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Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY


of SINGAPORE
Chem. Eng Process Laboratory II

Experiment F2
Fluidization
Name
: Lin Ming Jiang
(A0107784X)
Neo Yong Sheng Rennie
(A0107720R)
Theng Ben Jie Benjamin
(A0107726E)
Lab Group

: Group 8

Date of Expt.

: 06 Mar 2014

GRADE :

Experiment F2 Fluidization

Content Page
Content

Page Number

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Aim of Experiment
1.2 Background Information
1.2.1 Packed Bed
1.2.2 Minimum Fluidization Velocity
1.2.3 Theoretical Approach

3-7
3

2. MATERIALS AND PROCEDURE


2.1 Materials and Equipment
2.2 Additional Experimental Information
2.3 Safety Precautions
2.4 Procedures

8-9
8
8
9
9

3. CALCULATION AND RESULT

10-21

4. DISCUSSION
4.1 Comparison of Experimental results
4.2 Error Analysis
4.3 Improvement for this experiment

22-25
22-25
26
27

5. CONCLUSION

27

6. REFERENCES

28

APPENDICES

As attached

3
4
4-7

Experiment F2 Fluidization

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Aim of Experiment
The aim of this experiment to study the followings;
a. Mechanism of fluidisation and batch fluidisation in a solid-fluid system.
b. Effect of superficial fluid velocity on the bed characteristics and the pressure drop
across the bed.
c. Effect of particle size on the minimum fluidisation velocity, and the terminal
settling velocity.

1.2. Background Information


1.2.1. Packed Bed
A packed bed is usually a hollow cylindrical vessel, usually a pipe or tube that is randomly filled
with packing material. They may also contain catalytic particles or adsorbents. Packed beds are
typically utilized to improve contact between two phases - for our experiment, solid and fluid.
Types of packed bed include packed bed reactors - tubular reactors filled with solid catalysts.
These are frequently used to catalyze gas reactions. The advantage of using packed bed reactors
is a higher conversion compared to other catalytic reactors per unit weight of catalyst. The
reaction takes place on the exposed surfaces of the catalyst. Another type of packed bed is a
packed column, used for separation processes, such as absorption, stripping, and distillation. The
design of packed bed based unit operations is highly influenced by the packing matrix, which is
in turn governed by the morphology and dimensions of the particles. Optimum design of
particles can boost catalytic activity and transport phenomena of the system. Fabrication costs
and resistance to physical wear and tear are factors that also should be taken into account.

Experiment F2 Fluidization

1.2.2

Minimum Fluidization Velocity

Flow through a packed bed can be regarded as fluid flow past some number of submerged
objects. In most cases, the objects are uniform spherical particles of diameter X SV. When there is
no flow through the packed bed, the net gravitational force acts downward. When flow begins
upward, friction forces act upward and counterbalance the net gravitational force. For a high
enough fluid velocity, the friction force is large enough to lift the particles. At the onset of
incipient fluidization (packed bed becomes fluidized), the superficial fluid velocity is known as
the minimum fluidization velocity Umf. Umf increases with particle size and particle density and is
affected by fluid properties.
1.2.3

Theoretical Approach

When a packed bed of particles is subjected to a sufficient high upward velocity flow of fluid, a
point is reach when the particles are lifted by the fluid, the separation of the particles increases,
and the bed becomes fluidized. The weight of the particles is supported by the drag force exerted
by the fluid on the particles and the particles become freely suspended or fluidized.

When the fluid flowed through the bed of particles, there is a pressure loss in the fluid due to the
frictional resistance increases with increasing fluid flow. At the point of fluidization, the upward
drag force exerted by the fluid on the particles become equal to the apparent weight of the
particles in the bed. The superficial fluid velocity at which the packed bed becomes a fluidized
bed is known as the minimum fluidization velocity,
A force balance across the fluidized bed can be expressed as follow,
PA 1 mf p f AH mf g

Where ,

= Pressure drop across the bed

= Cross-sectional area of bed

Hmf

= Bed height/depth at minimum fluidization

mf

= Bed void-fraction at minimum fluidization

(1)

Experiment F2 Fluidization
p

= Density of particles

= Density of fluid

Or
P
1 mf p f g
H mf

(2)

To derive an equation for minimum fluidization velocity, umf. We can equate the expression for
pressure loss in a fluidized bed (Eqn. 1) with the expression for pressure loss across a packed
bed. The Ergun equation is used for all types of flow in packed bed.
(1 ) 2 u
(1 ) u 2
P
150

1
.
75
H
3 s Dp2
3 s Dp

Where ,

= Bed void fraction

= shape factor

Dp

= particle size

= Superficial liquid velocity

= Liquid viscosity

= Bed height

(3)

By equating the expression of Ergun equation with the pressure loss at the point of incipient
fluidization, a quadratic equation for minimum fluidization velocity umf is obtained.

(1 mf )( s f ) g 150

(1 mf ) 2 umf

mf

s Dp
2

1.75

(1 mf ) f umf

mf

s Dp

(4)

For small particles, only the laminar flow term of Ergun equation is significant. The equation for
minimum fluidization velocity when Rep<20,

Experiment F2 Fluidization

s2 Dp2 s f

150

u mf

3
g mf

1 mf

(5)

In view of large particles, the laminar flow term will become negligible, and u mf varies with
square root of the particle size. The equation for Rep>1000,
s D p g s f mf 3

u mf

1.75 f

1/ 2

(6)

Through plot of pressure drop across the bed against flowrate or the superficial velocity (as
shown below in Figure.1 the minimum fluidization velocity could the obtained graphically.

Figure.1: Example of a fluidization plot


6

Experiment F2 Fluidization

At first, when there is no flow, the pressure drop zero, and the bed has a certain height. As we
proceed along the right arrow in the direction of increasing superficial velocity, tracing the path
ABCD, the pressure drop gradually increases while the bed height remains fixed. This is a region
where the Ergun equation for a packed bed can be used to relate the pressure drop to the velocity.

When the point B is reached, the bed starts expanding in height while the pressure drop levels off
and no longer increases as the superficial velocity is increased. This is when the upward force
exerted by the fluid on the particles is sufficient to balance the net weight of the bed and the
particles begin to separate from each other and float in the fluid. As the velocity is increased
further, the bed continues to expand in height, but the pressure drop stays constant. It is possible
to reach large superficial velocities without having the particles carried out with the fluid at the
exit. This is because the settling velocities of the particles are typically much larger than the
largest superficial velocities used.

After fluidization, it settles back into a more loosely packed state; this is why the constant bed
height on the return loop is larger than the bed height in the initial state. If we now repeat the
experiment by increasing the superficial velocity from zero, well follow the set of curves ECD
in both directions. Because of this reason, we define the velocity at the point C in the figure as
the minimum fluidization velocity V.

Experiment F2 Fluidization

2. MATERIALS & PROCEDURE


2.1. Materials & Equipment
A set of three glass columns (5.08 cm ID) packed with spherical glass beads of different diameter
sizes (0.5mm, 1mm, 3mm).
Materials & Equipment
Fluidization setup

Quantity
2 rotameter with different adjustable flow rates, 2 differential
pressure meters and 1 pump for each column, a total of 3
column containing particles of different sizes

SG bottles and particles

Several bottles and an adequate

quantity of particles for

determining of particle density were issued


Mettler PJ3000 weigh scale

1 (for weighing of particle weight)

Laboratory drying oven

1 (for evaporation of wet bottles and particles)

Table 1: Materials and Equipment for Fluidization experiment


2.2. Additional Experimental Information
1

Diameter of columns

5 cm

Weight of packed bed in column 1

969 g

Weight of packed bed in column 2

963 g

Weight of packed bed in column 3

861 g

Density of water at 20 oC

998.2 Kg/m3

Viscosity of water at 20 oC

9.93 x 10-4

Table 2: Given information for calculation in Fluidization experiment

Experiment F2 Fluidization

2.3. Safety Precaution

Care must be taken when adjusting the flow rate of the fluid to prevent the overflow of fluid
and fluidized bed.

Additional precautions to be observed during measurement of particle densities using


specific gravity bottles and petri dishes. Glassware may break when not handled with care,
and do not touch the broken pieces with bare hand in the event of breakage.

During the experiment, no one should attempt to disassembling or dismantling any parts of
the experimental setup. As this experiment involved working fluid running at high velocity
which may be cause undesirable effects when not handled properly.

2.4. Procedure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The initial height of packed bed in column 1 was recorded.


The needle value connecting to column 1 was cracked open.
Flow rate was increased slowly at less than or equal to 0.1 L/min intervals.
Flow rate, inlet pressure, outlet pressure and bed height were recoded.
Flow rate was increased till 3 consecutive delta P were obtained and slowly adjust back to

zero at less than or equal to 0.1 L/min decrement.


6. Steps 1 to 5 were repeated for column 2 and 3.
7. Empty weight of a 25 ml specific gravity (SG) bottle was measured and recorded.
8. The SG bottle was filled with column 1 pack bed material to approximately 1/3 of its volume
and weighed.
9. Water was introduced to the SG bottle to fill up the 25 ml bottle and final weight was
measured.
10. Measured sample particles and water were poured into a petri dish and placed in oven for
drying.
11. Steps 7 to 10 were repeated for column 2 and 3 particles.
*SG bottle must be capped whenever its weight is being measured
3. CALCULATIONS & TABULATION
3.1 Calculation for column 1

Experiment F2 Fluidization

= 3.065 g/cm3 =3065 Kg/m3

Q
(L/min)
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30
0.25
0.10
0.00

Pin

Pout

P (Psi)

P (Pa)

H (m)

U (m/s)

2.19
2.30
2.44
2.49
2.55
2.60
2.62
2.62
2.62
2.63
2.62
2.62
2.59
2.55
2.50
2.39
2.28
2.22

2.19
2.19
2.19
2.19
2.19
2.19
2.19
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.19
2.20
2.19
2.19
2.19
2.19
2.19

0.00
0.11
0.25
0.30
0.36
0.41
0.43
0.42
0.42
0.43
0.42
0.43
0.39
0.36
0.31
0.20
0.09
0.03

0.00
758.42
1723.69
2068.43
2482.11
2826.85
2964.75
2895.80
2895.80
2964.75
2895.80
2964.75
2688.96
2482.11
2137.38
1378.95
620.53
206.84

0.344
0.344
0.344
0.344
0.345
0.347
0.350
0.355
0.361
0.368
0.360
0.353
0.349
0.347
0.346
0.346
0.346
0.346

0.000000
0.000849
0.001699
0.002123
0.002548
0.002972
0.003397
0.003822
0.004246
0.004671
0.004246
0.003822
0.003397
0.002972
0.002548
0.002123
0.000849
0.000000

Porosit
y
0.53
0.53
0.53
0.53
0.53
0.54
0.54
0.55
0.55
0.56
0.55
0.54
0.54
0.54
0.53
0.53
0.53
0.53

Table 3: Tabulated results column 1 of glass bead size = 0.05cm

10

Experiment F2 Fluidization

Figure 3:Plot of P vs superficial velocity U for column 1


From Figure 3, the minimum fluidization velocity, Umf is 0.003397 m/s

Figure 4: Plot of bed height H vs superficial velocity U for column 1


From Figure 4, the bed height at minimum fluidization, Hmf = 0.350 m

11

Experiment F2 Fluidization

Figure 5: Plot of porosity vs superficial velocity U for column 1


From Figure 5, the porosity at minimum fluidization, mf = 0.54 m

Therefore, theoretical pressure drop for column 1 can be calculated by using equation:

And the theoretical minimum fluidization velocity Umf for column 1 can be obtain by using
Ergun equation:

12

Experiment F2 Fluidization

Where

&

Umf can then be obtained by solving quadratic equation


Theoretical Umf for column 1 = 0.0103 m/s

3.2 Calculation for column 2

= 2.454 g/cm3 =2454 Kg/m3

Q
(L/min)
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.55
0.6
0.65
0.7

Pin

Pout

P (Psi)

P (Pa)

H (m)

U (m/s)

2.20
2.22
2.23
2.25
2.27
2.28
2.29
2.30
2.31
2.32

2.20
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21

0.00
0.01
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11

0.00
68.95
137.90
275.79
413.69
482.63
551.58
620.53
689.48
758.42

0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353

0.000000
0.000849
0.001699
0.002548
0.003397
0.004246
0.004671
0.005096
0.005520
0.005945

Porosit
y
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
13

Experiment F2 Fluidization
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
1.1
1.15
1.2
1.25
1.3
1.35
1.4
1.45
1.5
1.55
1.6
1.65
1.7
1.75
1.8
1.85
1.9
1.95
2
2.05
2.1
2.15
2.1
2.05
2
1.95
1.9
1.85
1.8
1.75
1.7
1.65
1.6
1.55

2.33
2.34
2.35
2.36
2.37
2.38
2.39
2.40
2.41
2.42
2.43
2.44
2.45
2.46
2.47
2.49
2.51
2.52
2.53
2.54
2.56
2.57
2.58
2.59
2.60
2.61
2.62
2.62
2.62
2.62
2.61
2.61
2.60
2.59
2.59
2.57
2.56
2.55
2.54
2.52
2.51

2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21

0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.28
0.30
0.31
0.32
0.33
0.35
0.36
0.37
0.38
0.39
0.40
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.41
0.40
0.40
0.39
0.38
0.38
0.36
0.35
0.34
0.33
0.31
0.30

827.37
896.32
965.27
1034.21
1103.16
1172.11
1241.06
1310.00
1378.95
1447.90
1516.85
1585.79
1654.74
1723.69
1792.64
1930.53
2068.43
2137.38
2206.32
2275.27
2413.17
2482.11
2551.06
2620.01
2688.96
2757.90
2826.85
2826.85
2826.85
2826.85
2757.90
2757.90
2688.96
2620.01
2620.01
2482.11
2413.17
2344.22
2275.27
2137.38
2068.43

0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.353
0.359
0.360
0.362
0.359
0.358
0.355
0.353
0.352
0.351
0.351
0.351
0.350
0.349
0.349
0.349

0.006369
0.006794
0.007219
0.007643
0.008068
0.008493
0.008917
0.009342
0.009766
0.010191
0.010616
0.011040
0.011465
0.011890
0.012314
0.012739
0.013163
0.013588
0.014013
0.014437
0.014862
0.015287
0.015711
0.016136
0.016561
0.016985
0.017410
0.017834
0.018259
0.017834
0.017410
0.016985
0.016561
0.016136
0.015711
0.015287
0.014862
0.014437
0.014013
0.013588
0.013163

0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.44
0.44
0.45
0.44
0.44
0.44
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
14

Experiment F2 Fluidization
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

2.50
2.47
2.44
2.42
2.39
2.38
2.36
2.34
2.31
2.30
2.28
2.25
2.24
2.22
2.20
2.19

2.21
2.21
2.21
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.19
2.19

0.29
0.26
0.23
0.22
0.19
0.18
0.16
0.14
0.11
0.10
0.08
0.05
0.04
0.02
0.01
0.00

1999.48
1792.64
1585.79
1516.85
1310.00
1241.06
1103.16
965.27
758.42
689.48
551.58
344.74
275.79
137.90
68.95
0.00

0.349
0.349
0.349
0.349
0.349
0.349
0.349
0.349
0.349
0.349
0.349
0.349
0.349
0.349
0.349
0.349

0.012739
0.011890
0.011040
0.010191
0.009342
0.008493
0.007643
0.006794
0.005945
0.005096
0.004246
0.003397
0.002548
0.001699
0.000849
0.000000

0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43

Table 4: Tabulated results column 2 of glass bead size = 0.10cm

Figure 6: Plot of P vs superficial velocity U for column 2


From Figure 6, the minimum fluidization velocity, Umf is 0.017410 m/s

15

Experiment F2 Fluidization

Figure 7: Plot of bed height H vs superficial velocity U for column 2


From Figure 7, the bed height at minimum fluidization, Hmf = 0.359 m

Figure 8: Plot of porosity vs superficial velocity U for column 2


From Figure 8, the porosity at minimum fluidization, mf = 0.44 m
16

Experiment F2 Fluidization

Therefore, theoretical pressure drop for column 2 can be calculated by using equation

And the theoretical minimum fluidization velocity Umf for column 2 can be obtain by using
Ergun equation shown previously

Umf can then be obtained by solving quadratic equation


Theoretical Umf for column 2 = 0.0048 m/s

3.3 Calculation for column 3

= 2.453 g/cm3 =2453 Kg/m3

Q
(L/min)
0.00
0.10
0.20

Pin

Pout

P (Psi)

P (Pa)

H (m)

U (m/s)

2.19
2.20
2.20

2.19
2.20
2.20

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00

0.310
0.310
0.310

0.000000
0.000849
0.001699

Porosit
y
0.42
0.42
0.42
17

Experiment F2 Fluidization
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.60
1.70
1.80
1.90
2.00
2.10
2.20
2.30
2.40
2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90
3.00
3.10
3.20
3.30
3.40
3.50
3.60
3.70
3.80
3.90
4.00
4.10
4.20
4.30

2.21
2.21
2.22
2.22
2.22
2.23
2.23
2.24
2.24
2.25
2.25
2.26
2.26
2.27
2.28
2.28
2.29
2.30
2.31
2.32
2.33
2.34
2.35
2.36
2.36
2.38
2.39
2.40
2.41
2.42
2.43
2.44
2.45
2.46
2.47
2.49
2.50
2.51
2.54
2.55
2.56

2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21

0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.28
0.29
0.30
0.33
0.34
0.35

68.95
68.95
137.90
137.90
137.90
206.84
206.84
275.79
275.79
344.74
344.74
413.69
413.69
482.63
551.58
551.58
620.53
689.48
758.42
827.37
896.32
965.27
1034.21
1034.21
1034.21
1172.11
1241.06
1310.00
1378.95
1447.90
1516.85
1585.79
1654.74
1723.69
1792.64
1930.53
1999.48
2068.43
2275.27
2344.22
2413.17

0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310
0.310

0.002548
0.003397
0.004246
0.005096
0.005945
0.006794
0.007643
0.008493
0.009342
0.010191
0.011040
0.011890
0.012739
0.013588
0.014437
0.015287
0.016136
0.016985
0.017834
0.018684
0.019533
0.020382
0.021231
0.022081
0.022930
0.023779
0.024628
0.025478
0.026327
0.027176
0.028025
0.028875
0.029724
0.030573
0.031423
0.032272
0.033121
0.033970
0.034820
0.035669
0.036518

0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
18

Experiment F2 Fluidization
4.40
4.45
4.50
4.55
4.60
4.55
4.50
4.45
4.40
4.35
4.30
4.25
4.20
4.15
4.10
4.00
3.80
3.60
3.40
3.20
3.00
2.80
2.60
2.40
2.20
2.00
1.80
1.60
1.40
1.00
0.50
0.00

2.57
2.57
2.57
2.58
2.58
2.58
2.57
2.58
2.58
2.57
2.57
2.57
2.56
2.56
2.54
2.53
2.51
2.49
2.47
2.45
2.44
2.39
2.37
2.35
2.33
2.32
2.29
2.27
2.26
2.24
2.21
2.19

2.21
2.21
2.21
2.22
2.22
2.21
2.21
2.22
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.21
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.20
2.19
2.19

0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.37
0.36
0.36
0.37
0.36
0.36
0.36
0.35
0.35
0.33
0.32
0.30
0.28
0.26
0.24
0.23
0.18
0.17
0.15
0.13
0.12
0.09
0.07
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00

2482.11
2482.11
2482.11
2482.11
2482.11
2551.06
2482.11
2482.11
2551.06
2482.11
2482.11
2482.11
2413.17
2413.17
2275.27
2206.32
2068.43
1930.53
1792.64
1654.74
1585.79
1241.06
1172.11
1034.21
896.32
827.37
620.53
482.63
413.69
275.79
137.90
0.00

0.310
0.312
0.313
0.315
0.315
0.315
0.314
0.313
0.312
0.312
0.312
0.311
0.311
0.310
0.309
0.309
0.309
0.309
0.309
0.309
0.309
0.309
0.309
0.309
0.309
0.309
0.309
0.309
0.309
0.309
0.309
0.309

0.037367
0.037792
0.038217
0.038641
0.039066
0.038641
0.038217
0.037792
0.037367
0.036943
0.036518
0.036093
0.035669
0.035244
0.034820
0.033970
0.032272
0.030573
0.028875
0.027176
0.025478
0.023779
0.022081
0.020382
0.018684
0.016985
0.015287
0.013588
0.011890
0.008493
0.004246
0.000000

0.42
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.43
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42
0.42

Table 5: Tabulated results column 3 of glass bead size = 0.30cm

19

Experiment F2 Fluidization

Figure 9: Plot of P vs superficial velocity U for column 3


From Figure 9, the minimum fluidization velocity, Umf is 0.037367 m/s

Figure 7: Plot of bed height H vs superficial velocity U for column 2


From Figure 7, the bed height at minimum fluidization, Hmf = 0.310 m
20

Experiment F2 Fluidization

Figure 8: Plot of porosity vs superficial velocity U for column 3


From Figure 8, the porosity at minimum fluidization, mf = 0.42 m

Therefore, theoretical pressure drop for column 3 can be calculated by using equation

And the theoretical minimum fluidization velocity Umf for column 3 can be obtain by using
Ergun equation shown previously

Umf can then be obtained by solving quadratic equation


Theoretical Umf for column 3 = 0.0169 m/s
21

Experiment F2 Fluidization

22

Experiment F2 Fluidization

4. DISCUSSION
4.1 Comparison of experimental results

Column
1
Column
2
Column
3

Experimenta
l P (Pa)

Theoretical P
(Pa)

Experimental Umf
(m/s)

Theoretical Umf
(m/s)

2964.7468

3264.32

0.003397

0.0103

2826.8516

2863.13

0.017410

0.0048

2482.1136

2566.03

0.037367

0.0169

Table 6: Experimental data comparison with theoretical values calculated using Ergun
Equation
From the raw data tabulated and graphs plotted, it can be observed that the pressure drop P
increases with flow rate until the minimum fluidization velocity whereby the bed expands and
porosity increases, and the pressure drop remains at the same value after that with further
increment of fluid velocity.
The bed heights initially remain the same and increased at the minimum fluidization velocity and
stay increasing with increment in the fluid velocity as the fluid drag force and buoyancy force
has overcome the gravitational force. The fluid velocity is decreased slowly back to 0 L/min,
however, the bed height is found slightly higher than their original value, this could be due to
their inertial force.
As shown in the Table 6, the experimental pressure drops at the minimum fluidization for the 3
columns are only slightly lower as compared to the theoretical pressure drops.
The minimum fluidization velocities obtained by the experimental data are far higher than the
theoretical values calculated by using Ergun Equation.
Column

Particle Size, x (mm)

Minimum Fluidization velocity Umf (m/s)

0.5

0.003397

0.017410

0.037367

Table 7: Minimum fluidization velocity for the 3 columns

23

Experiment F2 Fluidization

From Table 7, it is found that as the particle size increases, the minimum fluidization velocity
also increases.

Comparison between Theory (Point ABCD) and Experiment (Point


ABCD) Column 1 Result

24

Experiment F2 Fluidization

Comparison between Theory (Point ABCD) and Experiment (Point


ABCD) Column 2 Result

25

Experiment F2 Fluidization

Comparison between Theory (Point ABCD) and Experiment (Point


ABCD) Column 3 Result

Based on the comparison above, both column 1 and 2 follows the shape quite closely to the
theory. However for column 3, the graphical results did not match as closely because the
fluctuating height during our experiment contributes to the inconsistency, which would be further
discussed in our error analysis portion.
The graphical results however, still follow the upward trend and to be more prcised in our
results, the parameter of the flow interval reading/data can be obtained more repetitively for all
the columns to ensure a more accurate, consistent end result for our graph plotted.
The height of the bed in the column did not change until it begin to fluidize, resulted in the
pressure reading between the value of the flow rate to be of 0 and the value till it begin to
fluidize should be recorded. The result did not affect the mechanism of fluidization and batch
fluidization in a solid-fluid system but it explained the sudden change in the graph for P from

26

Experiment F2 Fluidization

the value of 0 to the moment it begin to fluidize. Hence the result will deviate slightly to the
theory.
4.2 Error Analysis
Comparing the theoretical values with the experimental values of minimum fluidization velocity,
it could be observed that there exist some differences in the velocities. The deviation in the
experimental data from the ideal case could be attributed to the following factors:
1. Flow rates may not be measured accurately by reading off from the flow meter.
2. Human error during the data taking. The top surfaces of the packed beds were not even, thus
approximated bed heights were observed and recorded.
3. There could have been air locks in the line where the pressure readings were taken thus
resulting in incorrect pressure reading.
4. Possible leaks in the water line may give an incorrect flow reading and pressure reading.
5. Unsteady flow meters or combination of flow meters to adjust the flow could have also
resulted in incorrect pressure readings.
6. As the particles were not packed in a flat line of arrangement, the bed height could have been
recorded wrongly.
7. The beads in column 3 were heavy, small particles of dirt were seen floating atop of the bead
thus it might affect the voidage that will deviate from the end results
8. The viscosity and density of the working fluid were water at 20 oC, however the actual
temperature of the water might not be exactly at that temperature.

27

Experiment F2 Fluidization

4.3 Improvement for the experiment

Samples from flow rate of 30 and 50 ml/min could be repeated to ensure accuracy.

Flow rate of the system can be checked by using a measuring cylinder and stop watches
to confirm the pumps are working fine.

System can be run at even more different flow rates to obtain better correlation between
the residential time and conversion rate.

5. CONCLUSION
From the experimental data, it can be concluded that:

a. At the point of minimum fluidization velocity, the pressure drop across the packed bed
will not further increase linearly with the superficial velocity but will remain constant.

b. Bed height and bed void fraction increase linearly with increasing superficial velocity
when minimum fluidization condition is reached.

c. It could be also seen that the velocities (both terminal velocity and minimum fluidization
velocity) increases linearly with the particle size.

d. The experiment fluidization velocity is, to a certain extent, close to the calculated
fluidization velocity.

28

Experiment F2 Fluidization

6. REFERENCES
1.

King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals. Chemical Engineering Department.


Chapter 4: Flow through packed fixed and fluidized beds.
http://faculty.kfupm.edu.sa/CHE/alshami/teaching/Che%20204/Lecture%20Notes/Chapter
%204_Lect%20Notes_Fluid%20Through%20Packed%20Beds%20and
%20Fluidization.htm

2.

University of Florida. Department of Chemical Engineering. http://www.che.ufl.edu/unitops-lab/experiments/FB/FB-manual.pdf

3.

R. Shankar Subramanian. Department of Chemical Engineering. Flow through Packed


Beds and Fluidized Beds.
http://web2.clarkson.edu/projects/subramanian/ch301/notes/packfluidbed.pdf

4.

Martin Rhodes, Introduction to particle technology, 2nd Ed. Publisher Wiley, 2008

5.

Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook, 7th Edition. 1997 (Ed: R.H. Perry, D.W. Green,
and J.O. Maloney), McGraw-Hill, New York.

29