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# 1

34
In this lecture ...
Solve problems
Ideal cycle analysis of air breathing
engines
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
2
Lect-34
Problem # 1
The following data apply to a turbojet
flying at an altitude where the ambient
conditions are 0.458 bar and 248 K.
Speed of the aircraft: 805 km/h
Compressor pressure ratio: 4:1
Turbine inlet temperature: 1100 K
Nozzle outlet area 0.0935 m
2
Heat of reaction of the fuel: 43 MJ/kg
Find the thrust and TSFC assuming c
p
as
1.005 kJ/kgK and as 1.4
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
3
Lect-34
Ideal cycle for jet engines
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
4
Lect-34
a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Compressor
Diffuser
Combustion chamber/burner
Turbine
Afterburner
Nozzle
Schematic of a turbojet engine and
station numbering scheme
Ideal cycle for jet engines
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
5
Lect-34
s
T
2
4
5
3
a
7
Ideal turbojet cycle (without afterburning)
on a T-s diagram
Solution: Problem # 1
Speed of the aircraft =
805x1000/3600=223.6 m/s
Mach number = 223.6/(RT)
= 223.6/ (1.4x287x248)
= 0.708
Intake:
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
6
Lect-34
bar 639 . 0 ) 248 / 86 . 272 ( 458 . 0
K 86 . 272 708 . 0
2
1 4 . 1
1 248
2
1
1
) 1 4 . 1 /( 4 . 1
) 1 /(
02
02
2 2
02
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
|
.
|

\
|

+ =

a
a
a
T
T
P P
M T T
Solution: Problem # 1
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
7
Lect-34
Compressor:
Combustion chamber: From energy balance,
( ) K 63 . 405 ) 4 ( 86 . 272
bar 556 . 2 639 . 0 4
4 . 1 / ) 1 4 . 1 (
/ ) 1 (
02 03
02 03
= = =
= = =

c
c
T T
P P
017 . 0
63 . 405 / 1100 ) 63 . 405 1005 / 10 43 (
1 63 . 405 / 1100
/ /
1 /
,
6
03 04 03
03 04
03 04
=

=

=
+ =
T T T c Q
T T
f or
fQ h h
p R
R
Solution: Problem # 1
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
8
Lect-34
Turbine: Since the turbine produces work to
drive the compressor, W
turbine
= W
compressor
bar 642 . 1
) 1100 / 45 . 969 ( 556 . 2 Hence,
K 45 . 969 ) 017 . 0 1 /( ) 86 . 272 63 . 405 ( 1100
) 1 /( ) (
) ( ) (
) 1 4 . 1 /( 4 . 1
) 1 /(
04
05
04 05
02 03 04 05
02 03 05 04
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= + =
+ =
=

T
T
P P
f T T T T
T T c m T T c m
p a p t

Solution: Problem # 1
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
9
Lect-34
Nozzle: we first check for choking of the
nozzle.
The nozzle pressure ratio is
P
05
/P
a
=1.642/0.458=3.58
The critical pressure ratio is
Therefore the nozzle is choking.
The nozzle exit conditions will be determined
by the critical properties.
893 . 1
2
1 4 . 1
2
1
) 1 4 . 1 /( 4 . 1 ) 1 /(
*
05
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(

+
=

P
P
Solution: Problem # 1
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
10
Lect-34
kg/s 92 . 19 is, rate flow mass The
m/s 75 . 569 92 . 807 287 4 . 1 u Therefore,
kg/m 374 . 0 ) 92 . 807 287 /( 10 867 . 0 /
867 . 0
893 . 1
642 . 1
/
1
92 . 807 5 . 969
1 4 . 1
2
1
2
7 7
7 e
3 5
7 7 7
*
04
05
*
7
05
*
7
= =
= = =
= = =
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
=
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
e
u A m
RT
RT P
P P
P P P
K T T T

Solution: Problem # 1
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
11
Lect-34
| |
| |
h kg/N 111 . 0 kg/Ns 10 1 . 3 / TSFC Therefore,
kg/s 3387 . 0 92 . 19 017 . 0 rate, flow Fuel
kN 912 . 10
10 ) 458 . 0 867 . 0 ( 0935 . 0
6 . 223 75 . 569 ) 017 . 0 1 ( 92 . 19
) ( f)u (1 m is developed thrust The
5
5
*
7 e
= = =
= = =
=
+
+ =
+ + =

f
a f
a
m
m f m
P P A u

Problem # 2
The following data apply to a twin spool turbofan
engine, with the fan driven by the LP turbine and
the compressor by the HP turbine. Separate hot
and cold nozzles are used.
Overall pressure ratio: 19.0
Fan pressure ratio: 1.65
Bypass ratio: 3.0
Turbine inlet temperature: 1300 K
Air mass flow: 115 kg/s
Find the sea level static thrust and TSFC if the
ambient pressure and temperature are 1 bar and
288 K. Heat of reaction of the fuel: 43 MJ/kg
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
12
Lect-34
Ideal turbofan engine
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
13
Lect-34
Schematic of an unmixed turbofan
engine and station numbering scheme
a 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
3 7
Compressor
Diffuser
Combustion chamber/burner
Turbine
Primary nozzle
Fan
Secondary
nozzle
2
Solution: Problem # 2
Since we are required to find the static
thrust, the Mach number is zero.
Intake:
Fan: Fan pressure ratio is known:
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
14
Lect-34
bar 1
K 288
2
1
1
) 1 /(
' 02
' 02
2
' 02
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
.
|

\
|

+ =

a
a
a
T
T
P P
M T T
' 02 ' 03
/ P P
f
=
( ) K 35 . 332 ) 65 . 1 ( 288
bar 65 . 1
4 . 1 / ) 1 4 . 1 (
/ ) 1 (
' 02 ' 03
' 02 ' 03
= = =
= =

f
f
T T
P P
Solution: Problem # 2
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
15
Lect-34
Compressor:
Combustion chamber: From energy balance,
( ) K 53 . 668 ) 515 . 11 ( 35 . 332
bar 0 . 19 65 . 1 5151 . 11
515 . 11 65 . 1 / 19 ratio/1.65 pressure Overall
4 . 1 / ) 1 4 . 1 (
/ ) 1 (
02 03
02 03
= = =
= = =
= = =

c
c
c
T T
P P
01522 . 0
53 . 668 / 1300 ) 53 . 668 1005 / 10 43 (
1 53 . 668 / 1300
/ /
1 /
6
03 04 03
03 04
=

=

=
T T T c Q
T T
f
p R
Solution: Problem # 2
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
16
Lect-34
High pressure turbine:
bar 79 . 6
1300
04 . 969
19 Hence,
K 04 . 969 ) 01522 . 0 1 /( ) 53 . 332 53 . 668 ( 1300
) 1 /( ) (
exit. HPT at the re temperatu the is Here,
) ( ) (
) 1 4 . 1 /( 4 . 1
) 1 /(
04
' 05
04 ' 05
02 03 04 ' 05
' 05
02 03 ' 05 04
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= + =
+ =
=

T
T
P P
f T T T T
T
T T c m T T c m
p aH p t

Solution: Problem # 2
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
17
Lect-34
Low pressure turbine:
bar 08 . 4
04 . 969
98 . 837
79 . 6 And,
K 98 . 837 ) 01522 . 0 1 /( ) 288 35 . 332 ( 3 04 . 969
where, ), 1 /( ) (
inlet. exit/LPT HPT at the re temperatu the is Here,
) ( ) (
) 1 4 . 1 /( 4 . 1
) 1 /(
' 05
05
' 05 05
' 02 ' 03 ' 05 05
' 05
' 02 ' 03 05 ' 05
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= + =
= + =
=

T
T
P P
m
m
f T T T T
T
T T c m T T c m
aH
aC
p aC p t

Solution: Problem # 2
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
18
Lect-34
Primary nozzle: we first check for choking of
the nozzle.
The nozzle pressure ratio is
P
05
/P
a
=4.08/1=4.08 bar
The critical pressure ratio is
Therefore the nozzle is choking.
The nozzle exit conditions will be determined
by the critical properties.
893 . 1
2
1 4 . 1
2
1
) 1 4 . 1 /( 4 . 1 ) 1 /(
*
05
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(

+
=

P
P
Solution: Problem # 2
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
19
Lect-34
m/s 7 . 529 32 . 698 287 4 . 1 u Therefore,
bar 155 . 2
893 . 1
08 . 4
/
1
K 32 . 698 98 . 837
1 4 . 1
2
1
2
7 e
*
05
05
*
7
05
*
7
= = =
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
=
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
= =
RT
P P
P P P
T T T

Solution: Problem # 2
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
20
Lect-34
Secondary nozzle:
The nozzle pressure ratio is
P
03
/P
a
=1.65/1=1.65 bar
The critical pressure ratio is
Therefore the nozzle is not choking.
893 . 1
2
1 4 . 1
2
1
) 1 4 . 1 /( 4 . 1 ) 1 /(
*
05
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
(

+
=

P
P
( ) | |
| | 52 . 298 ) 65 . 1 / 1 ( 1 35 . 332 1005 2
/ 1 2
4 . 1 / ) 1 4 . 1 (
/ ) 1 (
' 03 ' 03
= =
=

P P T c u
a p ef
Solution: Problem # 2
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
21
Lect-34
Thrust,
| |
kN 74 . 40
) 0 52 . 298 ( 75 . 28 3
] 0 7 . 529 ) 01522 . 0 1 [( 75 . 28
kg/s 75 . 28 4 / 115
kg/s 115 , 0 . 3 /
. negligible be to ) ( assuming
) ( ) 1 (
=
+
+ =
= =
= + =

+ + =
aH
aC aH aH aC
e a e
ef aH e aH
m
m m m m
A P P
u u m u u f m

Solution: Problem # 2
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
22
Lect-34
Exercise: calculate the thrust by factoring the
pressure thrust term as well. Hint: you can
calculate the exit area from mass flow, density
and exhaust velocity.
TSFC,
h kg/N 0388 . 0 kg/Ns 10 075 . 1 / TSFC Therefore,
kg/s 4376 . 0 75 . 28 01522 . 0 rate, flow Fuel
5
= = =
= = =

f
a f
m
m f m

Problem # 3
A helicopter using a turboshaft engine is
flying at 300 km/h at an altitude where the
ambient temperature is 5
o
C. Determine the
specific power output and thermal
efficiency. The specifications of the engine
are: compressor pressure ratio=9.0,
turbine inlet temperature = 800
o
C.
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
23
Lect-34
Problem # 3
For a turboshaft engine, there is no nozzle thrust.
u=300x1000/3600= 83.33 m/s
T
a
=278 K
Therefore, Mach number
M=83.33/(1.4x287x278) =0.25
Intake:
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
24
Lect-34
bar 835 . 0
278
48 . 281
8 . 0
K 48 . 281 25 . 0
2
1 - 1.4
1 278
2
1
1
) 1 4 . 1 /( 4 . 1
) 1 /(
02
02
2 2
02
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
.
|

\
|

+ =

a
a
a
T
T
P P
M T T
Problem # 3
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
25
Lect-34
Compressor:
Combustor:
( )
kJ /kg 42 . 247 ) 48 . 281 67 . 527 ( 005 . 1 ) (
, compressor the drive to required work Specific
K 67 . 527 ) 0 . 9 ( 48 . 281
bar 52 . 7 835 . 0 0 . 9
02 03
4 . 1 / ) 1 4 . 1 (
/ ) 1 (
02 03
02 03
= = =
= = =
= = =

T T c W
T T
P P
p c
c
c

013 . 0
67 . 527 / 1073 ) 67 . 527 1005 / 10 43 (
1 67 . 527 / 1073
/ /
1 /
6
03 04 03
03 04
=

=

=
T T T c Q
T T
f
p R
Problem # 3
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
26
Lect-34
Turbine:
kJ /kg 54 . 516
) 63 . 565 1073 ( 005 . 1 ) 013 . 0 1 (
) ( ) 1 ( turbine, by the done Work
63 . 565
897 . 1 394 . 9
394 . 9
8 . 0
835 . 0
9
05 04
05
4 . 1 / ) 1 4 . 1 (
/ ) 1 (
05
04
05
04
02
02
03 03
05
04
=
+ =
+ =
=
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= = = =

T T c f W
K T
P
P
T
T
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
p t
a a

Problem # 3
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
27
Lect-34
Specific work output, W
net
=W
t
W
c
=516.54-247.42
=269.12 kJ/kg
Thermal efficiency: W
net
/Q
in
Q
in
=c
p
(T
04
-T
03
)= 1.005(1073-527.67)
=548.05 kJ/kg
Therefore, thermal efficiency =269.12/548.05
=0.49 or 49%
Exercise Problem # 1
A turbojet engine inducts 51 kg of air per
second and propels an aircraft with a
uniform flight speed of 912 km/h. The
enthalpy change for the nozzle is 200
kJ/kg. The fuel-air ratio is 0.0119 and the
heating value of the fuel is 42 MJ/kg.
Determine the thermal efficiency, TSFC,
propulsive power.
Ans: 0.34, 0.1034 kg/Nh, 8012 kW.
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
28
Lect-34
Exercise Problem # 2
A twin spool mixed turbofan engine
operates with an overall pressure ratio of
18. The fan operates with a pressure ratio
is 1.5 and the bypass ratio is 5.0. The
turbine inlet temperature is 1200 K. If the
engine is operating at a Mach number of
0.75 at an altitude where the ambient
temperature and pressure are 240 K and
0.5 bar.
Determine the thrust and the SFC.
Ans: 74 kN, 0.027 kg/N h
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
29
Lect-34
Exercise Problem # 3
An aircraft using a turboprop engine is
flying at 800 km/h at an altitude where the
ambient conditions are 0.567 bar and -
20
o
C. Compressor pressure ratio is 8.0 and
the turbine inlet temperature is 1100 K.
Assuming that the turboprop does not
generate any nozzle thrust, determine the
specific power output and the thermal
efficiency.
Ans: 311 kJ/kg, 0.44
Prof. Bhaskar Roy, Prof. A M Pradeep, Department of Aerospace, IIT Bombay
30
Lect-34