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Superplasticity is defined as a state in which a solid crystalline material

is deformed well beyond its typical breaking point, often exceeding 1000%
during tension.
Achieved in some fine-grained metals and ceramics at ~ 0.5 T
Requirements for superplasticity:
fine grain size, typically 1-10 m,
a fine dispersion of thermally stable particles that act to pin the
grain boundaries and
maintain the fine grain structure at the high temperatures.
The materials must also have a high strain rate sensitivity (>0.5) which
prevents localized deformation at a reduced cross-section (necking).
At the macroscopic scale, a superplastically deformed material
experiences uniform deformation, rather than localized necking, preceding
Superplastic tensile deformation in Pb62% Sn eutectic alloy tested at 415 K and a strain rate of 1.33
104 s1; total strain of 48.5. (From M. M. I. Ahmed and T. G. Langdon, Met. Trans. A, 8 (1977) 1832.)
Superplastic Deformation: Processes Used
1. Thermoforming
2. Blow Forming
3. Vacuum Forming
(a) Schematic representation of plastic deformation in tension with formation and inhibition of necking.
(b) Engineering-stressengineering-strain curves.
Plastic Deformation and Superplasticity
Strain-rate dependence of (a) stress and (b) strain-rate sensitivity for MgAl eutectic alloy tested at 350
C (grain size 10 m). (After D. Lee, Acta. Met., 17 (1969) 1057.)
Strain-Rate Dependence in Superplastic Region
Tensile fracture strain and stress as a function of strain rate for Zr22% Al alloy with 2.5-m grain size.
(After F. A. Mohamed, M. M. I. Ahmed, and T. G. Langdon, Met. Trans. A, 8 (1977) 933.)
Tensile Fracture Strain in Superplastic region
Effect of strain-rate sensitivity m on maximum tensile elongation for different alloys (Fe, Mg, Pu, PbSr,
Ti, Zn, Zr based).
(From D. M. R. Taplin, G. L. Dunlop, and T. G. Langdon, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci., 9 (1979) 151.)
Effect of Strain Rate Sensitivity on
Superplasticity for Different Alloys
Cavitation in superplasticity formed 7475-T6 aluminum alloy ( = 3.5) at 475 C and 5 104 s1. (a)
Atmospheric pressure. (b) Hydrostatic pressure P = 4 MPa.
Cavitation in Superplasticity
Effect of grain size on elongation:
(A) Initial configuration.
(B) Large grains.
(C) Fine grains (10 m)
(Reprinted with permission from N. E. Paton, C.
H. Hamilton, J. Wert, and M. Mahoney, J. Metal,
34 (1981) No. 8, 21)
Effect of Grain Size on Elongation
Failure strains increase with superimposed
hydrostatic pressure (from 0 to 5.6 MPa)
Effect of Grain Size on Elongation