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# FEED-FORWARD AND

## FEEDBACK METHODS FOR

MSK
SUPRIYA V, MTech
Digital Electronics and
Communication
Dayanandasagar College of
Engineering, bangalore
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BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DIGITAL
COMMUNICATION MODEL

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SOURCE
MODULATOR
AWGN CHANNEL
TIMING
RECOVERY
(TIMING
RECOVERY
ALGORITHMS)
DEMODULATO
R
TIMING RECOVERY
Timing recovery is the first synchronous
operation processed by the digital receiver

Integral part of communication

Received signal has to sampled at the
instants determined by the timing recovery
device.

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IMPORTANCE OF TIMING
What happens if timing recovery block is not
used??

Sampling at non optimal instants loss of
desired signal power and ISI is introduced

Sampling at optimal instants Bit error rate
reduced and performance of the receiver is
improved.

Quality of the samples and the
strongly depends on timing recovery
device.
How to sample at best timing
instants??

Best sampling times are {kT+ tauk }
The job of the timing recovery scheme is to estimate the timing
offsets before sampling
OBJECTIVES OF THE
RESEARCH
Study and simulate timing recovery
algorithms for the MSK signals. The
simulation is done using MATLAB tool.
The performance study of different
algorithms for timing recovery such as
feedback and feed forward methods will
be done and simulated and paper will be
presented on the same.

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FEED-FORWARD TIMING
RECOVERY ALGORITHM
{bk}
n(t)
Fs=Nfb

Interpolation and
Decimation
(Symbol Timing
Delay
()
Anti-aliasing
filter
Feed-forward Timing Estimation
MSK Baseband
Modulator
To Detection Unit
Fig(1). Equivalent baseband signal model for a MSK
system

To estimate the timing error we use non-
linear transformation of the sampled data is
chosen:

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Due to the limited length of pilot symbols,the fourth order
expectation Rm(i) is performed by averaging the samples in
practice.

Timing Error
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SIMULATION RESULTS

Performance is investigated on
AWGN.Symbol period of 10^(-7) is chosen
with the length of pilot symbol is 16.
Sampling frequency of 20MHz is chosen and
performance of error at different SNRs is
simulated means of MATLAB simulation.

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FEEDBACK METHOD FOR
TIMING RECOVERY
This is novel structure for timing recovery.
Mainly based on real time multi domain
signal analysis architecture.
This algorithm describes the design of
timing error detection,loop filter.

Block Diagram

A/D INTERPOLATOR
TIMING ERROR
DETECTOR
LOOP FILTER
RESAMPLER
INTERPOLATOR

generates the samples in between
those actually sampled by A/D converter

By altering the samples the interpo-
lator can adjust to effective sampling
Frequency and phase.

Interpolated signal is the smoothened
version of the original signal and contains
N times as many samples

Loop filter design
- loop bandwidth
- damping
- loop gain
Timing Error Detector
With number of samples per symbol to be
4,we take the samples before and after the
start of generic symbol interval kT+tauk
The equation to find the timing error is
shown below:

The simulation results denote that this can
capture the timing error quickly
It can be used in all digital demodulation of
MSK.
It is not restricted to oversampling factor of
4 unlike previous papers.
This feedback loop can restore the
information more accurately
This method does not rely on previous or
simultaneous acquisition of carrier phase.

CONCLUSION
Timing recovery can be achieved by using different feed-
forward and feed back techniques.
Timing recovery improves the receivers performance and
reduces bit error rate.
Error performance at different SNRs depends on the complexity
and type of the algorithm we choose for different application.
Feedback method can more accurately restore the information
in the presence of AWGN channel when compared to feed-
forward method.
After a certain period it is possible to make the error almost
zero in feedback method so that accuracy of getting back the
original signal is more when compared to feed-forward.
Thus feedback method shows a better performance when
compared to feed-forward scheme.

References
U.Lambrette and H.Meyr, Two timing recovery algorithms for MSK, IEEE ConJ
Commun. , ICC 94.Vol. 2, pp.1155-1159,1994
Yao Yao and Tung-Sang Ng, Feed-forward Carrier Frequency and Timing
Synchronization for MSK Modulation, v. 1, p. 549-553,2003
Zhang mi, Yan xiao, Kaiyu Qin, MSK Signal Timing Recovery Technology
Research.IEEE Trans.Commum,Vol. 3, p. 141 143, 2010
F. M. Gardner. Interpolation in digital modems. I. Fundamentals [J].IEEE Trans.
Commum., Volume 41, 1993(5): 501-507.143
NAD'Andrea,U.MengaIi,and RReggiannini, "A Digital Approach to Clock Recovery in
Genneralized Minimum Shift Keying", IEEE . ,voI.39,no. 3,august 1990
RMehalan, T.-E.Chen and ftMeyr, A fully digital feedforward MSK demodulator with
joint fiequency offset and symbol timing estimation for burst mode mobile radio,
IEEE Veh. Technol., vol. 42, pp. 434-443, Nov. 1993
Heinrich Meyr, Marc Moneceleay, Stefan A. Fechtchel Digital Communication
Receivers, Synchronization, Channel Estimation, and Signal Processing
Geza Kolumban,Michael Peter Kennedy,Leon O. Chua,The Role of Synchronization
in Digital Communications Using Chaos-Part I:Fundamentals of digital
Communications,Vol. 44, p.927-936,1997

THANK

YOU
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