Assignments

Communication Technology (MC 0018)

Amitava Mudi, MCA – 4
th

Semester, Roll Number: 510545511, LC Code 1608

Assignments MCA Semester 4

1

Table of Contents

1 Assignment Set 1..........................................................3
1.1 Describe the principles and layers of digital communication systems.......................................................................................3 1.2 With respect to Time Division Multiplexing discuss the following:. 4 1.3 Explain the theory of Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)......................4 1.4 Write about LOS propagation on Flat Earth, Effects of atmosphere, and LOS Microwave systems..................................5 1.5 Describe Space Craft Subsystems with respect to Satellite communications..........................................................................6 1.6 Explain in detail the structure and characteristics of optical fibers with emphasis on their important parameters............................6 2.1 Write about ..................................................................................8 2.2 An audio signal consists of a sinusoidal term v(t) = 3 cos 3140t. 9 2.3 Explain in detail Frequency Shift Keying with Bell – type 103 FSK Modem......................................................................................10 2.4 Write about:................................................................................11 2.5 Write about the following with respect to:..................................12 2.6 Explain the principle of operation and characteristics of the following:..................................................................................13

2 Assignments Set 2........................................................8

Assignments MCA Semester 4

2

1
1.1

Assignment Set 1
Describe the principles and layers of digital communication systems.
There are four layer of digital communication;
¾

Protocol - In the field of telecommunications, a communications protocol is the set of standard rules for data representation, signaling, authentication and error detection required to send information over a communications channel. An example of a simple communications protocol adapted to voice communication is the case of a radio dispatcher talking to mobile stations. Communication protocols for digital computer network communication have features intended to ensure reliable interchange of data over an imperfect communication channel. Communication protocol is basically following certain rules so that the system works properly. Coding - In digital communications, a channel code is a broadly used term mostly referring to the forward error correction code and bit interleaving in communication and storage where the communication media or storage media is viewed as a channel. The channel code is used to protect data sent over it for storage or retrieval even in the presence of noise (errors). Sometimes channel coding also refers to other physical layer issues such as digital modulation, line coding, clock recovery, pulse shaping, channel equalization, bit synchronization, training sequences, etc. Channel coding is distinguished from source coding, i.e., digitalization of analog message signals and data compression.

¾

¾

Format – is responsible for adding additional information about the message such as who is it for, how long it is, and where it ends. Format also provides framing and additional information that helps the receiver determine if the message, as received, contain any errors. Modulation - Modulation is the process of transforming a message signal to make it easier to work with. It usually involves varying one waveform in relation to another waveform. In telecommunications, modulation is used to convey a message, or a musician may modulate the tone from a musical instrument by varying its volume, timing and pitch. In radio communications for instance, electrical signals are best received when the transmitter and receiver are tuned to resonance. Therefore keeping the frequency content of the message signal as close as possible to the resonant frequency of the two is ideal. Often a high-frequency sinusoid waveform is used as carrier signal to convey a lower frequency signal. The three key parameters of a sine wave are its amplitude ("volume"), its phase ("timing") and its frequency

¾

Assignments MCA Semester 4

3

("pitch"), all of which can be modified in accordance with a low frequency information signal to obtain the modulated signal. A device that performs modulation is known as a modulator and a device that performs the inverse operation of modulation is known as a demodulator (sometimes detector or demod). A device that can do both operations is a modem (short for "Modulator-Demodulator").

1.2

With respect to Time Division Multiplexing discuss the following:
¾

T1 Digital Systems - Digital signal 1, also known as T1, is a T-carrier signaling scheme devised by Bell Labs. DS1 is a widely used standard in telecommunications all over the world. A DS1 circuit is made up of twenty-four 8-bit channels (also known as timeslots or DS0s), each channel being a 64 kbit/s DS0 multiplexed carrier circuit. A DS1 is also a full-duplex circuit, which means the circuit transmits and receives 1.544 Mbit/s concurrently. A total of 1.536 Mbit/s of bandwidth is achieved by sampling each of the twenty-four 8-bit DS0s 8000 times per second. This sampling is referred to as 8-kHz sampling. An additional 8 kbit/s of overhead is obtained from the placement of one framing bit. Signaling - In a telecommunications network, the information exchange concerning the establishment and control of a connection and the management of the network is called signaling. In the public switched telephone network, (PSTN), in-band signaling is the exchange of signaling (call control) information within the same channel that the telephone call itself is using. An example is DTMF 'Dual-Tone multifrequency' signaling, which is used on most telephone lines to exchanges. Out-of-band signaling is telecommunication signaling (exchange of information in order to control a telephone call) that is done on a channel that is dedicated for the purpose and separate from the channels used for the telephone call. Out-of-band signaling is used in Signaling System #7 (SS7), the standard for signaling among exchanges that has controlled most of the world's phone calls for several years.

¾

1.3

Explain the theory of Pulse Code Modulation (PCM).
Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a digital representation of an analog signal where the magnitude of the signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, then quantized to a series of symbols in a numeric (usually binary) code. PCM has been widely used in digital telephone systems.

Assignments MCA Semester 4

4

A sine wave is sampled and quantized for PCM. The sine wave is sampled at regular intervals. For each sample, one of the available values is chosen by some algorithm, usually the floor function is used. This produces a fully discrete representation of the input signal (shaded area) that can be easily encoded as digital data for storage or manipulation. This is modulation of the input signal. To produce output from the sampled data, the procedure of modulation is applied in reverse. After each sampling period has passed, the next value is read and a signal is shifted to the new value. As a result of these transitions, the signal will have a significant amount of high-frequency energy. To smooth out the signal and remove these undesirable aliasing frequencies, the signal would be passed through analog filters that suppress energy outside the expected frequency range.

1.4

Write about LOS propagation on Flat Earth, Effects of atmosphere, and LOS Microwave systems
Line-of-sight propagation refers to electro-magnetic radiation or acoustic wave propagation. Electromagnetic transmission includes light emissions traveling in a straight line. The rays or waves may be diffracted, refracted, reflected, or absorbed by atmosphere and obstructions with material and generally cannot travel over the horizon or behind obstacles. Especially radio signals, like all electromagnetic radiation including light emissions, travel in straight lines. At low frequencies (below approximately 2 MHz or so) these signals travel as ground waves, which follow the Earth's curvature due to diffraction with the layers of atmosphere. This enables AM radio signals in low-noise environments to be received well after the transmitting antenna has dropped below the horizon. Additionally, frequencies between approximately 1 and 30 MHz, can be reflected by the F1/F2 Layer, thus giving radio transmissions in this range a potentially global reach (see shortwave radio), again along multiply deflected straight lines. The effects of multiple diffraction or reflection lead to macroscopically "quasi-curved paths". However, at higher frequencies and in lower levels of the atmosphere, neither of these effects applies. Thus any obstruction between the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna will block the signal, just like the light that the eye may sense. Therefore, as the ability to visual sight a transmitting antenna (with regards to the limitations of the eye's resolution) roughly corresponds with the ability to receive a signal from it, the propagation characteristic of high-frequency radio is called "line-ofsight". The farthest possible point of propagation is referred to as the "radio horizon". In practice, the propagation characteristics of these radio waves vary substantially depending on the exact frequency and the strength of the transmitted signal (a function of both the transmitter and the antenna

Assignments MCA Semester 4

5

characteristics). Broadcast FM radio, at comparatively low frequencies of around 100 MHz, easily propagates through buildings and forests.

1.5

Describe Space Craft Subsystems with respect to Satellite communications.
Band Pass Filter Low Noise Amplifier(LNA) Frequency Down Converter Pre-amplifier Power Amplifier

Local Oscillator

Figure 1

Transponder

Communication subsystem is a major subsystem in a satellite. The satellite acts as a repeater & hence needs and transmitter and receiver. The transmitter – receiver set is known as “transponder”. A communication satellite has one or more antennas & many transponders. A typical single conversion type transponder is as shown in the block diagram above. Antenna subsystem: This is a part of communication subsystem. Satellite has very complex antenna system and is designed to cover the earth surface. Antenna is designed to focus to the distant desired location. It is highly directional. High efficiency of the antenna ensures that lower cost of equipment at the receiving end as well as higher capacity of transmission.

1.6

Explain in detail the structure and characteristics of optical fibers with emphasis on their important parameters.
Structure and Characteristics of Optical Fibers An optical fiber is a cylindrical dielectric waveguide (no conducting waveguide) that transmits light along its axis, by the process of total internal reflection. The fiber consists of a core surrounded by a cladding layer, both of which are made of dielectric materials. To confine the optical signal in the core, the refractive index of the core must be greater than that of the cladding. The boundary between the core and cladding may either be abrupt, in step-index fiber, or gradual, in graded-index fiber. An optical fiber consists of a core, cladding, and a buffer (a protective outer coating), in which the cladding guides the light along the core by using the method of total internal reflection. The core and the cladding (which has a lower-refractive-index) are usually made of high-quality silica glass, although they can both be made of plastic as well. Connecting two optical fibers is done by fusion splicing or mechanical splicing and requires

Assignments MCA Semester 4

6

special skills and interconnection technology due to the microscopic precision required to align the fiber cores.

Figure 2

Optical fiber cable

Important parameters of Optical Fibers Following are the important parameters of fibers 1. Numerical Aperture 2. Index difference (δ ) 3. Normalized frequency or V number 4. Attenuation of the fiber

Assignments MCA Semester 4

7

2
2.1

Assignments Set 2
Write about
Quantization Quantization is the procedure of constraining something from a continuous set of values (such as the real numbers) to a discrete set (such as the integers). In digital signal processing, quantization is the process of approximating ("mapping") a continuous range of values (or a very large set of possible discrete values) by a relatively small ("finite") set of ("values which can still take on continuous range") discrete symbols or integer values. For example, rounding a real number in the interval [0,100] to an integer In other words, quantization can be described as a mapping that represents a finite continuous interval I = [a, b] of the range of a continuous valued signal, with a single number c, which is also on that interval. For example, rounding to the nearest integer (rounding ½ up) replaces the interval [c − .5,c + .5) with the number c, for integer c. After that quantization we produce a finite set of values which can be encoded by binary techniques for example. In signal processing, quantization refers to approximating the output by one of a discrete and finite set of values, while replacing the input by a discrete set is called discretization, and is done by sampling: the resulting sampled signal is called a discrete signal (discrete time), and need not be quantized (it can have continuous values). To produce a digital signal (discrete time and discrete values), one both samples (discrete time) and quantizes the resulting sample values (discrete values). Time Division Multiplexing Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a type of digital or (rarely) analogue multiplexing in which two or more signals or bit streams are transferred apparently simultaneously as sub-channels in one communication channel, but are physically taking turns on the channel. The time domain is divided into several recurrent timeslots of fixed length, one for each sub-channel. A sample byte or data block of sub-channel 1 is transmitted during timeslot 1, sub-channel 2 during timeslot 2, etc. One TDM frame consists of one timeslot per sub-channel. After the last sub-channel the cycle starts all over again with a new frame, starting with the second sample, byte or data block from sub-channel 1, etc. Vocoders A vocoder is a combination of the words voice and encoder) is an analysis / synthesis system, mostly used for speech. In the encoder, the input is passed through a multiband filter, each band is passed through an

Assignments MCA Semester 4

8

envelope follower, and the control signals from the envelope followers are communicated to the decoder. The decoder applies these (amplitude) control signals to corresponding filters in the (re)synthesizer. It was originally developed as a speech coder for telecommunications applications in the 1930s, the idea being to code speech for transmission. Its primary use in this fashion is for secure radio communication, where voice has to be encrypted and then transmitted. The advantage of this method of "encryption" is that no 'signal' is sent, but rather envelopes of the band pass filters. The receiving unit needs to be set up in the same channel configuration to re-synthesize a version of the original signal spectrum. The vocoder as both hardware and software has also been used extensively as an electronic musical instrument.

2.2

An audio signal consists of a sinusoidal term v(t) = 3 cos 3140t.
¾ ¾

(a) Find the signal to quantization noise ratio using 10-bit PCM. (b) How many bits are required to achieve a signal to quantization noise ratio of at least 40dB?

The signal to quantization ration is given by the equation [S0/Nq]db = 10 log10 [S0/Nq] = 10 log10 22n = 6N Where S0 ~= Si = 32/2 = 4.5 watts. (‘.’ The maximum amplitude = 3V) Nq = S2 / 12; where S is the step size. Since maximum amplitude is 3V, the swing of the signal is from -3 to +3 volts, that is 6 V. Moreover S = (VH-VL)/M = (VH-VL)/2N where N is the number of bits used for encoding. Since N = 10, & VH-VL = 6 we have S = 6/210 = 5.86 X 10-3 and Nq = (5.6 X 10-3)/12 = 4.88x10-7 SNR = 4.5/(4.88x10-7) = 9.22x106 SNR in dB = 10 log (9.22x106) = 69.6 dB So/ (S2 / 12) < 104 With So ~= Si = 4.5 we have S < ((12x4.5)/104)1/2 = 7.34 x 10-2 With S = 6/2N where N is the number of bits required for quantization, We have to choose N such a way that S < 7.34 x 10-2 .‘. 2N > 81.6

Assignments MCA Semester 4

9

With N = 6, we have 64 levels; with N = 7 we have 128 levels which satisfies the condition. Therefore we need to encode as 7 bits to achieve the required SNR of not less than 40 dB.

2.3

Explain in detail Frequency Shift Keying with Bell – type 103 FSK Modem
Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is a frequency modulation scheme in which digital information is transmitted through discrete frequency changes of a carrier wave. The simplest FSK is binary FSK (BFSK). BFSK literally implies using a couple of discrete frequencies to transmit binary (0s and 1s) information. With this scheme, the "1" is called the mark frequency and the "0" is called the space frequency.

Figure 3
Source Computer

FSK example
FSK Modem Telephone Channel FSK Modem Destination Computer

Digital Data

Dial up Phone Line

Digital data

Figure 4

Computer communication using FSK signaling

Table 1

Standard frequencies used for Bell-103 modem
Originate Modem Answer Modem

Transmit frequencies Binary 1 Binary 0 F=1270 Hz F=1070 Hz F=2225 Hz F=2025 Hz

Assignments MCA Semester 4

10

Originate Modem Receive frequencies Binary 1 Binary 0 F=2225 Hz F=2025 Hz

Answer Modem

F=1270 Hz F=1070 Hz

2.4

Write about:
Antennas and Associated Equipments A communications satellite (sometimes abbreviated to COMSAT) is an artificial satellite stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications. Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits including geostationary orbits, Molniya orbits, other elliptical orbits and low (polar and non-polar) Earth orbits. For fixed (point-to-point) services, communications satellites provide a microwave radio relay technology complementary to that of submarine communication cables. They are also used for mobile applications such as communications to ships, vehicles, planes and hand-held terminals, and for TV and radio broadcasting, for which application of other technologies, such as cable, is impractical or impossible. Satellite has very complex antenna system and is designed to cover the earth surface. Antenna is designed to focus to the distant desired location. It is highly directional. High efficiency of the antenna ensures that lower cost of equipment at the receiving end as well as higher capacity of transmission. The receiver and transmitter associated with the antenna are called transponders. Multiplexing and Modulation techniques
¾

Modulation
♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) Pulse-width modulation (PWM) Pulse-position modulation (PPM) Pulse-code modulation (PCM) Differential PCM (DPCM) Adaptive DPCM (ADPCM) Delta modulation (DM or Δ-modulation) Sigma-delta modulation (∑Δ)

Analog-over-digital methods:

Assignments MCA Semester 4

11

♦ ♦
¾

Continuously variable slope delta modulation (CVSDM), also called Adaptive-delta modulation (ADM) Pulse-density modulation (PDM) FDM - Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is a form of signal multiplexing which involves assigning non-overlapping frequency ranges to different signals or to each "user" of a medium. TDM - Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a type of digital or (rarely) analogue multiplexing in which two or more signals or bit streams are transferred apparently simultaneously as subchannels in one communication channel, but are physically taking turns on the channel. The time domain is divided into several recurrent timeslots of fixed length, one for each sub-channel. A sample byte or data block of sub-channel 1 is transmitted during timeslot 1, sub-channel 2 during timeslot 2, etc. One TDM frame consists of one timeslot per sub-channel. After the last subchannel the cycle starts all over again with a new frame, starting with the second sample, byte or data block from sub-channel 1, etc.

Multiplexing

Tropospheric Forward Scatter Systems At VHF and higher frequencies, small variation (turbulence) in the density of the atmosphere at a height of around 6 miles (10 km) can scatter some of the normally line-of-sight beam of radio frequency energy back toward the ground, allowing over-the-horizon communication between stations as far as 500 miles (800 km) apart.

2.5

Write about the following with respect to:
Advantages of Optical Fiber Communications
¾

Immunity to electromagnetic interference, including nuclear electromagnetic pulses (although fiber can be damaged by alpha and beta radiation). High electrical resistance, making it safe to use near high-voltage equipment or between areas with different earth potentials. Lighter weight—important, for example, in aircraft. No sparks—important in flammable or explosive gas environments. Not electromagnetically radiating (low loss), and difficult to tap without disrupting the signal—important in high-security environments. Much smaller cable size—important where pathway is limited, such as networking an existing building, where smaller channels can be drilled and space can be saved in existing cable ducts and trays.

¾ ¾ ¾ ¾

¾

Assignments MCA Semester 4

12

Structure and Characteristics of Optical Fibers An optical fiber consists of a core, cladding, and a buffer (a protective outer coating), in which the cladding guides the light along the core by using the method of total internal reflection. The core and the cladding (which has a lower-refractive-index) are usually made of high-quality silica glass, although they can both be made of plastic as well. Connecting two optical fibers is done by fusion splicing or mechanical splicing and requires special skills and interconnection technology due to the microscopic precision required to align the fiber cores. Important parameters of Optical Fibers Following are the important parameters of fibers 5. Numerical Aperture 6. Index difference (δ ) 7. Normalized frequency or V number 8. Attenuation of the fiber

2.6

Explain the principle of operation and characteristics of the following:
Light Emitting Diode A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. The LED is based on the semiconductor diode. When a diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. An LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. Laser Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, LASER (laser), is a mechanism for emitting light within the electromagnetic radiation region of the spectrum, via the process of stimulated emission. The emitted laser light is (usually) a spatially coherent, narrow low-divergence beam, that can be manipulated with lenses. In laser technology, “coherent light” denotes a light source that produces (emits) light of in-step waves of

Assignments MCA Semester 4

13

identical frequency and phase. The laser’s beam of coherent light differentiates it from light sources that emit incoherent light beams, of random phase varying with time and position; whereas the laser light is a narrow-wavelength electromagnetic spectrum monochromatic light; yet, there are lasers that emit a broad spectrum light, or simultaneously, at different wavelengths. Photo Detectors These are used at the receiving end in the communication system. There are two types of light detectors used
¾

Photo diodes - A photodiode is a type of photo detector capable of converting light into either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation. Photodiodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed (to detect vacuum UV or X-rays) or packaged with a window or optical fiber connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device. Many diodes designed for use specifically as a photodiode will also use a PIN junction rather than the typical PN junction.

¾

Avalanche photo diodes – An avalanche photodiode (APD) is a highly sensitive semiconductor electronic device that exploits the photoelectric effect to convert light to electronic signal. APDs can be thought of as photo detectors that provide a built-in first stage of gain through avalanche multiplication. From a functional standpoint, they can be regarded as the semiconductor analogue to photomultipliers. By applying a high reverse bias voltage (typically 100-200 V in silicon), APDs show an internal current gain effect (around 100) due to impact ionization (avalanche effect). However, some silicon APDs employ alternative doping and bevelling techniques compared to traditional APDs that allow greater voltage to be applied (> 1500 V) before breakdown is reached and hence a greater operating gain (> 1000). In general, the higher the reverse voltage the higher the gain.

Assignments MCA Semester 4

14

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful