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LAB#3

BAHRIA UNIVERSITY KARACHI CAMPUS
Department of Electrical Engineering

INSTRUMENTATION & MEASUREMENTS

LAB EXPERIMENT # 3

Design of Differentiator and Integrator Circuits

OBJECTIVE:

In this experiment students are introduced to design and study the behavior of,

Differentiator Circuit
Integrator Circuit

EQUIPMENTS:

Hardware
1. Breadboard
2. Oscilloscope (Dual Channel)
3. Function Generator
4. DMM
5. LM74i Op-Amp IC
6. Dual Power Supply
7. Few Resistors and connecting wires
Software
1. Proteus v7.8 or higher

THEORY:

Differentiator Circuit:

A circuit whose output voltage waveform is the
derivative of the input waveform is called
differentiator or differentiation amplifier. Such a circuit
is obtained by using a basic invert ing amplifier
configuration if the R
1
is replaced by a capacitor C
1
.
The output voltage of a differentiator circuit is given
by
Vout = - RfC1dVin/dt
Figure1. Op-amp Different iator
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Figure2. Pract ical Differentiator Circuit

The low frequency response is given by:

fc= 1/2πRC

If the input frequency (fin) is less than cut off frequency (Fc), then the circuit acts as
different iator, whereas when fin is greater than f
c,
then the circuit behaves as an inverting
amplifier.

Practical Differentiator Circuit:

In designing practical differentiator, it is noted that:

1. For proper differentiation, RC has to be much smaller than the time period of the input signal.
2. At high frequencies a differentiator may become unstable and breaks into oscillation. Also,
the input impedance of the differentiator decreases with increase in frequency, thereby
making the circuit sensitive to high frequency noise. So, in order to limit the gain of the
differentiator at high frequencies, the input capacitor is connected in series with a resistance
R1 and hence avoiding high frequency noise and stability problems. A practical differentiator
circuit is shown in fig. 2


Integrator Circuit:

An op-amp integrator simulates mathematical integration
which is basically a summing process that determines the
total area under the curve of a function i.e. the integrator
does integration of the input voltage waveform. Here the
input element is resistor and the feedback element is
capacitor as shown in fig3. The output voltage of an
integrator is given by:

Vout = - 1/R1Cf ∫ Vindt

The low frequency response is given by:

fc= 1/2πRC
Figure3. Op-amp Integrator
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Figure4. Pract ical Integrator Circuit
If the input frequency (fin) is less than cut off frequency (Fc), then the circuit acts as an inverting
amplifier, whereas when finis greater than; fc, then the circuit behaves as an integrator.

Practical Integrator Circuit:

In designing practical Integrator, it is noted that:

1. RC has to be much greater than the time period of the input signal.
2. The gain of the integrator decreases with the increasing frequency so, the integrator circuit
does not have any high frequency problem unlike a differentiator circuit. However, at low
frequencies such as at dc, the gain becomes infinite. Hence the op-amp saturates (i.e. the
capacitor is fully charged and it behaves like an open circuit). In order to limit the gain of the
integrator at low frequencies, usually the feedback capacitor is shunted by a resistance Rf, and
hence saturation problems can be avoided. A practical integrator circuit is shown in Fig. 4.


LAB TASKS:

Design the practical circuits of Integrators and Differentiators.

Design Steps:

1. Set the values of R and C in figures and 2 and 4. Manually calculate the frequency f
c
and
output voltage V
out
of Differentiator, shown in figure 3.
2. Then design the circuit using Proteus. Set the same resistors as you used in your calculation.
3. In order to apply inputs at V
in
, set the function generator to the following settings:
i. Output waveform = Square
ii. Output voltage= 1 Vp-p
4. Adjust the frequency of function generator to 500 Hz.
5. Set the DSO for the following approximate settings:
i. Channel 1 and 2: 0.5 V/division, ac coupling
ii. Time base: 1 ms
6. Repeat step 1 to 5 for integrator (figure 4) by applying triangular wave at input.
7. Simulate and Attach waveforms, also verify the calculated gain with the measured gain in
Proteus VSM.
8. Finally, construct the same circuit in Hardware.
9. Verify the manual, simulated and hardware results.
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EXERCISES:

1. Design the following configurations of Differentiators,

I. Low noise Differentiator
II. Stop Differentiator
III. Augmented Differentiator

2. Design the following configurations of Integrators,

I. Summing Integrator
II. Double Integrator
III. Augmented Integrator

Note:
Depending on the value of resistors, attach the manual calculations of frequency and
output voltage of the circuits using mentioned equations. (computerized form)
Verify the same calculated result in Proteus. Attach Proteus’ Schematic Diagram and
VSM simulations.
Design the same amplifier in Hardware. Attach DSO emulations for both channels.
























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Student Registration No: ________________________