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ChE234 Thermodynamics

Overview

Module 1: Basic Concepts of
Thermodynamics
Bernard Gallois
Office: Burchard 410
Telephone: 201-216-5041
E-mail: bgallois@stevens.edu
• Office Hours, Burchard 410
Posted on Moodle
• Exam Schedule
Posted on Moodle
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Introduction
• Goal Today:
–What is the course about?
–What and how will I learn?
–What are the tools, methods and
structured approaches that we will be
using?
• Get started

3
What Will You Achieve in this
Course?
1. To learn the fundamental concepts of
thermodynamics
2. To develop an intuitive understanding of the subject
matter by emphasizing the physics and physical
arguments
3. To master these basic principles and concepts by
applying this knowledge to a wealth of real-world
engineering applications through:
4. Structured and logical problem-solving techniques
that you will use in homework assignments and
exams
5. Apply thermodynamics principles to the design of
simple devices and chemical processes

4
Major Course Objective:
• I think, therefore I am.

• Most people would sooner die than
think; in fact, most do so. Bertrand
Russell (1872-1970)

• Think wrongly, if you please, but in all
cases think for yourself. G.E. Lessing
(1729-1781)
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How do we learn?
• In good faith attempts to learn, we
remember:
1
– 10% of what we read
– 20% of what we hear
– 30%of what we read and hear
– 30% of what we see
– 70% of what we say
– 90% of what we teach or do

1

Pike, R., 1989, Creative Training Techniques Handbook, Tips, Techniques and
How-to’s for Delivering Effective Training; Lakewood Books, Minneapolis, MN,
153p.

•1
6
Student Evaluation
•Weekly Exam (4) 30% (lowest dropped)
•Quizzes 20% (lowest dropped)
•Weekly Homework (6) 10% (lowest dropped)
•Final Exam 40%

There will be NO make-up exams.

Any student who gets 90 percent of the total available points
before the final exam (all exams and quizzes BUT not the
homework) will be excused from the final and will be given a
grade of A.

Please consult the Web site for details on student evaluation,
excuses, absences, etc…

Attendance is mandatory: more than 2 absences
from class mean a full letter drop in the final grade.
7
Curriculum Performance Criteria
(ABET)*


• Please consult the Web site for a full
description of the performance criteria.




*Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology
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Moodle Contents
•Overview: student evaluation and policies
regarding excuses, absences, etc.
•Lecture notes
•Solutions of homework problems (posted right
after they are submitted)
•Sample exams and final exam from previous
summer.
•Your grades
•Assignment every week:
– Learning objectives: what you should be able to do
– Reading assignment
– Homework assignments. No late homework will be
accepted.
– Other information


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Final Comments
• You have one week after you
received a grade on a given exam to
get it changed if you consider that a
mistake was made. Please contact
your instructor at the end of the
recitation period.
• There will be NO make-up final exam
and should you miss it, you will need
to take the final exam the next time
the course is offered.
10
Questions?

bgallois@stevens.edu
Burchard 410
x5041

11
Items Highlighted
in Light Blue
Throughout
Are a Must-Know
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13
Thermodynamics and Energy
Therme=Heat Dynamis=Power
• Thermodynamics is a basic engineering science that
deals with energy in all its forms and its
transformations for the design and operation of
energy and other systems.

• The macroscopic approach is called classical
thermodynamics and is used to solve engineering
problems whereas:

• Statistical thermodynamics uses a microscopic
approach based on the average behavior of large
groups of individual particles

14
SOME APPLICATIONS AREAS OF
THERMODYNAMICS
Rationale:
• Energy is the single most important
challenge facing humanity today.” Nobel
Laureate Rick Smalley, April 2004, Testimony
to U.S. Senate
• “What should be the centerpiece of a policy
of American renewal is blindingly obvious:
making a quest for energy independence the
moon shot of our generation“, Thomas L.
Friedman, New York Times, Sept. 23, 2005.
• Whatever your major, energy issues may
play a key role in your career.

15
JUST A FEW PIECES OF DATA ON
ENERGY, FOR NOW
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Global Energy Consumption
17
18
http://nuclearfissionary.com/2010/04/02/comparing-energy-costs-of-nuclear-coal-gas-wind-and-solar/
19
Energy Consumption vs GDP
G
J
/
c
a
p
i
t
a
-
y
r

20
What is Energy?
What definitions would you
give? Think about the various
systems shown on Slide 15
21
22
COW CATCHER: An invention of the Stevens
family
WHEN DID THERMODYNAMICS
START?
23
The Newcomen Engine 1712
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•Used to pump water out of mine
shafts
•One of the first patents of the
industrial revolution
•Very low efficiency
•The valves were operated by a
human operator at about 15
cycles/min
•Pink is hot steam, blue is liquid
water
•Can you figure out how it worked?
25
A much improved Steam Engine of the type one would have
found around 1800+
26
Thermodynamic Systems
• A (thermodynamic) system
is defined as a quantity of
matter or a region of space
chosen for study
• The region outside the
system is called the
surroundings
• The real or imaginary
surface that separates the
system from the
surroundings is called the
boundary
• Systems may be open or
closed

Classification of Boundaries
• The interactions between a system and its surroundings
are governed by the nature of their common boundary.
• Closed system: the boundary is impermeable to mass
flow.
• Open system: the boundary allows for mass transport
across it.
• The boundary can be rigid, movable or imaginary.
• One other set completes the classification: adiabatic and
diathermal boundaries. These boundaries represent
extremes in the rate of heat exchange between the
system and its surroundings. The adiabatic boundary
plays a key role in thermodynamics and we wil return to
it when we introduce the concept of heat
27
Adiabatic and Diathermal Boundaries
Please refer to the next slide
• Consider a rigid closed system (a can!) in which a thermometer has
been inserted. Surround this system with a system having a higher
temperature (dip it in hot water)
• If the can were made of copper the variation of temperature with
time would look like curve 1 on the next slide.
• Curves 2, 3, 4 would result if it was made of steel, glass or asbestos.
• If the container was a thermos bottle (a Dewar), the variation of
temperature with time would be quite small (Curve 5)
• The adiabatic wall is an idealized concept representing the limiting
case A in the figure. In practice, adiabatic boundaries are
approached in many situations especially those in which events
occur rapidly in relation to the time scale of the experiment.
• The diathermal wall is the case diametric to the previous one. The
change in temperature is very rapid in relation to the time scale of
the experiment.
28
Based on : J. Tester and M. Modell, “Thermodynamics and its Applications” 3d
edition, Prentice Hall, p.13
Types of Boundaries
29
Temperature-time behavior for different materials. Limiting
diathermal and adiabatic boundary behavior shown.
From: J. Tester and M. Modell, “Thermodynamics and its Applications” 3d
edition, Prenitce Hall, p.13
Questions
• You inflate a tire with a bicycle pump, under what
conditions would you consider the wall of the pump
to be diathermal? adiabatic?
(Note: The air inside the pump will heat up as you
compress it)
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The first action in considering a problem is to define
the system and, consequently, the location and the
nature of the boundaries:

• Closed or open system (permeable or impermeable
boundary)

• Rigid or movable

• Diathermal or adiabatic
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Defining the System
32
Closed Systems
• Mass cannot cross the
boundaries of a closed
system but energy can
• The boundary of a closed
system can move
• Examples includes sealed
tanks and piston/cylinder
devices
• Energy in the form of heat
and work may cross the
boundaries of a closed
system
33
Open System and Control Volume
• An open system or
control volume has
mass as well as energy
crossing the boundary,
often called the control
surface. The surface
can be real or
imaginary.
• Examples include
pumps, compressors,
turbines, nozzles,
valves and heat
exchangers
• Proper choice of a
control volume can
simplify the analysis of
the system
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Control Volume: Examples
35
Isolated Systems
• An isolated system is a general system of fixed
mass where no heat or work may cross the
boundary.
• It is a closed system with no energy crossing the
boundaries.
• It is normally a collection of a main system and its
surroundings that are exchanging mass and energy
among themselves and no other system.
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Property
• A property is a characteristic of a system in
equilibrium, independent of the path used to
arrive at the system’s condition.
• A property may be intensive or extensive
• Extensive properties depend on the size or
extent of the system. e.g. mass, volume,
total energy, mass dependent property
• Intensive properties are independent of the
size of the system. e.g. temperature,
pressure, color, age, any mass independent
property
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Specific Properties
• How about these properties?
• Density
• Specific volume: volume per unit mass
• Specific energy: energy per unit mass
V
m
= µ
µ
1
= =
m
v
V
m
e
E
=
38
STATE AND EQUILIBRIUM
A system is said to be in thermodynamic equilibrium if
it maintains
othermal, (uniform temperature)
omechanical (uniform pressure)
ophase (the mass of the two phases, e.g. ice and liquid
water, in equilibrium) and
ochemical equilibrium

39
PROCESS
Any change from one state to another is called a process
During a quasi-equilibrium or quasi-static process the
system remains practically in equilibrium at all times.
Can you think of a real engineering process that is quasi-
static? Would that be useful?

We will often assume that processes we analyze are quasi-equilibrium
processes because they are easy to analyze (the equations of state apply)
and work-producing devices deliver the most work when they operate on a
quasi-equilibrium process.
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EXAMPLE: CONSTANT PRESSURE
PROCESS
• In most of the processes
that we will study, one
thermodynamic property
is held constant.
• Isobaric: constant P
• Isothermal: constant T
• Isochoric: constant V
• Isentropic: constant S
(S is entropy, Chapter 6)
At equilibrium, the force
exerted by the water on the
lower face of the piston is
equal to the combined
weight of the brick and
piston (a constant). The
pressure in the tank is thus
a constant even when the
water is heated.
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Processes are best illustrated by a diagram,
a useful approach when solving problems
Using English sentences, you
must be able to define:
• Closed system
• Open system
• Isolated system
• Control volume
• Control surface
• Intensive property
• Extensive property
• State and equilibrium
• Quasi-static or equilibrium process
42
43
The Steady-Flow Process
• During a steady-flow
process, fluid properties
may change with position
but not with time.





• Steady-flow conditions
essentially prevail in many
engineering devices.
Therefore, the volume, the
mass and the energy
content of the control
volume remain constant
during the entire process.
44
STATE POSTULATE
The state of a system is described by its properties. By
experience, not all properties need to be known to specify the
state of the system. In fact, the number of properties required
to fix the state of simple, homogeneous system is given by the
state postulate.
In a simple compressible system, there are no electrical,
magnetic, gravitational, motion or surface tension effects. An
additional property need to be specified for each effect that is
significant.
In a homogeneous substance, the thermodynamic properties
are uniform throughout.



Two properties are independent if one can be varied while the
other is held constant.
The thermodynamic state of a simple
compressible system is completely specified by
two independent intensive properties.
45
CYCLES
• A system is said to have
undergone a cycle if it
returns to its initial state at
the end of the process.
• The illustration shows a
cycle consisting of two
processes.
– Along process A, both P and
V change from state 1 to
state 2.
– To complete the cycle, P and
V change from state 2 to
state 1 in process B.
Keep in mind that all other
thermodynamic properties
must also change so that the
pressure is a function of
volume as described in these
two processes.
46
UNITS
• In this course, we shall use S.I. (Systeme
International) units exclusively.
• The seven fundamental units:
– Length: meter m
– Mass: kilogram kg
– Time: second s
– Temperature: kelvin K
– Amount of light: candela cd
– Electric current: ampere A
– Amount of matter: mole mol
• All other units are derived from the
fundamental units
47
MORE ON UNITS
• Velocity: length/time m/s
• Acceleration: velocity/time m/s
2
• Force: mass x acceleration kg m/s
2
• Pressure: force/area kgm
-1
/s
2
• Work (energy): force x distance kgm
2
/s
2
• Power: work/time kgm
2
s
48
Quantity Derived from: Dimensions Unit
Area L
2
m
2

Volume L
3
m
3

Density Mass/volume ML
-3
kg/m
3

Specific volume Volume/mass M
-1
L
3
m
3
/kg
Velocity Length/time LT
-1
m/s
Acceleration Velocity/time LT
-2
m/s
2

Force Mass x acceler. MLT
-2
N (newton)
Pressure Force/area ML
-1
T
-2
N/m
2

Work or energy Force x length M L
2
T
-2
J (joule)
Power Energy/time M L
2
T
-3
W (watt)
Entropy Energy/temp. M L
2
T
-2
K
-1
J/K
Specific entropy
Specific energy
Entropy/mass
Energy/mass

L
2
T
-2
K
-1

L
2
T
-2


J/kgK
J/kg


49
Temperature and the Zeroth Law of
Thermodynamics
• What is temperature?
• Temperature measurements are based on
predictable and reliable changes in the properties of
materials as they are heated or cooled: expansion/
contraction of metals or other substances,
resistance of platinum, change in color, etc…
• At thermal equilibrium, two bodies have equal
temperatures.
• The zeroth law of thermodynamics states that when
two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third
body, they are also in equilibrium with each other
• If the third body is a thermometer: two bodies are in
thermal equilibrium if both have the same
temperature reading even if they are not in contact
50
The Ideal Gas Temperature Scale
• We need to have a temperature scale that is
independent of the properties of any substance: a
thermodynamic temperature scale, or a kelvin scale
• The ideal gas temperature scale is such a scale.
• At low pressures, T is proportional to P : T= a +bP
• a and b can be determined experimentally with a gas
thermometer by using only two reproducible points
(ice and steam point of water, freezing point of pure
substances) to determine the two unknowns a and b.
• The unknown temperature T of a given medium can
then be determined by interpolation.
• In the Celsius scale, the freezing and boiling points
are assigned values of 0 and 100 respectively.

51
The Absolute Gas Temperature Scale
• When using different types
of gases at low pressures,
plots of P as a function of T
extrapolate to -273.15
o
C, the
lowest attainable
temperature, also called
absolute zero.
• In the absolute gas
temperature scale, T = bP
and the temperature only
needs to be specified at a
single point to define the
absolute gas temperature
scale
52
Temperature Scales

•T(R) = T(
o
F) + 459.67
•T(R) = 1.8 T(K)
The Celsius scale is defined in
terms of a single point, the
triple point of water (0.01
o
C)
and the absolute temperature
scale. The ice point remains
0
o
C (273.15 K) and the boiling
point remains 100
o
C (373.15K)
at one atmosphere pressure.
(The normal temperature of the human
body is 37.1
o
C or 98.8
o
F)


T(K) = T(
o
C) + 273.15
1 K = 1
o
C
T(
o
F) = 1.8 T(
o
C) + 32
The temperature of an ideal monatomic gas is a measure related to
the average kinetic energy of its atoms as they move. In this
animation, the size of helium atoms relative to their spacing is
shown to scale under 1950 atmospheres of pressure. These room-
temperature atoms have a certain, average speed (slowed down
here two trillion fold).
N molecules
Cubic box of side l
Volume V = l
3
Constant temperature

•Spherical elastic particles in
constant random motion
•Elastic collisions with the walls and
between particles.
•The interactions among molecules
are negligible. They exert no forces
on one another except during
collisions.
•The total volume of the individual
gas molecules added up is negligible
compared to the volume of the
container.
Kinetic Theory of Ideal Gas
53
Pressure = Force exerted by molecules on a
surface per unit area
• A gas molecule collides with the wall of the
container perpendicular to the x axis and bounces
off in the opposite direction with the same speed (an
elastic collision). The momentum lost by the particle
and gained by the wall is:

• The particle impacts the wall once every 2l/v
x
time
units and produces a momentum change on the wall
once every 2l/v
x
time units.
• The force on the wall due to the particle is given by


2
x i f x
p p p mv A = ÷ =
2
2
2 /
x x
x
mv mv p
F
t l v l
A
= = =
A
54
Pressure cont.
• The force exerted by N particles of mass m can be written as:



• The pressure is given by



• The total mass of gas is Nm and the density is Nm/V , the
density µ so that


• The pressure is proportional to the density of the gas and the
root mean square velocity.





2
rms
total
mNv
F
l
·
2 2
3
2
1
since
wall rms rms
F mNv mNv
P V l
A l l V
= · = =
2
1
3
rms
P v µ =
55
56
Units of Pressure
The SI unit is the pascal equal to one
newton per square meter. 1 Pa = 1 N/m
2
It is a small unit so that kilopascals kPa =
10
3
Pa and megapascals Mpa = 10
6
Pa are
used commonly.
Other units widely used include:
1 bar = 10
5
Pa
1 atm = 101,325 Pa = 101.325 kPa =
1.01235 bar = 760 torr

57
Gage pressure, vacuum pressure, atmospheric
pressure, absolute pressure
P
gage
= P
abs
– P
atm
P
vac
= P
atm
- P
abs
What is the origin of atmospheric pressure? The weight of the column of
air above us!
58
The pressure is the same at all points on a
horizontal plane in a given fluid regardless of
geometry, provided that the points are
interconnected by the same fluid.
59
Forces Exerted on a Fluid Column
Consider an element of fluid of height h and
area A and the free body diagram.
The pressure P
1
exerted on the top face of the
element = F
1
x area
The pressure P
2
exerted on the bottom face of
the element = F
2
x area
From the free body diagram:
F
2
= F
1
+ mg
P
2
A = P
1
A + mg but m =density x volume = ρAh
From which we deduce

P
2
– P
1
= ρgh

As we move down in a fluid , the pressure
increases (diving in the ocean).
As we move up in a fluid, the pressure
decreases (climbing a mountain).
F
2

F
1

h
mg
60
The Manometer
• The manometer is used to
measure small and
moderate pressure
differences.
• How small is small:
ρ ~ 10
3
kg/m
3
, g ~10 m/s
2
h ~
0.1 m
ΔP ~ 0.1x10
4
Pa ~ 0.01 atm
~0.01 bar

• Pressure due to a column
of water 10 m high:
P = 10
3
x10x10 ~10
5
Pa


P
atm
Pascal’s experiment: by
running a long pipe up a
mountain and into a barrel ,
he was able to burst the
barrel!
P
1
= P
2
(same level in connected fluid)
P
2
= P
atm
+ µgh
61
Barometer and the Atmospheric
Pressure:
The Basic Barometer
A force balance in the vertical
direction yields:
P
atm
= µgh
Standard atmosphere:
µ = 13.595 kg/m
3
(at 0
o
C)
g = 9.807 m/s
2
(standard g)
h = 0.760 m (760 mm)
P
atm
= 101.325 kPa
P
atm
= 760 mm Hg
P
atm
= 29.92 inHg
P
atm
= 760 torr
Vacuum
Note: atmospheric pressure decreases with
altitude; why?
Engineering Units To Know
• Energy: kJ and kWh
– 1 kWh = 1000Wx3600s = 3.6x10
6
J
= 3.6x10
3
kJ
• Pressure
– 1 MPa = 1000 kPa
– 1 bar =100,000 Pa =100 kPa
– 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 101.325 kPa
• Volume
– 1 L = 1000cm
3
= 0.001 m
3


62
63
Work
64
Energy Transfer by Work
• Mechanical work, W, is performed
whenever a force, F, acts through a
distance, dl:
W = Fdl
• The work done during a process between
two states, 1 and 2, is denoted W
12
or
simply W
• Work done per unit mass w = W/m (J/kg)
• The work done per unit time is called
power and is denoted
(
.
W
65
Some Important Caveats
• Work is a boundary phenomenon.
• Systems possess energy, but not work.
• Work is associated with a process, not a
state.
• Work is a path function: its magnitude
depends on the path followed during a
process.

66
Path Functions and Point Functions

• Path functions have inexact
differentials denoted by o.
A differential amount of
work or heat is represented
by oW or oQ not dW or dQ.

• Properties are point
functions and they have
exact differentials
represented by the symbol
d as in dV. They depend
on the initial and final
states only and not on the
path taken to go from
state1 to state 2.
The volume change during
process 1-2 is V
2
– V
1
= AV
irrespective of path.

The total work during the
process, W
12
(not AW and not
W
2
– W
1
) depends on the path
taken.
67
Mechanical Forms of Work
For a work interaction to exist between a system
and its surroundings:
•There must be a force acting on the boundary.
•The boundary must move.

•If the force is constant: W = Fs (kJ)

•If the force is not constant:

•The integral assumes that we know the relation
between F and s
2
1
( ) W F s ds =
}
68
Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy
Gravitational Work is the work done by or
against gravity. The force acting on a body is F = mg. The work is
given by:
W
g
= mg( z
2
–z
1
)
where z
1
–z
2
is the vertical distance traveled.
This is simply the change in potential energy.

Accelerational work is associated with a change in velocity of a
system.
F = ma = m dV/dt V = ds/dt ds = V dt
A simple integration yields:

W
a
= ½ m(V
2
2
–V
1
2
)


This is simply the change in kinetic energy.
69
Example: Conservation of Energy
• The energy of a falling object is
conserved:
W
g
= mg( z
2
–z
1
)
W
a
= ½ m(V
2
2
–V
1
2
)
W
g
+W
a
= 0
mg( z
2
–z
1
) +½ m(V
2
2
–V
1
2
) = 0


• Potential energy is transformed into kinetic
energy.
70
Shaft Work
• Very often, the torque t (and hence the
force F) applied to a shaft is constant. We
calculate the work done in this case
• A force F acting through a moment arm r
generates a torque given by T = Fr
• This force acts through a distance s which
is related to the radius r by s = (2tr)n,
where n s the number of revolutions
(2 ) 2
T
W Fs rn nT
r
t t
| |
= = =
|
\ .
71
Spring Work, Elastic
• For linear elastic springs, the displacement x is
proportional to the force: F = - kx
• The displacement is measured from the
equilibrium position (x = 0 when F= 0)
• The work done is



• Where x
1
and x
2
are the initial and final
displacements of the spring measured from the
undisturbed (equilibrium) position.

2
1
2 2
2 1
1
( )
2
x
x
W Fdx k x x = = ÷
}
72
Electrical Work
V
W
e
= VN
Power = VI
= RI
2
= V
2
/R
I
When N coulombs of electrical charge move
through a potential difference V, the electrical
work is W
e
= VN
73
Moving Boundary Work
• This process is closely
approximated in real engines
provided the piston moves at
low velocities (unlike the
pistons in an automobile
engine).



(Pistons in an automobile engine
move so fast the process path
cannot be specified. The work
done is determined by direct
measurements.)

•The work associated with
a moving boundary is
called boundary work.
•The analysis is for a quasi-
static or quasi-equilibrium
process for which the work
output is a maximum.

74
Moving Boundary Work (cont.)
• By convention, work is positive
when the displacement is in the
same direction as the applied force
and negative when they are in
opposite directions.
• The differential work done is:




• Expansion: dV>0, oW
b
< 0
• Compression dV<0, oW
b
> 0
• The expression above is the
boundary work input for the
process.
Initial pressure: P
Total volume: V
Area of piston: A
The piston moves a
distance ds in a quasi-
equilibrium manner
}
÷ =
÷ = ÷ = =
2
1
t
t
PdV W
PdV PAds Fds W o
75
Moving Boundary Work (cont.)
• The total boundary work done
during the process as the
piston moves is:


• The integral can only be
calculated if we know the
functional relationship
between P and V during the
process: P = f(V)
• P = f(V) is the equation of the
process path
• The total area under the
process path is equal, in
magnitude, to the work done in
the quasi-static process
}
÷ =
2
1
PdV W
b
} }
÷ = = =
2
1
2
1
PdV dA A Area
This is a closed system
76
Moving Boundary Work (cont.)
• The boundary work done
during a process depends on
the path followed as well as
the end states. Work is a path
function.
• The net work during a cycle is
the difference between the
work done by the system and
the work done on the system.
• P is the pressure at the inner
face of the piston, equal to the
pressure in the gas only if the
process is quasi-equilibrium so
that the pressure is uniform in
the cylinder at any time.
Expansion
Compression
}
÷ =
2
1
dV P W
i b
77
Example: Constant Volume Process
dV = 0
dW = -PdV = 0
If the working fluid is an
ideal gas, what will
happen to the temperature
during a constant volume
process?
No work is done but:
PV
t
= nRT or
P/T = nR/V
t
= const.
P
1
/T
1
= P
2
/T
2

In this case P
1
> P
2
Consequently T
1
> T
2
The energy of the gas
decreases
78
Example: constant pressure process
For the constant pressure
process shown here, is the
boundary work positive or
negative?
It is a compression process
so the work done is negative
Will the temperature change
during the process?
For one mole of gas
PV = RT or V/T = R/P = const.
V
1
/T
1
= V
2
/T
2
In this case V
1
> V
2
Consequently T
1
> T
2
The energy of the gas decreases!

dW = -PdV
The integration is
straightorward since P is
constant.
W = P (V
1
–V
2
)
79
Heat Transfer
• Energy can cross the
boundary of a closed system
in two distinct form: heat and
work.
• Heat is the form of energy
that is transferred between
two systems (or a system
and its surroundings) by
virtue of a temperature
difference. We call this
process heat transfer.
• The larger the temperature
difference, the higher is the
rate of heat transfer.
Thermal energy refers to forms
of energy such a latent and
sensible energies to prevent
confusion with heat transfer
80
Adiabatic Process
• During an adiabatic
process, a system
exchanges no heat
with the surroundings.
Insulation
Q = 0
Adiabatic
System
Notation and Units
• Heat has the energy unit of kJ.
• The amount of heat transferred during a process
between states 1 and 2 is denoted Q12 or just Q.
• The heat transfer per unit mass is q = Q/m
• The heat transfer per unit mass is q = Q/m
• The rate of heat transfer is denoted
• When the rate is constant during a process:
Q = At


Q
-
Q
-
81
Some Important Caveats
• Heat and work are boundary phenomena.
• Systems possess energy, but not heat or
work.
• Both are associated with a process, not a
state.
• Both are path functions: their magnitude
depends on the path followed during a
process.

82
If the energy crossing the
boundary of a closed system is
not heat, it must be work
(Heat is easy to recognize since its
driving force is a temperature
difference)

83
Problem-Solving
• Problem-solving is at the heart of the engineering
profession. A great engineer is a great problem solver.
• While problem-solving may be considered by some to be
an art since different approaches may be warranted
depending on the nature of the problem at hand and the
maturity of the problem solver, there is, however, a very
general method that is presented in this module.
• As we progress in the course, specific approaches or
variations of this technique will be used.
• You are more than encouraged to use theses
approaches, which will be systematically used in the
solutions we will provide of homework, practice and
exam problems.

84
A General Problem-Solving Technique
1. Problem statement
2. Schematic
3. Assumptions
4. Properties
5. Physical laws
6. More needed properties
7. Final Equations
8. Calculations
9. Reasoning, verification and
discussion

Analysis
Synthesis
Evaluation
Any engineering analysis presented to others is a form of
communication. Neatness, organization, completeness and visual
appearance are quite important for maximum impact.

85
Problem-Solving Technique – Cont.
1. Problem statement
In your own words, state the problem, the key information
given and the quantities to be found
2. Schematic
Draw a realistic sketch of the system and list the relevant
information on the figure, especially your choice of system or
control volume
3. Assumptions
State any appropriate assumptions, made to simplify the
problem. Justify these assumptions.
4. Properties
Write down the known properties. Identify the unknown
properties at known states necessary to solve the problem.
Indicate their source
5. Physical laws
Apply all the relevant basic physical laws and simplify them by
using the assumptions

86
Problem-Solving Technique – Cont
6 Properties
Determine the unknown properties at known states necessary
to solve the problem. Indicate their source
6 Final Equations
Write down the final equations
7 Calculations
Substitute the known quantities in the equations and perform
the calculations to determine the unknowns. Pay attention to
units and dimensions. Keep a suitable number of significant
digits.
8 Reasoning, verification and discussion
Review your work. Validity of assumptions? Do the numerical
results make sense? Repeat the calculations if a number looks
too small or too large.