Nat]. Technical Information Service, 528.5 Port Royal
Road, Springfield, VA 22161; COM 7450309).
Capacity
Units of capacity. being derived units, are defined in the
U.S. in terms of linear units and are not represented by
fundamental standards. Laboratory standards have been
constructed and are maintained at NBS. These have va-
lidity only by calibration with reference either directly
or indirectly to the linear standards.
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l - 72 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1.43-COMMON FRACTIONS OF AN INCH TO MILLIMETERS (FROM ye4 to 1 in.)
64ths Mi l l i meters 64ths Mi l l i meters 64ths Mi l l i meters 64ths Mi l l i meters 64ths Mi l l i meters 64ths
1 0. 397 13 5. 159 25 9. 922 37 14. 684 49 19.447 57
2 0.794 14 5. 556 26 10. 319 38 15. 081 50 19. 844 58
3 1. 191 15 5. 953 27 10. 716 39 15. 478 51 20. 241 59
4 1. 588 16 6. 350 28 11. 113 40 i 5. 875 52 20. 638 60
5 I , 984
6 2. 381
7 2. 770
a 3. 175
9 3. 572
10 3. 969
11 4. 366
12 4. 763
0. 0
0. 1
0. 2
0. 3
0. 4
0. 5
0. 6
0. 7
0. 8
0. 9
17 6. 747 29 11. 509 41
18 7. 144 30 11. 906 42
19 7. 541 31 12. 303 43
20 7. 938 32 12. 700 44
21 8. 334 33 13. 097 45
22 8. 731 34 13. 494 46
23 9. I 28 35 13. 891 47
24 9. 525 36 14. 288 48
TABLE 1.44-DECIMALS OF AN INCH TO MILLIMETERS (FROM 0.01 in. TO 0.99 in.)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0. 254 0. 508 0. 762 1. 016 1. 270 1. 524 i , 778 2. 032 2. 286
2. 794 3. 048 3. 302 3. 556 3. 810 4. 064 4. 318 4. 572 4. 626
5. 334 5. 588 5. 842 6. 096 6. 350 6. 604 6. 858 7. 112 7. 366
7. 874 8. 128 8. 382 8. 636 a. 890 9. 144 9. 398 9. 652 9. 906
10. 414 10. 668 10. 922 11. 176 11. 430 11.684 i i , 938 12. 192 12. 446
12. 954 13. 208 13. 462 13. 716 13. 970 14. 224 14. 478 14. 732 14. 986
2. 540
5. 080
7. 620
10. 160
12. 700
15. 240 15. 494 15. 748 16. 002 16. 256 16. 510 16. 764 17. 018 17. 272 17.526
17. 780 18. 034 18. 288 18. 542 18. 796 19. 050 19. 304 19. 558 19. 812 20. 066
20. 320 20. 574 20. 828 21. 082 21. 336 21. 590 21 . a44 22. 098 22. 352 22. 606
22. 860 23. 114 23. 368 23. 622 23. 876 24. 130 24. 384 24. 638 24. 892 25. 146
16. 272
16. 669
17. 066
17. 463
17. 859
18. 256
18. 653
19. 050
53 21. 034 61
54 21. 431 62
55 21. 828 63
56 22. 225 64
Mi l l i meters
22. 622
23. 019
23. 416
23. 813
24.209
24. 606
25. 003
25. 400
TABLE 1.4% -MILLIMETERS TO DECIMALS OF AN INCH (FROM 1 TO 99 mm)
0. 1.
0 0. 0394
1 0. 3937 0. 4331
2 0. 7874 0. 8268
3 l . tatt 1. 2205
4 1. 5748 1. 6142
5 1. 9685 2. 0079
6 2. 3622 24016
7 2. 7559 2. 7953
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
0. 0787 0. 1181 0. 1575 0. 1968 0. 2362 0. 2756 0. 3150
0. 4724 0. 5118 0. 5512 0. 5906 0. 6299 0. 6693 0. 7087
0. 8661 0. 9055 0. 9449 0. 9842 1. 0236 1. 0630 1. 1024
1. 2598 1. 2992 1. 3386 1. 3780 1. 4173 1. 4567 1. 4961
1. 6535 1. 6929 1. 7323 1. 7716 1. 8110 1. 8504 1. 8898
2. 0472 2. 0866 2. 1260 2. 1654 2. 2047 2. 2441 2. 2835
2. 4409 2. 4803 2. 5197 2. 5590 2. 5984 2. 6378 2. 6772
2. 8346 2. 8740 2. 9134 2. 9528 2. 9921 3. 0315 3. 0709
9.
0. 3543
0. 7480
1. 1417
1. 5354
1. 9291
2. 3228
2. 7165
3. 1102
a 3. 1496 3 l a90 3. 2283 3. 2677 3. 3071 3. 3464 3. 3858 3. 4252 3. 4646 3. 5039
9 3. 5433 3 5827 3. 6220 3. 6614 3. 7008 3. 7402 3. 7795 3. 8189 3. 8583 3. 8976
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MATHEMATI CAL TABLES & UNI TS & SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES l - 73
TABLE1.46-AREAEQUIVALENTS'
Square
Square Square Square Square Square Square Mrl es or
Meters I nches Feet Yards Rods Chai ns Roods Acres Secti ons
1 1,550 10.76 1.196 0.0395 0.002471 0.0,9884 0.0,2471
4. 39288
0.0,3861
3. 19033 1.03197 0.07773 2.59699 3. 39288 4. 99494 7. 58670
0.0,6452 1 0.006944 0. 0, 7716 0. 0, 2551 0. 0, 1594 0. 0, 6377 0. 0, 1594 0.0,2491
4.80967 3. 84164 4. 88740 5.40667 6.20255 7.80461 7.20255 10. 39637
g. 09290 144 1 0.1111 0.003673 0.0,2296 0: 0, 9184 0. 0, 2296 0.0,3587
2. 96803 2. 15836 1. 04576 3.56503 4. 36091 5. 96297 5. 36091 8.55473
0.8361 1,296 9 1 0.03306 0.002066 0.0,8264 0.0002066 0.0,3228
1. 92227 3. 11260 0. 95424 2. 51927 3. 31515 4. 91721 4. 31515 7. 50898
25. 29 39, 204 272.25 30.25 1 0.0625 g.02500 0.00625 0.0,9766
1. 40300 4. 59333 2. 43497 1. 48072 2. 79588 2. 39794 3. 79588 6. 98970
404.7 627,264 4,356 484 16 1 0.4 0.1 0.0001562
2.60712 5.79745 3.63909 2.68484 1. 20412 1. 60206 1 . ooooo 4. 19382
1012 1,568,160 10,890 1,210 40 2.5 1 0. 25 0. 0, 3906
3. 00506 6. 19539 4. 03703 3. 08278 1. 60206 0. 39794 1. 39794 4. 59176
4047 6, 272, 640 43, 560 4, 840 160 IO 4 1 0.001562
3. 60712 6.79745 4.63909 3.68484 2. 20412 1 . ooooo 0. 60206 3. 19382
2 589 998 27, 878, 400 3, 097, 600 102, 400 6, 400 2, 560 640 1
6. 41330 7. 44527 6. 49102 5. 01030 3. 80618 3. 40824 2. 80618
The equi val ents are gi ven i n the bol d- f aced type Logari thms of the equi val ents are gi ven i mmedi atel y bel owwi th the
characteri sti c of the l ogari thm( i . e. , 2. 59699 =0. 059699) . I n some cases, the equi val ents have been rounded of f , whrf e
the l ogari thmcorresponds to the equi val ent carri ed to a greater number of deci mal pl aces. Subscri pts af ter any f i gure- O, ,
9, , etc. - mean that the f i gure i s to be repeated the I ndi cated number of ti mes.
'1 heclare= 100 acres=10 000 mp
Li ters
1
Cubi c Cubi c Cubi c
I nches Feet Yards
61. 03 0. 03532 0. 001308
1. 78551 2. 54796 3. 11659
U. S.
Apothecary
Fl ui d
Ounces Drv
33.81
1. 52909
Li qui d
1.057
0.02394
0. 9081
i . 95812
Gal l ons Bushel s
0. 2642 0. 02838
1. 42188 2. 45297
0. 01639
2. 21450
0. 0, 5787 0. 0, 2143 0. 5541 0.01732 0. 01488
4. 76246
0. 0 2 4329 0. 0, 4650
5. 33109 1. 74360 2. 23845 2. 17263 3. 63639 4. 66746
28. 32 1728 1 0. 03704 957. 5 29. 92 25.71 7.481 0. 8036
1. 45205 3. 23754 2. 56864 2.98114 1. 47599 1. 41017 0. 87393 1. 90502
764. 5 46656 27 1 25853 807. 9 694. 3 202. 2 21. 70
2. 88340 4. 66891 1. 43136 4. 41251 2. 90736 2.84153 2. 30530 1. 33638
0. 02957 1.805
2. 47091 0. 25640
0.001044 0.0,3868
3. 01886 5. 58749
0. 03342 0. 001238
2. 52401 3. 09264
0. 03889 0. 001440
2.58983 3.15847
0.1337 0.004951
1. 12607 3. 69470
1.244 0.04609
0. 09498 2. 66362
1 0. 03125
2. 49485
6. 02686
2. 42903
0. 007812 0. 0, 8392
3. 89279 4. 92388
0. 9463 67. 75
1. 97604 1. 76155
32
1. 50515
1 0. 8594 0. 25 0. 02686
i . 9341a 1. 39794 2. 42903
1.101 67. 20
0.04188 1. 82737
37. 24 1.164 0. 2909 0. 03125
1. 57097 0.06582 1. 46376 2. 49485
3. 785 231
0. 57812 2. 36361
128 4 3. 437 0. 1074
2.10721 0.60206 0. 53624 1. 03109
35. 24 2150
1. 54703 3. 33252
1192 37.24 32 9. 309
3. 07612 1. 57097 1. 50515 0. 96891
TABLEl.47-VOLUME AND CAPACITY EQUIVALENTS
U. S. Quarts
U. S. u. s
The equi val ents are gi ven i n the bol d- f aced type. Logari thms of the equi val ents are gi ven i mmedi atel y bel ow wi th the
characteri sti c of the l ogari thm( i . e. , 2. 54796 =0. 054796) . I n some cases, the equi val ents have been rounded of f , whi l e the
l ogari thmcorresponds to the equi val ent carri ed to a greater number of deci mal pl aces, Subscri pts af ter any f i gure- O, ,
9, , etc. - mean that the f i gure i s to be repeated the i ndi cated number of ti mes.
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l - 74 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1. 48- CONVERSI ON OF AREAS*
sq I n.
t0
cm2
cm
t0
so tn.
6. 452 0. 1550 0. 0929 10. 76 0. 8361
12. 90 0. 3100 0. 1858 21. 53 1. 672
19. 35 0. 4650 0. 2787 32. 29 2. 508
25. 81 0. 6200 0. 3716 43. 06 3. 345
32. 26 0. 7750 0. 4645 53. 82 4 181
38. 71 0. 9300 0. 5574 64. 58 5. 017
45. 16 1. 085 0. 6503 75. 35 5. 853
51. 61 1. 240 0. 7432 86. 11 6 689
58. 06 1. 395 0. 8361 96. 87 7 525
sq f t
j . yz
mL
to
sa f t
sq Yd
3
m
to
sq yd
1. 196
2. 392
3. 588
4. 784
5. 980
7. 176
8. 372
9. 568
10. 764
acres
to
hectares
0. 4047
0. 8094
1. 214
1. 619
2. 023
2. 428
2. 833
3. 237
3. 642
hectares
to
acres
2. 471
4. 942
7. 413
9. 884
12. 355
14. 826
17. 297
19. 768
22. 239
sq mi l es
to
km
2. 590
5. 180
7. 770
10. 360
12. 950
15. 540
18. 130
20. 720
23. 310
For example. 1 sq in =6 452 cm2
TABLE 1. 49- CONVERSI ON OF VOLUMES OR CUBI C MEASURES
C I.
to
cm3
cm3
to
cu tn.
cu f t
; a
m3
to
cu f t
cu yd
; 3
m3
gal
to to
cu vd cu f t
1 16. 39 0. 06102 0. 02832 35 31 0. 7646 1. 308 0. 1337
2 32. 77 0. 1220 0. 05663 70. 63 1. 529 2. 616 0 2674
3 49. 16 0. 1831 0. 08495 105. 9 2. 294 3. 924 0. 4010
4 65. 55 0. 2441 0. 1133 141. 3 3. 058 5. 232 0 5347
5 81. 94 0. 3051 0. 1416 176. 6 3. 823 6. 540 0. 6684
6 98. 32 0. 3661 0 1699 211. 9 4. 587 7. 848 0. 8021
7 114. 7 0. 4272 0 1982 247. 2 5. 352 9. 156 0. 9358
8 131. 1 0. 4882 0 2265 282. 5 6. 116 10. 46 1. 069
9 147. 5 0. 5492 0. 2549 317. 8 6. 881 11. 77 1. 203
Fl ui d oz
to
cm3
29. 57
59. 15
88. 72
118. 3
147. 9
177. 4
207. 0
236. 6
266. 2
cm3
to
f l ui d
oz
0. 03381
0. 06763
0. 1014
0. 1353
0. 1691
0. 2092
0. 2367
0. 2705
0. 3043
km
to
sq mi l es
0. 3861
0. 7722
1. 158
1. 544
1. 931
2. 317
2. 703
3. 089
3. 475
cu f t
to
gal
7. 481
14. 96
22. 44
29. 92
37. 40
44 88
52. 36
59. 84
67. 32
TABLE 1. 50- CONVERSI ON OF VOLUMES OR CAPACI TI ES
l i qui d
pi nts
to
l i ters
0. 4732
0. 9463
1. 420
1. 893
2. 366
2. 839
3. 312
3. 765
4.259
l i ters l rqurd
to quarts
l i qurd to
pi nts l i ters
2. 113 0 9463
4. 227 1. 893
6. 340 2. 839
8. 454 3. 785
10. 57 4. 732
12. 68 5. 678
14. 79 6. 624
16. 91 7. 571
19. 02 8. 517
l i ters
to
l i qui d
gal
to
quarts l i ters
1. 057- 3. 785
2. 113 7. 571
3. 170 11. 36
4. 227 15. 14
5. 284 l a93
6. 340 22. 71
7. 397 26. 50
8. 454 30. 28
9. 510 34. 07
l i ters bushel s hectol i ters
to to to
gal
hectol i ters bushel s
0. 2642 0. 3524 2. 838
0. 5284 0. 7048 5. 676
0. 7925 1. 057 8. 513
1. 057 1. 410 11. 35
1. 321 1. 762 14. 19
1. 585 2. 114 17. 03
i . a49 2. 467 19. 86
2. 113 2. 819 22. 70
2. 378 3. 171 25. 54
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MATHEMATI CAL TABLES 8 UNI TS 8 SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES I - 75
TABLE 1. 51- - MASS EQUI VALENTS
I bm tons
0. 0, 1102
3. 04230
l ong
0. 0, 9842
4. 99309
metri c
0. 001
3. 00000
0. 0, 7143 0. 0, 6378 0. 0, 6480
a. 85387 8. 80465 8. 81157
0. 0, 3429 0. 0, 3061 0. 0, 3110
5. 53511 5. 48590 5. 49281
OZ
troy and
apothecary avoi rdupoi s
32. 15 35. 27
1. 50719 1. 54745
0. 0, 2083 0. 0, 2286
3. 31876 3. 35902
1 1. 09714
0. 04026
troy and
apothecary avoi rdupots
2. 6792 2. 205
0. 42801 0. 34333
0. 0, 1736 0.0,1429
4.23958 4. 15490
0. 08333 0. 06857
2. 92082 2. 83614
0. 07595 0. 0625
2. 88056 2. 79588
ka grai ns
15, 432
4. 18843
1
0. 0, 6480
581157
0. 03110 480
2. 49281 2. 68124
0. 02835 437. 5 0.9115 1
2. 45255 2. 64098 1. 95974
0. 0, 3125 0. 0, 2790 0. 0, 2835
5. 49485 5 44563 5. 45255
0. 3732 5, 760 12 13.17 1 0. 8229 0. 0, 4114 0. 0, 3673 0. 0, 3732
1. 57199 3. 76042 1 07918 1. 11944 1. 91532 4.61429 4. 56508 4. 57199
0. 4536 7, 000 14. 58 16 1. 215 1 0. 0005 0. 0, 4464 0. 0, 4536
1. 65667 3. 84510 1 . I 6386 1. 20412 0. 08468 4. 69897 4. 64975 4. 65667
907. 2 140,
2. 95770 7. 14613
1016 15680,
3. 00691 7. 19535
29,167 320, 2431 2, 000
4. 46489 4. 50515 3. 38571 3. 30103
32, 667 35, 840 2722 2, 240
4. 51411 4. 55437 3. 43492 3. 35025
32, 151 35, 274 2679 2, 205
4. 50719 4. 54745 3. 42801 3. 34333
1 0. 8929 0. 9072
1. 95078 1. 95770
1.12 1.016
0.04922 0.00691
1000 15,432,356
3. 00000 7. 18843
1.102 0. 9842
0. 04230 1.99309
1
The equi val ents are gi ven i n the bol d- f aced type. Logari thms of the equi val ents are gi ven i mmedi atel y bel owwi th the
characteri sti c of the l ogari thm( i . e. , 3. 04230 =0. 0004230) . I n some cases, the equi val ents have been rounded of f , whi l e
the l ogari thmcorresponds to the equi val ent carri ed to a greater number of deci mal pl aces. Subscri pts af ter any f i gure- O, ,
9, , etc. - mean that the f i gure i s to be repeated the i ndi cated number of ti mes.
TABLE 1.52-CONVERSION OF MASSES
short metri c i onq
tons tons tons
( 2. 000 l bn
1) ( 1000 kg) ( 2 240l bm)
to t0 to
metri c short metri c
tons tons tons
l ong
tons
0 907 1 102 1 016 0 984
1 a14 2 205 2032 1968
2 722 3 307 3 048 2 953
3629 4409 4 064 3937
4536 5 512 5 080 4921
5443 6614 6 096 5 905
6350 7 716 7 112 6889
7257 8 818 8 128 7874
8 165 9921 9 144 8858
I bm
kg
( avordupots) 10
to l bm
kg
( avo~rdupo! sj
04536 2 205
0 9072 4409
1361 6614
1814 8818
2 268 11 02
2 722 1323
3 175 1533
3 629 1764
a 082 19 84
oz grams
l avorrdupoi s) I O
to oz
grams ( avoi rdupoi s)
28 35 003527
5670 007055
a5 05 0 1058
11340 01411
141 75 0 1764
17010 02116
19845 0 2469
22680 0 2822
255 15 0 3175
gmns grams
10 to
grams gram
0 06480 1543
0 1296 3086
0 1944 4630
0 2592 61 73
0 3240 77 16
0 3888 92 59
04536 10803
0 5184 12346
0 5832 13889
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l - 76 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLEl.53-VELOCITY EQUIVALENTS
60 3.6 100 3.281 196.85 2.237
1. 77815 0.55630 2.00000 0. 51598 2. 29414 0.34965
0.01667
2.22104
I 0.06 1.667 0.05468 3.281 0.03728 0.03238
2.77815 0.22184 2.73783 0.51598 2.57150 2.51022
0.2778 16.67
1.44370 1. 22184
1 27.78 0.9113 54.68 0.6214 0.53959
1.44370 I . 95908 1.73783 1. 79335 1. 73205
0.01 0.6 0.036
1.77815 2.55630
1 0.03281 1.9685 0.02237 0. 01943
2.51598 0. 29414 2.34965 2.28836
0.3048 18.29 1.097 30.48
1.46402 1.26217 0.04032 1.48402
I 60
1.77815
0.005080 0.3048 0.01629 0.5080 0. 01887
3.70586 1.48402 2.26217 1.70586 2.22185
1
0.8818
1.63367
0.01136
2.05553
0.4470 26.82 1.609 44.70 1.467 88
1.65035 1. 42850 0.20670 1.65035 0. 16633 1. 94446
1
0.51479 30.887 1.8532 51.479 1.68894 101.337 1.15155
1. 71163 1. 48978 0.26793 1.71163 0.22761 2.00577 0.06128
mi mi n kml hr cm/ set f t/ sec f tl mi n
mph
TABLE1.54-CONVERSIONOFLlNEARANDANGULARVELOClTlES
revi mi n
to
radsl sec
0. 1047
0. 2094
0. 3142
0. 4189
0.5236
0.6283
0.7330
0.8378
0.9425
rads/ sec
t0
revl mi n
9. 55
19. 10
28.65
38.20
47.75
57.30
66.84
76.39
85.94
cm/ s
10
f tl mi n
1. 97
3. 94
5. 91
7.87
9.84
I I . 81
13.78
15.75
17.72
f tl mi n
to
cm/ s
0.508
1.016
1.524
2.032
2.540
3.048
3.556
4.064
4.572
cml s
mph
to t0
mph
cm/ s
0.0224 44.70
0.0447 89. 41
0.0671 134. 1
0.0895 178. 8
0. 1118 223.5
0. 1342 268.2
0. 1566 312. 9
0. 1790 357.6
0. 2013 402.3
I bmper
sq i n to
ki l opascal s
1 6. 8948
2 13789
3 20684
4 27.579
5 34.474
6 41.369
7 48.263
8 55.158
9 62.053
TABLEl.55-CONVERSION OF PRESSURES'
ki l opascal s atmospheres
to I bm to I bm
oer sa i n. oer sa i n.
0.1450 14.70
0. 2901 29.39
0. 4351 44.09
0.5802 58.78
0.7252 73.48
0.8702 88.18
1.0153 102.9
1.1603 117. 6
1.3053 132.3
f tl s
to
mph
0.682
1. 364
2.045
2.727
3.409
4. 091
4.773
5.455
6.136
I bmper atmospheres ki l opascal s
sq i n. to to IO
atmospheres ki l opascal s atmospheres
0.0680 101. 3 0. 00987
0.1361 202.6 0. 01974
0.2041 304.0 0. 02961
0.2722 405.3 0. 03947
0.3402 506.6 0. 04935
0.4083 608.0 0. 05922
0.4763 709.3 0. 06908
0.5444 810.6 0. 07895
0.6124 911. 9 0.08882
mph
to
f t/ s
1. 47
2. 93
4.40
5.87
7.33
8.80
10. 27
11. 73
13.20
knots
1.943
0.28836
0.59209
1. 77238
0. 00987
3. 99423
0. 86839
1. 93871
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MATHEMATI CAL TABLES & UNI TS & SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES 1- 77
TABLE1.56-PRESSURE EQUIVALENTS
col umns of
mercury at
temperature 0%
col umns of water at
temperature 15%
and and
g=9. 80665 m/ s2 g =9. 80665 m/ s*
ki l opascal s
1
kg/ cm
( metri c
atmospheres)
0.010197
2. 00848
1
short
tons
per
l bml sq i n. sq f t
0. 14504 0. 010443
1. 16148 2. 01882
14.22 1.024
1. 15300 0. 01034
1 0. 072
2. 85733
atmospheres
0. 009869
3. 87510
98.066
1. 99152
0. 9678
1. 98579
6. 8948 0.07031
0. 83852 2. 84700
95. 760 0. 9765
1. 98119 1. 98966
0. 06805
2. 83280
OOb:'sOl o(lndl3 (m)
( i n. )
i.99427 1.47025 . 1. 00886 0.1021 0. 60402 4.018
0. 7356 28. 96 10. 01 394. 1
1. 86662 1. 46177 1. 00038 2. 59556
0. 05171 2. 036 0. 7037 27. 70
2. 71360 0. 30876 1. 84738 1. 44254
13.89 1 0.9451 0.7183 28. 28 9. 774 384. 8
1. 14267 1.97547 1. 85628 1. 45143 0. 99006 2. 58521
101.325 1.0332 14.70 1.058
2. 00573 0. 01420 1. 16722 0. 02453
133. 322 1.3595 19.34 1.392
2. 12490 0.13338 1. 28640 0. 14373
1 0. 76 29.92 10. 34 407. 1
1. 8808 1 1. 47598 1. 01459 2. 60975
1.316 39. 37 13. 61 535. 7
0. 11919 1. 59517 113378 2 72894
(fU
0.3349
1. 52485
32. 84
1. 51636
2. 309
0. 36336
32. 07
1. 50604
3. 386 0. 03453
0. 52975 2. 53823
9. 798 0.09991
0. 99114 2.99962
0. 2489 0. 002538
1. 39598 3. 40446
2. 926 0. 03045
0. 47516 2. 48364
0.4912 0. 03536 0. 03342 0. 02540 0. 3456 13. 61
1. 69124 2. 51857 2. 52402 2. 40484 1. 53861 1. 13378
1. 421 0. 1023
0. 15262 1. 00996
0. 03609 0. 002599
2. 55745 3. 41479
0. 4331 0.03119
1. 63663 2. 49397
0. 09670 0.07349 2.893 39. 37
2. 98541 2. 86622 0. 46139 1. 59517
0. 002456 0. 001867 0. 07349 0. 02540
3. 39024 3. 27106 2. 86622 2. 40484
0. 02947 0. 02240 0. 8819 0. 3048 12
2. 46942 2. 35024 1. 94540 1. 48402 1. 07918
33. 93
1. 53058
44. 64
1. 64976
1. 134
0. 05460
3. 281
0. 51598
0. 08333
2. 92082
1
TABLE 1.57-ENERGY OR WORK EQUI VALENTS
J
1
kg- m f t- l bf
0.10197 0. 7376
1. 00848 1. 86760
kW
hours
0. 0, 2778
7. 44370
metri c
hp
hours
0. 0, 3777
7. 57711
hp
hours
0. 0, 3725
7. 57113
L- atm
0.009869
3.99427
ki l ocal ori es Btu' s
0. 0, 2388 0. 0, 9478
4. 37809 4. 97670
9. 80665
0. 9915207
1 7. 233 0. 0, 2724 0. 0, 37037 0. 0, 3653 0.09678 0. 002342 0. 009295
0. 85932 6. 43521 6. 56863 6. 56265 2.98579 3. 36961 3. 96825
1. 356 0. 1383
0. 13220 1. 14068
1 0. 0, 3766 0. 0, 51208 0. 0, 50505 0.01338 0. 0, 3238 0. 001285
7. 57590 7. 70932 7. 70333 2. 12647 4. 51029 3. 10890
3. 600~10~ 3. 671 x l o5 2.655~10' 1.3598 1. 341 35 526 859. 9 3,412
6. 55630 5. 56478 6.42410 0. 13342 0. 12743 4. 55057 2. 93443 3. 53303
2. 648x lo6 270 000 1.9529x10~ 0. 7355 0. 9863 26 131 632. 4 2, 510
6. 42288 5. 43136 6.29068 1. 86658 1. 99401 4. 41715 2. 80098 3. 39961
2. 8845~ l o6 2. 7375~10~ 1.98x106 0. 7457 1.0139
6. 42887 5. 43735 6.29667 1 87356 0.00598
1 26 493 641. 2 2, 544
4. 42314 2. 80699 3. 40557
101. 33 10. 333 74. 74 0.0,2815 0. 0, 3827 0. 0, 3775
2. 00573 1 . 01421 1. 87353 5.44952 5. 58284 5. 57686
1
4187 426. 9 3, 088 0.001163 0. 001581 0. 001560 41. 32
3 62191 2. 63036 3. 48971 3. 06558 3. 19902 3. 19304 1. 61618
0. 02420
2. 38382
1
0. 09604
2. 98246
3. 988
0. 59861
1055 107. 6 778. 2 0. 0, 2931 0. 0, 3985 0.0,3930 10. 41 0. 25200
3. 02360 2. 03178 2. 89110 446697 4. 60042 4.59444 1. 01757 1. 40139
1
The equi val ents are gi ven i n bol d- f aced type. Logarrthms of the equi val ents are gi ven i mmedi atel y bel owwi th the characteri strc
of the l ogari thm( 1. e , 1. 00848 =0. 00848) . I n some cases, the equi val ents have been rounded of f , al though the l ogari thmcorresponds
to the equi val ent carri ed to a greater number of dectmal pl aces. Subscri pts af ter any f i gure- O
I S to be repeated the I ndi cated number of ti mes.
3, 9, , etc. - mean that the f i gure
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l - 70
PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1.58-CONVERSION OF ENERGY, WORK, HEAT
cal ori es
to
f t- l bf kg- m
to IO
kg- m f t- l bf
- ~
0. 1383 7. 233
0. 2765 14. 47
0. 4148 21. 70
0. 5530 26. 93
06913 36. 16
0. 8295 43. 40
09678 50. 63
1. 106 57. 86
1. 244 65. 10
f t- l bf Btu
to to
Btu f t- l bf
0. 001285 778. 2
0. 002570 1, 556.
0. 003855 2, 334.
0. 005140 3, 113.
0. 006425 3, 891.
0. 007710 4, 669.
0. 008995 5, 447.
0. 01028 6, 225.
0. 01156 7, 003.
kg- m
to
ki l ocal ori es
0. 002342
0. 004685
0. 007027
0. 009369
0. 01172
0. 01405
0. 01640
0. 01874
0. 02108
ki l ocal orl es
IO
kg- m
4269
8539
1, 281.
1, 708.
2, 135.
2, 562.
2, 989.
3, 415.
3, 642.
to
cal ori es
0. 2388
0. 4777
0. 7165
0. 9554
1. 194
1. 433
1. 672
1. 911
2. 150
:
4. 187
6. 374
3 12. 56
4 16. 75
5 20. 93
6 25. 12
7 29. 31
8 33. 49
9 37. 68
TABLE 1.59-POWER EQUIVALENTS
metri c hp poncel ets kg- m/ s f t- l bf l sec ki l ocal ori es/ s Btul sec
1.360 1.020 102. 0 737. 6 0. 2388 0. 9478
0.13343 0. 00848 2. 00848 2. 86780 1. 37813 1. 97673
kW hD
1 1.341
0. 12743
0. 7457
1. 87256
1 1.014 0. 7604 76. 04 550 0.1781 0. 7068
0.00599 1. 88105 188105 2. 74036 1. 25066 1. 84936
0. 7355 0.9863
1. 86658 1. 99402
1 0. 75 75 542. 5 0. 1757 0.6971
1. 87506 1. 87506 2. 73438 1. 24467 1. 84328
0.9807 1.315 1. 333 100 723. 3 0. 2342 0. 9295
1. 99152 0. 11896 0. 12493 2. 00000 2. 85932 1. 36961 1. 96825
0.009807 0.01315 0.01333 0.01 7. 233 0. 002342 0. 009295
3. 99152 2. 11896 2. 12493 2. 00000 0. 85932 3. 36961 3. 96825
0. 001356 0.00182 0.00164 0. 00136 0.1383 0. 0, 3238 0. 001285
3. 13220 3. 25946 3. 26562 3. 14067 1. 14067 4. 51029 3. 10890
4. 187 5. 615 5. 692 4. 269 426.9 3, 088 3.968
0. 62187 0. 74934 0. 75530 0. 63036 2. 63036 3. 48971 0. 59861
1.055 1. 415 1.434 1. 076 107.6 778. 2 0. 2520
0. 02320 0. 15074 0. 15668 0. 03178 2. 03178 2. 89110 1. 40138
1
For example 1 hp=07457 k\ni
TABLE 1.60-CONVERSION OF POWER
kW
hp
kW metri c hp to to
to to metw metri c
hp
kW
b hp
1. 341 0. 7355 1360 1. 014
2. 682 1. 471 2. 719 2. 028
4. 023 2. 206 4. 079 3. 042
hp
to
kW
metri c hp
to
hp
0. 9863
1. 973
2. 959
3. 945
4. 932
5. 918
6. 904
7. 891
8. 877
1. 491
2. 237
4 2. 983
5 3. 729
6 4. 474
7 5. 220
8 5. 966
9 6711
5. 384 2. 942 5. 438 4. 055
6. 705 3. 677 6. 798 5. 069
8. 046 4. 412 8. 158 6. 083
9. 387 5. 147 9. 520 7. 097
10. 73 5. 883 10. 88 8. 111
12. 07 6. 618 12. 24 9. 125
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MATHEMATI CAL TABLES & UNI TS & SYSTEMS OF WEI GHTS & MEASURES 1- 79
TABLE 1. 61- DENSI TY EQUIVALENTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS
Equi val ents Conversi on Factors
kg/ m3
1
g/ cm3
0.001
l bml cu i n.
0.0,3613
5. 55787
1 0.03613
2. 55787
27. 60 1
1. 44217
1000
27680
4. 44217
16.019
1. 20466
119.83
2. 07855
For example, 1 kg/m = 0 0624 Ibmlcu ft.
0.01602 0. 0, 5787
2. 20466 4. 76245
0. 1198 0. 004329
1. 07055 3. 63639
l bml cu f t I bmi l J S. gal
0. 0624 0. 00835
2. 79539 3. 92143
62. 43 8.345 3
1. 79539 0. 92143 4
1,728 231 5
3. 23754 2. 36361 6
1
7.481
0.87396
0.1337 7
1. 12613 8
1 9
10
2
I bm/ cu f t kg/ m3
to to
kg/ m3 I bm/ cu 11
16.019 0. 0624
32. 037 0. 1249
48. 055 0. 1873
64. 074 0. 2497
80. 092 0. 3121
96. 111 0. 3746
112. 129 0. 4370
128. 148 0. 4994
144. 166 0.5619
160. 185 0. 6243
TABLE 1.62-THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
W/ m. % Cal / [ s( cm / cm) C] Wl [ ( cm l cm) C] Cal l [ h( cm2/ cm) aC] Btu/ [ hr( sq f t/ f t) OF]
1 0. 002388 0 0100 8. 598 0. 5778
418. 7 1 4. 187 3600. 241. 9
100. 0 0. 2388 1 860 57. 78
0 1163 0. 0002778 0001163 1 0 0672
1. 731 0. 004134 0. 01731 14. 88 1
TABLE 1.63-THERMAL CONDUCTANCE
W/ m . % Cal / ( s. cm*~ C) W/ cm . % Cal / ( h. cm2. %) Btu( hr- sq f t- OF)
1 0. 0, 2388 0. 0001 0. 08598 0. 1761
41868 1 4. 187 3600 7373
10000 0. 2388 1 860 1761
11. 63 0. 0, 2778 0. 001163 1 2. 048
5. 678 0. 0, 1355 0. 0, 5678 0. 4882 1
TABLE 1.64-HEAT FLOW
Wl m Cal / s. cm* Wl cm 2 Cal / h cm Btul hr- sq f t
1 0. 0, 2388 0. 0001 0. 08598 0. 3170
41868 1 4 187 3600 13272
10000 0. 2388 1 860 3170
11. 63 0. 0, 2778 0 001163 1 3. 687
3. 155 0. 0, 7535 0. 0, 3154 0. 2712 1
g/ cm3 kg/ m3
to to
kg/ m3 g/ cm3
1000 0. 001
2000 0. 002
3000
4000
0. 003
0. 004
5000 0. 005
6000 0. 006
7000 0. 007
8000 0. 008
9000
10 000
0. 009
0. 010
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I-80 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 1.65~-RELATIVE DENSITIES CORRESPONDING TO OAPI AND WEIGHTS PER U.S.
GALLON
Rel ati ve
Densi tv
Rel ati ve Rel ati ve
Densi ty
1. 0000
0. 9930
0. 9861
0. 9792
0. 9725
0. 9659
0. 9593
0.9529
0.9465
0.9402
0.9340
0.9279
0.9218
0. 9159
0. 9100
0. 9042
0 8984
0. 8927
0. 8871
0. 8816
0. 8762
0. 8708
0. 8654
Rel ati ve
Densi ty
0. 7547
0. 7507
0. 7467
0. 7428
0. 7389
0. 7351
0. 7313
0. 7275
0. 7238
0. 7201
0. 7165
0. 7128
0. 7093
0. 7057
0. 7022
0. 6988
0. 6953
0. 6919
0. 6886
0. 6852
0. 6819
0. 6787
0. 6754
OAPI
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
I bm1U. S. gal OAPI
8. 328 33
8. 270 34
8. 212 35
8. 155 36
8. 099 37
8. 044 38
7. 989 39
I bm/ U. S. gal OAPI
7. 163 56
7119 57
7076 58
7. 034 59
6. 993 60
6. 951 61
6. 910 62
I bm0J . S. gal
6. 283
6. 249
6. 216
6. 184
6. 151
6. 119
6. 087
6. 056
6. 025
5.994
5.964
=' APl Densi ty
79 0. 6722
80 0. 6690
1bml U. S. gal
5. 595
5. 568
5. 542
5. 516
5. 491
5. 465
5. 440
5. 415
5. 390
5. 365
5. 341
5. 316
5. 293
5. 269
5. 246
5. 222
5. 199
5. 176
5. 154
5. 131
5. 109
5. 086
0. 8602
0. 8550
0. 8498
0. 8448
0. 8398
0. 8348
0. 8299
0. 8251
0. 8203
0. 8155
0. 8109
0. 8063
0. 8017
0. 7972
0. 7927
0. 7883
0. 7839
0. 7796
0. 7753
0. 7711
0.7669
0. 7628
0. 7587
81 0. 6659
82 0. 6628
83 0. 6597
84 0. 6566
85 0. 6536
86 0. 6506
87 0. 6476
88 0. 6446
89 0. 6417
90 0. 6388
91 06360
92 0. 6331
93 0. 6303
7.935 40
7. 882 41
7. 830 42
7. 778 43
6. 870 63
6. 830 64
6. 790 65
6752 66
21
22
7. 727 44
7. 676 45
7. 627 46
7. 578 47
7. 529 48
7. 481 49
7. 434 50
6. 713 67
6. 675 68
6. 637 69
6 600 70
6. 563 71
6526 72
6. 490 73
6. 455 74
6. 420 75
6. 385 76
6. 350 77
6. 316 78
5.934
5.904
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
5. 874
5. 845
5. 817
5. 788
5. 759
5. 731
5. 703
5. 676
5. 649
5. 622
94 0. 6275
95 0. 6247
96 0. 6220
97 0. 6193
98 0. 6166
99 0. 6139
100 0. 6112
7. 387 51
7. 341 52
7. 296 53
7. 251 54
7. 206 55
*Calculated from the formula relatw densely= (141 5)/(131 5+ -, hp, ) The wghls I this table are wghts I air at 60F wth humldtty
50% and pressure 760 mm fig
Relative Density and Density
The relative density of a solid or liquid is the ratio of the
mass of the body to the mass of an equal volume of water
at some standard temperature. At the present time, a tem-
perature of4C [39F] is commonly used by physicists,
but the engineer uses 60F. The relative density of gases
is usually expressed in terms of hydrogen or air.
The density of a body is its mass per unit volume. If
the gram is used as the unit of mass and the millimeter
as the unit of volume, or if the kilogram is used as the
unit of mass and the liter as the unit of volume, the figures
representing the density are the same as the relative den-
sity of the body. The inch-pound unit is pounds per cubic
foot.
scales are used in various trades and industries. The most
common of these are the API and BaumC. The API scale
is approved by the American Petroleum Inst., the ASTM,
the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and the Natl. Bureau of Stan-
dards and is recommended for exclusive use in the U.S.
petroleum industry, superseding the Baume scale for liq-
uids lighter than water. The relation between API degrees
and relative density is expressed by the followmg
equation.
The relative density of liquids is usually measured by The relative densities corresponding to API and
a hydrometer, and different special arbitrary hydrometer weights per U.S. gallon are given in Table 1.65.
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Chapter 2
Casing, Tubing, and Line Pipe
William 0. Clinedinst, Consultant
Casing
The successful production of oil and gas depends on the
proper performance of casing, which serves as a structural
retainer in the well, excludes undesirable fluids, and con-
fines and conducts oil or gas from subsurface strata to
ground level. Casing must be capable of withstanding ex-
ternal collapsing pressure from fluid surrounding the
casing, internal pressure encountered in conducting oil
or gas from the producing formation, and tension loads
resulting from its own suspended weight. It also must be
equipped with threaded joints that can be made up easily
and that provide leakproof connections.
API Casing
API developed specifications for casing that meet the
major needs of the oil and gas industry and published these
in API specifications and bulletins. I-6 These provide stan-
dard dimensions, strength and performance properties,
and the required thread-gauging practice to ensure com-
plete interchangeability.
In addition to the API strength grades, the following
tables include information on higher-strength casing de-
veloped to meet the needs of unusually deep wells. Tables
2.1 and 2.2 give the tensile requirements and range lengths
of API casing and liner casing. Table 2.3 lists the mini-
mum performance properties of casing. Table 2.4 lists
the minimum collapse resistance under axial loads for var-
ious API casing grades. Tables 2.5 through 2.7 give the
dimensions, weights, and tolerances of round-thread and
buttress-thread coupling and length of upset for extreme-
line API casing (see also Figs. 2.1 through 2.3). Factors
for conversion of gross linear footage to net footage of
API short-thread, long-thread, buttress-thread. and
extreme-line casings are shown in Tables 2.8 through
2. I 1 1 respectively. Equations for calculating performance
properties of casing are given in a later section.
Special Casing Joints
A number of special casing joints are available that are
useful where higher strength, leak resistance, or clearance
is needed than that provided by the standard API round-
thread, buttress-thread, or extreme-line casing joints.
These special joints obtain their improved properties by
various means, such as (1) couplings or box ends with
seal rings of teflon, etc.; (2) special thread profiles, such
as Acme; (3) torque shoulders; (4) metal-to-metal seals;
(5) internal upsets; (6) external upsets; (7) integral joints;
and (8) flush joints.
API Liner Casing
Table 2.12 shows the minimum performance properties
of API Grade J-55 plain-end liner casing. Table 2.13
shows the minimum collapse resistance under axial loads
of API Grade J-55 liner casing.
Design of Casing Strings
Oil, Water, and Mud-Weight Factors. Table 2.14 gives
the oil, water, and mud weight factors used in casing string
design.
Safety factors commonly used in the design of casing
strings are the following: collapse strength, 1.125; joint
strength, 1.80; plain-end yield strength, 1.25; and internal
yield pressure, 1 .OO. These safety factors will be used in
the following casing string designs. However, it is the re-
sponsibility of the designer to select safety factors to suit
particular needs.
Single Weight and Grade Casing String. Collapse Safe-
ty Factor. The collapse pressure for a single weight and
grade casing string is determined by multiplying the height
of the head of mud by the factor for the mud weight found
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2- 2
PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 2.1-API CASING AND LINER CASING
TENSILE REQUIREMENTS
Casi ng
Yi el d Strength ( psi )
Grade Mi ni mum Maxi mum
H- 40 40, 000 80, 000
J - 55 55, 000 80, 000
K- 55 55, 000 80, 000
c- 75 + 75, 000 90, 000
L- 80 80. 000 95, 000
N-80 8o;ooo 110,000
c-90 90,000 105, 000
Mi ni mum Mi ni mum
Tensi l e
Maxi mum
Hardness
El ongati on
Strength i n 2 i n. **
( Psi )
HRC BHN
WI
~ - -
60, 000
75, 000
95, 000
95, 000
95, 000 23 241
100, 000
100, 000 25. 4 255
c-95+ 95,000 110, 000 105, 000
HC- 95* 95. 000 110, 000
P- 110 110, 000
Q- 125* 125, 000
v- 150* 150, 000
Li ner Casi ng
J - 55 55, 000
140, 000 125, 000
150, 000 135, 000
180, 000 160, 000
80, 000 75, 000
A O2
AL = 625,000+
01
and I metr,c utvts,
A O2
AL=194257+
'J i
where
AL = mmimum elongation in 2 I I percent to nearest /z%.
A j = cross-sectional area of the tens,le test specimen I,. square ,nches based on speclf,ed OD
or nom~naf specimen width and speclfled wall tfvckness rounded to the nearest 0 01 or
0 75 sq m.. whichever IS smaller, and
O, = speclfled m~nmwm ultimate tenslIe strength, psi
+ Restncted yeld strength Inlended for se I sour gas service
t Non-API
Speaal requwnents an toughness. uniform hardness, and mill testing
in Table 2.14. Thus the collapse pressure for an 1 1 ,OOO-ft
head of mud with a weight of 9.625 lbm/gal is 5,500 PSI
(ll,OOOft~0.5psi/ft=5,5OOpsi).Tomeetthe 1.125col
lapse safety factor, a collapse resistance of at least 6,188
psi (1.125 x 5,500) is required.
In Table 2.3, the lightest weight of 7-in. casing with
a collapse resistance of at least 6,188 psi is 29-lbm N-80
with a collapse resistance of 7,020 psi. (The designer
should select the most economical weight and grade that
meets the performance property requirements.) By divid-
ing the 7,020-psi collapse resistance by the 5,500-psi col-
lapse pressure, the collapse safety factor is found to be
1.276 (see Table 2.15).
J oint Sfrengfh Safety Factor. For the same string, the
total load on the joint at the top of the well (ignoring
buoyancy effects) is the product of the length of the string
(11,000 ft) and the 29-lbm/ft weight of the casing or
319,000 lbm. Dividing the 597,000-lbm minimum joint
strength of 7-in., 29-lbm, N-80 long-thread casing given
in Table 2.3 on minimum performance properties by the
319,000-lbm weight of casing yields a 1.87 safety factor
for joint strength.
Pipe Body Yield Safety Factor. In Table 2.3, the pipe
body yield strength is found to be 676.000 lbm. The
676,000-lbm pipe body yield strength divided by the
319,000-lbm weight of the casing string yields the 2.12
safety factor.
I nternal Yield Pressure Safety Factor. The bottomhole
pressure (BHP) given is 5,500 psi. The internal yield pres-
sure (pressure resistance) for 7-in., 29-lbm, N-80 long-
thread casing is 8,160 psi (Table 2.3). The 8,160-psi in-
ternal yield pressure divided by the 5,500-psi BHP yields
a 1.48 safety factor.
Combination Casing Strings
Collapse Safety Factors. In designing a combination
casing string, first determine the casing required to resist
the collapse pressure at the bottom of the well (Table
2.16). Then, determine how far this weight and grade
must be run before a weight and grade with a lower col-
lapse resistance can be used. The procedure is repeated
until the weight with the lowest possible collapse
resistance has been used, or until a higher-weight casing
is chosen because the advantages of a lower-cost material
are offset by increased identification and handling prob-
lems. The collapse resistance of casing is affected by any
axial load applied to it. Only the bottom section is not
affected by axial loading. Sections above the bottom sec-
tion will have their collapse resistance reduced by the
weight of the casing below. Because the axial load acting
on the casing and the collapse pressure are both depend-
ent on the depth at which the new casing item is intro-
duced, the changeover point must be determined by
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CASI NG, TUBI NG, AND LI NE PI PE 2- 3
successive approximation or trial-and-error calculations.
When design calculations are made with a computer,
the collapse resistance under axial loading can be calcu-
lated by use of the method described in the section on
equations. Take the depth to which the weight and grade
being considered will set with the desired safety factor
without axial load as a starting point. Then decrease the
depth by suitable increments (perhaps 50 ft), calculating
the axial load, the collapse resistance, the collapse pres-
sure, and the safety factor for each increment until the
desired safety factor value is obtained.
When design calculations are made without a computer,
collapse resistance values can be obtained from Table 2.4
(minimum collapse resistance under axial loading). This
table lists collapse resistance under axial stress increments
of 5.000 psi. For stresses intermediate to the 5.000-psi
increments, collapse resistance can be determined by
interpolation. The following collapse calculations for the
design of the 7-in., I 1 ,OOO-ft string were made from Table
2.4.
29-lbm N-SO Bottom-Section Collapse Safety Factor.
The method for selection of 29-lbm N-SO for the bottom
section and the determination of the 1.276 collapse safe-
ty factor is identical to that shown for the 11 ,OOO-ft sin-
gle weight and grade string.
26lbm N-80 I ntermediate-Section Collapse Safety
Factor. Determination of the length of the bottom section
and the changeover point to 26 Ibm, the next lower weight,
is facilitated by constructing Table 2.17.
In this table, starting with the tabulated values of axial
stress and the corresponding collapse resistance for 26-lbm
N-80 casing, the lengths of the 29-lbm casing required
to cause the stress and the correspondi ng collapse safety
factors are calculated.
Co]. 1 gives the axial stress values in 5,00@psi incre-
ments. Col. 3 gives collapse resistance under axial load
for the cross-sectional area obtained from Table 2.4 for
Grades L-80 and N-80. Co]. 2 is the product of Col. 1
and the cross-sectional area. Col. 4 is determined by cal-
culating the weight of casing below the section for which
the length is being determined. (This is the general format
of the table for use with all sections. In this case, the
weight of casing below the section is zero because there
is no casing below the 29-lbm N-80.) Co]. 5 is the differ-
ence between Cols. 2 and 4. Co]. 6 is Col. 5 divided by
29. Co]. 7 is the depth to the bottom of the 26-lbm sec-
tion-the changeover point-in this case 11 .OOO ft minus
Co]. 6. Co]. 8 is Co]. 7 multiplied by the mud factor (0.5),
and Col. 9 is Col. 3 divided by Co]. 8.
The 1,600-i? length of the 29-lbm section found in Co].
6 and the 1.126 safety factor for the 26-lbm section at
the changeover point were determined by interpolation
according to the following method. The length of the
29-lbm section found in Co]. 6 was estimated by cal-
culating
1,302+[(1.125-1.095)/(1.23X-1.095)]
x(2,605- 1,302)= 1,575 ft,
which is rounded to the next 50-ft multiple to yield 1,600
ft. Cols. 1, 2, 5. 7. and 8 were back-calculated from Co].
6. For instance, the axial stress found in Col. 1 equals
(1,600~ 29)/7.549, which equals 6,147 psi.
TABLE 2.2-API CASING AND LINER CASING
RANGE LENGTHS
Casi ng
Total range l ength,
i ncl usi ve 16to25 25to34 34to48
Range l ength f or 95%
or more of carload
Permi ssi bl e vari ati on,
maxi mum 6 5 6
Permi ssi bl e l ength,
mi ni mum 18 28 36
Loners
Same requi rements as f or casi ng i n Ranges 2 and 3
The collapse resistance for the 26-lbm section that cor-
responds to the 6,147-psi axial stress is estimated by cal-
culating
5,310-[(6,147-5,000)/(10,000-5,000)]
x(5,310-5,200)=5,285 psi,
which is rounded to the nearest 10 psi according to API
procedures to yield 5,290 psi. The collapse safety factor
at the 26-lbm section bottom that is shown in Col. 9 is
obtained by dividing Col. 3 by Co]. 8.
23-lbm N-80 Top Section Collapse Safety Factor. The
length of the 26-lbm intermediate section and the change-
over point to the next lower weight are calculated with
Table 2.18. In Table 2.18, Cols. 5 through 9 cannot be
calculated until Col. 2 exceeds Col. 4. The 2,900-Ii length
of the 26-lbm section that is shown in Co]. 6 and the 1.120
safety factor of the 23-lbm section at the changeover point
were determined by interpolation.
The length of the 26-lbm section listed in Col. 6 was
estimated by calculating
2,055+[(1.125-1.005)/(1.194-1.005)]
x(3,335-2,055)=2,868 ft,
which is rounded to the next 50-ft multiple to yield 2,900
ft. Cols. 1, 2,5, 7, and 8 were back-calculated from Co].
6. The collapse resistance of the 23.lbm section that cor-
responds to the l&299-psi axial stress is estimated by cal-
culating
3,690-[(18,299-15,000)1(20,000-15,000)]
x(3,690-3,620)=3,644 psi,
which is rounded to the nearest 10 psi according to API
procedures to yield 3,640 psi. The 1.120 collapse safety
factor at the 23-lbm section bottom that is listed in Co].
9 is obtained by dividing Col. 3 by Col. 8. By increasing
the length of the 29-lbm intermediate section to 2,950 ft
and by repeating the calculations for collapse resistance,
we obtain a safety factor of 1.129.
( conti nued on page 32)
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2- 4
PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 2.3~MINIMUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Nomrnal
Threaded and Coupl ed
Wei ght, OD
Threads OD Speci al
and Wal l Dri f t of Cl earance
OD Coupl i ng Thrckness I D Di ameter Coupl i ng Coupl i ng
( i n. ) ( I bml f t) Grade ( i n. ) ( i n. ) ( i n. ) ( i n. ) ( i n. )
4% 9. 50 H- 40 0. 205 4. 090 3. 965
9. 50 J - 55 0. 205 4. 090 3. 965
10. 50 J - 55 0. 224 4. 052 3. 927
11. 60 J - 55 0. 250 4. 000 3. 875
9. 50 K- 55
10. 50 K- 55
11. 60 K- 55
11. 60 c- 75
13. 50 c- 75
11. 60 L- 80
13. 50 L- 80
11. 60 N- 80
13. 50 N- 80
11. 60 c- 90
13. 50 C- 90
11. 60 C- 95
13. 50 c- 95
- 11. 60 HC- 95
1 13. 50 HC- 95
* 15. 10 HC- 95
11. 60 P- 110
13. 50 P- 110
15. 10 P- 110
15. 10 Q- 125
1 16. 60 Q- 125
1 19. 10 Q- 125
* 15. 10 v- 150
f 16. 60 v- 150
t 1910 v- 150
0. 205 4. 090 3. 965
0. 224 4. 052 3. 927
0. 250 4. 000 3. 875
0. 250 4. 000 3. 875
0. 290 3. 920 3795
0. 250 4. 000 3. 875
0. 290 3. 920 3. 795
0. 250 4. 000 3. 875
0. 290 3. 920 3. 795
0. 250 4. 000 3. 875
0. 290 3. 920 3. 795
0. 250 4. 000 3. 875
0. 290 3. 920 3. 795
0. 250 4. 000 3. 875
0. 290 3. 920 3. 795
0. 337 3. 826 3. 701
0. 250 4. 000 3. 875
0. 290 3. 920 3. 795
0. 337 3. 826 3. 701
0. 337 3. 826 3. 701
0. 375 3. 750 3. 625
0. 437 3. 626 3. 501
0. 337 3. 826 3. 701
0. 375 3. 750 3. 625
0. 437 3. 626 3501
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5. 000
5 000
-
-
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 675
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 075
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
4. 875
9 10 11
Extreme Li ne
OD
Dri f t of Box Col l apse
Drameter Powerti ght Resi stance
( i n. ) ( i n. )
( psi )
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2, 760
3, 310
4, 010
4, 960
3, 310
4, 010
4, 960
6, 100
8, 140
6. 350
8, 540
6. 350
8, 540
6, 820
9. 300
7, 030
9. 660
8, 650
10, 380
12, 330
7, 580
10, 680
14, 350
15, 840
19, 100
21, 920
18, 110
22, 330
26. 300
5 11. 50 J - 55
13. 00 J - 55
15. 00 J - 55
11. 50 K- 55
1300 K- 55
15. 00 K- 55
15. 00 c- 75
18. 00 c- 75
21. 40 c- 75
23. 20 c- 75
24. 10 c- 75
15. 00 L- 80
18. 00 L- 80
21. 40 L- 80
23. 20 L- 80
24. 10 L- 80
15. 00 N- 80
18. 00 N- 80
21. 40 N- 80
23. 20 N- 80
24. 10 N- 80
15. 00 c- 90
18. 00 c- 90
21. 40 c- 90
23. 20 C- 90
24. 10 c- 90
Non-API we~ghls and grades
0. 220 4. 560 4. 435
0. 253 4. 494 4. 369
0 296 4. 408 4. 283
0. 220 4. 560 4. 435
0. 253 4. 494 4. 369
0. 296 4. 408 4. 283
0. 296 4. 408 4. 283
0. 362 4. 276 4. 151
0. 437 4. 126 4. 001
0. 478 4. 044 3. 919
0. 500 4. 000 3. 875
0. 296 4. 408 4. 283
0. 362 4. 276 4. 151
0. 437 4. 126 4. 001
0. 478 4. 044 3. 919
0. 500 4. 000 3. 875
0. 296 4. 408 4. 283
0. 362 4. 276 4. 151
0437 4. 126 4. 001
0. 478 4. 044 3. 919
0. 500 4. 000 3. 875
0. 296 4. 408 4. 283
0362 4. 276 4. 151
0437 4. 126 4. 001
0. 478 4. 044 3. 919
0. 500 4. 000 3. 875
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
5. 563
-
5. 375
5. 375
-
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
-
-
4. 151
-
-
4. 151
4. 151
4. 151
-
4. 151
4. 151
-
4. 151
4. 151
-
-
4. 151
4. 151
-
-
-
5. 360
-
5. 360
5. 360
5. 360
-
5. 360
5. 360
-
5. 360
5. 360
-
5. 366
5. 366
-
-
3, 060
4. 140
5, 560
3, 060
4. 140
5, 560
6, 940
9, 960
11, 970
12, 970
13, 500
7. 250
10, 500
12, 760
13, 830
14, 400
7, 250
10, 500
12, 760
13, 830
14, 400
7, 840
11, 530
14, 360
15. 560
16. 200
12
Pi pe- Body
Yi el d
Strength
( 1, 000 I bf )
111
152
165
184
152
165
184
250
288
267
307
267
307
300
345
317
364
317
364
419
367
422
485
551
608
697
661
729
837
182
208
241
182
208
241
328
396
470
509
530
350
422
501
543
566
350
422
501
543
566
394
475
564
611
636
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CASI NG. TUBI NG. AND LI NE PI PE 2- 5
13
Pl ai n
End
or
Extreme
Lf ne
3. 190
4. 380
4 790
5350
4 380
4 790
5. 350
7290
0460
7 780
9 020
7 780
9 020
8 750
10. 150
9. 240
10710
9240
10710
12, 450
10690
12410
14420
16 380
16230
21 240
19660
21. 880
25490
4240
4. 870
5, 700
4, 240
4. 870
5. 700
7. 770
9, 500
11, 470
12, 550
13. 130
8. 290
10. 140
12. 240
13. 380
14. 000
8. 290
10. 140
12. 240
13. 380
14. 000
9, 320
11. 400
13. 770
15. 060
15. 750
TABLE 2.3-MINIMUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
J oi nt Strength" ( 1. 000 I bl )
Internal Pressure Resl stancet ( PSI ) Threaded and Coupl ed
Bul l ress Thread Buttress Thread
Speci al
Regul ar Cl Ei ranCe
Speci al
Round Coupl i ng Coupl i ng Round
Regul ar Cl earance
Thread
Same Hl aher Same Maher Thread
Couol l na SCJ l 3Xl
Reaul ar
Short Lono Grade Gkde Grade G&de Short I
-
3. 190
4380
4. 790
5. 350
4 380
4 790
5. 350
. ong Coupl i ng
Hi gher
Grade'
Cl earance
Coupl i ng
Coupl i ng
Hi gher
Grade'
-
-
4 240
4. 870
5, 700
4. 240
4. 870
5 700
-
-
-
-
-
-
5. 350
-
4. 790
5. 350
5 350
7290
8. 460
7 780
9020
7 780
9020
8 750
10150
9240
10710
9240
10 710
12. 450
10690
12410
14420
16380
16. 650
16650
19660
19980
19. 980
-
4. 790
5. 350
7. 290
8. 460
7. 760
9. 020
7. 760
9. 020
8. 750
10150
9. 240
10. 710
9 240
10. 710
11. 630
10. 690
12. 410
13. 460
15, 300
15 300
15. 300
18. 360
18. 360
18. 360
4. 870 4. 870
5. 700 5. 700
-
4. 870
5. 700
7. 770
9. 500
10. 140
10. 140
10, 140
8. 290
10, 140
10. 810
10. 810
10. 810
8. 290
10. 140
10. 810
10. 810
10. 810
9. 320
11. 400
12. 170
12. 170
12. 170
4. 870
5. 700
7. 770
9. 290
9. 290
9. 290
9, 290
8. 290
9. 910
9, 910
9. 910
9. 910
8. 290
9. 910
9. 910
9. 910
9. 910
9. 320
11, 150
11. 150
11. 150
11. 150
77
- ~ 101
4. 790 4 790 4. 790 132
5. 350 5350 5. 350 154
-
- -
112
4. 790 4 790 4. 790 146
5350 5350 5. 350 170
~ 7. 290 ~
- 7. 490 -
-
7. 780 7 780 7. 780 -
9020 7990 9. 020 ~
7. 780 7 780 7. 780 ~
9. 020 7990 9020 ~
~ 8750 ~ ~
- 9 000 ~
- 9. 240 - -
~ 9 490 ~ ~
9. 240 9 240 9. 240 ~
10. 710 9500 10. 710 -
12. 450 9 500 11. 000 ~
10. 690 10690 10. 690 ~
12, 410 10990 12. 410 - -
14. 420 10990 13. 910 ~
~ 12490 ~
18. 230 12490 14. 980 -
18. 370 12. 490 14. 980 ~
- 14980 -
-
- 14980 ~
- 14980 ~
- - 133
4. 870 4, 870 4. 870 169
5, 700 5. 130 5. 700 207
-
-
147
4, 870 4. 870 4, 870 186
5 700 5. 130 5. 700 228
- 6. 990 - -
~ 6. 990 -
-
- 6. 990 - ~
- 7. 000 - -
~ 6, 990 - -
8. 290 7. 460 8. 290 -
10. 140 7. 460 10. 140 ~
- 7, 460 - -
- 7. 460 - ~
- 7. 460 -
-
8, 290 7. 460 8. 290 -
10. 140 7460 10. 140 ~
12. 240 7. 460 10. 250 -
13. 380 7. 460 10. 250 ~
13. 620 7. 460 10. 250 -
- 8. 400 - -
- 8. 400 - -
- 8. 400 ~
~ 8. 400 - -
- 8. 400 ~ ~
-
-
162
-
203
225
203 203 203
225 225 225
-
180
212
257
212
257
223
270
223
270
234
284
245
297
357
279
338
406
438
496
588
519
588
697
-
249
277
288
331
291
334
304
349
309
355
325
374
338
388
446
385
443
509
554
579
579
658
686
686
249
277
-
249 249
277 277
288
320
-
304
349
-
291
320
304
337
325
374
338
388
446
385
443
509
-
611
686
-
309
337
325
353
338 338
370 388
370 421
385 385
421 443
421 509
454
454
-
539
539
539
182 252 252 252
223 293 293 287
201
246
295
376
466
513
538
-
309
359
375
452
510
510
510
309
359
309
359
364
364
364
364
364
295
376
466
513
538
-
311
396
490
540
567
311
396
490
540
567
379
457
510
510
510
396
477
537
537
537
404
487
537
537
537
396
477
566
614
639
364
364
364
364
364
383
383
383
383
383
383
383
383
383
383
-
304
349
-
-
539
539
252
293
-
309
359
-
-
-
-
-
396
477
479
479
479
-
-
Extreme Li ne
Standard OptI onal
J oi nt
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
328
416
416
446
-
416
446
-
-
-
437
469
-
-
430
469
-
-
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2- 6 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 2. 3- MI NI MUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTI ES OF CASI NG ( conti nued)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Nomi nal
Threaded and Coupl ed
Wei ght. OD
Extreme Li ne
Threads 00 Speci al OD Pi pe- Body
and Wal l Dri f t of Cl earance Dri f t of Box Col l apse . Yi el d
OD Coupl i ng Thi ckness I D Di ameter Coupl mg Coupl i ng Di ameter Powerti ght Resi stance Strength
( i n. ) ( I bml f t) Grade
( i n )
( i n. ) ( i n. )
( I n. )
( i n. ) ( i n. ) ( i n. )
( psi )
( 1, 000 I bf )
_~~
5 15. 00
18. 00
21 40
23. 20
2410
t 1500
I I 1800
+ 23. 20
15. 00
18. 00
21 40
2320
24. 10
15. 00
1800
23 20
24. 10
* 15. 00
I I 18. 00
f 23. 20
c- 95 0. 296 4408 4. 283 5. 563
c- 95 0. 362 4276 4. 151 5. 563
c- 95 0. 437 4126 4. 001 5. 563
c- 95 0. 478 4044 3. 919 5. 563
c- 95 0. 500 4. 000 3. 875 5. 563
HC- 95 0. 296 4. 408 4 283 5. 563
HC- 95 0. 362 4276 4151 5. 563
HC- 95 0. 478 4044 3919 5. 563
P- 110
P- 110
P- 110
P- 110
P- 110
Q- 125
Q- 125
Q- 125
Q- 125
v- 150
v- 150
v- 150
0. 296 4408 4283 5. 563
0 362 4276 4. 151 5. 563
0. 437 4. 126 4. 001 5. 563
0. 478 4. 044 3919 5. 563
0. 500 4. 000 3875 5. 563
0. 296 4408 4. 283 5. 563
0. 362 4276 4151 5. 563
0. 478 4. 044 3. 919 5. 563
0. 500 4. 000 3. 875 5. 563
0. 296 4. 408 4. 283 5. 563
0. 362 4. 276 4151 5. 563
0. 478 4. 044 3919 5. 563
5% 14. 00
14. 00
15. 50
17. 00
H- 40 0. 244 5. 012
J - 55 0. 244 5. 012
J - 55 0. 275 4. 950
J - 55 0. 304 4. 892
14. 00
15. 50
17. 00
17. 00
20. 00
23. 00
K- 55 0. 244 5. 012
K- 55 0. 275 4. 950
K- 55 0. 304 4. 892
c- 75 0. 304 4. 892
c- 75 0. 361 4. 778
c- 75 0. 415 4. 670
17. 00 L- 80 0. 304
20. 00 L- 80 0. 361
23. 00 L- 80 0. 415
17. 00
20. 00
23. 00
17. 00
20. 00
23. 00
26. 00
35. 00
17. 00
20. 00
23. 00
N- 80
N- 80
N- 80
c- 90
c- 90
c- 90
c- 90
c- 90
c- 95
c- 95
c- 95
* 17. 00 HC- 95
t 20. 00 HC- 95
f 23. 00 HC- 95
17. 00 P- 110
20. 00 P- 110
23. 00 P- 110
. 17. 00 Q- 125
t 20. 00 Q- 125
23. 00 Q- 125
* 26. 80 Q- 125
f 20. 00 v- 150
1 23. 00 v- 150
. 26. 80 v- 150
0. 304
0. 361
0. 415
0. 304
0. 361
0. 415
0. 476
0. 650
0. 304
0. 361
0. 415
0. 304
0. 361
0. 415
0. 304
0. 361
0. 415
0. 304
0. 360
0. 415
0. 500
0. 361
0. 415
0. 500
Non-API weights or grades
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
-
5. 375
5. 375
5. 375
4. 892
4. 778
4. 670
4. 892
4. 778
4. 670
4. 892
4. 778
4. 670
4. 548
4. 200
4. 892
4. 778
4. 670
4. 892
4. 778
4. 670
4. 892
4. 778
4. 670
4. 892
4. 778
4. 670
4. 500
4. 778
4. 670
4. 500
4. 887
4. 887
4. 825
4. 767
4. 887
4. 825
4. 767
4. 767
4. 653
4. 545
4. 767
4. 653
4. 545
4. 767
4. 653
4. 545
4. 767
4. 653
4. 545
4. 423
4. 075
4. 767
4. 653
4. 545
4. 767
4653
4. 545
4. 767
4. 653
4. 545
4. 767
4. 653
4. 545
4. 375
4. 653
4. 545
4. 375
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
6. 050
-
- -
5. 875 4. 653
5. 875 4. 653
-
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
5. 875
4. 653
4. 653
4. 653
4. 653
4. 545
4. 653
4. 653
4. 545
4. 653
4. 653
4. 545
4. 653
4. 653
4. 545
-
4. 653
4. 653
4. 545
-
-
4. 653
4. 653
4. 545
-
-
-
-
-
-
4151 5. 360
4151 5. 360
- -
- -
- -
- -
4151 5. 360
4. 151 5. 360
- -
- -
-
-
-
-
- -
- -
-
5. 860
5. 860
-
5. 860
5. 860
5. 860
5860
5. 860
5. 860
5. 860
5. 860
5. 860
5. 860
5. 860
5. 860
5. 860
5. 860
-
-
5. 860
5. 860
5. 860
-
5. 860
5860
5. 860
-
-
-
8, 110 416
12, 030 501
15, 160 595
16, 430 645
17, 100 672
9, 380 416
11, 880 501
15, 820 645
8, 850 481
13, 470 580
17, 550 689
19, 020 747
19, 800 778
9, 480 547
14, 830 659
21, 620 849
22, 500 884
10, 250 656
16, 860 791
25, 940 1, 019
2, 620
3. 120
4, 040
4, 910
3, 120
4. 040
4, 910
6, 040
8, 410
10, 470
6, 280
8, 830
11, 160
6, 280
8, 830
11, 160
6, 740
9, 630
12. 380
14, 240
18, 760
6, 940
10, 010
12, 940
8, 580
10, 630
12, 450
7, 480
11, 100
14, 540
7, 890
12, 080
16, 070
20, 660
13, 460
18, 390
24. 790
161
222
248
273
222
248
273
372
437
497
397
466
530
397
466
530
447
525
597
676
891
471
554
630
471
554
630
546
641
729
620
729
829
982
874
995
1. 178
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CASING, TUBING, AND LINE PIPE
2- 7
TABLE 2. 3~MI NI MUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)
13 14 15 16 17 16 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
J oi nt Strenath" ( 1 000 l bf )
Pl ai n
End
or
Extreme
Lf ne
9. 840
12. 040
14. 530
15 890
16630
9. 840
12. 040
15. 890
11 400
13940
16. 820
18, 400
19. 250
12. 950
15840
20. 910
21. 880
15. 540
19010
25 090
3. 110
4. 270
4. 610
5. 320
4. 270
4. 810
5. 320
7 250
8. 610
9. 900
7 740
9 190
10: 560
7 740
9190
10. 560
6. 710
10. 340
11. 880
13. 630
18. 610
9. 190
10. 910
12. 540
9. 190
10. 910
12. 540
10. 640
12. 640
14520
12. 090
14. 360
16. 510
19890
17. 230
19. 810
23. 860
I nternal Pressure Resl stancet ( PSI )
-
Threaded and Coupl ed
Buttress Thread Buttress Thread
Speci al
Regul ar ClC331aWX
Speci al
Couphng Coupl i ng Round
Regul ar Cl earance
Round
Thread
same Hi gher - <her Th?! Regul ar
Coupl i ng Speci al Coupl i ng
Exl reme Li ne
Hi gher Cl earance
- Long Grade Grade Grade Grade Short Long Coupl i ng Grade'
Hi gher Standard Optl onal
Short Couphng Grade' J oi nt J oi nt
-
-
-
-
3, 110
4. 270
4. 610
5. 320
4. 270
4. 810
5. 320
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9. 840
12. 040
12. 840
12850
12. 850
9. 840
12. 040
12. 850
11. 400
13. 940
14. 870
14. 880
14870
12, 950
15. 840
16. 000
16 000
15. 540
16. 000
16. 000
9. 840
11, 770
11. 770
11 770
11 770
9. 840
11, 770
11, 770
11. 400
13. 620
13. 620
13. 630
13. 620
12950
15490
15490
15. 490
15540
18. 590
18. 590
-
9840
12. 040
13, 630
11, 400
13. 940
16, 820
18. 400
16. 560
- -
4. 810 4. 810
5. 320 5. 320
4. 810
5. 320
7 250
8. 610
9. 260
7. 740
9 190
9. 880
7. 740
9. 190
9. 880
8. 710
10. 340
11 110
11. 110
11 110
9190
10. 910
11. 730
9. 190
10, 910
11. 730
10. 640
12. 640
13, 160
12. 090
14. 360
16. 510
19. 890
17. 230
18. 250
18. 250
-
4. 610
5. 320
7250
8. 430
6. 430
7. 740
a 990
8. 990
7. 740
8, 990
8. 990
8. 710
10, 120
10, 120
10. 120
10. 120
9, 190
10. 680
10. 680
9, 190
10. 680
10. 680
10. 640
12. 360
12. 360
12 090
14. 360
15. 210
15 210
16. 680
16. 880
16. 880
-
4. 810
5, 320
-
4. 810
5. 320
-
7740
9. 190
10, 560
7 740
9, 190
10560
-
-
-
9. 190
10. 910
12370
10640
12640
14. 520
12090
14070
14070
14070
-
-
8, 850
8, 850
8, 650
8. 860
8. 850
8. 860
8. 660
8. 660
10, 250
10. 250
10. 250
10. 260
10. 250
-
- -
-
-
-
9840 -
10, 260 -
10. 260 -
11. 400 -
13. 940 -
13. 980 -
13. 990 -
13. 980 -
-
13. 990
13. 990
13. 990
4. 730
4. 730
4, 730
4. 730
6. 450
6. 450
6 450
6. 860
6 880
6. 860
6. 860
6, 680
6. 680
7, 740
7, 740
7. 740
7, 740
7. 740
6. 170
8. 170
8. i 70
8. 170
8. 170
8. 170
9. 460
9. 460
9. 460
10770
10. 770
10770
10 770
12. 920
12920
12920
- -
~ 130
~ 172
4810 202
5. 320 229
~ 189
4. 810 222
5. 320 252
7. 740
9. 190
9, 460
7. 740
9. 190
9, 460
-
9. 190
9. 460
9. 460
10. 640
11880
11. 880
12 090
12 920
12 920
12 920
-
-
-
326
416
515
567
595
342
436
594
386
495
613
675
708
420
535
729
765
497
634
864
424
512
563
563
563
441
532
591
503
606
671
671
671
548
661
725
725
651
785
859
- -
217 300
247 329
-
239
272
327
403
473
336
416
489
348
428
502
356
436
514
598
614
374
460
540
392
482
566
445
546
643
481
592
694
842
701
623
998
-
366
402
423
497
550
426
503
550
446
524
579
456
536
580
560
560
460
563
608
438
585
636
568
667
724
620
728
783
783
865
928
928
-
441
532
671
503
606
720
760
812
-
-
402
402
402
402
402
422
422
422
479
479
479
479
479
-
-
-
-
613
-
613
-
613
-
300
329
-
366
402
-
300
318
-
-
446
524
596
-
-
-
-
-
498
585
665
568
667
759
620
726
626
928
-
-
-
366
402
403
403
403
403
403
403
424
424
424
424
424
424
424
424
445
445
445
466
466
466
530
530
530
573
573
573
573
678
678
676
441
479
479
503
606
613
613
613
-
300
329
366
402
-
-
-
446
524
530
498
530
530
568
667
668
620
679
679
679
-
459
493
-
547
587
-
-
-
-
339
372
-
429
471
471
497
549
471
497
549
496
523
577
496
523
577
-
521
549
606
-
-
620
654
722
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
339
372
429
471
471
479
479
471
479
479
496
504
504
496
504
504
521
530
530
-
-
620
630
630
-
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2- 8 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 2.3-MINIMUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I O 11 12
Nomi nal
Weraht.
Threads
and
Threaded and Coupl ed
OD
Wal l Draf t
Extreme Li ne
OD Speci al
of Cl earance Dri f t
OD Pi pe- Body
of Box Col l apse Yi el d
Powerti ght Resi stance Strength
(In.1
( 1, 000 I bf )
(Psi)
2, 520
2, 970
4, 560
2, 970
4, 560
5, 550
7, 790
9, 800
5, 760
8, 170
10, 320
5, 760
8, 170
10, 320
6, 140
8. 880
11, 330
6, 310
9, 220
11, 810
229
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
315
382
315
382
520
610
688
555
651
734
555
651
734
624
732
826
659
773
872
OD Coupl i ng Thi ckness I D Di ameter Coupl i ng Coupl i ng Di ameter
( I n. ) ( I bm/ f t) Grade ( i n. )
On. )
( i n. )
( I n. )
( i n. ) ( i n. )
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
7. 000
-
-
-
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7375
7. 375
' 7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
5. 730
-
5. 730
5. 730
5. 666
5. 550
5. 730
5. 666
5. 550
5. 730
5. 666
5. 550
5. 730
5. 666
5. 550
5. 730
5. 666
5. 550
5. 730
5. 666
5. 550
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6. 151
6. 151
-
7. 390
7. 390
-
6. 151
6. 151
6. 151
6. 151
6. 059
5. 969
5. 879
5. 795
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 530
7. 530
6. 151 7. 390
6. 151 7. 390
6. 059 7. 390
5. 969 7. 390
5. 879 7. 530
5. 795 7. 530
6. 151 7. 390
6. 151 7. 390
6059 7. 390
5. 969 7. 390
5. 879 7. 530
5. 795 7. 530
6, 730 763
10, 160 895
13, 220 1, 009
7, 020 867
10, 990 1, 017
14, 530 1, 147
7, 340 1, 041
12, 120 1, 220
16, 500 1, 317
1, 420
1, 970
2, 270
3, 270
4. 320
2. 270
3, 270
4, 320
3, 750
5, 220
6, 730
8, 200
9, 670
10, 680
3, 830
5, 410
7, 020
8, 610
10, 180
11, 390
3, 830
5, 410
7, 020
8, 610
10, 180
11. 390
196
230
316
366
415
316
366
415
499
566
634
699
763
822
532
604
676
745
814
877
532
604
676
745
814
877
6% 20. 00 H- 40
20. 00 J - 55
24 00 J - 55
20 00 K- 55
24. 00 K- 55
24. 00 c- 75
28. 00 c- 75
32. 00 c- 75
24. 00 L- 80
28. 00 L- 80
32. 00 L- 80
24 00 N- 80
28. 00 N- 80
32. 00 N- 80
24. 00 C- 90
28. 00 C- 90
32. 00 C- 90
24. 00 C- 95
28. 00 c- 95
32. 00 C- 95
24. 00 P- 110
0288 6. 049 5. 924 7. 390
0. 288 6.049
0. 352 5. 921
0. 288 6.049
0. 352 5. 921
5.924
5. 796
5. 924
5. 796
0. 352 5. 921
0. 417 5. 791
0. 475 5. 675
0. 352 5. 921
0. 417 5. 791
0. 475 5. 675
0. 352 5. 921
0. 417 5. 791
0. 475 5. 675
0. 352 5 921
0. 417 5. 791
0. 475 5. 675
0. 352 5. 921
0. 417 5. 791
0. 475 5. 675
28. 00 P- 110
32. 00 P- 110
* 24. 00 Q- 125
* 28. 00 Q- 125
* 32. 00 Q- 125
* 24. 00 v- 150
* 28. 00 v- 150
.
32. 00 v- 150
0. 352 5. 921
0. 417 5. 791
0. 475 5. 675
0. 352 5. 921
0. 417 5. 791
0. 475 5. 675
0. 352 5. 921
0. 417 5. 791
0. 475 5. 675
5. 796
5. 666
5. 550
5. 796
5. 666
5. 550
5. 796
5. 666
5. 550
5. 796
5. 666
5. 550
5. 796
5. 666
5. 550
5. 796
5. 666
5. 550
5. 796
5. 666
5. 550
5. 796
5. 666
5 550
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7390
7390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7390
7390
7390
7 17. 00 H- 40 0. 231 6. 538 6. 413 7. 656
20. 00 H- 40 0. 272 6. 456 6. 331 7. 656
20. 00 J - 55 0. 272 6. 456 6. 331
23. 00 J - 55 0317 6. 366 6. 241
26 00 J - 55 0. 362 6. 276 6151
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
20. 00 K- 55 0. 272 6. 456 6. 331
23. 00 K- 55 0. 317 6. 366 6. 241
26. 00 K- 55 0362 6 276 6 151
23. 00 c- 75 0. 317 6. 366 6. 241
26. 00 c- 75 0. 362 6. 276 6. 151
29. 00 c- 75 0. 408 6. 184 6. 059
32. 00 c- 75 0. 453 6. 094 5. 969
3500 c- 75 0. 498 6. 004 5. 879
38 00 c- 75 0540 5. 920 5 795
23. 00 L- 80 0. 317 6. 366 6. 241
26. 00 L- 80 0. 362 6. 276 6. 151
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
29 00 L- 80 0408 6 184 6. 059
32. 00 L- 80 0. 453 6. 094 5. 969
35. 00 L- 80
38. 00 L- 80
23. 00 N- 80
26. 00 N- 80
29. 00 N- 80
32. 00 N- 80
35 00 N- 80
3800 N- 80
' NO" API wqhl s or grades
0. 498 6. 004 5. 879
0. 540 5. 920 5. 795
0. 317 6. 366 6. 241
0. 362 6 276 6. 151
0. 408 6. 184 6. 059
0. 453 6. 094 5. 969
0. 498 6. 004 5. 879
0. 540 5. 920 5. 795
7. 656
7. 656
7656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
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CASI NG, TUBI NG, AND LI NE PI PE 2- 9
TABLE 2.3-MINIMUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)
13
PI aNn
End
or
Extreme
Li ne
4 180
5. 1 10
4180
5. 1 10
6 970
8 260
9. 410
7. 440
8 810
10. 040
7440
8810
10040
8 370
9910
11290
8. 830
10. 460
11. 920
10. 230
12. 120
13. 800
11. 620
13. 770
15. 680
13. 950
16. 520
18. 820
14 15 16 17 18- 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
J ol nt Strength" ( 1. 000 I bf )
I nternal Pressure Resl stancet ( PSI ) Threaded and Coupl ed
Buttress Thread Buttress Thread
Round
Thread
Speci al
Regul ar Clearance
Speci al
Coupl i ng Coupl mg Round
Regul ar Cl earance
Coupl i ng Speci al
Extreme Li ne
Same Hi gher Same Hi gher - T! r! ! ad ~ Regul ar
Short Long Grade Grade Grade Grade Short Long Coi pl l ng
/
Cl earance
Coupl mg
Standard Opf ~onai
J omt j oi nt
3. 040 - - ~ 184
4. 180 4. 180 4. 180 4. 180 4. 060 4180 245
5. 110 5. 110 5 110 5. 110 4. 060 5 110 314
4. 180 4. 180 4 180 4. 180 4 060 4180 267
5. 110 5. 110 5110 5110 4. 060 5110 342
-
374
453
453
548
477 477
6.970 6.970
8. 260 8 260
9. 410 9200
7. 440 7, 440
8. 810 8. 810
10040 9 820
7. 440 7440
8. 810 8810
10040 9 820
8370 8370
9910 9910
11. 290 11. 050
8. 830 8830
10. 460 10. 460
11. 830 11. 660
10. 230 10. 230
11, 830 12, 120
11. 830 13. 500
11. 620 11. 620
11. 830 13 770
11. 830 14, 780
11. 830 13950
11. 830 14780
11. 830 14 780
- -
-
- 5 540
~ 5540
~ 5540
~ 5910
- 5 910
~ 5910
7440 5 910
8810 5910
10. 040 9 910
~ 6650
- 6. 650
- 6650
- 7. 020
- 7020
- 7. 020
10. 230 8. 120
12. 120 8. 120
13. 800 8. 120
- 8. 310
- 8. 310
- 8310
- 8. 310
- 8. 310
- 8. 310
266
340
290
372
453
552
638
473
576
666
481
586
677
520
633
732
546
665
769
641
781
904
702
855
989
831
1. 013
1172
583
683
771
Htgher
Grade'
-
374
453
453
548
-
374
390
453
494
494
494
494
494
494
494
520
520
520
520
520
520
546
546
546
650
650
650
702
702
-
Coupl mg
Hi gher
Grade'
-
374
453
453
520
-
-
605
605
648
717
605
648
717
637
682
755
637
682
755
668
716
793
796
852
944
-
605
605
644
644
605
644
644
637
678
678
637
678
678
668
712
712
796
848
848
7440 -
6120 -
8120 -
- -
8. 310 -
8. 310 -
8. 310 -
- -
592
693
783
615
721
814
633
742
037
665
780
880
786
992
1040
860
1. 008
1 138
1023
1 199
1, 353
2. 310
2 720
3. 740
4. 360
4. 980
3. 740
4. 360
4. 980
5. 940
6. 790
7. 650
8. 490
9. 340
10. 120
6. 340
7. 240
8. 160
9 060
9. 960
10. 800
6. 340
7. 240
8 160
9060
9 960
10. 800
2. 310
2. 720
3. 740
4. 360
4. 980
3. 740
4. 360
4. 980
-
4360
4. 980
-
4. 360
4. 980
5940
6 790
7. 650
8. 490
8. 660
8. 660
6. 340
7240
8160
9060
9240
9.240
6. 340
7. 240
8. 160
9060
9240
9240
-
-
4. 360
4980
-
4360
4. 980
5. 940
6. 790
7. 650
7930
7930
7930
6 340
7240
8 160
8460
8460
8. 460
6340
7240
8. 160
8. 460
8. 460
8460
4. 360
4. 980
4. 360
4. 980
-
-
6340
7240
al 60
9060
9. 960
10800
6340
7. 240
8. 160
9. 060
9. 960
10. 800
-
3. 950
3950
3. 950
3. 950
5. 380
5380
5380
5. 380
5 380
5380
5 740
5 740
5 740
5 740
5. 740
5. 740
5 740
5 740
5 740
5 740
5. 740
5 740
-
4 360
4 980
-
4 360
4. 980
-
6 340
7. 240
7. 890
7. 890
7. 890
7 890
6. 340
7 240
7890
7. 890
7. 890
7. 890
122
176
234
284
334
254
309
364
-
432
490
-
522
592
557
631
707
779
833
833
565
641
718
791
833
833
588
667
746
823
876
876
-
-
-
615
721
814
-
-
-
-
786
922
1. 040
-
-
-
-
832
-
832
-
832
-
-
-
432
490
421
421
-
522
592
-
-
-
-
-
-
522
533
533
533
533
533
533
533
-
-
-
-
-
533
533
533
533
533
533
588
667
746
823
898
561
561
561
561
561
561 968
-
-
-
615
650
650
-
-
-
-
-
-
786
832
832
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
499
506
-
632
641
632
641
685
761
850
917
632
641
685
761
850
917
666
675
721
801
895
965
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
499
506
-
632
641
632
641
674
674
761
761
632
641
674
674
761
761
666
675
709
709
801
801
C
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2- 10 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 2. 3- MI NI MUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTI ES OF CASI NG ( conti nued)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Nomi nal
Threaded and Coupl ed
Wei ght, OD
Extreme Li ne
Threads OD Speci al OD Pi pe- Body
and Wal l Dri f t 01 Cl earance Dri f t of Box Col l apse Yi el d
OD Couol i no Thi ckness I D Di ameter Coupl i nq Coupl i nq Di ameter Powerti aht Resi stance Strength
-
( i n. ) ( I bml f t) Grade ( i n. ) ( i n. ) ( i n. ) ( i n. ) ( i n. ) ( i n. ) ( i n. )
( Psi )
( 1, 000~l bf )
23. 00
26. 00
29. 00
32. 00
35. 00
38. 00
23. 00
26. 00
29. 00
32. 00
35. 00
38. 00
c- 90 0. 317
c- 90 0. 362
c- 90 0. 408
c- 90 0. 453
c- 90 0. 498
c- 90 0. 540
c- 95 0. 317
c- 95 0. 362
c- 95 0. 408
c- 95 0. 453
c- 95 0. 498
c- 95 0. 540
23. 00 HC- 95
26. 00 l - c- 95
29. 00 HC- 95
32. 00 HC- 95
0. 317
0 362
0. 408
0. 453
0. 498
0. 540
6. 366 6. 241
6. 276 6. 151
6. 184 6. 059
6. 094 5. 969
6. 004 5. 879
5. 920 5. 795
6. 366 6. 241
6. 276 6. 151
6. 184 6. 059
6. 094 5. 969
6. 004 5. 879
5. 920 5. 795
6. 366 6. 241
6. 276 6. 151
6. 184 6. 059
6. 094 5. 969
35. 00 HC- 95
38. 00 HC- 95
6. 004 5. 879
5. 920 5. 795
26. 00 P- 110 0. 362 6. 276
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
7. 656
6. 151 7. 656
6. 059 7. 656
5. 969 7. 656
5. 879 7. 656
5. 795 7. 656
6. 059 7. 656
5. 969 7. 656
5. 879 7. 656
5. 795 7. 656
5. 625 7. 656
6. 059 7. 656
5. 969 7. 656
5. 879 7. 656
5. 795 7. 656
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
7. 375
6. 151 7. 390
6. 151 7. 390
6. 059 7. 390
5. 969 7. 390
5. 879 7. 530
5. 795 7. 530
6. 151 7. 390
6. 151 7. 390
6. 059 7. 390
5. 969 7. 390
5. 879 7. 530
5. 795 7. 530
- -
-
-
-
-
6. 151
6. 059
5. 969
5. 879
5. 795
-
-
-
-
-
7. 390
7. 390
7. 390
7. 530
7. 530
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8. 010
8. 010
8. 010
8. 010
8. 010
8. 010
8. 010
8. 010
8. 010
8. 010
-
-
-
8. 010
8. 010
a. 010
8. 010
-
-
4, 030 599
5, 740 679
7, 580 760
9, 380 839
11, 170 915
12, 820 986
4, 140 632
5, 880 717
7, 830 803
9, 750 885
11, 650 966
13, 440 1, 041
5, 650 632
7, 800 717
9, 200 803
10, 400 885
11, 600 966
12, 700 1, 041
6, 230 830
8, 530 929
i 0, 780 1, 025
13, 020 1, 119
15, 140 1, 205
9, 100 1, 056
11, 720 1, 165
14, 310 1, 272
16, 750 1, 370
20, 330 1, 565
9, 790 1, 267
13, 020 1, 388
16, 220 1, 526
19, 240 1, 644
24. 390 1, 878
29. 00 P- 110 0. 408 6. 184
32. 00 P- 110 0. 453 6. 094
35. 00
38. 00
29. 00
32. 00
35. 00
38. 00
42 70
29. 00
32. 00
35. 00
38. 00
P- 110 0. 498 6. 004
P- 110 0. 540 5. 920
O- l 25 0. 408 6. 184
O- l 25 0. 453 6. 094
O- 1 25 0. 498 6. 004
O- 125 0. 540 5. 920
O- l 25 0 625 5. 750
v- 150 0 408 6. 184
v- 150 0. 453 6. 094
v- 150 0 498 6. 004
v- 150 0. 540 5. 920
I
42. 70 v- 150 0. 625 5. 750 5. 625 7. 656
7% 24. 00 H- 40
26. 40 J - 55
26. 40 K- 55
26. 40 c- 75
29. 70 c- 75
33. 70 c- 75
39. 00 c- 75
42 80 c- 75
45. 30 c- 75
47. 10 c- 75
26. 40 L- 80
29. 70 L- 80
33. 70 L- 80
39. 00 L- 80
42. 80 L- 80
45. 30 L- 80
47. 10 L- 80
26. 40 N- 80
29. 70 N- 80
33. 70 N- 80
39. 00 N- 80
42. 80 N- 80
45. 30 N- 80
47. 10 N- 80
Non-API weights or grades
0. 300 7. 025 6. 900
0. 328 6. 969 6. 844
0. 328 6. 969 6. 844
0 328 6. 969 6. 844
0. 375 6. 875 6. 750
0 430 6. 765 6. 640
0. 500 6. 625 6. 500
0 562 6. 501 6. 376
0. 595 6. 435 6. 310
0. 625 6. 375 6. 250
8. 500
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 a. 125
8. 500 a. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 a. 125
8. 500 8. 125
a. 500 a. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 a. 125
8. 500 a. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
-
6. 750
6. 750
6. 750
6. 750
6. 640
6. 500
-
-
6. 750
6. 750
6. 640
6. 500
-
-
-
6. 750
6. 750
6. 640
6. 500
-
-
2, 030
2, 890
2, 890
3, 280
4, 650
6, 300
8, 400
10, 240
10, 790
11, 290
3, 400
4, 790
6, 560
8, 820
i o. ai o
11, 510
12, 040
3, 400
4, 790
6, 560
8, 820
10, 810
11, 510
12, 040
276
414
414
564
641
729
839
935
986
1, 031
602
683
778
895
998
1, 051
1, 100
602
683
778
895
998
1, 051
1, 100
0 328 6. 969 6. 844
0. 375 6. 875 6. 750
0. 430 6. 765 6. 640
0. 500 6. 625 6. 500
0 562 6. 501 6. 376
0. 595 6. 435 6. 310
0. 625 6. 375 6. 250
0. 328 6. 969 6. 844
0 375 6. 875 6. 750
0. 430 6. 765 6. 640
0. 500 6. 625 6. 500
0. 562 6. 501 6. 376
0. 595 6. 435 6. 310
0. 625 6. 375 6. 250
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CASI NG. TUBI NG. AND LI NE PI PE Z- 11
TABLE 2. 3- MI NI MUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTI ES OF CASI NG ( conti nued)
13
Pl ai n
End
or
Extreme
Li ne
I 4 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
J oi nt Strength" ( 1 000 I bf )
I nternal Pressure Resl stancet ( PSI ) Threaded and Coupl ed
Buttress Thread Buttress Thread
Speci al
Regul ar Cl f ZI GXl Ce
Speci al
Round Couphng Coupl i ng Round
Regul ar Cl f XSaf l Ce
Coupl i ng SpeCl al Coupl i ng
Extreme Li ne
Thread
~ Same Hi gher Same Hi gher
Thread
Regul ar Hi gher Cl earance thgher Standard Opti onal
Long Grade Grade Grade Grade Short Long Coupl i ng Grade' Coupl i ng Grade'
7130
8 150
9. 180
10. 190
11. 210
12150
Short
-
-
-
7. 130
8. 150
9. 180
9. 520
9 520
9. 520
7 130
8. 150
9. 180
9. 520
9. 520
9520
7. 530
8. 600
9. 690
10. 760
11 830
12. 820
7. 530 7. 530
8. 600 8. 600
9. 520 9. 690
9 520 10050
9 520 10050
9. 520 10. 050
7. 530
8. 600
9. 690
I O 760
11. 830
12830
7. 530 7. 530
8 600 a 600
s 520 9 690
9 520 10 050
9 520 10 050
3 520 10. 050
9. 960
11. 220
12460
13700
14850
9 520 9. 960 9. 960 7 480 7480
9 520 11. 220 11220 7480 7480
9 520 11640 11 790 7 480 7480
9 520 11 640 11 790 7 480 7480
3 520 11 640 11 790 7480 7480
12. 750
14. 160
15. 560
16880
19530
-
- -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
. -
-
-
-
-
-
2750
4, 140
4. 140
3 520 11 790 7480
9 520 11. 790 7480
9 520 11 790 7 480
9 520 11. 790 7 480
9 520 11 790 7 480
15300
16 990
18680
20250
23440
9 520 11. 790 7480
9 520 11 790 7 480
9 520 11 790 7 480
9 520 11 790 7 480
9 520 11 790 7 480
2750
4, 140
4. 140
4140
4. 140
4, 140
4, 140
5650 5, 650 5, 650
6450 6. 450 6. 450
7, 400 7. 400 7. 400
8, 610 8610 8. 610
9. 670 9. 670 9. 190
10. 240 9, 840 9. 180
10, 760 9, 840 9. 190
6. 020 6. 020
6. 890 6. 890
7. 900 7, 900
9, 180 9. 180
10, 320 10. 320
10. 920 10, 500
11. 480 10. 490
6, 020
6, 890
7. 900
9. 180
10. 320
10, 920
11, 480
6. 020
6, 890
7. 900
9, 180
10. 320
10, 500
10, 490
6. 020
6, 890
7, 900
9. 180
9, 790
9. 790
9, 790
6. 020
6. 890
7. 900
9. 180
9, 790
9. 790
9, 790
6. 450
6. 450
6450
6 450
6 450
6 450
-
-
-
561
561
561
561
561
561
-
-
-
6810
6 810
6 810
6 810
6 810
6810
-
-
-
7. 530
447 605
563 687
648 768
729 847
809 876
883 876
505 636
593 722
683 808
768 891
853 920
931 920
512 659
602 747
692 836
779 922
865 964
344 964
693 853
797 955
897 1053
996 1096
1087 1096
885 1045
996 1183
t 106 1183
1207 1183
1277 1183
I 049 1. 243
1 180 1402
1310 1402
1430 1402
1514 1402
- -
346 483
377 581
461 624
542 709
635 806
751 929
852 1, 035
905 1. 090
953 1. 140
482 635
566 721
664 820
786 945
a92 1, 053
947 1, 109
997 1, 160
490 659
575 749
674 852
798 981
905 1, 093
962 1, 152
1013 1. 205
589
589
589
589
589
589
-
8. 600
9. 690
10 760
11. 630
11 630
6 810 7480
6 810 7480
6 810 7480
6910 7480
6 810 7480
6810 7480
-
659
747
836
922
1007
1085
a53
955
1053
1 150
1239
-
-
617
617
617
617
617
617
-
-
-
659
701
701
701
701
701
853
898
898
898
898
-
J ol nt
666
675
721
801
a95
965
699
709
757
841
940
1013
-
-
-
-
-
J oml
666
675
709
709
801
801
699
709
744
744
841
841
-
-
-
-
4. 140
4. 140
6, 020
6, 890
7, 900
9, 180
6, 020 6, 020 6. 020
6. 890 6, 550 6. 890
7. 900 6. 550 7, 900
9. 180 6, 550 9. 000
10, 320 6. 550 9, 000
10, 920 6. 550 8. 030
11. 480 6. 550 9. 000
-
4. 140
4, 140
5. 650
6. 140
6, 140
6. 140
6. 140
6. 140
6. 140
6, 020
6, 550
6, 550
6, 550
6, 550
6. 550
6. 550
4. 140
4. 140
6. 020
6. 890
7, 900
9. 000
-
-
212
315
342
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
483
581
-
-
659
749
852
981
1, 093
1. 152
1, 204
702
702
702
702
702
757
757
757
757
757
898
898
898
898
898
-
-
-
-
483 483
581 581
624
709
735
735
735
764
735
635
721
735
735
735
764
735
659
749
773
773
773
804
773
-
-
-
-
-
659
749
852
967
967
1. 005
967
844
902
1. 002
1. 118
1. 207
-
-
844
886
886
1. 002
1. 002
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
553 553
700 700
700 700
700 700
766 744
851 744
700
700
766
851
-
-
-
737
737
806
896
-
700
700
744
744
-
-
-
737
737
784
784
-
-
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2- 12 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NGHANDBOOK
TABLE 2. 3- MI NI MUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTI ES OF CASl NG( conti nued)
1 2 3 4 5 6. 7 8 9 10 11 12
Noml nal
Threaded and Coupl ed
Wei ght, OD
Extreme Li ne
Pi pe- Body
Col l apse Yi el d
Resi stance Strenoth
( PSI )
( l . OOO- l bf )
Threads OD Speci al
and Wal l Dri f t of Cl earance
OD Coupl i ng Thi ckness I D Di ameter Coupl i ng Coupl i ng
( i n. ) ( I bm/ f t) Grade ( i n. )
( I n. 1 ( I n. )
( i n. ) ( i n. )
OD
Dri f t of Box
Di ameter PowertI ght
( I n. )
( i n. )
7% 26. 40
29 70
33. 70
39 00
42. 80
45. 30
47. 10
c- 90 0. 328
c- 90 0375
c- 90 0. 430
c- 90 0. 500
c- 90 0. 562
6. 969 6. 844
6. 875 6. 750
6. 765 6. 640
c- 90 0. 595
c- 90 0. 625
6. 625 6. 500
6 501 6. 376
6. 310
6. 250
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
8. 500 8. 125
26. 40 c- 95 0. 328
29. 70 c- 95 0. 375
33 70 c- 95 0. 430
39. 00 c- 95 0. 500
42. 80 c- 95 0 562
45. 30 c- 95 0. 595
47. 10 c- 95 0. 625
6. 435
6. 375
6. 969
6. 875
6. 765
6. 625
6. 501
6. 435
6. 375
6. 844 8. 500 8. 125
6. 750 8. 500 8. 125
6. 640 8. 500 8. 125
6. 500 8. 500 8. 125
6. 376 8. 500 8. 125
6. 310 8. 500 8. 125
6. 250 8. 500 8. 125
I
26. 40
.
29. 70
II
33. 70
* 39. 00
I 45. 30
HC- 95 0. 328
HC- 95 0. 375
HC- 95 0. 430
HC- 95 0. 500
HC- 95 0. 595
6. 969
6. 875
6. 765
6. 625
6. 435
6. 844 8. 500 8. 125
6. 750 8. 500 8. 125
6. 640 8. 500 8. 125
6. 500 8. 500 8. 125
6. 310 8. 500 8. 125
29. 70 P- 110 0. 375 6. 875 6. 750 8. 500 8. 125
33. 70 P- 110 0. 430 6. 765 6. 640 8. 500 8. 125
39. 00 P- 110 0. 500 6. 625 6. 500 8. 500 8. 125
42. 80 P- 110 0. 562 6. 501 6. 376 8. 500 8. 125
45. 30 P- 110 0. 595 6. 435 6. 310 8. 500 8. 125
47. 10 P- 110 0. 625 6. 375 6. 250 8. 500 8. 125
- 29. 70
1 33. 70
39. 00
42. 80
45. 30
47. 10
Q- 125 0. 375
Q- 125 0. 430
Q- 125 0. 500
Q- 125 0. 562
Q- 125 0. 595
Q- 125 0. 625
6. 875
6. 765
6. 625
6. 501
6. 750
6. 640
6. 435
6. 375
6. 500
6. 376
6. 310
6. 250
8. 500
8. 500
8. 500
8. 500
8. 500
8. 500
8. 125
8. 125
8. 125
8. 125
8. 125
-
f
29. 70
.
33. 70
f
39. 00
f
45. 30
v- 150 0. 375 6. 875 6. 750 8. 500 8. 125
v- 150 0. 430 6. 765 6. 640 8. 500 8. 125
v- 150 0. 500 6. 625 6 500 8. 500 8. 125
v- 150 0. 595 6. 435 6. 310 8. 500 8. 125
677
769
875
1. 007
1. 122
1. 183
1, 237
714
811
923
1, 063
1, 185
1, 248
1, 306
714
811
923
1, 063
1, 248
940
1, 069
1, 231
1, 372
1, 446
1, 512
1, 068
1, 215
1, 399
1, 559
1, 643
1, 718
1, 282
1, 458
1. 679
1, 971
318
366
381
503
568
381
503
568
775
867
957
1, 059
827
925
1, 021
1, 129
3, 610
5, 040
7, 050
9, 620
11, 890
12. 950
13. 540
3, 710
5, 140
7, 280
10, 000
12, 410
13, 660
14. 300
4, 850
7, 150
8, 800
10, 600
12, 900
5, 350
7, 870
11, 080
13, 920
15, 430
16, 550
5, 670
8, 350
12, 060
15, 350
17, 090
18, 700
6, 060
8, 850
13, 440
19, 660
6. 750 8. 010
6. 750 8. 010
6. 640 8. 010
6. 500 8. 010
- -
6. 750 8. 010
6. 750 8. 010
6. 640 8. 010
6. 500 8. 010
-
-
- -
6. 750
6. 640
6. 500
-
-
-
-
-
-
8. 010
8. 010
8. 010
-
-
-
8%
28. 00 H- 40
32. 00 H- 40
0. 304 8. 017 7. 892 9. 625 -
0. 352 7. 921 7. 796 9. 625 -
0. 264 8. 097 7. 972 9. 625
0. 352 7. 921 7. 796 9. 625 9. 125
0. 400 7. 825 7. 700 9. 625 9. 125
0. 264 8. 097 7972 9. 625
0. 352 7. 921 7. 796 9. 625 9. 125
0. 400 7. 825 7. 700 9. 625 9. 125
-
1, 610
2, 200
1, 370
-
24. 00 J - 55
32. 00 J - 55
36. 00 J - 55
24. 00 K- 55
32. 00 K- 55
36. 00 K- 55
36. 00 c- 75
40. 00 c- 75
44. 00 c- 75
49. 00 c- 75
36. 00 L- 80
40. 00 L- 80
44. 00 L- 80
49. 00 L- 80
Non-API wetghls or grades
9. 120
9. 120
9. 120
9. 120
9. 120
9. 120
2, 530
3, 450
1, 370
2, 530
3, 450
4, 000
5, 330
6, 660
8, 180
4, 100
5, 520
6, 950
0. 400 7. 825 7. 700 9. 625 9. 125 7. 700
0. 450 7. 725 7. 600 9. 625 9. 125 7. 600
0. 500 7. 625 7. 500 9. 625 9. 125
0. 557 7. 511 7. 386 9. 625 9. 125
0. 400 7. 825 7. 700 9. 625 9. 125
0. 450 7. 725 7. 600 9. 625 9. 125
0. 500 7. 625 7. 500 9. 625 9. 125
0. 557 7. 511 7. 386 9. 625 9. 125
7. 500 9. 120
7. 386 9. 120
7. 700
7. 600
7. 500
7. 386
9, 120
9. 120
9. 120
9. 120 8, 580
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CASI NG. TUBI NG, AND LI NE PI PE 2-13
TABLE 2.3-MINIMUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
J oi nt Strength" ( 1. 000 I bf )
I nternal Pressure Resi stancef ( PSI ) Threaded and Coupl ed
Buttress Thread Buttress Thread
Pl atn
End
01
Extreme
Li ne
6. 760
7. 750
8. 880
10. 330
11, 610
12, 290
12. 910
7. 150
8. 180
9. 380
10, 900
12. 250
12. 970
13. 630
7 150
8. 180
9. 380
10. 900
12. 970
9. 470
10. 860
12, 620
14. 190
15. 020
15. 780
10. 760
12, 340
14. 340
16. 120
17. 070
17. 930
12, 910
14. 600
17, 210
20. 480
2. 470 2, 470
2. 860 2. 860
2950 2, 950
3. 930 3, 930
4. 460 4. 460
-
3, 930
4, 460
3. 930 3. 930
4. 460 4, 460
2. 950 2. 950
3, 930 3. 930
4. 460 4. 460
3. 930
4, 460
6090
6. 850
7. 610
8480
3. 930 3, 930
4. 460 4. 460
6. 090
6. 850
7. 610
8. 480
6. 090
6. 850
7. 610
8 480
6 490
7 300
8. 120
9. 040
6. 490 6. 490 6. 490
7. 300 7. 300 7, 300
8120 6. 120 8, 120
9. 040 9. 040 9. 040
6. 490
-
6. 490 6. 490 6. 490
7. 300
-
7. 300 7, 300 7, 300
8. 120
-
8. 120 6. 120 8. 120
9. 040
-
9. 040 9. 040 9. 040
Round
Thread
Spew
Regul ar Cl earance
Specf al
Couptl ng Coupttng Round
Regul ar Cl earance
Coupl i ng Speci al Coupl i ng
Extreme Lf ne
Same Htgher Same Hi gher
Thread
Regul ar Hqher
Short
-
-
Long Grade Grade Grade Grade Short Long Couphng Grade'
Cl earance
Coupl mg
6. 760 -
7. 370 ~
7, 370 -
7. 370 -
7. 370 -
7. 370 ~
7, 370 -
7. 150 -
7. 780 -
7. 780 -
7. 780 -
7. 780 -
7. 780 ~
7. 780 -
7. 150 7. 150
7. 780 8, 030
7. 780 8. 030
7. 780 8. 030
7. 780 8. 030
9. 000 9. 470
9. 000 10. 860
6. 030 8, 030
6. 030 8, 030
8. 030 8. 030
8, 030 8. 030
8, 030 ~
8, 030 -
8. 030 -
- -
6. 030 -
- -
8. 030 ~
8. 030 -
8. 030 ~
Standard Opttonal
6. 780 6. 780
7. 750 7. 750
8. 880 8. 680
10. 330 10. 330
11. 610 11, 020
11. 800 11, 020
11. 600 11. 020
- 532
~ 625
- 733
- 867
- 984
- 1. 045
- 1, 100
~ 560
- 659
- 772
- 914
- 1, 037
- 1, 101
- 1, 159
- 568
- 668
~ 763
- 926
- 1. 116
~ 769
- 901
- 1. 066
- 1. 210
- 1. 285
- 1. 353
- 861
- 1. 009
- 1, 194
- 1. 355
- 1, 439
- 1, 515
- 1, 030
- 1, 207
~ 1. 428
681
773
880
1. 013
1, 129
1. 169
1. 239
-
681
773
804
804
804
804
604
Htgher
Grade'
-
J of nt
737
737
806
896
J of nt
737
737
784
784
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7, 150 7. 150
8. 180 6, 160
9. 380 9. 380
10, 900 10. 900
11, 600 11, 620
11. 600 11. 630
11. 600 11, 620
-
-
-
-
-
7. 150 7 150 7, 150
8. 180 8. 180 8. 160
9. 380 9, 380 9. 380
10. 900 10, 900 10. 900
11. 800 11 630 12. 680
9. 470 9. 470
10. 860 10, 860
11. 800 12, 620
11, 800 12. 680
11. 800 12 680
11. 800 12. 680
10. 760 10, 760
11, 800 12. 340
11. 800 12. 680
11. 800 12. 680
11. 800 12680
11. 600 12. 680
9. 470
10860
12. 620
12. 680
12. 680
12. 680
-
-
-
-
11, 800 12. 660
11. 600 12. 680
11. 800 12, 680
11. 800
-
12, 680 8. 030
-
3. 930
4, 060
3, 930
4, 060
5. 530
5. 530
5. 530
5. 530
5. 900
5. 900
5. 900
5. 900
5. 900
5. 900
5. 900
5. 900
3. 930
4. 460
3, 930
4. 460
6. 490
7 300
8. 110
8. 110
6. 340
6, 340
6. 340
6. 340
716
813
925
1. 065
1. 187
1. 251
1, 300
-
740
641
957
1. 101
1. 293
740
841
957
101
293
960 960
1, 093 , 093
1. 258 , 258
1. 402 402
1, 477 , 477
1. 545 1, 545
1, 052
1, 197
1. 379
1, 536
1, 619
1. 673
1, 252
1, 424
1. 640
~ 1. 721 1. 926
233 -
279 ~
244 - -
372 417 579
434 486 654
263 -
402 452 690
468 526 780
- 646 647
~ 742 947
- 834 1. 046
- 939 1. 157
- 678 864
- 776 966
- 874 1. 066
- 983 1. 160
- 688 895
- 788 1. 001
- 887 1. 105
- 997 1. 222
579
654
690
780
690
780
839
839
839
839
839
839
839
839
683
a03
883
895
1. 001
1. 105
1. 222 883
716
812
812
812
812
854
812
740
841
885
885
885
960
967
967
967
1. 005
967
1. 052
1. 086
1. 066
1, 066
1, 252
1, 287
1, 287
1, 287
-
579
654
-
-
740
841
957
1. 005
1. 005
960
1, 093
1, 237
1, 237
1. 287
1. 237
-
-
-
579
654
-
690
780
686
686
- -
869 869
871 871
-
871 871
942 886
1. 007 886
1. 007 886
-
871
942
1. 007
1. 007
895 917
1. 001 992
1. 103 1. 060
1. 103 1. 060
774 774
774 774
846 823
941 623
-
-
922
1. 008
1, 120
-
-
922
979
979
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
686
688
871
886
866
686
917
932
932
932
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2- 14 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 2. 3- MI NI MUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTI ES OF CASI NG (continued)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 10 11 12
Nomi nal
Threaded and Coupl ed
nn
Wei ght,
Threads
and Wal l Dri f t
OD Coupl i ng Thi ckness I D Drameter
( I n. ) ( I bml f t) Grade
( I n 1 ( i n ) ( I n. )
as/a 36. 00 N- B0 0. 400 7. 825 7. 700
Extreme Lf ne
OD SpZi al OD Pi pe- Body
of Cl earance Dri f t of Box Col l apse Yi el d
Coupl i ng Coupl i ng Di ameter Powerti ght Resi stance Strength
( i n. )
On )
( i n. )
( i n ) ( Psi )
( 1, 000 I bf )
9 625 9. 125 7. 700
7. 600
7. 500
7. 386
7. 700
7. 600
7. 500
7. 386
7. 700
7. 600
7. 500
7. 386
9.120
9. 120
9. 120
9. 120
9. 120
9. 120
9. 120
9. 120
9. 120
9. 120
9. 120
9. 120
-
9. 120
9. 120
9. 120
-
-
-
-
4, 100 a27
40. 00 N- 80 0. 450 7. 725 7. 600 9.625 9. 125
44. 00 N- 80 0. 500 7. 625 7. 500 9.625 9. 125
5. 520 925
6, 950 1, 021
49 00 N- 80 0. 557 7. 511 7. 386 9.625 9. 125
36. 00 c- 90 0. 400 7. 025 7. 700 9.625 9. 125
40. 00 c- 90 0. 450 7725 7. 600 9.625 9. 125
44. 00 c- 90 0. 500 7. 625 7. 500 9.625 9. 125
49. 00 c- 90 0. 557 7. 511 7. 386 9.625 9. 125
36. 00 c- 95 0. 400 7. 825 7. 700 9.625 9. 125
40. 00 c- 95 0. 450 7. 725 7. 600 9.625 9. 125
44. 00 c- 95 0. 500 7. 625 7. 500 9.625 9. 125
49. 00 c- 95 0. 557 7. 511 7. 386 9.625 9. 125
36. 00 HC- 95 0. 400 7. 825 7. 700 9.625 9. 125
40. 00 ti c- 95 0. 450 7. 725 7. 600 9.625 9. 125
44. 00 HC- 95 0. 500 7. 625 7. 500 9.625 9. 125
49. 00 HC- 95 0. 557 7. 511 7. 386 9.625 9. 125
40. 00 P- 110 0. 450 7. 725 7. 600 9.625 9. 125
44. 00 P- 110 0. 500 7. 625 7. 500 9.625 9. 125
49. 00 P- 110 0. 557 7. 511 7. 386 9.625 9. 125
40. 00 Q- 125 0. 450 7. 725 7. 600 9.625 9. 125
8. 580 1, 129
4. 250 930
5, 870 1, 040
7. 490 1, 149
9, 340 1, 271
4, 350 982
6, 020 1, 098
7. 740 1, 212
9, 710 1, 341
6, 060 982
7,900 1, 098
9, 100 1. 212
10, 400 1, 341
6, 390 1, 271
8, 420 1, 404
10, 740 1, 553
6, 630 1, 445
8, 980 1, 595
11, 660 1, 765
9, 640 1, 914
12, 950 2, 118
7. 600
7. 500
7. 386
* 44. 00 Q- 125 0. 500 7. 625 7. 500 9.625 9. 125
49. 00 Q- 125 0. 557 7. 511 7. 386 9.625 9. 125
* 44. 00 v- 150 0. 500 7. 625 7. 500 9.625 9.125
* 49 00 v- 150 0. 557 7. 511 7. 386 9.625 9. 125
-
9% 3230
36. 00
3600
4000
36. 00
40. 00
4000
43. 50
47. 00
5350
40. 00
43. 50
4700
53. 50
40. 00
43. 50
4700
53. 50
4000
43. 50
47. 00
5350
40. 00
43. 50
47. 00
53. 50
* 40. 00
* 43. 50
* 4700
f
53. 50
H- 40
H- 40
J - 55
J - 55
K- 55
K- 55
c- 75
c- 75
c- 75
0. 312
0. 352
0. 352
0 395
c- 75
0352
0. 395
0. 395
0. 435
0472
0. 545
L- 80 0. 395
L- 80 0. 435
L- 80 0 472
L- 80 0. 545
N- B0 0. 395
N- 80 0. 435
N- 80 0 472
N- 80 0 545
c- 90
c- 90
c- 90
c- 90
c- 95
c- 95
c- 95
c- 95
0. 395
0. 435
0. 472
0. 545
HC- 95
HC- 95
HC- 95
HC- 95
HC- 95
HC- 95
P- 110
P- 110
P- 110
0. 395
0.595
0. 435
0. 472
0. 545
0. 625
0. 395
0. 435
0435
0. 472
0545
0. 472
0545
9. 001
a. 921
a. 921
a835
8921
8. 835
8. 835
a. 755
8. 681
a. 535
a. 835
a. 755
a. 681
a. 535
a. 835
a. 755
a. 681
a. 535
a. 835
a. 755
8. 681
a. 535
8. 835
a. 755
a. 681
8535
8. 835
a755
a. 681
8. 535
a435
8. 375
8 755
8681
a535
8. 845
8. 765
8. 765
8679
8765
8. 679
8. 679
a. 599
8. 525
a. 379
8. 679
a. 599
a525
a. 379
8. 679
a 599
8. 525
a. 379
8. 679
8. 599
a. 525
a. 379
8. 679
8. 599
a. 525
8. 379
8. 679
a. 599
a. 525
a. 379
a 279
a. 219
a. 599
a. 525
a. 379
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
-
10. 125
10. 125 a. 599
10125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
-
a. 599
8. 599
8 599
8. 525
8. 379
a. 599
8. 599
a. 525
8. 379
a. 599
8. 599
a. 525
a. 379
a. 599
8. 599
a. 525
a. 379
8. 599
a. 599
a. 525
a. 379
-
-
10. 125 8. 599
10. 125 8525
10. 125 8. 379
-
-
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
I O. 100
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
-
-
-
10. 100
10. 100
10. 100
1, 370
1. 720
2, 020
2, 570
365
410
564
630
2, 020 564
2. 570 630
2, 990 859
3. 730 942
4, 610 1. 018
6, 350 1. 166
3. 090 916
3. 810 1. 005
4. 760 1, 086
6. 620 1, 244
3. 090 916
3. 810 1, 005
4. 760 1, 086
6, 620 1, 244
3, 250
4. 010
5. 000
7. 120
3. 320
4, 120
5, 090
7, 340
4. 230
5, 600
7, 100
8, 850
9, 950
10, 500
4. 420
5, 300
7, 950
1, 031
1, 130
1, 221
1, 399
1, 088
1, 193
1, 289
1, 477
1, 088
1, 193
1, 289
1, 477
1, 604
1, 679
1, 381
1, 493
1, 710
* 5840
* 61. 10
43. 50
47. 00
53. 50
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CASI NG, TUBI NG, AND LI NE PI PE 2- 15
TABLE 2.3-MINIMUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
J oi nt Strength" ( 1, 000 I bf )
Threaded and Couol ed I nternal Pressure Resl stancet ( PSI )
Buttress Thread
Pl ai n
Speci al
End
Regul ar Cl l ?XaWe
or
Round Coupl i ng Coupl i ng
Extreme
Thread
Same Hi gher Same Htghet
Ltne Short Lona Grade Grade Grade Grade
Buttress Thread
Speci al
Round
Regul ar Cl earance
Thread
Coupl i ng Soeci al Couphng
Reaul ar Hl oher
Short Long Cotpl l ng Grade*
Cl earance Hi gher
Coupl i ng Gradei
Extreme Lane
Standard Opttonal
883
883
883
003
927
927
927
J omt J oi nt
917
992
1. 060
1. 060
963
1. 042
1. 113
917
992
932
932
963
979
979
7. 300
8. 220
9. 130
10170
7. 710
8. 670
9. 640
10. 740
7. 710
8. 670
9 640
I 0740
10. 040
11 160
12430
11. 410
12. 680
14130
15220
16. 950
2. 270
2. 560
3. 520
3. 950
3. 520
3, 950
5, 390
5, 930
6, 440
7, 430
5. 750
6, 330
6, 870
7, 930
5, 750
6, 330
6, 870
7, 930
6, 460
7, 120
7, 720
8. 920
6, 820
7, 510
8, 150
9, 410
6820
7, 510
8, 150
9, 410
10, 280
10, 800
8 700
9, 440
10, 900
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
~ 749 928
- 858 1. 038
- 965 1. 146
- 1. 085 1. 268
- 789 976
~ 904 1. 092
- 1. 017 1. 206
6. 340 -
6. 340 -
6. 340 -
6. 340 -
6, 340 -
6. 340 ~
6. 340 -
6. 340 -
6. 340 6. 340
6. 340 6. 340
6. 340 6. 340
6. 340 6. 340
6. 340 6. 340
6. 340 6. 340
6. 340 6. 340
6. 340 -
6. 340 -
6, 340 -
7. 300 7 300
8. 220 8. 220
9. 130 9. 130
10. 170 10. 170
7, 710 7, 710
8. 670 8. 670
9. 640 9. 640
10. 380 10. 740
7, 710 7. 710
8. 670 8. 670
9640 9. 640
10. 380 10. 740
10. 040 10. 040
10. 380 11. 160
10. 380 11. 230
10. 380 11. 230
10. 380 11. 230
10. 380 11. 230
-
-
-
-
-
1. 008
1, 127
1, 244
1, 377
1, 288
1, 423
1, 574
1, 008
1, 104
1 104
1. 104
1. 288
1. 412
1, 412
1. 113 979
-
, 114 1. 334
800 1. 008
916 1. 127
, 030 1. 244
, 159 1, 377
, 055 1. 288
, 186 1. 423
, 335 1. 574
, 182 1, 415
, 330 1. 562
, 496 1. 728
, 591 1. 859
, 789 2, 056
- -
453 639
520 714
489 755
561 843
694 926
776 1, 016
852 1. 098
999 1, 257
927
971
971
971
971
1, 103
1. 103
1, 103
1. 192
1. 192
1, 413
1. 413
639
714
755
843
926
934
934
934
934
934
934
934
979
983
983
983
983
983
983
983
1. 032
1. 032
1. 032
1. 032
1. 082
1. 082
1. 082
1. 082
1. 082
1. 082
1. 229
1. 229
1, 229
7. 710
8. 670
9 640
10, 740
10. 040
11 160
11. 230
-
-
1. 165
1. 165
1. 165
-
1. 240
1. 326
1. 326
-
-
10. 380 11. 230 - 6. 340 -
10. 380 11. 230 - 6, 340 ~
-
2, 270
2, 560
3. 520
3. 950
3, 520
3. 950
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
254
294
394
452
423
486
-
-
-
-
727 947
813 1. 038
893 1. 122
- 1. 047 1. 286
- 737 979
- 825 1, 074
- 905 1, 161
- 1, 062 1, 329
- 804 1, 021
- 899 1. 119
- 987 1. 210
- 1 157 1386
- 847 1. 074
~ 948 1 178
- 1. 040 1. 273
- 1220 1458
- 858 1, 106
~ 959 1, 213
- 1, 053 1, 311
~ 1, 235 1, 502
- 1. 357 1, 631
- 1. 430 1, 707
- 1. 106 1. 388
~ 1, 213 1, 500
- 1422 1, 718
639
714
755
843
639
714
755
843
3. 520 3, 520 3, 520 3, 520 3. 520
3. 950 3, 950 3. 950 3. 660 3. 950
3. 520 3, 520 3, 520 3. 520 3. 520
3. 950 3, 950 3. 950 3. 660 3. 950
5, 390 5. 390 - 4. 990 -
5. 930 5, 930 - 4. 990 -
6, 440 6, 440 - 4. 990 -
7, 430 7. 430 - 4. 990 -
770
975
975
975
1. 032
1. 173
770
975
975
1. 032
979
1, 074
1. 161
1. 229
-
-
-
-
-
1. 173
1. 027
1, 027
1. 086
1. 235
027
027
086
, 235
, 078
, 078
, 141
, 297
975
975
975
1. 032
1. 053
975
975
1. 032
1. 053
1. 027
1. 027
1. 086
1. 109
027
027
086
, 109
, 078
, 078
, 141
, 164
1. 106
1. 213
1, 229
1, 229
1. 229
1. 229
-
-
-
-
1. 388 1. 283 1, 283
1500 1. 358 1. 358
1. 573 1, 544 1, 386
5, 750 5, 750 - 5. 140 -
6, 330 6. 330 - 5140 -
6, 870 6, 870 - 5, 140 -
7, 930 7, 930 - 5. 140 -
979
1, 074
1, 161
1, 329
5, 750 5. 750
6. 330 6, 330
6. 870 6. 870
7. 930 7. 930
6. 460
7, 120
7. 720
8. 460
6. 820
7. 510
8. 150
8. 460
6 820
7, 510
8, 150
8. 460
8, 460
8. 460
8. 700
9, 440
9. 670
6. 460
7. 120
7, 720
8, 920
6. 820
7. 510
8, 150
8. 460
6. 820
7, 510
8. 150
9160
9. 160
9, 160
8. 700
9. 160
9. 160
5, 750
6, 330
6. 870
7. 930
5, 140 5. 140
5. 140 5. 140
5. 140 5140
5. 140 5. 140
5. 140 -
5. 140 -
5. 140 -
5, 140 -
5, 140 -
5. 140 -
5. 140 -
5. 140 -
5, 140 5, 140
5, 140 5, 140
5. 140 5, 140
5. 140 5. 140
5. 140 5, 140
5. 140 5, 140
5. 140 5. 140
5, 140 5, 140
5. 140 5140
6, 820
7, 510
8, 150
9, 160
9, 160
9. 160
8. 700
9. 160
9, 160
1 106
1213
1311
1502
1631
1707
1388
1500
1718
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2- 16 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 2.3-MINIMUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 a 9 10 11 12
Nomi nal
Wei qht,
Threads
and
Threaded and Coupl ed
OD
Wal l Dnf t
Extreme Lrne
OD Specral
of Cl earance Drrf t
OD Pi pe- Body
of Box Col l apse Yi el d
Powerti ght Resrstance Strenath
(In ) (Psi)
( l . OOO- f bf ) Grade
00 Coupl i ng
( i n. ) ( I bm/ f t)
Thrckness I D
( i n. ) ( i n. )
Di ameter
( i n. )
9% 47. 00 Q- 125 0. 472 8681 a525
53. 50 Q- 125 0. 545 8535 8. 379
f
58. 40 Q- 125 0. 595 8435 8279
f
61. 10 Q- 125 0. 625 a375 a219
Coupl i ng Coupl i ng Dtameter
( I n. )
( i n. ) ( i n. )
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10. 625
10625
10625
10. 625
-
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
10. 125
H- 40 0.279 10 192 10. 036 11. 750
H- 40 0. 350 10. 050 9 894 11. 750
J - 55 0. 350 10. 050 9. 894 11. 750
J - 55 0. 400 9. 950 9 794 11. 750
J - 55 0. 450 9. 850 9. 694 11. 750
K- 55 0 350 10. 050 9. 894 11. 750
K- 55 0. 400 9. 950 9. 794 11. 750
K- 55 0. 450 9. 850 9. 694 11. 750
c- 75 0. 450 9. 850 9. 694 11. 750
c- 75 0. 495 9 760 9. 604 11. 750
L- 80 0. 450 9. 850 9. 694 11. 750
L- 80 0. 495 9. 760 9. 604 11. 750
N- 80 0. 450 9. 850 9. 694 i l . 750
N- 80 0. 495 9. 760 9. 604 11. 750
-
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
11. 250
-
-
9. 794 11. 460
9 694 11. 460
51. 00 c-90 0. 450 9. 850 9. 694 11. 750
55. 50 c-90 0. 495 9. 760 9. 604 11. 750
9. 850 9. 694 11. 750
9. 760 9. 604 11. 750
9. 850 9. 694 11. 750
9. 760 9. 604 11. 750
9. 660 9. 504 11. 750
9. 560 9. 404 11. 750
9. 450 9. 294 11. 750
9. 850 9. 694 11. 750
9. 760 9. 604 11. 750
9. 660 9. 504 11. 750
9560 9. 404 11. 750
9. 760 9. 604 11. 750
9. 660 9. 504 11. 750
9. 560 9. 404 11. 750
9. 450 9. 294 11. 750
9. 406 9. 250 11. 750
9. 282 9. 126 11. 750
9. 660 9. 504 11. 750
9. 560 9. 404 11. 750
9. 450 9. 294 11. 750
9. 406 9. 250 11. 750
9.282 9. 126 11. 750
9. 794
9. 694
9. 694
9604
9 694
9604
9. 694
9. 604
9. 694
9. 604
9. 694
9. 604
9. 694
9. 604
9. 504
-
12. 750
12. 750
12. 750
12. 750
12. 750
12. 750
12. 750
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5, 640
8, 440
10, 530
I 1. 800
8, 960
11. 560
13, 120
18, 800
-
11. 430
11. 460
11. 460
11. 460
11. 460
11. 460
11. 460
11 460
11. 460
11. 460
11. 460
11. 460
-
-
-
11. 460
11. 460
11. 460
-
-
-
-
-
1. 697
1, 943
2, 110
2, 209
2, 332
7, 532
2, 651
3, 075
.
53. 50 v- 150 0. 545 a535
1
58. 40 v- 150 0. 595 8435
a379
8 279
8 219
*
61. 10 v- 150 0 625 8375
1
70. 30 v- 150 0. 734 8157 8001
10 % 32 75
40. 50
840
1. 390
1. 580
2. 090
2, 700
1, 580
2, 090
2, 700
3, 110
3, 920
3. 220
4, 020
3, 220
4, 020
3, 400
4, 160
3, 480
4, 290
4, 460
5, 950
7. 550
8, 640
9, 600
3, 660
4, 610
5, 880
7. 500
4. 850
6. 070
7. 920
9. 990
10, 810
13, 150
6, 550
8, 320
10, 880
11, 900
14, 790
367
457
629
715
801
629
715
801
1, 092
1, 196
1, 165
1. 276
1, 165
1, 276
1. 310
1, 435
1, 383
1, 515
1. 383
1, 515
1. 660
1, 803
1. 959
1, 602
1. 754
1, 922
2, 088
1, 993
2, 184
2. 373
2, 573
2, 660
2, 887
2, 621
2, 847
3, 094
3, 191
3, 464
40. 50
45. 50
51. 00
40. 50
45 50
51. 00
51 00
5550
51. 00
55 50
51 00
5550
51. 00
55. 50
c-95
c-95
0. 450
0. 495
* 51. 00 HC- 95 0. 450
t 55. 50 w- 95 0. 495
+ 60. 70 HC- 95 0. 545
t 65. 70 HC- 95 0. 595
* 71. 10 HC- 95 0. 650
51. 00 P- 110 0. 450
55. 50 P- 110 0. 495
60. 70 P- 110 0. 545
65. 70 P- 110 0. 595
I / 55. 50
60. 70
65. 70
. 71. 10
1 73. 20
1 79. 20
Q- 125 0.495
Q- 125 0. 545
Q- 125 0.595
Q- 125 0. 650
Q- 125 0. 672
Q- 125 0. 734
60. 70
/ 65. 70
* 71. 10
* 73. 20
v. 150
v- 150
v- 150
v- 150
v- 150
0. 545
0. 595
0650
0. 672
0. 734
*
79.20
11% 42. 00 H- 40 0. 333 11. 084 10. 928
I 1. 000 10. 844
10. 880 10. 724
10. 772 10. 616
I 1. 000 10. 844
10. 880 10. 724
10. 772 10. 616
1. 070 478
1. 510 737
2. 070 850
2. 660 952
1. 510 737
2. 070 850
2. 660 952
47. 00 J - 55 0. 375
54. 00 J - 55 0. 435
60. 00 J - 55 0.489
47. 00 K- 55 0. 375
54. 00 K- 55 0. 435
60. 00 K- 55 0. 489
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CASI NG. TUBI NG. AND LI NE PI PE 2- 17
TABLE 2.3~MINIMUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)
13 14 15 16 17 18
I nternal Pressure Resl stancet ( psi )
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
J OI N Strengl h" ( 1 000 I bf )
Threaded and Coupl ed
Buttress Thread Buttress Thread
Regul ar
Coupl mg Specral
Htgher
Grade'
Cl earance
Coupl rng
Speual
Cl earance
Coupl i ng
Hi gher
Grade'
Speci al
Cl earance
Coupl i ng
Same Hl qher
Pl al n
End
or
Round
Extreme
Thread
Regul ar
Coupl i ng
Same Hl qher
Round
Thread
Extreme Li ne
Regul ar
-
-
-
-
Standard Optronal
JOlnt J oi nt
-
1326
1328
1. 574
1, 574
1, 574
1. 574
-
-
700
796
822
819
931
1, 041
1, 041
1. 041
1. 041
1, 041
1. 096
1. 096
1, 112
1, 112
1, 151
1151
1, 223
1. 223
1. 223
1. 223
1. 223
1. 370
1. 370
1. 370
1. 370
1. 501
1. 501
1501
1. 501
1. 501
1. 501
1. 779
1, 779
1. 779
1. 779
1779
Long
9, 670
9. 670
9. 670
9670
9670
9670
9670
9670
-
Grade Grade Grade Grade Short Long Coupl mg
9160
9. 160
9 160
9. 160
9. 160
9. 160
9. 160
9. 160
-
-
-
5, 140
5. 140
5 140
5. 140
5 140
5. 140
5 140
5 140
--
1. 650
1 890
2052
2149
2. 251
2. 444
2, 553
2. 812
-
-
3, 130
3. 580
4. 030
3. 130
3. 560
4. 030
5. 490
6. 040
5, 860
6. 450
5. 660
6, 450
6, 590
7, 250
3, 130
3, 290
3. 290
3, 130
3. 560
4. 030
3, 130
3. 580
4, 030
-
3. 130
3, 560
4. 030
3. 130
3, 290
3, 290
3. 130
3, 580
4. 030
-
5. 860
6. 450
-
4, 150
4. 150
-
6. 960
7. 450
-
6. 960 6. 960
7. 450 7. 450
7. 450 7. 450
7. 450 7. 450
7. 450 7. 450
7. 450
7. 450
7. 450
7. 450
-
-
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4, 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4, 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4, 150
4. 150
4. 150
4 150
~ 1. 361
~ 1595
- 1754
- 1848
- 1595
. - 1754
- 1. 848
- 2 185
205 -
314 -
420 -
493 ~
565 -
450 -
528 -
606 -
756 ~
843 ~
794 ~
884 -
a04 ~
895 -
632 -
771 ~~
927 -
1032 -
737 -
821 -
914 ~
1005 -
1105 -
1080 -
1203 ~
1338 -
1472 -
1351 -
1503 -
1. 653 -
1. 817 -
1. 862 -
2063 -
i 798 -
1, 918 -
2174 -
2. 252 ~
2469 -
-
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
4. 150
-
-
700
796
891
819
931
1. 043
1. 160
1. 271
1, 190
1. 303
1. 228
1. 345
1, 287
1, 409
1. 354
1. 483
1. 392
1. 524
1. 670
1. 614
1. 971
1. 594
1, 745
1. 912
2. 077
1. 925
2, 109
2. 291
2. 489
2. 568
2. 639
2 513
2. 730
2 366
3, 060
3. 127
Li ne Short
10. 730 ~
12, 390 -
13. 520 -
14, 200 -
12. 390 -
13, 520 ~
14. 200 -
16. 680 -
1. 820 1. 620
2, 280 2. 280
3. 130 3. 130
3. 580 3. 580
4. 030 4. 030
3. 130 3. 130
3. 580 3. 580
4. 030 4, 030
5. 490 5. 490
6. 040 6. 040
5. 860 5. 660
6, 450 6. 450
5. 660 5. 660
6. 450 6. 450
6. 590 6. 590
7. 250 6, 860
6. 960 6. 880
7660 6 880
6. 960 6860
7. 660 6, 880
6, 430 6. 880
9. 200 6, 880
10. 050 6. 880
8. 060 7. 860
8. 860 7, 660
9. 760 7, 860
10. 650 7. 860
10. 070 7, 860
11. 090 7, 860
12, 110 7, 860
13. 230 7. 860
13, 670 7, 860
14, 940 7, 860
13, 310 7, 860
14. 530 7, 860
15. 670 7. 660
16. 410 7. 860
17. 920 7. 860
1, 980 1. 980
3. 070 3, 070
3. 560 3, 560
4, 010 4, 010
3. 070 3. 070
3. 560 3. 560
4. 010 4. 010
807
931
, 042
935
079
, 208
-
700
796
891
819
931
1. 043
-
I 228
1. 345
-
1389
1. 389
I 389
1. 389
, 389
1534
, 745
, 754
, 754
-
-
-
-
-
-
975
1092
-
1. 236
1. 363
1383
1515
1. 363
1. 515
1. 456
1, 595
1, 456
1. 595
1. 529
1. 675
-
-
-
1820
1993
2000
- -
-
-
-
700
796
691
819
931
1, 043
-
. -
-
1. 228
1. 345
-
-
-
-
1. 392
1. 524
1. 670
1. 814
1. 971
1. 594
1. 745
1. 912
2, 077
-
-
-
-
-
3, 070 3. 070
3. 560 3. 560
4. 010 4, 010
3, 070 3070
3. 560 3, 560
4. 010 4, 010
307 -
477 -
568 -
649 -
509 -
606 -
693 -
-
807
931
1, 042
935
1. 079
1. 208
-
-
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2- 18 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 2. 3- MI NI MUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTI ES OF CASl NG( conl i nued)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I O 11 12
Nomi nal
Threaded and Coupl ed
Wei ght. OD
Extreme Li ne
Threads 00 Speci al OD
and Wal l Dri f t of Cl earance Dri f t of Box Col l apse
OD Coupl i ng Thi ckness I D Di ameter Coupl i ng Coupl i ng Di ameter Powerti ght Resi stance
( i n. ) ( I bmi f t) Grade ( i n. )
( i n 1
( i n. ) ( i n. ) ( i n. ) ( i n. ) ( i n. )
( psi )
1 1% 60. 00 c- 75 0. 489 10. 772 10. 616 12. 750 - - 3, 070
60. 00 L- 80 0. 489 10. 772 10. 616 12. 750 - - 3, 180
60. 00 N- 80 0. 489 10. 772 10. 616 12750 - 3, 180
60. 00 c- 90 0. 489 10. 772 10. 616 12. 750 - 3, 360
60. 00 c- 95 0. 489 10. 772 10. 616 12750 3, 440
( r 60. 00 HC- 95 0. 489 10. 772 10. 616 12. 750 4, 410
60. 00 P- 110 0. 489 10. 772 10. 616 12. 750 3, 610
60. 00 Q- 125 0. 489 10. 772 10. 616 12. 750 - 3, 680
* 66. 70 Q- 125 0. 547 10. 656 10. 500 12. 750
- - -
4, 980
f 66. 70 v- 150 0. 547 10. 656 10. 500 12. 750
- - -
5, 200
13% 48. 00 H- 40 0. 330
54. 50 J - 55 0. 380
61. 00 J - 55 0. 430
68. 00 J - 55 0. 480
54. 50 K. 55 0. 380
61. 00 K- 55 0. 430
68. 00 K- 55 0. 480
68. 00 c- 75 0. 480
72. 00 c- 75 0. 514
68. 00
72. 00
68. 00
72. 00
L- 80
L- 80
N- 80
N- 80
68. 00
72. 00
68. 00
72. 00
. 72. 00
f 86. 00
68. 00
72. 00
c- 90
c- 90
c- 95
c- 95
HC- 95
HC- 95
P- 110
P- 110
72. 00
. 76. 60
* 92. 50
* 92. 50
f 100. 30
Q- 125
Q- 125
Q- 125
v- 150
v- 150
0. 480
0. 514
0. 480
0. 514
0. 480
0. 514
0. 480
0. 514
0. 514
0. 625
0. 480
0. 514
0514
0. 547
0672
0672
0. 734
12. 715 12. 559 14. 375
12. 615 12. 459 14. 375
12. 515 12. 359 14. 375
12. 415 12. 259 14. 375
12. 615 12. 459 14. 375
12. 515 12. 359 14. 375
12. 415 12. 259 14. 375
12. 415 12. 259 14. 375
12. 347 12. 191 14. 375
12. 415 12. 259 14. 375
12. 347 12. 191 14. 375
12. 415 12. 259 14. 375
12. 347 12. 191 14. 375
12. 415 12. 259 14. 375
12. 347 12. 191 14. 375
12. 415 12. 259 14. 375
12. 347 12. 191 14. 375
12. 347 12. 191 14. 375
12. 125 11. 969 14. 375
12. 415 12. 259 14. 375
12. 347 12. 191 14. 375
12. 347 12. 191 14. 375
12. 281 12. 125 14. 375
12. 031 11. 875 14. 375
12. 031 11. 875 14. 375
11. 907 11. 751 14. 375
16 65. 00 H- 40 0. 375 15. 250 15. 062 17. 000
75. 00 J - 55 0. 438 15. 124 14. 936 17. 000
84. 00 J - 55 0 495 15. 010 14. 822 17. 000
75. 00 K- 55 0438 15. 124 14. 936 17. 000
84. 00 K- 55 0. 495 15. 010 14. 822 17. 000
- -
- -
-
- -
- -
- -
- -
-
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
740 541
1, 130 853
1, 540 962
1, 950 1, 069
1, 130 853
1, 640 962
1. 950 1, 069
2. 220 1, 458
2, 600 1, 558
2, 260 1, 556
2, 670 1, 661
2. 260 1, 556
2. 670 1. 661
2, 320 1, 750
2, 780 1, 869
2, 330 1, 847
2, 820 1, 973
3, 470 1, 973
6, 240 2, 378
2, 330 2, 139
2, 880 2, 284
2, 800 2. 596
3, 490 2, 756
5, 950 3, 352
6, 400 4, 023
8, 090 4. 373
Pi pe- Body
Yi el d
Strength
( 1, 000 I bf )
1, 298
1, 384
I , 384
1, 557
1, 644
1, 644
1, 903
2, 162
2, 407
2, 888
- -
-
630 736
- -
-
1, 020 1, 178
-
- -
1, 410 1, 326
- -
-
1, 020 1, 178
- -
-
1, 410 1, 326
~8% 87. 50 H- 40 0. 435 17. 755 17. 567 20. 000 - - - 630' 994
87. 50 J - 55 0. 435 17. 755 17. 567 20. 000 - - - 630' 1, 367
87. 50 K- 55 0. 435 17. 755 17. 567 20. 000 - - - 630' 1, 367
20 94. 00 H- 40 0. 438 19. 124 18. 936 21. 000 - - -
94. 00 J - 55 0. 438 19. 124 18. 936 21. 000 - - -
106. 50 J - 55 0. 500 19. 000 18. 812 21. 000 - - -
133. 00 J - 55 0. 635 18. 730 18. 542 21. 000 - - -
94. 00 K- 55 0. 438 19. 124 18. 936 21. 000 - -
106. 50 K- 55 0. 500 19. 000 18. 812 21. 000 - - -
133. 00 K- 55 0. 635 18. 730 18. 542 21. 000 -
1
520' 1, 077
520* 1, 480
770' 1. 685
, 500 2, 125
520' 1. 480
770' 1, 685
, 500 2, 125
Non- API WlQhtS or grades
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CASI NG, TUBI NG, AND LI NE PI PE 2- 19
TABLE 2.3-MINIMUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF CASING (continued)
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
J oi nt Strength * ( 1, 000 I bf )
I nternal Pressure Resl stancet ( PSI ) Threaded and Coupl ed
Buttress Thread Buttress Thread
Spew
Regul ar Cl earance
Speci al
Coupl i ng
^
Louprl ng Round
Regul ar Cl earance
Extreme Li ne
Same Hi gher Same HI oh&
Thread
Coupi l ng Speci al Couphng
Grade Grade Grade
Requl ar Hl aher Cl earance
Grade Short Lono Cot&a Grade*
Hrgher
Couol i na Grade *
Standard Optronal
J ornt J oi nt
Pl ai n
End
or
Extreme
Round
Thread
Long
-
-
5. 460 -
5, 830 -
5, 830 -
6, 300 - -
6. 300 - -
6. 300 - -
6, 300 6, 300 -
6. 300 -
6, 300 - -
6, 300 - -
Li ne Short
5, 460 5, 460
5, 830 5, 820
5, 830 5, 820
6, 550 5. 820
6, 920 5, 820
6, 920 5. 820
8, 010 5. 820
9. 100 6. 650
10, 180 6. 650
12. 220 6, 650
1, 730 1. 730
2. 730 2. 730
3, 090 3, 090
3, 450 3. 450
2, 730 2. 730
3. 090 3. 090
3. 450 3. 450
4. 710 4, 550
5. 040 4, 550
5. 020 4. 550
5, 380 4, 550
5. 020 4. 550
5, 380 4, 550
5. 650 4. 550
6. 050 4. 550
5, 970 4, 550
6, 390 4, 550
6, 390 4, 550
7, 770 4, 550
6, 910 4, 550
7400 4. 550
8, 400 4. 550
8, 950 4, 550
10, 990 4. 550
13, 190 4. 550
14, 410 4. 550
1640 1. 640
2630 2. 630
2, 980 2. 980
2, 630 2. 630
2. 980 2, 980
-
-
869 - 1. 361
913 - 1, 399
924 - 1, 440
, 011 - 1, 517
, 066 - 1, 596
, 078 - 1, 638
, 242 - 1. 877
, 395 - 2, 074
, 582 - 2. 308
, 893 - 2, 752
322 - -
514 - 909
595 - 1. 025
675 - 1, 140
547 - 1, 038
633 - 1, 169
718 - 1. 300
905 - 1, 496
978 - 1, 598
952 - 1, 545
-
1, 440 -
-
1, 877
-
909 -
1, 025
1, 140
1, 038 -
1, 169
1, 300 -
-
-
-
1585
1, 693
-
-
2, 079 -
2. 221
-
-
1, 200
1, 351
1, 331
1, 499
1329
1, 427
1402
1 596 -
2, 012
1, 479
1 683
2 123
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2, 730 2, 730
3, 090 3, 090
3, 450 3, 450
2. 730 2, 730
3. 090 3, 090
3, 450 3450
4, 710 -
4, 930 -
4, 930 -
4. 930 -
4, 930 4, 930
4, 930 4. 930
4. 930 -
4, 930 -
4, 930 ~
4, 930 -
4. 930 -
4. 930 -
4, 930 4. 930
4, 930 4. 930
4. 930 -
4, 930 -
4. 930 -
4. 930 -
4, 930 -
-
-
-
-
-
-
2. 630 2. 630
2, 980 2. 980
2, 630 2. 630
2. 980 2. 980
1. 630 1. 630 -
2. 250 2. 250 -
2, 250 2, 250 -
1. 530 1. 530 1, 530
2. 110 2. 110 2. 110
2. 410 2. 400 2. 400
3. 060 2. 400 2. 400
2. 110 2. 110 2, 110
2. 410 2. 400 2. 400 2. 320 2. 320
3. 060 2, 400 2. 400 2. 320 2, 320
2. 250 2. 250
2. 250 2, 250
-
2. 110 2. 110
2. 320 2. 320
2. 320 2. 320
2. 110 2. 110
-
- -
1. 029 - 1, 650
963 - 1. 585
1, 040 - 1. 693
1, 057 - 1. 683
1, 142 - 1, 797
1. 114 ~ 1, 772
1. 204 - 1. 893
1. 215 - 1, 935
1. 507 - 2, 333
1, 297 - 2, 079
1, 402 - 2. 221
1, 576 - 2, 463
1. 690 - 2. 615
2. 113 - 3. 181
2. 529 - 3, 795
2, 776 - 3. 863
-
-
-
439 - -
710 - 1. 200
817 - 1. 351
752 - 1, 331
865 - 1. 499
960 1. 113 1. 683
1253 1. 453 2123
559 - -
754 - 1. 329
794 - 1. 427
-
-
581 - -
784 907 1. 402
913 1. 057 1, 596
1. 192 1. 380 2, 012
824 955 1. 479
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
- .-.
-
-
-
- -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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2-20 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 2.4a-MINIMUM COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE H-40
Axi al Stress. ps
- 10. 000 - 5 000 0 5 000 10. 000 15000 20000 25. 000 30. 000 35. 000 40. 000 45, 000 50000 Weqht AE2,
( I bmi l t) d, i e ( W I n 1
95 21 95 2 766
14 22 54 4 029
20 23 5 734
17 30 3 4 912
20 25 74 5 749
24 2542 6 904
Col l apse Pressure. ps,
2. 930 2. 860 2. 760 2640 2. 500 2. 320 2. 100 1. 840 - - - - -
2. 770 2 710 2 620 2 510 2. 360 2. 220 2. 010 1. 760 -
2650 2 600 2. 502 2420 2 290 2, 140 1, 950 1. 710 - - - - -
1. 490 1460 1420 1380 1. 320 1. 260 1. 170 1, 080 - - - - -
2. 050 2 020 1 970 1910 1 a30 1, 730 1, 590 1, 420 - -
2. 120 2 080 2 030 1 960 1 880 1, 770 1, 630 1. 450 - - - - -
26
32
2837 7947 1. 690 1650 1610 1 550 1. 490 1, 410 1. 320 1, 200 - - - - -
24 5 9 149 2. 310 2260 2. 200 2 120 2 020 1900 1740 1. 550 - - - - -
323 30 65 9 126 1. 430 1410 1. 370 1330 1280 1. 220
36 27 34 10254 1. 810 1770 1. 720 1660 1600 1520
3275 38 53 9 176 860 650 840 630 010 780
405 30 71 1, 435 1 450 1 420 1, 390 1340 1 290 1. 230
42 3529 11944 1. 070 1060 1. 040 1010 980 940
48 4053 13524 740 740 740 730 720 700
65 42 67 16408 630 630 630 630 630 620
a75 42 82 24856 630 630 630 630 620 610
94 4566 26918 520 520 520 520 520 510
1 140 1. 050 - - - - -
1420 1. 290 - - - - -
750 700 - - - - -
1150 1. 050 - - - -
a90 830 - - - - -
670 640 -
600 570 - - - - -
590 570 - - - - -
510 490 - - - - -
TABLE 2.4b-MINIMUM COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADES J-55 AND K-55
Axi al Stress. PSI
- 10. 000 - 5000 0 5 000 10. 000 15, 000 20, 000 25, 000 30, 000 35, 000 40, 000 45, 000 50, 000 Wel ghl
( i bmi f t)
95
105
11 6
11 5
13
15
14
155
17
20
24
20
23
26
264
24
32
36
36
40
405
455
51
47
54
60
54 5
61
68
75
84
075
94
1065
133
Area
d, i e csq I n 1
21 95 2 766
2009 3 009
18 3338
22 73 3 304
1976 3 773
1689 4 374
22 54 4 029
20 4514
1809 4 962
23 5 734
1882 6 937
2574 5 749
22 oa 6656
1934 7 549
23 25 7 519
3267 6 934
24 5 9 149
21 56 10 336
2734 10254
2437 11454
30 71 11435
2688 13006
2369 14 561
3133 13401
2701 15463
2403 173
352 15514
31 1 17487
2786 19445
3653 21414
3232 24112
4262 24858
4566 26918
40 30631
315 38632
Col l apse Pressure. ps,
3. 440 3 390 3 310 3230 3 120 3 000 2850 2. 660 2. 470 2, 220
4. 200 4 110 4 010 3880 3, 740 3. 570 3. 380 3. 150 2. 890 2. 570
1. 930 1, 420
2, 150 1. 540
2. 380 1. 710
1 820 1370
2 180 1570
2 530 1820
1850 1380
2 160 1550
2 370 1700
1 790 1360
2 290 1640
1480 1220
1. 910 I . 410
2. 230 1. 600
1. 760 1. 340
980 a70
1, 610 1. 280
1. 980 1. 440
1. 330 1. 150
1. 630 1. 280
1. 090 960
1. 370 1. 160
1. 680 1. 310
1. 050 930
1. 360 1. 170
1. 660 1300
a60 770
1060 940
1290 1 120
BOO 720
1 DO0 090
580 530
490 470
670 610
1040 920
5. 220 5 100 4 960 4 790 4. 590 4, 360 4. 100 3. 600 3. 450 2. 980
3 170 3 120 3 060 2 900 2 890 2790 2. 660 2, 500 2, 320 2090
4. 340 4 250 4 140 4. 010 3. 860 3. 690 3. 480 3240 2. 970 2640
5. 880 5 730 5 560 5 360 5. 120 4860 4. 550 4210 3, 730 3160
3. 230 3 100 3 120 3 040 2. 950 2, 840
4. 230 4 150 4 040 3 920 3. 770 3. 600
2. 700
3. 410
4, 060
2550
3 180
2, 350
2. 910
2130
2590
2970
2050
2650
1670
2200
2. 730
5. 180 5. 060 4 910 4 740 4320 3 770
2450
3 530
1930
2650
3370
2390
1 200
3 430
3. 070
4. 790
2. 370
3. 400
4 540
3 030 2 970 2 900 2 820 2 720 2. 590
4. 690 4 560 4410 4. 230 4030 3. 800
2 270
3, 220
2 320 2 270 2 210 2 140 2 090 2. 020
2. 820
3 620
2 530
1250
2 260
2 960
1 770
2. 290
1420
1810
2 450
3. 060
2 220
2 150
2 770
, 140
2 010
2 550
1, 670 1. 590
2 170 2, 030
I . 360 1. 280
3 340 3 270 3 100 3. 080 2960
4. 440 4. 320 4. 190 4 020 3840
2 990 2950 2 890
1400 1 390 , 370
2. 600 2570 2 530
3 590 3530 3 450
2 100 2. 070 2. 020
2 640 2. 610 2 570
1630 1. 610 1. 580
2. 830
1. 350
2 750 2650
I 320 1 290
2 430 2 350
3 240 3110
1 920 I a50
2, 460 2 360
1. 520 1470
2010
1070
1. 830
2 290
1. 460
1. 850
1. 190
2. 490
3. 360
1. 970
2. 520
1550
2 170 2. 140 2, 090 2. 040 1. 980 1900 1820 1740 1. 650 1. 530
2 780 2. 750 2. 700 2. 650 2 560 2500 2 390 2 260 2. 110 1. 920
1550 1. 540 1. 510 1 490 1, 450 1. 410 1. 360 1. 310 1. 230 1. 150
2 150 2. 120 2. 070 2. 020 1 960 1. 890 1010 1. 720 1. 630 1. 520
2 740 2. 710 2. 660 2610 2. 540 2. 460 2. 360 2. 240 2. 080 1. 900
, 140 I 140 1 130 1. 120 1. 110 I 090 1 060 1. 030 980 930
1580 1. 560 1. 540 1. 510 1. 460 1. 440 1380 1. 320 1. 250 1. 160
2 020 1. 990 1. 950 1. 900 1. 850 1. 780 1. 710 1. 620 1. 520 1. 420
1020 1020 1020 1. 010 1010 990 970 950 910 860
1440 1. 420 I . 410 1. 390 1, 360 1320 1280 1. 230 1. 160 1. 090
630 630 630 630 630 630 630 630 620 600
520 520 520 520 520 520 520 520 520 510
770 770 770 770 770 770 770 760 740 710
1530 1520 1500 1. 470 1440 1. 400 1. 350 1. 290 1220 , 140
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CASI NG, TUBI NG, AND LI NE PI PE
2- 21
TABLE 2. 4c- MI NI MUM COLLAPSE RESI STANCE UNDER AXI AL LOAD. GRADE C- 75
Axi al Stress. ps,
15. 000 20000 25. 000
Col l apse Pressure. ps
5. 640 5. 440 5. 220
7, 420 7, 130 6, 810
6, 370 6. 140 5, 870
8. 920 8. 460 7. 970
10. 590 10, 050 9, 460
11. 480 10, 890 10, 260
11, 950 11, 340 10660
5. 580 5. 390 5. 170
7, 660 7. 350 7, 020
9. 260 8. 790 6, 280
5. 150 4. 980 4. 790
7, 120 6. 840 6, 540
8830 8. 380 7890
3, 580 3. 490 3400
4, 860 4, 710 4, 540
6180 5. 960 5710
7. 480 7. 180 6, 860
8 760 8, 320 7, 840
9450 8, 970 8, 450
3, 120 3, 060 2, 990
4, 360 4, 230 4090
5, 810 5, 600 5, 370
7 650 7. 340 7010
9060 8, 600 8100
9 550 9. 060 8, 530
9 990 9, 480 8930
- 10, 000 - 5000 0
6. 330 6 220 6. 100
8. 500 8 330 8. 140
30. 000 Wel ght Ak?a
( I bml f l )
d, l e ( =3 I n 1
116 18 3338
135 1552 3836
5 000
5, 970
7920
10, 000
5. 810
7. 680
6. 580
9. 340
11, 090
12. 020
12. 510
5. 750
7. 930
9. 700
5. 300
7. 370
9 210
3 650
5 000
6 390
7 750
9 100
9 900
3 160
4 470
5 990
7 920
9 490
10000
10460
3 880
5 100
6 320
7 720
2. 870
3 620
4, 440
6 040
2 980
3 800
2950
35. 000 40 000 45, 000 50, 000
4. 980 4. 710 4. 400 4, 060 3, 660
6. 450 6, 060 5. 610 5, 010 4, 370
15 16 89 4 374 7, 220
18 13 81 5275 10. 440
7 090
10220
12 340
13380
6. 940 6 770
9 960 9680
5. 580
7. 440
8. 830
9. 570
9. 960
4. 930
5, 260 4. 900 4, 500 4. 040
6860 6. 250 5. 590 4. 870
8, 150 7. 420 6, 630 5. 780 21 4 1144 6264 12. 680
232 1046 6 791 13. 750
241 10 7069 14. 310
17 1809 4962 6, 260
20 15 24 5828 8 790
23 1325 6 63 11. 090
24 18 82 6 937 5. 740
11. 970
12 970
13500
6 040
8 410
10 470
5 550
7 790
9. 800
3 750
11550
12520
13030
5 910
8 180
10 100
5430
8, 840 8. 040 7190 6, 270
9, 200 8. 370 7, 480 6, 520 13930
6 160
8610
10800
5650
7970
10, 050
3, 790
4, 670 4, 360 4, 020 3. 630
6240 5, 700 5, 100 4, 440
7130 6, 490 5, EOD 5, 060
4. 340 4. 070 3. 760 3. 410
5, 830 5, 420 4, 900 4, 270
6800 6 190 5, 530 4. 820
3140 2. 980 2 790 2. 570
4120 3. 870 3, 580 3. 250
5, 120 4, 780 4390 3. 950
6, 100 5, 630 5030 4. 390
6 750 6 150 5 490 4 790
7 280 6 630 5, 920 5. 160
2800 2. 670 2, 510 2. 330
6. 650
7. 730
4. 580
6. 200
7. 370
3, 280
4, 340
5, 430
6, 500
7 310
7. 880
2, 900
28 1589 8 133 8. 130
32 13 35 9 177 10 270
7 590
9 520
23 22 08 6 656
26 i s 34 7 549
29 1716 a 449
32 1545 9 317
35 14 06 10172
38 12 96 10 959
264 23 25 7 519
3 700
5, 390 5. 310 5 220 5 120
6, 990 6. 870 6, 730 6570
8, 570 8, 400 8. 200 7990
10 130 9910 9 670 9400
11320 11. 020 10. 680 10, 310
3, 390 3. 340 3, 280 3, 220
4. 780 4. 720 4 650 4560
6, 540 6, 430 6, 300 6, 150
8, 770 8. 600 8, 400 8, 170
10 760 10, 520 10, 240 9. 880
29 7 20 33 8 541
33. 7 17 73 9 72
3, 930 3 740 3520
5, 120 4840 4 520
6 640 6 230 5 700
7, 560 6 980 6 350
7 960 7 350 6 690
8. 330 7690 7 000
3270 2. 990
4, 160 3. 750
5 100 4, 440
5 680 4. 950
39 15 25 11 192
428 1357 1247
453 12 t32 13 141 11. 430 11, 130 10, 790 10, 410
47 1 12 2 13 745 11. 960 11. 640 i i , 290 10890
5980 5. 210
6 260 5. 450
2930 2. 690 36 2156 10336 4, 090 4, 050 4, 000 3, 940 3, 800 3 700 3 590 3, 460 3310 3 130
40 1917 11557 5. 500 5, 420 5, 330 5, 220
44 17 25 12 763 6 920 6. 800 6. 660 6. 500
4 960 4 800 4620 4, 420 4 190 3, 930 3640 3 300
6 120 5. 900 5 650 5 380 5 070 4 730 4350 3 920
49 1548 14 118 a 540 8. 370 B. 180 7, 960 7450 7 160 6 840 6 480 6080 5 620
2 500 2 400
3130 2. 970
3, 720 3. 500
4870 4. 550
2620 2. 510
3, 260 3, 090
2 580 2, 480
5030 4. 380
40 24 37 11 454 3 080 3, 030 2. 990 2, 930
435 2213 12559 3. 800 3, 770 3, 730 3. 680
47 2039 13572 4. 740 4, 680 4, 610 4, 530
53 5 1766 15 547 6. 590 6, 480 6, 350 6, 200
2 800 2 720 2 640
3 560 3. 470 3 380
4 330 4, 210 4, 060
5 850 5, 650 5410
2 910 2. 840 2 780
3 730 3, 640 3 530
2 870 2. 800 2 740
2. 580
3. 260
3, 900
5, 160
2 270 2. 120
2 780 2 560
3, 260 2. 970
4, 190 3 780
2 370 2 200
2. 890 2 650
2. 340 2 180
1. 690 1 580
1. 950 , 840
51 23ES 14561 3 210 3, 160 3, 110 3. 050
55 5 21 72 15 947 4 010 3. 970 3. 920 3. 870
60 2403 173 3 170 3. 120 3, 070 3. 020
2. 710
3, 400
2. 670
68 2766 19445 2, 260 2. 240 2. 220 2. 190 2 160 2 120 2 070 2. 020 1, 960 1. 880 1. 790
72 2602 20768 2 660 2. 630 2. 600 2. 560 2 510 2, 450 2, 390 2, 320 2, 230 2, 140 2, 040
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2-22 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 2.4d-MINIMUM COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADES L-80 AND N-80
Axi al Stress, PSI
~- Area - 10. 000 - 5, 000 0 5, 000 10. 000 15. 000 20. 000 25. 000 30, 000 35. 000 40, 000 45. 000 50, 000
d, l e wl I n )
18 3 338
1552 3836
1689 4 374
13 81 5275
1144 6264
1046 6 791
10 7 069
1809 4962
15 24 5828
1325 663
1682 6937
1589 5133
1395 9 177
2208 6656
1934 7 549
17 16 8 449
1545 9317
1406 10172
1296 10959
2325 7519
20 33 8541
17 73 9 72
1525 11 192
13 57 1247
12 62 13 141
122 13745
21 56 10336
19 17 11 557
1725 12763
1548 14116
2437 11454
2213 12559
2039 13572
1766 15547
2389 14561
21 72 15947
2403 173
2786 19445
2602 20768
Col l apse Pressure. PSI
6 570 6, 470 6. 350 6. 230 6 080 5. 920 5 730 5. 530 5 310 5. 050 4 770 4. 460 4100 116
13 5
15
18
21 4
232
24 1
17
20
23
24
28
32
23
26
29
32
35
38
264
29 7
33 7
39
42 8
453
47 1
36
40
44
49
40
43 5
47
535
51
55 5
60
66
72
8. 890
7 520
10, 970
13. 490
14. 620
15. 220
6. 500
9 200
11, 770
5, 940
0500
10. 780
6. 720
7. 400
10. 750
13. 140
14. 250
14. 830
6. 400
9. 020
i l . 500
5. 660
8. 340
10. 560
3. 870
5. 490
7. 160
8, 800
10420
11730
3 450
4. 850
6. 680
9010
11. 070
8. 540 8 330 8 100 7. 850
7. 250 7. 090 6910 6 710
10. 500 10. 220 9910 9. 580
7, 570 7. 260
6, 240
8. 670
10. 290
11. 160
11, 610
5, 460
7. 490
9. 000
5, 060
6 970
8, 590
6, 930
5, 970
6, 560
5, 670
6, 150
5, 340
8. 150 7. 590 7. 000
9660 9, 020 8, 310
10. 490 9. 780 9. 010
10, 920 10, 180 9, 380
5, 260 5, 010 4, 730
7. 140 6, 760 6. 340
8, 470 7, 890 7, 270
4, 860 4, 640 4, 400
4, 970 4 560
6, 360
5. 710
5 680
7, 560
5, 100
6, 740
8. 190 7310
8. 530 7610
6 490
9 150
12. 760 12. 350 11 890 11 400 10870
13. 830 13. 360 12 890 12 350 11 780
14, 400 13, 930 13420 12. 860 12260
5680
7610
9 500
5, 230
7260
9, 060
3. 620
6. 290
8. 630
11. 160
5. 760
8. 170
10. 320
6, 160 6, 020
8. 610 8. 370
10. 800 10. 400
5. 650 5. 530
7 970 7760
10. 050 9. 750
3. 790 3, 740
5. 660
8. 100
9. 970
5. 390
7 520
9. 420
3. 830
5. 410
7. 020
8, 610
10 180
11 390
3. 690
5. 310 5, 200
6. 870 6, 700
8. 400 8. 170
9 910 9. 620
3. 530
5, 080 4. 940 4. 780 4. 600 4. 400 4. 170
6. 510 6. 300 6. 060 5. 800 5. 510 5. 200
11. 020 10. 610
7, 910 7, 630 7, 320 6. 980
9. 300 8. 950 8. 520 8. 020
10, 170 9. 700 9. 190 8. 640
3, 400 3. 340 3. 270 3. 190 3, 150 3. 090
4. 790 4, 720 4. 630 4, 530 4, 420 4. 290
6. 560 6. 430 6. 270 6, 100 5, 910 5. 700
8 820 8 600 8. 360 8. 090 7. 800 7. 480
10810 10520 10, 180 9. 750 9. 300 8. 810
4, 420
5. 610
6, 610
4. 120
4070
5180
5 900
6, 650 6, 300 5, 920 5. 500
8. 070 7. 520 6. 940 6. 300
3800
4990
5, 630
3. 010 2, 820
3. 920 3, 620
4. 840 4, 440
5. 730 5, 120
6. 260 5. 580
6, 750 6. 020
2, 690 2. 540
3. 430 3. 320 3. 180
5. 570
7. 280
6. 960
10, 630
12. 040
3, 500
4. 910
6, 790
3. 020
4. 140
5. 460
6. 610
7. 470
8. 050
2. 930
6. 200
6. 890
7, 420
2. 820
3. 780
4. 900
3. 980
5. 200
6, 750
7, 720
8. 130
8. 510
3, 560 3. 310
4. 580 4. 210
5 BOO 5. 180
6, 470 5. 770
9 180
11 300
12, 160
12 720
7, 130
8. 280
8. 730
9. 130
6, 330
7, 110
7. 500
7, 840
11 850 11. 510 11 130 10. 720 10. 280 9. 800 9. 280
12, 400 12 040 11 650 11, 220 10. 750 10. 250 9. 710
6. 810
7, 130
3. 350 3. 170
4. 250 3. 980
5 150 4. 600
6 180 5 720
2 520 2420
3 160 3. 000
3, 760 3 540
4 940 4 610
6. 080
6. 360
2. 960
3, 680
4. 410
5. 110
2. 290
2. 810
3. 290
4240
2, 390
2. 920
2 360
4 180 4 140 4 100 4 050 3. 990 3. 920
5. 180
6, 440
7. 880
2. 910
3. 660
4 500
6 150
3. 030
3850
2. 990
3. 840 3. 740 3. 630 3. 500
4. 480
5, 460
6, 590
2, 600
3, 300
3. 950
5 240
2 730 2. 640
3 440 3. 290
2 690 2. 610
5 690 5. 610 5 520 5420 5 310
7 zoo 7. 080 6 950 6 800 6630
5, 030 4. 870 4, 690
6. 230 6 000 5 750
a 930
3 170
3 670
4. 670
6. 850
3. 310
4. 090
3260
6. 760 8. 560 8 370 8. 140 7. 600 7. 290 6. 960
2. 840 2, 750 2, 660
3. 590 3. 510 3, 410
4. 390 4. 260 4 120
5. 960 5 740 5 500
2. 950 2. 660 2 810
3. 770 3. 680 3 570
2. 920 2. 830 2 760
3. 130 3. 090 3 030 2980
3840 3810 3 770 3 720
4. 820 4. 760 4. 660 4 600
6740 6. 620 6460 6320
3. 260 3. 220 3. 160 3 100
4. 060 4. 020 3970 3920
3, 220 3. 160 3 120 3060
2. 530
3. 120
2 500
2. 290 2. 280 2. 260 2. 240 2 220 2 180 2 140 2. 100 2, 040 1. 970 1. 900 1, 810 1. 710
2, 730 2. 700 2. 670 2, 630 2590 2 540 2490 2. 420 2, 350 2. 260 2 160 2, 050 1 970
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CASING, TUBING, AND LINE PIPE
2-23
TABLE 2.4e-MINIMUM COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE C-90
Anal Sl ress psf
15000 20000 25000
Col l apse Pressure. PSI
6. 430 6270 6. 100
8. 660 8. 400 8. 130
10. 000 - 5 000 0 5 000 10 000
7010
9630
a 090
1 t 990
15090
16360
17020
6. 920 6 820 6. 700 6. 570
9 470 9 300 9. 100 8. 890
7, 970 7. 840 7, 690 7. 530
11. 770 11530 11 260 10. 970
14740 14360 13. 940 13. 490
15980 15 560 15. 110 14630
16630 16200 15. 730 15. 220
6 930 6. 840 6 740 6. 630 6. 500
9 980 9810 9630 9420 9 200
12 890 12. 650 12 380 12090 I i . 770
14 960 14. 610 14. 240 13 820 13. 380
19 720 19, 260 18. 760 18 220 17. 630
6 290 6, 220 6140 6050 5 940
9 190 9. 040 a 880 8. 700 a 500
11770 11. 560 11330 11070 10. 780
4 130 4. 080 4 030 3 960 3. 890
5 870 5. 810 5 740 5 660 5 570
7. 810 7. 700 7. 560 7 440 7280
9. 720 9. 560 9. 380 9. 180 a 970
11610 11, 400 11 170 10. 910 10 640
13 390 13, 140 12 820 12450 12050
14 600 14, 270 13900 13. 500 13060
16370 15, 990 15580 15130 14640
17670 17, 260 16, 810 16, 330 15. 800
20800 20. 320 19. 790 19. 220 18600
3 700 3, 660 3 610 3. 560 3 500
5 130 5. 090 5040 4. 980 4 910
7 260 7 160 7050 6. 930 6 790
9 970 9. 800 9, 620 9 410 9 190
12370 12. 140 11. 890 1 I . 610 11310
13600 13. 290 12 950 12570 12 170
14230 13. 910 13540 13, 150 12. 730
16370 15990 15580 15. 130 14. 640
12510
13270
4 340
6010
7 720
9680
3 320
12. 280 12. 020 I l . 740
13. 020 12. 740 12, 390
4. 290 4. 250 4, 220
5 940 5. 870 5 780
7. 610 7 490 7 350
9. 520 9. 340 9. 150
3. 290 3250 3. 210
4. 070 4. 010 3. 940
5. 040 5. 000 4. 940
7. 230 7, 120 6, 990
8. 720 8. 560 8. 390
9. 620 9. 440 9. 240
3. 440 3. 400 3. 360
4, 220 4. 160 4. 130
11. 010 10. 790 10. 550
3400 3 360 3320
2. 330 2. 320 2. 310
2. 800 2 780 2 760
11440 11. 100 10 740 10, 280 9. 780 9. 240
11 990 I i . 560 11 100 10, 610 10. 090 9. 530
4 180
5 690
7. 200
8930
3 170
3 870
4. 870
6. 850
8. 200
9, 020
3. 310
4. 090
10, 290
3. 270
2. 300
2 730
do
WeI ghI
( I l l ) ( I bm/ l tJ
4' 2 116
4% 135
5 15
5 18
5 21 4
5 232
5 24 1
5 Q 17
5' h 20
5' , 2 23
5' ) ' ~ 26
5' , 2 35
6b8 24
65, 8 28
65/ 8 32
7 23
7 26
7 29
7 32
7 35
7 38
7 41
7 46
7 49 5
7 57 5
7% 26 4
7% 29 7
7% 33 7
75! , 39
7% 42 8
75. 8 45 3
7% 47 1
7% 53 58
7 % 44 7
7% 46 1
W/ a 36
8% 40
S8 44
85, . 49
95, a 40
958 43 5
95. . 47
95. 8 53 5
9% 584
9% 607
1014 51
70% 55 5
1034 82
1 1 U 60
13% 66
133g 72
Al ea
dol e l sq I ")
18 3338
15 52 3836
16 89 4 374
13 a1 5275
1144 6264
1046 6 791
10 7069
I f ! 09 4962
1524 582E
1325 663
1155 7513
8 46 9 904
1882 6937
1589 8133
1395 3 177
2208 6656
1934 7543
17 16 8 449
1545 9317
1406 10172
1296 10 959
1186 11 881
10 45 13324
959 14379
795 16919
23 25 7519
20 33 8541
1773 972
1525 11 192
1357 1247
1282 13 141
122 13745
1045 15813
1348 12961
1303 13374
2156 10336
19 17 11557
1725 12763
1548 14118
2437 11454
2213 12559
2039 13572
1766 15547
16 18 16879
154 17671
23 89 14561
2172 15947
1433 23562
2403 173
2786 19445
2602 20768
30. 000
5, 900
7. 820
6. 690
9. 550
11. 350
12310
12. 810
5. 640
35000 40000 45000 50000
5. 450 5 180 4 890
7, 140 6. 740 6 320
6. 140 5. 830 5. 480
8. 470 7. 880 7. 240
10. 060 9. 350 8600
5. 690
7. 490
7. 350 7. 150 6. 930
10. 660 10320 9. 950
13. 010 12. 500 11. 940
14. 100 13. 540 ( 2. 940
14. 680 14. 100 13. 470
6. 360 6. 210 6. 030
8. 950 E 690 8. 400
11. 380 10. 930 10. 450
12. 900 12. 390 11. 840
17. 000 16. 330 15. 600
5, 820 5, 690 5, 540
8. 280 8. 040 7 780
10. 480 10. 140 9, 780
3. 850 3. 810 3. 750
5. 460 5. 350 5. 220
7 110 6, 920 6. 720
8. 730 8, 470 8190
10. 340 10, 010 9, 650
11, 610 11. 150 10, 660
12. 590 12. 090 11, 560
14, 120 13, 550 12. 960
15 240 14. 630 13 980
17 940 17220 16 460
6. 430
9. 030
10. 730
I 1. 630
12. 100
10. 910 10. 140 9 320
11. 350 10. 550 9 700
5, 630 5, 400 5. 130 4. 840
6. 080 7, 740 7. 360 6. 950 6510
9. 930 9. 380 8. 800 a 180 7 520
11. 260
14. 640
5. 380
7 500
9. 390
10. 640
14. 020
5 190
7 190
8. 950
3. 680 3. 600
5. 070 4 900
6, 490 6, 240
7 890 7. 550
9 270 8 060
10 140 9. 580
9. 980
13. 150
4990
6850
8. 390
3. 500
4720
5 960
7 190
9. 270 8 530
12. 220 11. 240
4. 760 4. 500
6. 480 6. 080
7. 800 7. 170
3. 380 3. 230
4. 510 4, 270
5 660 5. 330
6 800 6. 360
a 330 7 750
8 980 8. 350
9 740 9 050
10 920 10 150
7. 120
7. 680
10. 990 10 380
12 320 11 640
8. 320
9330
13290 12. 560 11 780 10. 950 10. 070
15650 14. 790 13670 12 890 11850
3 440 3, 360 3 280 3 190 3. 130
4. 830 4. 740 4 640 4 520 4. 390
6. 640 6. 480 6 290 6 090 5. 860
8 940 8 680 8. 390 8070 7. 730
10 980 10 630 10. 220 9 720 9. 180
11 730 11260 10. 770 10, 240 9, 670
3 060
4 240
5610
7. 350
2. 980
4 060
8. 610
9. 070
5 330
6 950
8 000
8430
2870
3860
5020
6, 500
7360
7 750
12 270 11 790 11. 270 10. 710 10 120
14120 13. 550 12. 960 12 320 11 640
9. 490 8820 8 110
10. 920 10150 9330
6. 660 8 050 7400
8. 940 a 310 7640
3410
4 340
5280
6. 340
2. 550
3, 220
3640
5 060
4 130 4 070 4. 000 3. 920 3. 620 3 700 3 570
5, 580 5460 5. 320 5 170 5. 000 4 800 4 590
7. 040 6 850 6. 650
8. 700 8. 440 8. 160
3110 3. 050 2. 980
3 830 3. 780 3 730
4 800 4 710 4 610
6, 700 6530 6 340
8, 000 7. 770 7, 520
8. 780 6. 520 8. 240
3, 250 3. 180 3. 110
4. 040 3. 990 3, 920
10, 000 9. 690 9. 350
6. 420
7. 860
2. 910
3. 660
6. 180
7. 530
5910
7 170
2, 820 2. 720
3. 580 3. 480
4. 360 4210
5. 900 5, 650
6. 960 6. 640
7. 600 7. 230
5 610
6 770
2. 630
3. 360
4 040
5. 370
6. 280
6. 830
5. 890
6. 400
2. 930 2. 840 2. 770 2. 680
4 120
5090
7 330
6. 860
9. 780
4. 490
6, 130
7. 250
7. 930
3, 020
3. 840
8. 980
2. 990
2. 180
2. 540
3. 480
4. 280
1, 210
3. 430
2. 330
2. 820
3. 750 3. 640 3. 510 3, 360
8. 580 8. 150 7. 610 7, 000
3. 210 3. 140 3. 070
2. 280 2. 250 2. 220
2. 690 2. 650 2. 600
2. 890 2800 2, 730 2. 640
2. 130 2. 080 2. 010 1, 930
2470 2390 2300 2. 200
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2-24 PETROLEUM ENGINEERING HANDBOOK
Wel ghl
( l bmi i l l
11 6
135
15
18
21 4
232
24 1
17
20
23
24
28
32
23
26
29
32
35
38
26 4
29 7
33 7
39
42 8
453
47 1
36
40
44
49
40
43 5
47
535
51
555
60
68
72
TABLE 2.4f-MINIMUM COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE C-95
Area
f <, e ( X ' f l 1
18 3338
1552 3836
1689 4 374
1381 5275
1144 6 264
1046 6 791
10 7 069
1809 4 962
1524 5828
1325 6 63
1882 6937
1589 8 133
13 95 9177
22 08 6 656
1934 7549
17 16 E 449
1545 9317
14 06 10172
12 96 10959
2325 7519
2033 8541
1773 9 72
1525 11 192
1357 1247
1282 13141
122 13745
21 56 10336
19 17 11557
1725 12 763
1548 14 118
2437 11 454
22 13 12559
2039 13572
1766 15547
2389 14 561
2172 15947
2403 173
2786 19445
2602 20768
10 000
7. 210
9. 990
8. 350
12480
15. 890
17220
17. 930
7 120
10360
13440
6450
9520
12250
4 240
6 000
8. 060
10080
12080
13970
3780
5220
7470
10340
12880
14230
14990
4 470
6150
7960
10040
3380
4220
5 170
7 540
3550
4400
3 500
2340
2850
- 5 000 0
7 120 7 030
9 830 9 660
E 240 8 110
12 270 12 030
15 540 15 160
16840 16430
17530 I i 100
7040 6 940
10. 190 10 010
13200 12940
6 380 6 310
9370 9220
12040 11. 810
4200 4 140
5. 950 5. 880
7. 950 7. 830
9. 920 9. 750
11. 870 11. 650
13720 13. 440
3. 750 3. 710
5. 180 5. 140
7380 7280
10180 10000
12660 12410
13970 13. 660
14. 660 14. 300
4. 410 4. 350
6. 090 6, 020
7860 7 740
9 880 9710
3350 3. 320
4180 4. 120
5 140 5090
7 450 7 340
3520 3480
4350 4290
3470 3440
2340 2330
2 640 2 820
5 000 10000
6. 920 6800
9470 9270
7 970 7810
1, 770
14 740
15 980
16630
6 840
9 810
12650
11 490
14300
15490
16130
6 720
9 600
12340
Axi al Stress ps
15000 20000 25000
Col l apse Pressure. PSI
6. 670 6520 6. 350
9040 8 800 8540
7. 640 7. 460 7, 250
11. 180 10. 850 10. 500
13. 820 13310 12. 760
14. 980 14420 13. 830
15590 15010 14. 400
6. 590 6450 6 290
9, 360 9110 8. 830
12000 11640 11 160
30. 000 35000
6170 5. 970
8250 7 940
7030 6 780
10 110 9 700
12190 11 570
13210 12 540
13750 13060
6 110 5 910
8520 8 200
10 660 10 120
40000
5 750
7 600
6 510
9200
10920
11840
12320
5 700
7840
9 550
45000
5 510
7230
6 220
a 620
10 230
11 090
11 540
5 460
7 460
8 950
50000
5. 240
6830
5890
8000
9 500
10300
10720
5 190
7040
8310
6 220 6 130 6. 020 5 900 5. 760 5610 5 440 5250 S 040 4810
9 040 8850 8. 640 8. 410 8, 170 7 900 7 600 7 290 6 940 6560
11 560 11 290 10 990 10670 10 320 9 940 9 540 9 100 a 540 7 930
4 080 4 020 3 940 3880 3 830 3 780 3 710 3620 3 520 3 400
5 810 5 730 5. 630 5 530 5 410 5280 5 120 4 960 4 760 4 550
7 700
9 560
1, 400
13140
3 660
5 090
7 160
9. 800
12 140
13290
13910
4 290
5. 940
7 560 7, 390 7220 7. 020 6810
9 350 9. 120 8880 8. 610 8320
11 130 10840 10520 10 180 9 810
12 760 12330 11 880 11 390 10880
6 580
8 000
9410
10330
3 610 3. 550 3480 3 400 3320 3 220
5 030 4. 960 4880 4 790 4690 4 570
7 030 6 890 6 740 6 560 6370 6 160
9 590 9 350 9 090 8 820 8510 a 190
11 840 11 530 11 180 10 810 10410 9 900
12 890 12460 12000 11 510 10 990 10430
13 490 13 030 12550 12 040 11 490 10 920
4 250 4 210 4 160 4 100 4030 3 950
5 860 5 760 5 650 5 520 5. 380 5 230
6320 6 040 5 730
7 660 7 290 6 880
8990 8 470 7 870
9 750 9 130 8 480
3 150 3 080 2 990
4 430 4 280 4 100
5 930 s 670 5 390
7830 7 450 7 030
9 350 a 760 8 130
9 850 9 230 8 570
10300 9 650 8 960
3850 3 730 3600
5050 4 850 4 630
7 610 7 470 7 310 7 140 6 950 6 740 6510 6 260 5 980 5 670
9 520 9 310 9 090 8 840 8 580 8290 7 970 7 630 7 260 6 860
3. 290 3 250 3 200 3 150 3 090 3010 2 940 2850 2 740 2 640
4 070 4 000 3 920 3 850 3 810 3 750 3680 3 600 3 500 3 380
5040 4990 4 920 4 840 4 760 4 650 4 540 4 400 4 250 4 070
7. 230 7 100 6950 6 790 6620 6420 6 210 5 980 5 720 5430
3. 440 3400 3 340 3 280 3 220 3 140 3050 2 960 2 a60 2 790
4 220 4 150 4 120 4070 4 020 3950 3 870 3780 3 670 3 540
3 400 3 350 3 300 3 240 3 180 3 100 3. 020 2 920 2 820 2 750
2. 330 2320 2 310 2 290 2 260 2230 2 190 2 150 2. 090 2 020
2. 800 2. 780 2 750 2 710 2 670 2 620 2 560 2490 2410 2320
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CASING, TUBING, AND LINE PIPE
2-25
TABLE 2.4g-MINIMUM COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE l-K-95*
Ar~al Stress psi
15000 20000 25. 000
Col l apse Pressure ps
0 190 0 000 7 rro-
9 830 9600 9 330
11 680 11 400 11 080
8 890 8670 8. 430
11 250 10980 10 680
14990 14620 14 220
a 130 7930 7 710
10 070 9 830 9, 550
11 790 11 510 11. 190
5. 350 5. 220 5. 080
7. 390 7210 7. 010
8. 710 8500 8. 270
9850 9610 3 350
0 5000 10 000
8650 8520 0 370
10380 10. 220 10040
12330 12 150 11 930
9380 9240 9070
11 880 11 700 11 490
15820 15580 15310
8580 8 450 8300
10630 10470 10280
12450 12260 12040
5650 5 570
7 800 7. 680
9 200 9 060
10400 10240
5470
7550
30 000
7 530
9. 030
, 073o
8. 160
10. 340
13770
7. 470
9. 250
10. 840
35000 40 000
6. 960
8. 350
9 920
7 540
9550
12720
Wei ght Area
I l bmi f t) d, ' e ( SC l n j
116 18 3330
13 5 1552 3836
15 1 1335 4407
15 1689 4 374
18 1381 5275
23 1046 6 791
17 1809 4 962
20 1524 5828
23 1325 6 63
10000 5. 000
8840 8. 760
10610 10. 510
12600 12480
3 590 9 500
12. 140 12030
16170 I 6020
8. 770 8 690
10. 870 10 760
12730 12 ma
5 780 5 720
7 970 7 900
15 000 50. 000
6. 630 6. 270
7, 950 7 520
9450 I 3 930
7. 190 6, 800
9. 100 8610
12 120 11460
6 570 6 220
8. 140 7 700
9. 540 9. 020
4. 330 4 090
5. 980 5 650
7 050 6 660
7. 970 7 530
8. 890 0. 400
9. 730 9. 200
3. 720 3. 510
5. 480 5. 180
6. 740 6. 370
8. 120 7680
9. 880 9. 350
4. 640 4. 390
6. 050 5 720
6, 970 6. 590
7 970 7530
3 240 3060
4 290 4. 060
5. 440 5. 140
6 780 6410
7 620 7210
8 040 7, 610
3 420 3230
4 560 4. 310
5 780 5470
6 620 6 260
7 350 6950
3 380 3 190
2 060 2510
4 780 4 520
7 260
8. 710
10340
7870
9. 970
13270
7. 200
8. 920
10. 440
6 900
8. 550
4, 920
6. 790
10010
4. 740
6. 540
7, 720
8. 720
9. 730
10. 650
4. 540
6. 270
8. 010
9. 050
10. 100
11. 050
7. 400
8360
9330
10210
4. 220 4. 070 3900
6. 220 6. 000 5750
7660 7. 380 7. 080
9220 8. 890 8520
23 2208 6656
26 19 34 7 549
29 1716 8 449
32 1545 9 317
35 1406 10172
38 1296 10959
26 4 2325 7519
297 2033 8541
337 17 73 9 72
39 1525 11 192
9 400
10630
9 310
10530
8900
10060
11 860 11 740
12980 12 860
4 960 4 910
7 310 7 240
9 000 8 910
10840 10. 730
13 190 13 060
6 190 6 140
8 080 a 000
11600 11 430 11220 10. 990 10720 10. 430
12 700 12 510 12290 12. 030 11. 740 11. 410
4850 4 780 4690 4. 590 4, 480 4. 360
7 150 7 040 6920 6, 770 6. 610 6. 430
8 800 8 670 8510 8. 340 8. 130 7. 910
10600 13440 10260 10. 040 9. 800 9. 530
12 900 12 710 12480 12. 220 11920 11. 590 453 12 82 13141
36 2156 10336
40 1917 11557
44 1725 12763
49 1548 14 118
11230 10. 820 10370
9. 300
10, 630
9 210
10. 530
6 060 5 970 5860 5. 740 5. 600 5. 450 5270 5. 080 4870
7900 7 780 7640 7. 480 7. 300 7. 100 6880 6. 630 6350
9 100 8 960 8800 8. 620 8. 410 8. 180 7. 920 7. 630 7320
10400 10 240 I O060 9. 850 9610 9. 350 9 050 8 720 8 360
40 2437 11454 4. 320 4 280 4230 4 170 4 090 4. 010 3. 910 3. 800 3680 3. 550 3400
435 2213 12559 5720 5 670 5 600 5 520 5 420 5 300 5180 5. 030 4870 4. 700 4 500
47 2039 13572 7. 260 7 190 7 100 6 990 6 870 6. 730 6560 6. 380 6180 5, 960 5710
535 1766 15547 9. 050 8. 960 8 850 8 720 8 560 8. 380 8180 7. 950 7 700 7 420 7 120
564 16 18 16 079 10. 170 10 070 9 950 9 800 9 630 9 430 9200 8. 940 8 660 a 350 0 000
61 1 138 15708
51 2389 14561
555 2172 15947
60 7 1972 17473
657 1807 18982
71 1 16 54 20625
60 2403 173
72 2602 20 768
66 21 4 25035
10. 730 10 630 10 500 10 340 10 160 9. 950 9 710 9 440 9 140 8 810
3880 3 740
5 180 4 990
6 570 6 330
7520 7250
8350 8 050
3 840 3 700
3020 2 910
5430 5 230
8440
3 590
4 780
6070
6 95C
7 72c
4. 560 4 520 4 460 4 390 4 310 4, 220 4120 4. 010
6080 6 020 5950 5 060 5 760 5 640 5500 5350
7. 720 7. 640 7550 7 440 7 300 7. 150 6980 6. 790
8. 830 a 750 8. 640 8 510 8 360 8 180 7990 7 770
9. 810 9 720 9 600 9 460 9 290 9. 090 8870 8 630
4. 510 4 460 4 410 4 340 4 270 4. 180 4080 3 960
3. 550 3 510 3 470 3 420 3 360 3. 290 3210 3 120
6. 380 6 320 6240 6 150 6 040 5. 910 5 770 5 610
3 550
2 790
5 020
NC *PI gram
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2-26 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 2.4h-MINIMUM COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE P-l I 0
5 000 . -
7490
10310
a 730
13230
30 000 Wetghl
( I bml f t)
11 6
13 5
15
18
21 4
232
24 1
17
20
23
24
28
32
26
29
32
35
38
26 4
29 7
33 7
39
428
453
47 1
40
44
49
435
47
535
51
555
607
65 7
60
68
72
Area
d, i e ( X r 1
18 3338
1552 3 836
1689 4374
1381 5275
1144 6264
1046 6 791
10 7069
1809 4 962
1524 5 828
1325 6 63
1882 6937
1589 8 133
1395 9 177
19 34 7 549
1716 8 449
1545 9317
14 06 10 172
1296 10 959
23 25 7 519
20 33 a 541
17 73 9 72
1525 11 192
1357 12 47
, 282 13 141
122 13 745
, 917 11 557
1725 12 763
1548 14 118
22 13 12 559
2039 13572
1766 15547
2369 14 561
21 72 15 947
1972 17473
1807 18982
2403 173
2786 19445
2602 20766
0
7 580
10 680
10000
7. 390
10. 330
- 10 000
7720
10. 980
9. 060
13. 900
- 5000
7650
10 840
15 000 20000 25 000
Col l apse Pressure ps,
7, 290 7. 170 7. 040
10. 130 9. 920 9. 690
8. 460 8. 300 8. 130
12. 690 12. 390 12. 060
16. 230 15. 740 15, 210
17. 590 17. 060 16490
35. 000 40. 000
6. 740 6. 560
9. 170 8 880
7, 740 7 520
11 350 10 960
14, 080 13. 470
15260 14. 600
15. 880 15. 190
6660 6. 490
9 490 9 190
12190 11. 750
6080 5. 930
8760 8. 490
11 150 10 770
5 690 5 560
7480 7 270
9, 250 8 950
11 000 10 620
12570 12 020
3 580 3 500
5000 4 910
6 970 6 790
9480 9 170
11700 11 290
12690 12140
13280 12 700
5810 5. 680
7400 7 190
9210 8 920
3970 3 870
4 960 4 a70
7030 6840
3370 3 300
4 140 4 090
5410 5 300
6 680 6 510
3330 3 260
2310 2 290
2 760 2 720
45. 000 50 000
6. 900
9. 440
7. 940
11. 720
6370 6. 160
8560 8. 230
8 960 8 a50
13700 13 470
17940 17 550
19440 19 020
8. 600
12970
16. 700
18. 100
7 270 7, 010
10530 10. 080
12820 12. 140
13900 13. 160
14470 13. 700
6 300 6. 100
8 860 8. 500
11 220 10. 620
5 780 5. 600
18. 290
19. 830
17140
18570
14. 660
15. 890
16. 540
6. 820
9. 780
12. 590
6. 200
20. 640 20 230 19 800 19330 18. 840 16. 310 17. 750 17. 160
15030
7. 620
14800
7550
14 540
7 480
14270
7400
13. 980
7. 300
6. 830 6 790 6 730
11. 410
6670
1, 260
6. 590
10. 430
11 100
10300
10 920
10 160
10. 720
I O000 9. 830
13640 13 440 13220 12980 12. 730
6310 6270 6 230 6 180 6 120
8. 720 8 630 8 530 8 420 8. 290
11, 090 10940 10 780 10610 10. 430
13. 670 13. 330 12, 980
6, 510 6, 420
7. 200
6, 320
9. 650
7. 090
9. 450
6, 960
9. 240
12, 460 12. 160 11, 850
a 050
10. 510
5. 980
10. 280
5. 890
8 160
10040
8. 010 7. 850
10, 230 10. 010 9. 770
12. 280 11. 990 11, 680
14210 13. 860 13. 480
3810 3. 770 3. 710
5250 5, 200 5. 140
7560 7430 7290
9. 010
11. 510
8 190 7. 880
10350 9. 910
5. 800 5420 5. 270
7. 680
9. 520
11. 350
13080
7040 6. 790
8640 8. 300
13, 430 13240 13. 020 12 790 12. 540
15 650 15, 400 15 140 14 850 14 540
10220 9. 780
11 450 10. 840
3 410 3. 310
4800 4. 680
6 580 6. 360
8850 8. 490
3 970
5440
a 030
3. 950 3 920 3890 3 860 3. 650
5. 080
7. 140
9. 760
5. 390 5 350 5320 5 290
7 960 7 870 7 780 7 760
11 250 11 000 10900 10 710
14. 160 13. 920 13670 13 390
11 400
14. 370
10. 500 10, 270 10. 030
13100 12. 780 12. 450
14480 14. 120 13710
15310 14. 840 14350
6, 200 6. 120 6. 030
8. 060 7. 920 7760
10190 9. 970 9 740
4270 4. 200 4 130
5200 5. 160 5100
7630 7. 500 7360
3 570 3. 530 3. 490
4440 4. 370 4300
12. 080
13, 220
13. 830
I O850 10. 380
11 560 10. 950 15 950
17 260
6 480
a. 610
11 040
4 490
5 410
a 110
3 700
4 690
15. 700 15. 430 15 140 14 820
16. 920 16. 550 16 170 15 750
6. 440 6 390 8 340 6. 270
8. 520 0 420 a 310 a. 190
10. 900 10. 740 10570 10 390
4. 460 4 420 4 370 4 320
5. 350 5 300 5 270 5 240
8040 7 950 7 850 7 750
12090 11. 460
5. 930
7. 590
5 540 5. 370
6 970 6. 720
9. 480 8 610 8. 270
4050
5. 030
3 810 3. 750
4 770 4. 650
7. 200 6 640 6. 410
3 220 3. 130
4 020 3950
5 180 5. 030
6 320 6 110
3 190 3. 100
2 270 2. 230
2 670 2 620
3 680 3 660 3 640 3. 610
4 650 4 610 4 560 4 510
5920 5 880 5840 5 790
7580 7 500 7 420 7 320
3. 430
4 210
5 950
7640
5 740 5. 670 5600 5. 510
7220 7 100 6 980 6 840
3520 3. 490 3440 3. 390
2. 340 2. 340 2330 2. 330
2860 2. 850 2 830 2 a00
3 640 3620 3 610 3 580 3 560
2 340 2 340 2 340 2 340 2. 340
2 880 2880 2 880 2 E80 2 870
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CASI NG. TUBI NG, AND LI NE PI PE 2-27
TABLE 2. 4i - MI NI MUM COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE Q-125
Axi al Stress. psi
Area 10000 - 5, 000 0 5, 000 10. 000 15, 000 20, 000 25, 000 30. 000 35, 000 40, 000 45, 000 50 000
d, i e WI I n 1
Col l apse Pressure. PSI
Wel ght
( I bmi tt)
15 1
161
19 1
15
i a
21 4
232
24 1
17
20
23
268
24
20
32
29
32
35
38
427
297
337
39
428
453
47 I
40
44
49
47
535
58 4
61 1
55 5
607
65 7
71 1
73 2
79 2
60
667
72
766
92 5
1335 4 407
12 4 66
103 5578
16 69 4 374
13 81 5 275
11 44 6 264
1046 6 791
10 7 069
18 09 4 962
1524 5628
1325 663
11 7854
1882 6937
1589 8133
1395 9177
, 716 0 449
1545 9317
1406 10172
1296 10959
11 2 12517
2033 8541
1773 972
1525 11 192
1357 1247
1282 13141
122 13745
1917 1, 557
1725 12763
1548 14118
2039 13572
1766 15547
1618 16879
154 17671
2172 15947
1972 17473
1807 18962
1654 20625
16 21 276
1465 23096
2403 173
2148 19252
2602 20766
2445 22044
199 26818
16. 290
19, 820
22, 740
16, 070
19470
15, 640
19. 100
15. 590 15. 320 15. 040 14. 730 14. 410
18. 700 18. 290 17. 850 17. 390 16. 900
21 460 20. 990 20. 480 19. 950 19. 390
14. 070
16. 390
16. 810
0 730
13, 220
13. 700 13, 320
15. 850 15, 290
16. 190 17, 550
12. 910 12, 470
14, 710 14, 100
16. 880 16 100
6. 160
11, 770
7. 960
12. 160
11. 390
11. 760
15 360 14. 720
13, 590
16650 15 950
13, 120
17. 330
15. 660 15, 000
16. 610
6. 990 6. 630
10110 9. 800
13080 12, 640
15 910 15. 250
6 350 6220
9. 300 9. 030
11, 940 11 550
7. 900 7 690
9. 040 9. 550
21. 920
9. 650 9, 570 9. 400
15. 230 15. 040 14. 630
9. 300 9. 270 9 150 9, 020 8, 080
14, 600 14. 360 14. 100 13. 620 13, 530
19, 530 19 100 18640 18, 160 17. 650
21 170 20 700 20 200 19. 680 19 130
8. 560 6. 360
12, 680 12, 530
16. 560 15. 970
17. 940 17 310
16680 18 020
20. 690
22. 430
23. 350
7 990
12 360
16. 520
21 440
20,330
22. 030
22, 940
7 950
12 230
16300
21. 060
19. 940
21. 620
22. 500
7. 890
12. 080
16. 070
20. 660
7 060 7. 020
11 110 10990
14, 740 14. 530
17. 110
18 550
22, 040 21 550 21030
7. 830 7. 760 7. 680
11. 920 11 740 11. 560
15. 810 15. 540 15, 250
20. 240 19. 790 19. 310
6, 980 6. 930 6. 660
10 860 10710 10. 550
14 310 14. 060 13. 030
9 010 8910 8. 810
11. 560 11 400 11. 220
20. 480 19 910 19 310
7. 500 7, 390
11 140 10910
14. 610 14. 260
16. 260 17, 730
6, 740 6, 660
10. 190 9. 990
13, 270 12. 970
8. 550 6. 410
10, 820 10. 600
7. 600
11 350
14. 940
18, 810
6. 820
10. 360
13, 560
8. 690
11. 030
7, 270 7. 140
10660 10390
13. 090 13490
17. 150 16. 550
12. 460 12. 130
6. 570 6 470
14, 440 14. 030
9, 780 9. 550
12, 650 12. 300
16. 860 16. 280
6. 250 8. 000
10. 370 10. 110
7. 090
11. 230
14. 930
9, 260
11 990
9. 190 9 100
I I . 860 11720
14, 500 14. 310
17. 000 16. 750
14 690
17, 240
21. 090
5. 760
6. 470
12, 340
15. 770
17, 590
19, 270
6. 660
9. 130
11, 930
5. 720
8. 560
14. 090 13660 13. 620 13. 360 13. 000 12. 760
16. 460 16190 15. 880 15. 550 15. 200 14. 630
14 720 14, 290
5. 260
15. 620
5. 220
15070
6. 250
7, 640
6 160
8. 150
7. 490
7. 990
10, 330
10. 640 10. 380
10, 070
5. 230 5 180
13 300 12930
7, 710 7. 560
9. 410 9. 190
10. 440 10, 160
4. 490 4. 410
5. 760 5. 700
7. 290 7160
13, 640 13. 270
14, 490
5. 160
13. 680
6060
5. 060
5. 940
7 810
7. 330
7, 610
9. 000
7, 160
9. 5! 0
10, 100
5120
9, 790
5. 040
7400
12540 12. 120
7. 220
8, 960 6. 710
9, 900 9610
4, 320 4, 220
20. 720
5. 720
6. 410
12. 210
15. 570
17. 350
10. 990
6. 660
9. 060
1 1. 000
5. 680
8. 500
20. 330
5, 670
6. 350
12, 060
15350
17. 090
16. 700
6. 630
8. 980
I I 660
5640
8440
19. 910 19470 19000 18. 510 17. 990 17, 450
5, 620 5 560 5. 490
0 270 8 190 8. 100
5. 420 5. 350
8, 000 7, 890
11. 340 11, 120
14290 13 980
5, 320
7. 770
10. 690
13650
15. 120
16, 140
5. 090
15. 500
5. 640
7. 520
16, 650
7, 410
9. 320
6. 400
9, 150
10. 040
8. 450
9. 850
10. 760
5. 310
7. 970
9, 000
10. 900
4. 620
11. 900
15. 110
16. 810
10. 360
6. 600
0. 890
11. 510
5. 580
8 360
11 730 11. 540
14850 14. 580
16510 16. 200
10010 17. 580
6560 6520
8. 800 8. 690
11. 350 11. 170
5. 520 5. 460
8. 260 0. 190
10. 270 10. 130
11. 460 11. 300
4 770 4. 730
15. 660
5. 930
7, 620
17130
9, 480
10. 220
12, 320
6. 460
3630
6. 570
4. 600
2660
10. 900
3460
5 770
5 390
8, 090
9, 970
11. 110
4. 660
6. 330
8. 310
10, 560
5. 270
7. 650
9, 610
10, 680
4, 560
10. 750 10, 650 10530 10. 410
12. 070 11. 940 11 800 11. 650
4. 900 4. 870 4 050 4810
6. 160 6 130 6 070
8. 020 7 970 7 920
6 020 6000 5. 970
7850 7760 7. 710
9. 080 9760 9. 620
10680 10540 10. 390
5, 620 5 520
10, 900 10. 560
7. 010 6650
6. 550
3450
8. 320
9. 170
3. 400
8910
4. 420 4. 330
2 830 2. 000
3 310 3260
5 480 5 390
10. 180
11. 050
13. 480
3, 680
5 040
2. 660
3, 490
6. 060
10090
10940
13 320
3. 660
5. 010
2. 080
3. 490
6. 010
9 990
10610
13 150
3. 660
4. 980
2. 680
3. 490
5. 950
11. 520
0. 970
11 220
6. 770
9. 640
3. 550
9410
3 500
4 600 4 510
2. 870 2650
3 390 3360
5 630 5 560
12960 12760 12. 550
3 670 3 660 3, 650
4 940 4 900 4850
2. 660 2660 2 080
3. 490 3490 3. 480
5 890 5630 5 800
12. 070
3. 610
4 740
2 880
3 450
5 730
11, 810
3 580
4670
2660
3420
5680
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2- 28 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 2. 4j - MI NI MUM COLLAPSE RESI STANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE V-150
WeI ghI Area
( I bmi f l l cf , / e- ( sq I " )
15 1 1335 4 407
10000 - 5. 000
18. 510 18 320
0 5 000 10 000 15000 20000 25000
Cal l aDse Pressure. LEGI
30. 000 35000 40, 000
18110 17. 890 17, 660
22330 22. 020 21. 700
26300 25, 850 25. 380
10250 10 190 10. 120
16860 16670 16. 460
25940 25 500 25, 030
13460 13340 13. 200
17, 410 17. 150 16. 870
21, 360 21, 000 20. 630
24. 880 24, 370 23. 830
16. 570
20. 230
23. 270
16. 260 15930
19. 770 19. 240
22, 690 22080
9 640 9 520
15210 14910
22 380 21 780
12. 340 12 130
16 500 16. 160
21. 390 20. 820
7. 090 7 040
11210 I I 040
14. 900 14610
9, 250 9, 140
11, 970 1 , , 770
19. 980 19. 450
17. 210 16. 850
21. 040 20480
5. 760 5. 690
8. 460 8. 370
45000
15580
50. 000
15. 210
166 12 4 66
19 1 103 5578
22. 890 22620
27. 130 26730
I 8 390
21 450
18. 120
20. 800
15 1689 4 374
18 1381 5 275
23 2 1046 6 791
20 1524 5 828
10. 360 10 310
17, 220 17050
26. 760 26 360
13. 690 13 580
10. 040 9. 960 9. 860 9 760
16. 240 16. 000 15. 750 15. 490
24. 540 24. 040 23. 510 22950
13, 050 12. 890 12. 720 12540
9380 9, 230
14, 600 14, 260
21 160 20 510
11910
15. 800
20, 220
6 980
10. 850
14. 310
11 670
15, 430
19. 610
6. 910
10650
13990
9, 010 8. 870
11. 560 11 330
18. 890 18. 320
16. 470 16, 070
19. 900 19, 290
23 1325 663
268 11 7 854
18.800 18 610 18390 18 170 17, 930 17, 670 17. 400 17, 120 16, 820
25 580 25. 200 24790 24370 23930 23460 22. 970 22470 21. 940
24 1882 6937
28 1589 8 133
32 1395 9 177
29 17 16 a 449
32 , 545 9 317
35 1186 11881
38 12 96 10 959
42 7 112 12517
7 440 7. 390
12 290 12210
16 840 16, 670
9 880 9. 840
13 220 13. 130
23 400 23. 120
19 680 19. 470
25170 24. 790
6 100 6. 080
8. 900 8. 880
7340 7 290 7 230
12. 120 12020 11910
16. 500 16310 16 110
9. 790 9 740 9 680
7200 7 180 7 160
11 790 11. 660 11. 530
15900 15. 670 15430
9 610 9 530 9 450
12, 630 12480 12. 320
21820 21. 450 20. 990
18470 18 180 17870
23080 22600 22 110
5 960 5920 5. 870
8 730 a670 a610
13 030 12870 12700
l a 860 18560 l a. 250
9470 9. 390 9. 310
12570 12430 12, 270
a. 830 a 780 a. 710
11. 260 11 150 11. 020
7120
11. 380
15170
9350
12150
20500
17550
21 590
13. 020
22. 820
19, 240
24. 390
12. 900 12770
22510 22180
19. 000 18 740
23980 23540
6. 030 6 000
8820 8. 780
13. 670 13 560
20. 120 19. 900
6. 060
8. 850
13. 440
19. 660
9. 720 9. 680 9. 640
13 160 13. 060 12. 950
9. 020 a 990 a. 960
11 710 11640 11 560
297 2033 8 541
337 1773 9 72
5 a20
8. 540
12520
17. 910
5. 620 5, 540
8. 270 8. 160
11. 890 11. 660
16. 800 16, 390
39 1525 1, 192
453 1282 13 14,
13320 13 180
19. 410 19. 140
12. 330 12. 120
17, 560 17. 190
44 1725 12 763
49 1548 14 118
53 5 1766 15 547
58 4 16 l a 16879
9. 590 9. 530
12840 12. 710
8. 930 8. 880
11 470 11. 370
13000 12870
18. 560 18. 320
6. 510 6. 470
8 300 8270
10 610 10. 720
14630 14. 470
5 190 5. 170
9. 220 9, 120 9. 010
12. 100 11, 920 I l . 720
8. 640 8. 560 8. 460
10. 890 10. 740 l o. 580
8. 890
11. 510
a 760
1, , 280
6. 360 8. 240
10. 410 10. 220
11. 640 11. 410
16. 120 15. 740
61 1 154 17671
70 3 , 311 20502
13330 13 230
19. 220 1goao
13 120
18. 800
12 730 12580 12420 12240 12. 060 I 1. 860
18. 050 17 770 17. 480 17. 170 16. 840 16. 490
60 7 1972 17473 6. 620 6 590 6 550 6 430 6 370 6310 6. 250 6. 160 6 100 6. 020
65 7 1807 18 982
71 1 1654 20 625
8350 8 340 8 320
11. 010 10950 10880
a230 a 190 a. 140 8. 080 a. 010 7. 940 7. 850 7. 750
10. 630 10. 530 10. 420 10. 300 10 170 10. 030 9. 870 9. 710
79 2 1465 23096
66 7 2148 19252
15. 060 14 930
5. 210 5 200
14 790
5 200
6 400
a090
14. 290 14. 100 13. 900 13, 690 13. 460 13. 210 12. 960 12. 680
5. 160 5. 130 5. 110 5. 080 5. 040 4990 4. 940 4. 880
92 5 199 26818
1003 1822 29149
6. 460 6430
a 120 a 110
6370 6. 330 6. 290 6. 240 6 160 6 120 6. 050 5. 970 5. 890 5. 810
a 070 a. 050 a. 020 7980 7940 7. 880 7. 820 7750 7 670 7580
TABLE 2.5--ROUND-THREAD CASING COUPLING DIMENSIONS,
WEIGHTS, AND TOLERANCES (FIG. 2.1)
Mi nI mum Length,
Di ameter of
Recess
Wi dth of
Beari ng Face
b
OD**
d
( i nOr)
1
m,n, in.
Short Lonq
Si ze*
( i n. )
4 / 2
5
5%
6%
7
7%
8%
9%
10%
1 1 3%
13%
16
1w8
20
Wei ght, I bm
Short Long
8 05 9. 07
(In.)
%2
5. 000
5. 563
6. 050
7. 390
7. 656
8. 500
9. 625
10. 625
11. 750
12. 750
14. 375
17. 000
20. 000
21. 000
6%
6%
6%
7%
7%
7 / 2
7%
7%
a
8
a
9
9
9
7
7%
a
avi
9
9 /4
10
10 k
-
-
-
1 1%
10. 18 12. 56
11 44 14. 03
19. 97 24. 82
18. 34 23. 67
26. 93 34. 23
35. 58 47. 48
39. 51 55. 77
45. 53 -
49. 61
56. 23 =
78. 98 -
118. 94 -
98. 25 126. 74
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CASI NG, TUBI NG, AND LI NE PI PE
2- 29
TABLE 2. 6- BUTTRESS- THREAD CASI NG COUPLI NG DI MENSI ONS,
WEI GHTS. AND TOLERANCES ( FI G. 2. 2)
OD, i n.
Speci al
Cl earance t
Regul ar M) s d
d
5. roo
( i n. )
4. 875
5. 563 5. 375
6. 050 5. 875
7. 390 7. 000
7. 656 7. 375
s. 500 8. 125
9. 625 9. 125
10. 625 10. 125
11. 750 11. 250
12. 750 -
14. 375 -
17. 000
20. 000 -
21 . ooo -
Mi ni mum
Length
L
ml
( i n. )
Di ameter of Wi dth of
Chamf er Beari ng Face
Wei ght, I bm
dc
( i n. )
4. 640
5. 140
5. 640
6. 765
7. 140
7. 765
8. 765
9. 765
10. 890
11. 890
13. 515
16. 154
18. 779
20. 154
TABLE 2. 7- EXTREME- LI NE API CASI NG TABLE 2. 8- GROSS LI NEAR FOOTAGE FROM NET
SI ZE AND LENGTH OF UPSET ( FI G. 2. 3) FOOTAGE, API SHORT- THREAD CASI NG
Length of Upset, i n.
Pi n Box Pi n or Box
OD Mi ni mum Mi mmum Maxi mum
( i n. )
( L, ) , , (Lbk
7
7
7
7
7
8%
8%
846
kbp) max
8
8
8
Bk
8
11
11
12%
L n =m~nmm l ength f romend of pqe of the machmed dmmeter
?d on pm
L, =%e machi ned di ameter d, , pl us l ength of thread on box,
to the begmnmg of the ~nl ernal upset runout
L, , =9 , n ( 226 6 mm) max, mum f or 7 , n - 35 l bf l f t and 7 I - 38
f bf / f t cwng
b
( i n. ) Regul ar
10. 11
12. 99
14. 14
24. 46
23. 22
34. 84
45. 94
50. 99
56. 68
61. 74
69. 95
Speci al
Cl earance
7. 67
8. 81
9. 84
12. 44
13. 82
20. 45
23. 77
26. 47
29. 49
-
87. 56
-
138. 03
-
110. 33
-
Nommaf
Wei ghf Number of Make- Up Loss
Mul tl phcaf l on Factor-
OD per Foot Threads per J oi nt
f or Average J oi nt Length
( I n 1 Wm) per I nch ( I n. ) 20 f l 30 f f 4otl
- 950 4% 6 2 000 10084 10056 10042
4% others 8 2 625 10111 10073 1 0055
5 1 1 so 6 2 500 1. 0105 10070 1. 0052
5 others 8 2 750 1. 0116 10077 1. 0058
5% al l 8 2 675 10121 I 0081 1. 0060
6% al l 6 3 125 1. 0132 1. 0088 1. 0066
7 17. 00 6 2 375 1. 0100 1. 0066 1. 0050
7 others 6 3 125 1. 0132 1 . oom 1. 0066
7% aI f 8 3 250 10137 1. 0091 1. 0068
85% 24. 00 8 3000 10127 1. 0064 1. 0063
8% others 8 3 375 10143 1. 0095 I . 0071
9% al l 6 3 375 1. 0143 1. 0095 10071
10% 32. 75 6 2 750 1. 0116 1. 0077 I 0058
10% others 8 3 500 1. 0148 1. 0098 1. 0073
11% al l 8 3. 500 1 0148 1. 0098 1. 0073
13% al l 6 3. 500 1. 0148 1. 0098 10073
16 al l 6 4. 000 1. 0169 1. 0112 10084
18% al i 6 4000 1. 0169 1 Cl 112 1. 0084
20 al l 8 4. 000 1. 0169 1. 0112 1. 0084
TOma, I he gross shi ppi ng l engl h. mul ti pl y net l ength 8 tee, by the ml ti pl l cal l on f actor
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2- 30
PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
BASIC POWERTIGHT MAKEUP HANDTIGHT MAKEUP
Fi g. 2. 1- - Round- thread casi ng and coupl i ng
c--
BASE OF TRIANGLE STAMP BASE OF TRIANGLE STAMP
-ti -3/m x 45 *PaROX
I /
(I,2 wrr-j
I I !
I
~+!d
i
BASI C POWERTI GHT MAKEUP HANDTI GHT MAKEUP
Fi g. 2. 2~Buttress- thread casi ng and coupl i ng
Fi g. 2. 3- Extreme- l i ne casi ng
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CASI NG, TUBI NG, AND LI NE PI PE 2- 31
TABLE 2.9-GROSS LINEAR FOOTAGE FROM NET FOOTAGE, API LONG-THREAD CASING
OD
( i n. )
Wei ght Number of
per Foot Threads
( I bm)
per i nch
al l a
al l 8
al l 8
al l 8
al l 8
al l a
al l 0
al l 0
al l a
Make- Up Loss
per J oi nt
( i n. )
3. 000
3. 375
3. 500
3. 875
4. 000
4. 125
4. 500
4. 755
5. 250
Mul ti pl i cati on Factor
f or Average J oi nt Length
20 f t 30 f t 40 f t
1. 0127 1. 0084 I . 0063
1. 0143 1. 0095 1. 0071
1. 0148 1. 0098 1. 0073
1. 0164 1. 0109 1. 0081
1. 0169 1. 0112 1. 0084
1. 0175 1. 0116 1. 0087
1. 0191 1. 0127 1. 0095
1. 0202 1. 0134 1. 0100
1. 0224 1. 0148 1. 0111
TABLE 2.10-GROSS LINEAR FOOTAGE FROM NET FOOTAGE, API BUTTRESS-THREAD CASING
Nomi nal
Wei ght Number of Make- Up Loss
Mul ti pl i cati on Factor
OD per Foot Threads per J oi nt
f or Average J oi nt Length
( i n. ) P- 4 per i nch ( i n. ) 20 f t 30 f t 40 11
4% al l 5 3. 9375 1. 01671. 0111 1. 0083
5 al l 5 4. 0625 1. 0172 1. 0114 1. 0085
5% al l 5 4. 1250 1. 0175 1. 0116 1. 0087
6% al l 5 4. 3125 1. 0183 1. 0121 1. 0091
7 al l 5 4. 5000
7% al l 5 4. 6875
8% al l 5 4. 8125
9% al l 5 4. 8125
I OVl al l 5 4. 8125
1 1 a/ 4 al l 5 4. 8125
13% al l 5 4. 8125
. 0191
. 0199
. 0205
. 0205
. 0205
. 0205
. 0205
. 0127 1. 0095
. 0132 1. 0099
. 0135 1. 0101
. 0135 1. 0101
. 0135 1. 0101
. 0135 1. 0101
. 0135 1. 0101
16 al l 5 4. 8125 1. 0205 1. 0135 1. 0101
13% al l 5 4. 8125 1. 0205 1. 0135 1. 0101
20 4. 8125 1. 0205 1. 0135 1 . Ol Ol
To obmn the gross shI ppI ng l ength, mul t! pl y net l ength i n f eet by the mul tl pl l catl on f actor
TABLE 2.11-GROSS LINEAR FOOTAGE FROM NET FOOTAGE, API EXTREME-THREAD CASING
OD
( i n. )
Nomi nal
Wei ght
per Foot
( I bm)
al l
al l
al l
al l
al l
al l
al l
al l
Number of
Threads
per i nch
6
6
6
:
6
6
6
Make- Up Loss
per J oi nt
0n. l
4.590
4.590
4.590
4.590
4.590
6. 0625
6. 0625
6. 0615
Mul ti pl i cati on Factor*
f or Average J oi nt Length
20 f t 30 f t 40 f t
1. 0195 1. 0129 1. 0097
1. 0195 1. 0129 1 0097
1. 0195 1. 0129 1. 0097
1. 0195 1. 0129 1. 0097
1. 0195 1. 0129 1. 0097
1. 0259 1. 0171 1 . 0128
1. 0259 1. 0171 1. 0128
1. 0259 1. 0171 1 . 0128
To obtai n the gross shl ppl ng l ength. mul l l pl y net l ength I f eet by the mul tl pl l cati on l actor.
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2- 32 PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 2. 12- - MI NI MUM PERFORMANCE PROPERTI ES,
PLAI N- END LI NER CASI NG, GRADE J - 55
Wei ght
OD per Foot
( i n. )
( I bm)
3% 9. 91
4 11. 34
4% 13. 04
5 17. 93
5% 19. 81
WB 27. 65
Wal l I D
( i n. ) ( i n. )
0. 289 2. 922
0 286 3. 428
0. 290 3. 920
0 362 4. 276
0. 361 4. 778
0 417 5. 791
Joint Strength Safety Factor. To calculate the joint
strength safety factor, the weight below each section of
the string is calculated and multiplied by the safety factor
( 1.8 has been used in this design), the joint strength that
equals or exceeds the value for the particular section
selected, and the actual safety factor calculated. If the joint
required is not the short or long thread, that section of
the string should be evaluated to determine how much of
the section requires the higher-strength joint. The weight
per foot and length of each section required to meet the
collapse safety factor requirements are listed in Table
2.19.
J oint Required for 23.lbm At Top of String. Table 2.19
shows that the total weight of the string is 27 1,450 lbm.
Multiplying by 1.8 yields a required minimum joint
strength of488,610 lbm. In Table 2.3 we find that the
long-thread ,joint with a joint strength of 442.000 lbm will
not provide the required 1.8 minimum safety factor and
that the buttress thread with a joint strength of 588,000
Ibm is required. Dividing the 588,OOWbm strength of the
buttress joint by the 271,450-lbm total weight of the casing
yields a safety factor of 2.17.
J ointfor the Lower Part of 23.lbm Section. The depth
at which the 23.lbm round-thread joint with a strength
of442.000 Ibm can be set with a safety factor of 1.8 is
(271.450-442,000/l .8)/23= 1,126 ft,
which is rounded to I, 150 ft. At a depth of I, 150 ft, the
weight of the string is 271,450-1.150~23. or 245,000
lbm. Dividing the 442,000-lbm joint strength by the
245.000-lbm load yields a safety factor of 1.804.
Mi ni mum
Collapse
Resistance
(i-4
8, 330
7, 300
6, 420
7, 390
6, 610
6, 170
Mi ni mum
I nternal
Yi el d
Pressure
( Psi )
7, 950
6, 880
6, 200
6, 970
6, 320
6, 060
Mi ni mum
Pi pe- Body
Yi el d
( 1, 000 I bm)
160
184
211
290
321
447
J ointfor26.lbm Section. Table 2.19 shows the weight
acting on the top of the 26.lbm section to be 123.100 lbm.
Multiplying 123,100 Ibm by 1 .X requires that the jomt
strength be equal to or greater than 221,580 lbm. Refer-
ring to Table 2.3, we find that the long-thread joint has
a strength of 5 19,000 lbm and can be used. Dividing the
519,000-lbm joint strength by the 221,580.lbm load at
the top of the 26-lbm section yields the safety factor 2.34.
J oint for 29.lbm Section. Table 2.19 shows the weight
of the string acting on the top of the 29.lbm section to
be 46.400 Ibm. Multiplying 46,400 lbm by the safety fac-
tor, 1.8, requires that the joint strength be equal to or
greater than 83,520 lbm. Table 2.3 shows that a long-
thread joint has a joint strength of 597,000 lbm and can
be used. Dividing the 597,000.lbm joint strength by the
46,400-lbm load at the top of the 29.lbm section gives
a safety factor of 12.87.
Pipe-Body Yield-Strength Safety Factors. Values of
pipe-body yield strength are determined from Table 2.3
and the string weight at the top of each casing weight from
Table 2.19. Pipe-body yield-strength safety factors are
determined by dividing the pipe-body yield strengths by
the casing weights at the top of the casing string sections
(Table 2.20).
Internal-Yield-Pressure Safety Factors. The entire
string can be subjected to an internal yield pressure equal
to the BHP, which is 5,500 psi. Values of internal yield
pressures for the casing joints are obtained from Tables
2.2 and 2.3. Safety factors are determined by dividing
the internal yield pressures by 5,500 psi (Table 2.21).
TABLE 2. 13- MI NI MUM COLLAPSE PRESSURE UNDER AXI AL LOAD, GRADE J - 55 LI NER CASI NG
d,
We\ ghl
I I n ) ( I bm/ f t)
35 9 91
4 11 34
45 1304
5 1793
55 19 81
6625 2765
Area
do/ e ( sq I ) Col l apse Pressure. psi
12 11 2915 8. 990 8. 690 8. 330 7. 930 7. 470 6. 960 6. 390 5. 770 5. 070 4. 300 3. 440 2. 470 -
1399 3337 7. 870 7. 610 7, 300 6. 950 6. 550 6. 100 5, 600 5. 050 4, 440 3. 770 3, 020 2. 170 -
15 52 3836 6. 810 6: 630 6 420 6. 170 5. 890 5. 540 5. 090 4. 590 4. 040 3. 420 2. 740 1. 970 -
13 81 5275 7 970 7. 700 7. 390 7030 6. 620 6, 170 5, 670 5. 110 4. 500 3. 810 3. 050 2. 190 -
15 24 5828 7. 020 6. 830 6. 610 6. 360 6. 050 5. 630 5. 170 4. 670 4. 110 3. 480 2. 790 2. 000 -
1589 8 133 6. 540 6. 370 6 170 5 940 5. 670 5. 370 4 980 4. 490 3. 950 3. 350 2. 680 1. 920 ~
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CASI NG, TUBI NG, AND LI NE PI PE 2-33
TABLE 2.14-OIL, WATER, AND MUD WEIGHT FACTORS
Degrees
API
10
API
0
Pure
Water
Sai l
Water
Common
Cemenl
Sl urry"
Specl f l c
Grawtv
100
101
103
106
1 08
1 10
1 13
1 15
1 154
1 18
1 20
122
125
127
129
132
1 34
137
1 39
141
144
146
149
151
153
156
158
161
163
1 65
168
1 70
1 73
175
177
180
182
185
187
189
192
194
197
199
201
204
206
209
2 11
2 13
2 16
2 18
221
223
225
228
2 30
233
235
2 37
240
242
245
247
249
2 52
2 54
2 57
259
2 61
( I bm/ gal ) l l bm/ f t3) i l bm/ bbl l
8 34 62. 4
84 62. 8
86 64. 3
88 65 8
90 673
92 68 8
94 70. 3
96 71 El
9 625 720
98 73 3
350
353
361
370
378
386
395
403
404
412
I O 0
10 2
10 4
10 6
10 8
110
11 2
114
11 6
11 8
12 0
12 2
12 4
12 6
12 8
13 0
13 2
13 4
13 6
13 8
14 0
14 2
14 4
14 6
14 a
15 0
15 2
154
15 6
15 8
16 0
16 2
16 4
16 6
16 a
170
17 2
17 4
176
17 0
18 0
18 2
18 4
18 6
18 8
19 0
19 2
19 4
19 6
19 8
20 0
20 2
20 4
20 6
20 8
21 0
212
21 4
21 6
21 8
74 8
76 3
77 8
79 3
80 8
82 3
83 8
85 3
86 8
88. 3
89 8
91 3
92. 8
94. 3
95. 5
97 2
98 7
100
102
103
420 0519
428 0 530
437 0540
445 0 551
454 0561
462 0571
470 0 582
479 0 592
487 0603
496 0613
504 0623
512 0634
521 0644
529 0655
538 0665
546 0675
554 0686
563 0 696
571 0706
580 0717
105 588 0727
106 596 0738
108 605 0746
109 613 0758
111 622 0 769
112 630 0 779
114 638 0 790
115 647 0 800
117 655 0810
118 664 0821
120
121
123
124
126
127
129
130
132
133
135
136
138
139
141
672
680
689
697
706
714
722
731
739
740
756
764
773
781
790
142 798
144 806
145 815
147 023
148 832
150 840
151 848
153 557
154 865
156 874
157 882 1 09 0917 0 679
159 590 1 10 0 908 0676
160 899 1 11 0 899 0673
162 907 1 12 0891 0670
163 916 1 13 0883 0667
Wel ghl ( Derwty) Fl uI d Head
f os1/ f ti f f tl osl l
0433
0436
0447
0457
0468
0478
0480
0 499
0500
0 509
0831
0842
0852
0862
0873
0883
0 894
0 904
0914
0 925
0 935
0 945
0 956
0 966
0 977
0 987
0 997
101
1 02
103
104
105
106
107
108
2 31 0873
2 29 0872
2 24 0 869
219 0866
214 0862
2 09 0860
205 0856
2 00 0853
2 00 0853
196 0850
193
1 89
185
1 81
178
175
172
1 69
166
163
1 61
158
155
153
150
148
146
144
142
1 39
0847
0844
0841
0838
0835
0832
0 829
0826
0823
0820
0817
0814
0810
0808
0804
0801
0 798
0 795
0 792
0 789
i 38
136
134
132
1 30
128
127
125
123
122
0786
0783
0780
0 777
0774
0 771
0768
0765
0762
0 759
120
119
1 17
1 16
1 15
1 13
112
1 11
109
108
107
1 06
105
104
102
101
1 00
0 992
0 982
0972
0 962
0 953
0 943
0 935
0 925
0755
0753
0749
0746
0743
0740
0737
0734
0731
0720
0725
0722
0719
0716
0713
0710
0707
0704
0701
0698
0694
0 692
0688
0685
0682
Buoyancy
Factor'
Tol al l y
I mmersed
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2- 34
PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
TABLE 2.15-DESIGN SAFETY FACTORS FOR A
SINGLE WEIGHT AND GRADE CASING STRING
Saf etv Factor
I nternal
Nomi nal Col l apse J oi nt Pi pe- Body Yi el d
Wei ght Bottom Strength Yi el d Strength Pressure
per Foot
Type
Amount of Top of Top of Bottomof
( I bml f t) Grade Thread
WI
Secti on Secti on Secti on Secti on
~~
29. 00 N- 80 Long 11, 000 1. 276 1. 87 2. 12 1. 48
TABLE 2.16- -DESIGN SAFETY FACTORS FOR COMBINATION CASING STRI NG
Saf etv Factor
Nomi nal
Wei ght
per Foot
( I bm/ f t) Grade
23. 00 N- 80
23. 00 N- 80
26. 00 N- 80
29. 00 N- 80
I nternal
Col l apse J oi nt Pi pe- Body Yi el d
Secti on Bottom Strength Yi el d Strenqth Pressure
Type
Length of Top of Top of - Bottomof
Thread
( W
Secti on Secti on Secti on Sectron
Buttress 1. 150 >1. 129 2. 17 1. 96 1. 15
Long 5, 500 1. 129 1. 80 2. 17 1. 15
Long 2, 300 1. 126 2. 34 4. 91 1. 32
Long 2, 050 1. 160 12. 87 14. 57 1. 48
TABLE 2. 17- I NTERMEDI ATE SECTION COLLAPSE SAFETY FACTORS
Net 26. l bm
7- i n. . 26. l bm, N- 80
Load
Axral Load Col l apse
Wei ght Avai l abi l i ty Equi val ent
26- l bmSecti on Bottom
Col l apse Bel ow f or 29- l bm 29- l bm Col l apse
Stress Load Resi stance 29 I bm Wei ght Length Depth Pressure Saf ety
( Psi ) ( I bm) ( Psi ) Pm) ( I bm) m ( f t) ( Psi )
Factor
0 0 5, 410 0 0 0 11, 000 5, 500 0. 984
5,000 37, 745 5, 310 0 37, 745 1, 302 9, 698 4, 849 1. 095
10, 000 75, 490 5, 200 0 75, 490 2, 603 8, 397 4, 199 1. 238
6, 147 46, 400 5, 290 0 46, 400 1, 600 9, 400 4, 700 1. 126
7- i n. , 26- l bmcross- secti onal area= 7. 549 sq i n
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CASI NG, TUBI NG, AND LI NE PI PE 2- 35
TABLE 2.18-TOP SECTION COLLAPSE SAFETY FACTORS
7- i n. , 23 I bm. N- 80
Axi al Load Col l apse
Col l apse
Stress Load Resi stance
( Psi ) ( I bm) ( Psi )
0 0 3, 830
5, 000 33, 280 3, 790
10, 000 66, 560 3, 740
15, 000 99, 840 3, 690
20, 000 133, 120 3, 620
18, 299 121, 800 3, 640
18, 495 123, 100 3, 640
Wei ght
Bel ow
26 I bm
(IW
46, 400
46, 400
46, 400
46, 400
46, 400
46, 400
46, 400
Net 23- l bm
Load
Avai l abI l i ty
f or 26- l bm
Wei aht
( l b; )
20, 160 775
53, 440 2, 055
86, 720 3, 335
75, 400 2, 900
76, 700 2, 950
7- i n. , 23- l bmcross- secti onal area= 6 656 sq I n.
Length of 29- l bmi ntermedi ate secti on =9, 400 f t
Stretch in Casing When Freely Suspended in Fluid
Media (Also Applicable to Tubing)
When pipe is subjected to an axial stress, either tension
or compression, that does not exceed the elastic limit of
the materi al , the stretch or contracti on may be determined
by use of Youngs modulus of elasticity (30 million psi
for steel pipe).
where
E = Young s modul us of el asti ci ty, psi ,
D = unit stress. psi,
AL,, = unit axi al stretch or contraction, in.,
W,, = superimposed tension or compression axial
load, Ibm,
A ,,I
= cross-sectional metal area of pipe. sq in.,
AL, = total axial stretch or contraction. in.. and
L,, = length of pipe. in.
The unit tension or compression stress in pipe, when
lateral deflection is prevented. is u= IV,,/.4 ,11, unit axial
stretch or contraction being AL,, =AL,/L,,
Fig. 2.4 gives stretch in single-weight strings of pipe
of one grade, or in combination strings of more than one
wei ght or grade. The equati ons f rom which these charts
TABLE 2. 19- WEI GHT AND LENGTH TO MEET TABLE 2.21-INTERNAL YIELD PRESSURE
JOINT-STRENGTH SAFETY FACTORS SAFETY FACTORS
Secti on
Wei ght
Wei ght Bel ow Top of Sectton,
per Foot Length Wei ght
I bm
( I bml f t) V) P- N 29 I bm 26 I bm 29 I bm
23 6, 450 148, 350 271, 450
26 2, 950 76, 700 123, 100
29 1, 600 46, 400 46, 400
11, 000
Equi val ent
26- l bm
Length
w
-
23- l bmSecti on Bottom
Col l apse
Depth Pressure Saf ety
WI ( Psi )
Factor
-
8, 625 4, 313 0. 867
7, 345 3, 673 1. 005
6, 065 3, 033 1. 194
6, 500 3, 250 1. 120
6, 450 3, 225 1. 129
were developed are based on a modified form of Eq. I
with the lateral contraction of the pipe taken into consid-
eration.
AL,=AL, +AL? fALj +F,
w,+w, WI
WI
+F5f
2
+Cl I L.71 XL,? +(L.>l +L,z u-13 I
From Fig. 2.4 we get the values of AL, and F, (Free
Stretch Factor I) corresponding to length L,, : AL? and
Fz (Free Stretch Factor 2) from L (2 : and At!. 7 from L,,3,
TABLE 2.20-PIPE-BODY YIELD STRENGTH
SAFETY FACTORS
Secti on Pi pe- Body Wei ght
Wei ght Yi el d Bel ow
per Foot Strength Sectl on Saf ety
( I bml f t)
Wm) ( l b4
Factor
23 532, 000 271, 450 1. 96
26 604, 000 123, 100 4. 91
29 676, 000 46, 400 14. 57
Nomi nal
Wei ght
per Foot
f l bml f t)
23
; i
29
I nternal
Yi el d
Pressure Saf ety
J oi nt
( Psi )
Factor
Buttress 6, 340 1. 15
Long 6, 340 1. 15
Long 7, 240 1. 32
Long 8, 160 1. 48
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2-36
PETROLEUM ENGI NEERI NG HANDBOOK
Fi g. 2. 4- - Rel i evi ng stresses i n suspended casi ng stri ngs
Example Problem 1. Assume a lO,OOO-ft. three-weight
combination string is freely suspended in salt water. The
weight of the 5,000-ft, 23-lbm/ft top section is
5,000X23=1 15,000 Ibm. The weight of the 3.000-ft,
26-Ibm/ft middle section is 3,000~26=78,000 Ibm. The
weight of the 2,000-ft, 29-lbmift bottom section is
2.000~29=58,000 Ibm. Determine the casing stretch.
Solution.
A,!,,=13.5+4.86+2.16+29
78,000+58.000
115,000
58,000
+ 10.4-
78,000
+0.000000120177(5.000x3,000
+(5,000+3.000)2,000]-0.000000200294 (3,OOO)I
[
115,000
x- +( 2. 000) '
115,000+78,000
78, 000 58, 000 I
=20. 52+29x1. 183+10. 4x0. 744+0. 000000120177
x31.000,000-0.000000200294x26,578,000
=20.52+34.31+7.74+3.73-5.32
=60.98 in
To determine tension stresses in casing strings after they
are set and cemented, the following equations are used.
w,=c,(w;L; +w$L$ f.. . +w;L;),
L()=CqW,(L,/w, i-Lzlw2 +. . . +L,h,),
and
L, =C5a,L,
where
L = (Li +Ll+ . +L,),
Ld = Lo-L,,
c3 = (I-PflPsL
C4 = 40.8lE, and
C5 = 12/ E.
40- 00
1 W; = 38?FT
-I
-?
Fig. PS- Exampl e stri ng.
In these equations.
LI ,Lz.. .
L,, = lengths above top of cement of single-
weight Sections 1, 2. n of combination
string, ft.
L\ ,LS...
LA = lengths below top of cement of single-
weight Sections 1, 2. n of combination
string, ft,
w , , 2 .
ull
= weights of single-weight Sections I ( 2, II
of combination string above top of
cement, Ibmift,
cv\ ,w; . .
w: , -
c, =
c2 =
c3 =
Cd =
cs =
&I =
L, =
Lo =
w, =
u
t=
Pf =
Ps =
weights of single-weight Sections 1, 2. n
of combination strings below top of
cement, Ibm/ft,
constant (for salt water, 0.000000120177;
for rotary mud, 0.000000150869; and
for air, zero),
constant (for salt water, 0.000000200294;
for rotary mud. 0.000000251448; and
for air, zero),
constant (for salt water, 0.8527; for rotary
mud, 0.8151; for air, l.O),*
constant, 0.00000136,
constant, 0.0000004,
distance to lower top of casing for a
desired stress at top of cement, in.,
stretch corresponding to uI, in.,
distance required to lower top of casing for
zero stress at top of cement, in.,
total load below top of cement, lbm,
tension stress desired to be left at top of
cement, psi.
density of floatant, lbmicu in. (for salt
water, 0.041728; for rotary mud,
0.052385),* and
density of steel, 0.2833 lbmicu in.
Based on sal t waf er and rof ary mud havi ng specl f l c gravi ti es 01 1. 155 and 1 45, re-
specti vel y
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CASI NG, TUBI NG, AND LI NE PI PE 2- 37
TABLE 2.22-API TUBING TENSILE REQUIREMENTS
Tubi ng
Grade
Yi el d Strength, psi
Mi ni mum Maxi mum
H- 40 40, 000 80, 000
J - 55 55, 000 80, 000
c- 75 75, 000 90, 000
L- 80 80, 000 95, 000
N- 80 80, 000 110, 000