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Applied Rheology 5

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Processing

• The development of mathematical

relationship between the input

parameters and the corresponding

response variables, which will describe

all the factors of material deformation, is

an impossible proposition.

Rheological and Constitutive equations.

•Theoretical rheologists however, have

developed some generalized constitutive

equations like Criminale-Erickson-Filbey

(CEF) and Goddard-Miller (G-M)

equations.

•These equations however fall seriously

short of actual practical applications.

• Practical rubber and plastic scientists,

engineers and technologists therefore

rely mostly on developing the empirical

correlations based on the experimental

data, and there are a large number of

such relationships available in the

literature.

Rheological and Constitutive equations…

Some important empirical correlations,

their applicability and limitations

Rheological and Constitutive equations…

•The flow of polymer melts and

solutions invariably show shear thinning

or pseudoplastic nature having three

distinct regions,

i) Low shear rate or the lower or intial

Newtonian region of constant

viscosity (SectionAB)

ii) Intermediate rate of shear or shear -

thinning region of falling viscosity

(Section CD)

iii) High shear rate or the upper

Newtonian region of constant

viscosity (Section EF)

The small sections in the curve, i.e., BC

and DE represents the inflection

regions where the slope of the

curve varies in the nonlinear

fashion.

Variation of viscosity with rate of

shear

Pseudoplastic fluids

Rheological and Constitutive equations…

• Polymer solutions and low molecular weight melts show all

the three regions but high mol. wt. polymer melts develop

melt fracture in the high shear region and may not show the

upper Newtonian region.

•The development of rheological empirical correlations has

centered on the basic nature of flow with additional

parameters to describe other variations like occurrence of

yield stress or time and temperature dependency.

•Both the constant viscosity regions are well described by

one parameter Newton’s law of viscosity for incompressible

fluids.

Pseudoplastic fluids

Rheological and Constitutive equations…

•To describe the behaviour of non-Newtonian fluids a number

of empirical correlations have been proposed by different

workers.

•The complexity of these equations varies depending on the

rate of shear range the data covers.

•These correlations can be broadly categorized as

i. Two parameter models

ii. Three parameter models

iii. Four parameter models

iv. Generalized correlations and

v. Polynomial equations.

Rheological and Constitutive equations…

Two - parameter models

These models contain two adjustable material parameters, which

depend on temperature, concentration (for solutions) and the

filler loading (for filled systems)

i) Ostwald de waele or power law model

K - consistency index

n - non newtonian or flow behaviour index

τ - shear stress

γ

.

- rate of shear

For n < 1 the fluid is pseudoplastic

n = 1 the fluid is newtonian

n > 1 the fluid is dilatant

τ = k (γ

.

)

n

…..(1)

Rheological and Constitutive equations…

i) Ostwald de waele or power law model

•When equation 1 is plotted on a double log scale gives a

straight line with a slope of n and an intercept of k.

• The apparent viscosity ɳ

a

can be calculated as

ɳ

a

= τ/ γ

.

= k (γ

.

)

n-1

................(2)

•This equation shows the viscosity to be function of γ

.

such that

it will increase with γ

.

for n > 1 and decrease for n < 1

•The equation (1) gives a good data fit for a large number polymer

and rubber melts, polymer solutions, low to moderately filled rubber

in the intermediate range of rate of shear.

•Depending on the material the intermediate range i.e. between 10

-1

to 10

5

S

-1

. In the low and high shear region the power law model

deviates considerably from the experimental data and should not be

extended to these ranges at all.

•To describe the behavior in these zones other equations have been

developed.

Rheological and Constitutive equations…

Two - parameter models

ii) Eyring Prandtl model

This model has been derived from the Eying kinetic theory of

liquids and is applicable only to the pseudoplastic fluids in the

low and intermediate shear region. The equation is

τ = Asin h

-1

{(-1/B) γ

.

}

Where Aand B are two adjustable parameters as

As

γ

.

0, ɳ

a

A/B (constant), giving the

Newtonian behavior at low shear rate. This equation is

unable to predict the high shear rate behavior

Rheological and Constitutive equations…

Two - parameter models

iii) Bingham model

This model describes the fluids, which show the yield stress and

then flow as Newtonian fluids. Such liquids are known as

Bingham plastic fluids and follow the below two equations

τ - τ

y

= β γ

.

for τ = τ

y

γ

.

= 0 for τ < τ

y

τ

y

is the yield stress and

β is the consistency index or the coefficient of rigidity or the coefficient

of plastic viscosity.

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