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BBH 31102 RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
KAEDAH PENYELIDIKAN
*Bahan dalam modul ini telah diambil dari sumber internet dan diubahsuai bagi
tujuan P& P sahaja. Saya mengucapkan terimakasih kepada penyumbang nota ini
dan penggunaan bahan ini bukan tujuan untuk dikomersilkan. Terima kasih.
Fakulti Pedidika Tekikal da
!oka"ioal# $i%e&"iti Tu
Hu""ei O Mala'"ia
(H)* + 013,-./0 .001
(O23e + 00-,4/0 40111
(Fak" + 00-,4/30/./1
Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
Module 1: WHAT IS EDUCATIONAL Module 1: WHAT IS EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH? RESEARCH?

The word research has been used in many different ways and sometimes rather
loosely giving rise to confusion and sometimes with the intention to deceive. The claim
that the majority of dentists used the particular brand of toothpaste is misleading as there
is not mention as to how many dentists were interviewed and whether they are
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CHAPTER LEARNING OUTCOMES
When you have co!"e#e$ #h%& cha!#e' you (%"" )e a)"e #o*
Identify the different methods of acquiring knowledge
efine what is educational research
iscuss the importance of educational research and its characteristics
Identify the criteria of research
escribe the steps involved in the research process
Identify a research problem
!ist the criteria of a good research problem
INTRODUCTION
Research has shown that 4 out of 5 teachers interviewed used
LSD to ensure active class interactive method
Years of research has shown that SlimTex Capsules will reduce
your
ei!ht in a matter of wee"s
#$lan is doin! research %rowsin! throu!h consumer reports&
Catalo!ues& %rochures and mar"et surveys %efore decidin!
hat car to %uy
'on! (en! is sur)n! the internet doin! research on the
Symptoms of *+, #+DS
-ahman is mum%lin! and start as"in! his friend a%out the
+ssues on S(#./(S
ACTIVITY 1.1
Identify the different ways in which the word "research# has been used in
the statements above.
ACTIVITY 1.1
Identify the different ways in which the word "research# has been used in
the statements above.
Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
representative of all dentists in the country. $ith regards to the advertisement on
slimming pills% research on the use of various types of medicine and supplements by
humans tend to be inconclusive. It would be difficult to make a claim that it will reduce
weight as there are many other contributory factors such as gender% level of health%
weight and so forth. In the strictest sense of the term what &'lan and (ong )eng are
doing is not research. !ooking up facts and writing them down is nothing more than fact
finding and fact transcribing *!eedy% +,-./. There is even the tendency to call the written
work a 0research report0 which is not accurate. It may be a report but not a research
report. There needs to be a distinction between true research and the accumulation of
facts. 1esearch is a way of thinking2 it involves thinking what we want to study% how we
go about collecting data% analysing the data and deriving conclusions.
3ver the centuries% humans have accumulated vast amount of knowledge and the
amount of knowledge produced is doubling every two years. There are many ways in
which we obtain knowledge about a given phenomenon% event or situation. There are si4
ways in acquiring knowledge and they are2 through our beliefs% intuition% authority%
empiricism% rationalism and science *see 5igure +/

METHO DS OF ACQUIRING
KNOWLEDGE
+%,u'e 1 Me#ho$& o- Ac.u%'%n, /no("e$,e
6Source7 adaptation of 8.9. :elmstadter% 1esearch concepts in human behaviour.
;ew <ork7 &ppleson=9entury=9rofts>
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METHODS OF ACQURING KNOWLEDGE
Intuition )eliefs
@4perience
@mpiricism
&uthority
Acience
Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
)eliefs7 These are all superstitious beliefs people hold on to as though they are
fact. 5or e4ample% wear your a lucky shirt when making deals which you strongly
believe will bring you good fortune.
Intuition7 &n approach in acquiring knowledge that is not based on reasoning or
inferring. Intuitive knowledge is not scientific but is knowledge that originates
from gut feeling or predictions by soothsayers% astrologers and fortune=tellers.
&uthority7 (nowledge that originates from persons or sources that are highly
respected. 5or e4ample% various religions have a sacred te4t that represents the
facts% which are considered indisputable% final and cannot be challenged.
@4perience7 This approach of acquiring knowledge is based on the statement
which says% BIf I have e4perienced it% then it is valid and trueC. In other words%
only facts that are in agreement with e4perience are accepted% and those that do
not are rejected. :owever% reliance on e4perience has its shortcomings because
our perceptions of people% events and objects are affected by many factors. 5or
e4ample% we constantly add% delete and reconstruct our e4periences.
1ationalism7 This approach uses reasoning to arrive at knowledge and assumes
that valid knowledge is acquired through correct reasoning. &ncient philosophers
believed that knowledge derived from reasoning was just as valid as knowledge
gained from observation. 1easoning is regarded as the beginning of the scientific
process where hypotheses are proposed.
Acience7 It is a process that is followed in generating knowledge and has been
accepted as the best method of acquiring knowledge. It lists a series of steps to be
followed when acquiring knowledge using the scientific method. :owever% it has
been argued that strictly following the scientific method prevents us from
studying in depth human behaviour 6$e will discuss this issue in 9hapter -=,
under qualitative research>.
&ccording to the $ebster#s dictionary% research is diligent scientific search or
inquiry to discover facts. The $ikipedia encyclopaedia describes research as an active%
diligent and systematic process of inquiry in order to discover% interpret or revise facts%
events% behaviours or theories. (erlinger defines research as Bthe systematic% controlled%
empirical and critical investigation of natural phenomena guided by theory and
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RESEARCH DEFINED
LEARNING ACTIVITY
+. Identify the different methods by which we acquire knowledge. 8ive
specific e4amples for each method.
2. $hich method has contributed most towards our understanding of
how children learnD 8ive specific e4amples.
LEARNING ACTIVITY
+. Identify the different methods by which we acquire knowledge. 8ive
specific e4amples for each method.
2. $hich method has contributed most towards our understanding of
how children learnD 8ive specific e4amples.
Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
hypotheses about the presumed relations among the phenomenaC *p.+E/. <ou will notice
certain key words in these definitions of research7
Acientific 9ontrolled
Aystematic process Theory% hypotheses
Inquiry or Investigation Presumed relations

iscover ;atural phenomena


It is a scientific *or systematic/ process of gathering information about the
hypothesised relations between phenomena. 5or e4ample% to investigate if there is a
relationship between a student#s attitude towards mathematics and his or her performance
in mathematics. The scientific method was popularised by Fohn ewey in +,?? and lists
the following steps7
+/ 5ormulation of a hypothesis * a tentative statement about the relation between two or
more theoretical constructs. e.g. attitude and mathematic performance/
2/ Test the hypothesis *design a study to establish whether the relationship between the
constructs are as hypothesised/
?/ 9ollect data *e.g. collect data on attitude towards mathematics and mathematics
performance/
./ ecide to accept or reject the hypothesis *e.g. correlation between attitudes towards
mathematics and mathematics performance/
The purpose of using the scientific method is to enable the researcher to describe
*the relations between factors/2 to predict *given what is known we can we predict what
might happen/2 to control *when certain variables are manipulated% does it lead to a
particular condition/% and to explain *can a theory be formulated to e4plain the
phenomena being investigated/.
1esearch is a way of thinking and to qualify as a research it needs to have certain
characteristics such as follows *adaptation of !eedy% +,,?% )org G )org% +,H?% Iitchell
G Folley% +,HH/.
10 Re&ea'ch )e,%n& (%#h a .ue&#%on %n #he %n$ o- #he 'e&ea'che'1
J | P a g e
CHARACTERSTICS OF RESEARCH
Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
<ou need only to look around and everywhere you see phenomena which will
arouse your curiosity. 5or e4ample% why are children in this school unable to
readD $hy are girls performing better than boysD These are situations in which
the meaning of which you do not comprehend. )y asking relevant questions we
create an inquisitive environment which is the prerequisite for research. 1esearch
arises from a question that is intelligently asked with regards to a phenomenon
that the researcher observes and is pu''ling him or her.
20 Re&ea'ch 'e.u%'e& a !"an1
3ne does not discover the truth or e4planations about a phenomenon without
serious and meticulous planning. 1esearch is not looking=up something in the
hope of coming across the solution to your problem. 1ather it entails a definite
plan% direction and design.
30 Re&ea'ch $ean$& a c"ea' &#a#een# o- #he !'o)"e.
Auccessful research begins with a clear% simple statement of the problem. The
statement of the problem should be stated precisely and grammatically complete%
must set forth what it seeks to discover and enables one to see what one is
attempting to research
20 Re&ea'ch $ea"& (%#h #he a%n !'o)"e #h'ou,h &u)!'o)"e&.
ivide the main problem into appropriate subproblems% all of which when
resolved will result in the solution of the main research problem.
J/ Re&ea'ch &ee3& $%'ec#%on #h'ou,h a!!'o!'%a#e hy!o#he&e&
:aving stated the problem and the related subproblems% the subproblems are then
each viewed through logical constructs called hypotheses. & hypothesis is a
logical supposition% a reasonable guess% an educated conjecture which may give
direction to thinking with respect to the problem% and thus% aid in solving it.
40 Re&ea'ch $ea"& (%#h -ac#& an$ #he%' ean%n,.
:aving defined the problem% the subproblems and hypothesis% the ne4t step is to
collect whatever facts pertinent to the problem. 3rganise the data collected into a
form that is potentially meaningful.
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LEARNING ACTIVITY
efine research in your own words.
Identify the steps that are followed in gaining knowledge through the
use of the scientific method.
$hat are the four objectives of science attempting to accomplishD
$hat are some characteristics of researchD
LEARNING ACTIVITY
efine research in your own words.
Identify the steps that are followed in gaining knowledge through the
use of the scientific method.
$hat are the four objectives of science attempting to accomplishD
$hat are some characteristics of researchD
Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
$hat is educational researchD 8enerally% educational research is defined as
research that investigates the behaviour of students% teachers% administrators% parents and
other members of the community who interact with educational institutions. The word
behaviour is taken broadly to mean such phenomena as learning% attitudes% aptitudes%
abilities% interests% practices% processes% emotions and so forth.
$hat is the purpose of educational researchD Aince education is fundamentally the
development of individuals then the central purpose of educational research is to find
ways to improve student learning. It has been argued that educational research that does
not have this as its ultimate motivation and objective is not educational research. &nyone
who is engaged in a systematic search of ways to improve student learning is doing
educational research. 5or e4ample% a classroom teacher e4perimenting with alternative
ways of e4plaining laws of physics and a full=time researcher comparing the effectiveness
of different reading methods in early literacy programmes are both engaged in a search
for ways to improve student learning% and% in this sense% are both engaged in educational
research. The leadership styles of the school principal will influence teacher morale and
job satisfaction which will translate to how teachers behave in the classroom. Ao% the
behaviour of school principals and headmasters can influence student learning and
attitudes.
&s discussed earlier% research is a systematic process which means there are definite steps
involved. 5igure + lists the seven steps involved in the research process.
11 GENERATING RESEARCH I5EAS
5or many beginning researchers and graduate students Bthe problem of finding a
problem0 can be difficult. There are cases of graduate students who have completed all
coursework requirements and 0get stuck0 at the thesis stage and some never graduate.
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THE RESEARCH ROCESS
WHAT IS EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH?
LEARNING ACTIVITY
o you agree with statement B..the central purpose of educational research is
to find ways improe student learningCD.
8ive some e4amples of findings from educational research in your area of
interest.
LEARNING ACTIVITY
o you agree with statement B..the central purpose of educational research is
to find ways improe student learningCD.
8ive some e4amples of findings from educational research in your area of
interest.
Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
:ence% it is advisable that students search for a suitable problem early which they can
e4plore throughout their coursework. The word "problem# means there is dispute%
controversy% debate or disagreement that needs to be addressed% solved or answered. 5or
e4ample% why do young learners have difficulty with multiplication and division
operations compared to addition and subtraction operations in mathematics.
$here does one find research problems in educationD They are all around youL
There are abundant research problems or unresolved issues everywhere. !ook at the +.
year old who says% BI hate historyC. o you know whyD o you want to know whyD In
fact% whatever that arouses your interest for which there are as yet no answers or are
inconclusive have the potential of being a research problem. 3ften one starts with a rather
general% diffuse and even confused notion of the problem. o not worry% this is the nature
and comple4ity of research process. It is the first step towards becoming a mature
researcher. The following steps are to help you get a research problem *see 5igure +.2/
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21 +o'u"a#e
Re&ea'ch
P'o)"e
31 5eve"o! a
Hy!o#he&%&
21 5e&%,n S#u$y #o
Te&# Hy!o#he&%&
61 Co""ec#
5a#a
41 Ana"y&e
an$
In#e'!'e#
Re&u"#&
71 Coun%ca#e
Re&u"#&
11 GENERATING
RESEARCH
I5EAS
Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education

+%,u'e 2 The Seven S#e!& o- #he Re&ea'ch P'oce&&
S#e! 1* I$en#%-y a B'oa$ P'o)"e %n 8ou' A'ea that is of interest to you and
related to your professional goals. <ou should build a si'able knowledge in
your area of interest that is for the long term. 5or e4ample% you may be
interested in how young children learn mathematics% how to get teenagers
interested in science% how to enhance the teaching of moral education% how to
improve training in the corporate sector using e=!earning% the relationship
between headmasters# leadership style and teacher morale% and so forth.
S#e! 2* Sy&#ea#%c P'o,'ae o- Rea$%n, within your broad area of study.
5or e4ample if you are interested in why children have difficulty in learning
mathematics% you could start with te4tbooks in the area or chapters of
te4tbooks. Te4tbooks e4plain the basic concepts and facts related to the issue
and may cite research in the area which will be listed in the MreferencesM which
you could further e4plore. Fournals such as the !eiew of !esearch in
"ducation and !eiew of "ducational !esearch provide valuable information
about a particular field as they review related literature. ;e4t is to read articles
in the relevant journals in the field. 5or e4ample if you are interested in
reading research then you should read 0Fournal of 1eading0 and the 01eading
1esearch Nuarterly0. <ou should look through the catalogue both in the
library and on=line and identify the journals in your field. Atudents do not
adequately refer to journals in the field but instead tend to cite from popular
sources such as newspapers% maga'ines and speeches. Fournals report
empirical evidence about the field you are interested in and they indicate the
current thinking about research and the trend of research efforts in the field.
This will give you a grasp of leading edge research in the Onited Atates%
)ritain% @urope and &ustralia and how you might do the same in Ialaysia.
S#e! 3* Re"a#e 8ou' Re&ea'ch P'o)"e #o a Theo'y in the field. & theory is
an e4planation of events or phenomena or behaviour. 5or e4ample% if you are
interested in finding out whether providing children with multimedia
presentations e4plaining science concepts will enhance understanding% you
may want to e4plore the underlying theories of visual learning. Iany
phenomena in education are e4plained drawing upon theories from cognitive
psychology% sociology% psycholinguistics% management% computer science and
so forth. It should be remembered that theory provides the direction of the
research 6we will discuss in more detail the role of theory in 9hapter 2>.

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LEARNING ACTIVITY
:ow do you go about finding a research problem in educationD
$hat other sources provide research problems in educationD
LEARNING ACTIVITY
:ow do you go about finding a research problem in educationD
$hat other sources provide research problems in educationD
Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
9
Opon having a broad idea of what you want to investigate% the ne4t step is to formulate
the problem simply% clearly and completely. This is what we mean by "statement of the
problem#. &n adequate statement of the research problem is an important step in the
research process. 3bviously% if you want to solve a problem% you must know what is the
problem. $hat is a good problem statementD &lthough research problems differ greatly%
and although there is no one 0right0 way to state one% certain characteristics of problems
and problem statements can be learned and used to good advantage.
E:a!"e7 The 'e"a#%on&h%! )e#(een &e"-;e&#ee< a##%#u$e& #o(a'$ &c%ence an$
aca$e%c !e'-o'ance %n &c%ence1
This is an e4ample of a research problem stating the relation between three factors or
variables *self=esteem% attitudes and academic performance/. & problem is an
interrogative sentence or statement that asks7 $hat relation e4ists between the variablesD
The answer to this question will be sought by conducting the research.
+E | P a g e

T!"ee C"#$e"#% o& Good "o'le( S$%$e(e)$*
#$ The problem should e:!'e&& a 'e"a#%on )e#(een #(o o' o'e
va'%a)"e&
Is & related to )D
:ow are & and ) relatedD
:ow is & related to ) under condition 9D
Is there a difference between & and ) in terms of 9D
%$ The problem should be &#a#e$ c"ea'"y an$ una)%,uou&"y
preferably in question form. Instead of saying% 0The problem is ....0%
or The purpose of this 0 study is....02 ask a question. Nuestions have
the advantage of posing problems directly. The purpose of a study is
not necessarily the same as the problem of the study. 5or e4ample%
the purpose of the study was to throw light on the relationship
between academic performance and self=esteem. The problem stated
as a question7 &s self'esteem related to academic performance(.
)$ The problem should be such as to %!"y !o&&%)%"%#%e& o- e!%'%ca"
#e&#%n, . & problem that does not contain implications for testing its
relationship or relations is not a scientific problem. Ao% if you can
measure the constructs self=esteem and academic performance% then
the problem is considered a good problem.
+. FORMULATE THE RESEARCH RO,LEM
Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
Aimilarly% in educational research you have to put forward hypotheses or research
questions that states a relationship between the variables or constructs you are studying.
&fter having established the research problem or area that you plan to investigate% the
ne4t step is to breakdown the problem into subproblems called hypotheses or research
questions. & hypothesis or research question is an 0educated guess0 or a hunch about
possible relationships or differences. The hypothesis or research question guides the
selection of appropriate research method% data collection techniques% data analysis
techniques *e.g. the statistical analysis to be used/ and so forth.
++ | P a g e
Your car will not start. You put forward the hypothesis that
"the car that does not start because there is no petrol". You check
the fuel gauge to either reject or accept the hypothesis. If you find
there is petrol, you reject the hypothesis.
Next, you hypothesise that "the car did not start because
the spark plugs are dirty". You check the spark plugs to
determine if they are dirty and accept or reject the hypothesis
accordingly.
Your car will not start. You put forward the hypothesis that
"the car that does not start because there is no petrol". You check
the fuel gauge to either reject or accept the hypothesis. If you find
there is petrol, you reject the hypothesis.
Next, you hypothesise that "the car did not start because
the spark plugs are dirty". You check the spark plugs to
determine if they are dirty and accept or reject the hypothesis
accordingly.
LEARNING ACTIVITY
$hat is a good problem statementD
$hy do graduate students have difficulty in stating research
problemsD
LEARNING ACTIVITY
$hat is a good problem statementD
$hy do graduate students have difficulty in stating research
problemsD
31 5E=ELOP H8POTHESES OR RESEARCH >UESTIONS
LEARNING ACTIVITY
The following are research problems taken from the research literature.
Atudy them carefully and construct one or two hypotheses or research
questions based on them.
:ow do self=esteem and level of aspiration influence academic
achievementD
oes providing learners with graphic organisers enhance their
understanding of science te4t materialD
:ow does the organisational climate in schools affect teacher satisfaction
and moraleD
LEARNING ACTIVITY
The following are research problems taken from the research literature.
Atudy them carefully and construct one or two hypotheses or research
questions based on them.
:ow do self=esteem and level of aspiration influence academic
achievementD
oes providing learners with graphic organisers enhance their
understanding of science te4t materialD
:ow does the organisational climate in schools affect teacher satisfaction
and moraleD
Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
:ence% hypotheses or research questions have to be clearly stated and you should
be prepared to defend or support your choice of hypotheses or research questions. 5or
e4ample% you hypothesise that BAtudents taught science using a problem=based approach
will more creativeC. <ou are seeking to confirm empirically that the problem=based
approach in science teaching will enhance creativity of learners.
:aving determined the hypotheses or research questions% the ne4t step is to design the
study. $e often hear of graduate students saying they want to do an "e4periment# or a
"survey#. )ut% they are unable to state with clarity and precision the hypotheses or
research questions they intend to answer. It is like "putting the cart before the horse#. The
hypotheses or research questions determines the design of the study. If you intend to test
the effectiveness of an educational phenomenon such as a teaching method or a
counselling technique% the logical choice would be to design an e4periment. If you intend
to find out whether teachers are satisfied with their profession or how they perceive their
principals% than the survey would be the appropriate research design. If your intention is
to study inter=racial mi4ing among students in the school canteen% than a qualitative
approach using the observation technique might be more appropriate.
:ence% the decision on which methodology to use will depend on the research
problem and the research questions or hypotheses. It is not good practice to decide on a
methodology and than work on the research questions. <ou have to be able to state
clearly what you intend to study and then decide on an appropriate methodology. If you
are clear about your research problem and research questions% you will find it easy get
assistance from your supervisor and other students in designing a study to find answers to
your research questions.
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21 5ESIGN STU58 TO TEST H8POTHESES OR RESEARCH >UESTIONS
61 COLLECT 5ATA
LEARNING ACTIVITY
<ou have stopped at a junction because the lights had just turned red.
)ut% on your left a motorcyclist and a car beat the lights. <ou are most
annoyed. )eing a good social scientist% you ask yourself why people
beat traffic lights. If you were to convert the problem into a hypothesis%
which of the following would be the best hypothesisD @4plain your
answer.
Aome people beat traffic lights more frequently than others.
People who beat traffic lights are a danger to themselves and other road
users.
)eating traffic lights is common in crowded cities.
1oad users are more likely to beat traffic lights when traffic is light than
if traffic is heavy.
LEARNING ACTIVITY
<ou have stopped at a junction because the lights had just turned red.
)ut% on your left a motorcyclist and a car beat the lights. <ou are most
annoyed. )eing a good social scientist% you ask yourself why people
beat traffic lights. If you were to convert the problem into a hypothesis%
which of the following would be the best hypothesisD @4plain your
answer.
Aome people beat traffic lights more frequently than others.
People who beat traffic lights are a danger to themselves and other road
users.
)eating traffic lights is common in crowded cities.
1oad users are more likely to beat traffic lights when traffic is light than
if traffic is heavy.
Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
The research question determines the design of the study and method of data
collection to answer the question. Aay for e4ample% one of your research questions is
determine whether there are differences in self=esteem between male and female +K year
old students in secondary school. To answer this question you have to collect data on the
self=esteem of students. This may be done by developing a self=esteem instrument *or
using an available instrument/ and administering it to a sample of secondary school
students. The sample will have to be representative of +K year old students in secondary
school to allow you to generalise the results obtained to the population. :ere you are
using quantitative data collection methods.
+? | P a g e
Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
3n the other hand% if you are interested in studying student=teacher interaction%
you may have to spend time in classrooms. <ou can use a structured observation checklist
or leave it open=ended and record all the processes that occur in the classroom. :ere you
are using qualitative data collection methods.
The data collected from subjects *e.g. students% teachers% school administrators
and others/ will have to be analysed. If your study involves quantitative data than
statistical procedures will be used to analyse the data. The analysed data is usually
presented as tables and graphs. )ased on the statistical analysis% the researcher interprets
the data in relation to the research questions or hypotheses. In the case of qualitative data%
information is coded and presented anecdotally. Instead of numbers% data is presented in
the form of words and sentences. Aimilarly% the data is interpreted in relation to the
research questions or objectives of the study.
ata that has been analysed and interpreted will have to communicate to the community
of fellow researchers and practitioners. The results of a study are most commonly
communicated to interested parties through journals. There are numerous journals in
education reporting the findings of studies in the many fields of education *e.g. early
childhood% reading% second language learning% educational psychology% adolescents%
mathematics teaching and so forth/. If you are a graduate student% you will most probably
be communicating the results of your study in the form of a thesis or dissertation or even
a research practicum. There is an established format of presenting the findings of your
study which will be discussed in detail in 9hapter +E.
+. | P a g e
ACTIVITY 1.-
Identify a research problem that you are interested in investigating.
5ormulate T$3 research questions or hypotheses based on the research
problem.
ACTIVITY 1.-
Identify a research problem that you are interested in investigating.
5ormulate T$3 research questions or hypotheses based on the research
problem.
41 ANAL8SE AN5 INTERPRET 5ATA
71 COMMUNICATE RESULTS
Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education
REA5INGS
a/ Iitchell% I. and Folley% F. 1esearch esign @4plained *+,HH/.
;ew <ork7 :olt% 1inehart and $inston. *hapter %+ ,enerating the research
hypothesis. +.=?K.
b/ $. )org G I. )org% *+,HH/% @ducational 1esearch7 &n Introduction. ;ew <ork7
!ongman. *hapter )+ The research problem- research plan and pilot study. -+=+EK.

c/ (erlinger% 5. *+,,E/. 5oundations of )ehavioural 1esearch. ;ew <ork7 &llyn and
)acon. *hapter )+ *onstructs- ariables and definitions. %.'/0.
+J | P a g e
5ISCUSSION >UESTIONS*
+/ $rite down your definition of research.
2/ Auggest how you will go about finding a research problem that you
propose to investigate.
?/ iscuss some educational research you have readD
6,o to 1igital 2ibrary and click on "ProNuest# which has a good
collection of journals in education>
./ !ist the current thinking on research in your area of interest.