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16

CHAPTER TWO
GOVERNING EQUATIONS


GOVERNING EQUATIONS .............................................................................................................................. 16
2.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 17
2.2 Conservation of Mass ...................................................................................................................... 17
2.3 Conservation of Momentum ............................................................................................................ 19
2.4 Navier Stokes Equations ................................................................................................................. 19
2.5 Potential Flows ................................................................................................................................ 22
2.6 Governing Equations for Incompressible Flows in Three Dimension ............................................ 23
2.7 Surface Tension .............................................................................................................................. 26
2.6.1. Laplace’s Formula .................................................................................................................. 26
2.6.2. Curvatures for different surfaces ............................................................................................ 28
2.8 Table: Capillarity values for different materials ............................................................................... 30


The analysis of any fluid problem requires the solution of the equations governing the motion of that fluid
subject to the boundary and the initial conditions of that particular flow. For instance, the breakup of a liquid
jet, requires the solution of the fluid issuing from an orifice subject to the surface tension forces acting on the
boundaries of the fluid and the initial jet velocity issuing form the orifice.
In this section, we provide the governing equations of the fluids for a single phase and the relevant
boundary conditions for multiphase flows.


17
2.1 Introduction

Fluid dynamics is controlled by the governing physics, which include, conservation of mass,
conservation of momentum, and conservation of energy. The fluid is treated as a continuum. For length
scales of, say, 1µm and larger, the molecular structure and motions may be ignored. A fluid flow field can be
thought of as being comprised of a large number of finite sized fluid particles which have mass, momentum,
internal energy, and other properties. Mathematical laws can then be written for each fluid particle. This is
the Lagrangian description of fluid motion. Another view of fluid motion is the Eulerian description. In the
Eulerian description of fluid motion, we consider how flow properties change at a fluid element that is fixed in
space and time (x,y,z,t), rather than following individual fluid particles. Here, we will provide the conservation
equations in the Eulerian reference frame.


Figure. 2.1. Lagrangian versus Eulerian description of fluid flow.


2.2 Conservation of Mass

The general equation of conservation of mass is expressed as follows in the tensor notation:
0 ) ( =


+


k
k
u
x t
ρ
ρ
(2.1)
or in the vector notation as
( ) 0 = ⋅ ∇ + ∇ ⋅ +


= ⋅ ∇ +


u u u ρ ρ
ρ
ρ
ρ
t t
(2.2)
where ρ is the density, u is the fluid velocity. The velocity vector uis described based its components in a
particular coordinate system. In a Cartesian coordinate system, the velocity vector is described based on unit
vectors k j i
r r r
, , along the x, y, z axes as:
k w j v i u
r r r
+ + = u
where the unsteady velocities (velocity being function of space and time) are defined as:
) , , , ( t z y x u u =
18
) , , , ( t z y x v v =
) , , , ( t z y x w w =
In the same coordinate system, the density, being a scalar, is described as:
) , , , ( t z y x ρ ρ =
In equation (2.2), the velocity is continuous, and therefore, this equation is usually called the continuity
equation. In many liquids, the variation of the density with pressure is small enough that it can be ignored. In
this case the flow is referred to as an incompressible flow. This means that both the mass and the volume
remain constant. If the density does not change, then its total derivative is zero. We can determine its total
derivative as follows:
) , , , ( t z y x ρ ρ =
Based on chain rule, the total derivative of a density is:
dt
t
ρ
z
z
y
y
x
x
ρ



+ ∂


+ ∂


+ ∂


=
ρ ρ

or
t
ρ
t
z
z t
y
y t
x
x
ρ
dt



+




+




+




=
ρ ρ

Rearrange and use definition of velocities in each direction to get:
z
w
y
v
x
ρ
u
t
ρ
dt



+


+


+


=
ρ ρ

The total derivation of a function is named as its substantial derivative and is provided with the following
notation:
dt
d
Dt
D ρ ρ
=
Dt D/ is a substantive derivative. Then the continuity equation (2.2) can be written as:
0 = ⋅ ∇ + u ρ
ρ
Dt
D
(2.3)
For a an incompressible flow:
0 =
Dt

(2.4)
This results in the reduction of the continuity equation to:
0 =


k
k
x
u
(2.5)
in the tensor notation, or
0 = ⋅ ∇ u (2.6)
in the vector notation.
19

2.3 Conservation of Momentum

Application of the Newton’s second law of motion to an element of fluid provides an equation that after
simplification for the incompressible flow using the continuity equation becomes:
j
i
ij
k
j
k
j
f
x x
u
u
t
u
ρ
σ
ρ ρ +


=


+


(2.7)
where
j
f is the body force and the stress tensor
ij
σ is
ij ij ij
p τ δ σ + − = (2.8)
and where
ij
τ depends on the motion of the fluid only and is called the shear stress tensor. The quality p is
the thermodynamics pressure and
ij
δ is the Kronecker delta. For incompressible Newtonian fluids
|
|
¹
|

\
|


+


+


=
i
j
j
i
k
k
ij ij
x
u
x
u
x
u
µ λδ τ (2.9)
The first term in equation (2.7) represents the transient terms, the second term represents convection, the
third term is the shear force and the pressure effects, and the last term represents the body forces.

2.4 Navier Stokes Equations

The momentum conservation equation applied to the Newtonian fluids results in the so called Navier-
Stokes equations. These are the fundamental partial differentials equations that describe the flow of
incompressible fluids. Using the rate of stress and rate of strain tensors, the components F
j
of a viscous force
F in a nonrotating frame are given by
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|
⋅ ∇ −


+


+ ⋅ ∇


=
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
¹
|

\
|


+


+ ⋅ ∇


= u u u
ij
i
j
j
i
ij B
j i
j
j
i
ij
j
i
x
u
x
u
x x
u
x
u
x V
F
δ µ δ µ µ λδ
3
2
(2.10)
where µ is the dynamic viscosity, λ is the second viscosity coefficient,
ij
δ is the Kronecker delta, u ⋅ ∇ is
the divergence of velocity,
B
µ is the bulk viscosity, and Einstein summation has been used to sum over j =
1, 2, and 3.

For an incompressible fluid, the divergence 0 = ⋅ ∇ u , so the λ term drops out. Taking µ to be
constant in space and writing the remainder of (2.10) in vector form then gives
u
2
∇ = µ
V
F
viscous
(2.11)
20
where u
2
∇ is the vector Laplacian. There are two additional forces acting on fluid parcels, namely the
pressure force
P
V
F
pressure
−∇ = (2.12)
and the so-called body force
V
F
f
body
= (2.13)
Adding the three forces (2.11), (2.12), and (2.13) and equating them to Newton’s law for fluids yields the
equation
j
i i
j
j k
j
k
j
f
x x
u
x
p
x
u
u
t
u
ρ µ ρ ρ +
∂ ∂

+


− =


+


2

In the vector notation, this is written as
2
u
u u u f P
t
ρ µ
∂ | |
+ ⋅ ∇ = −∇ + ∇ +
|

\ ¹

Dividing through by the density ρ gives
2
u f
u u u
P
t
ν
ρ ρ
∂ ∇
+ ⋅ ∇ = − + ∇ +

(2.14)
where the kinematic viscosity is ρ µ ν / = . The vector equations (2.14) are the (irrotational) Navier-Stokes
equations. When combined with the continuity equation of fluid flow, the Navier-Stokes equations yield four
equations in four unknowns (namely the scalar ρ and vector u). However, except in degenerate cases in very
simple geometries (such as Stokes flow), these equations cannot be solved exactly, so approximations are
commonly made to allow the equations to be solved approximately.

The Navier-Stokes equations with no body force is:
u u u
u
2
∇ +

− = ∇ ⋅ +


ν
ρ
P
t

This equation can be put into dimensionless form using the definitions
L
x
x ≡ ′ ,
L
y
y ≡ ′ ,
L
z
z ≡ ′ ,
U
u
u ≡ ′
2
U
P
P
ρ
≡ ′
∇ =
′ ∂

+
′ ∂

+
′ ∂

≡ ∇′ L
z
z
y
y
x
x ˆ ˆ ˆ
L
U
t t ≡ ′

21
Here, U and L are a characteristic velocity and a characteristic length, respectively. Then
) (
1
) (
1 1
) / (
) (
2
2
2
u u u
u
′ ∇′ + ′ ∇′ − = ′ ∇′ ′ +
′ ∂
′ ∂
U
L
p U
L
U
L
U
U t L
U
µ ρ ρ ρ

Assuming constant ρ and multiplying both sides by (L/ρU
2
) gives
u u u
u
′ ∇′ + ′ ∇′ − = ′ ∇′ ⋅ ′ +
′ ∂
′ ∂
2
UL
p
t ρ
µ

u′ ∇′ + ′ ∇′ − =
2
Re
1
p
where Re is a dimensionless parameter known as the Reynolds number. Pressure is a parameter fixed by
the observer, so it follows that the only other force is inertia force. Furthermore, the relative magnitudes of
the pressure and inertial forces are describe by the Reynolds number, defined as
µ
ρUL
F
F
viscous
inertia
= = Re
This equation is also written as:
.T
u
∇ =
Dt
D
Re
] ) ( [
T
p u u I T ∇ + ∇ + − = is the stress tensor for Newtonian fluid.

Unsteady Equations:
For low Reynolds number, the inertia term is smaller than the viscous term and can therefore be ignored,
leaving the equation of creeping motion
u
u
2
∇ =

+


ν
ρ
P
t

In this regime, viscous interactions have an influence over large distances from an obstacle. For low
Reynolds number flow at low pressures, the Navier-Stokes equation becomes a diffusion equation:
u
u
2
∇ =


ν
t

For high Reynolds number flow, the viscous force is small compared to the inertia force, so it can be
neglected, leaving Euler’s equation of inviscid motion
ρ
P
t

− = ∇ ⋅ +


u u
u

The general Euler’s equation with the body force is
F + ∇ − = ∇ ⋅ +


= P
t Dt
D
ρ
1
u u
u u

22
In the absence of a pressure force,
u u u
u
2
∇ = ∇ ⋅ +


ν
t

which can be written as
[ ] ) ( ) (
2
u u u
u
× ∇ ∇ = × ∇ × × ∇ −


× ∇ ν
t

Steady Equations:
For steady incompressible flow,
0 =


t
u

At low Reynolds number,
u
2
∇ = ∇ ν p
At low Reynolds number and low pressures:
0
2
= ∇ u
At high Reynolds number the steady Euler’s equation reduces to the Fourier’s Law:
ρ
P ∇
− = ∇ ⋅ u u
For small pressure forces,
u u u
2
∇ = ∇ ⋅ ν
which can be written as
[ ] ) ( ) (
2
u u u × ∇ ∇ = × ∇ × × ∇ − ν

2.5 Potential Flows

For an irrotational ideal fluid then we can define a function ϕ where
ϕ = ∇ u
The function ϕ is called the velocity potential, and the flow field which are irrotational, and so can be
represented in the form of the above equation, are referred to as potential flows. In order to find the equation
which the velocity potential ϕ satisfies, the expression for u given above is substituted into the continuity
equation to give.
2
0 ϕ ∇ =


23
2.6 Governing Equations for Incompressible Flows

Choice of a proper coordinate system is essential for solving fluid problems. This can significantly
simply the solutions. For instance, liquid sheets are better solved using Cartesian systems, liquid jets are
usually modeled using Cylindrical systems, and liquid drops and bubbles are usually solved using Spherical
systems.

In Cartesian coordinates with the components of the velocity vector given by u=(u,v,w), the
continuity equation is
0 =


+


+


z
w
y
v
x
u

and the Navier-Stokes equations are given by
x
F
z
u
y
u
x
u
x
P
z
w
w
y
v
v
x
u
u
t
u
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|


+


+


+


− =
|
|
¹
|

\
|


+


+


+


2
2
2
2
2
2
µ ρ
y
F
z
v
y
v
x
v
y
P
z
v
w
y
v
v
x
v
u
t
v
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|


+


+


+


− =
|
|
¹
|

\
|


+


+


+


2
2
2
2
2
2
µ ρ
w
F
z
w
y
w
x
w
z
P
z
w
w
y
w
v
x
w
u
t
w
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|


+


+


+


− =
|
|
¹
|

\
|


+


+


+


2
2
2
2
2
2
µ ρ


Figure 2.2. Cartesian Coordinates.

In cylindrical coordinates with the components of the velocity vector given by u=(u
r
, u
θ
, u
z
), the
continuity equation is
0
1
=


+


+ +


z
u
θ
u
r r
u
r
u
z r r θ

and the Navier-Stokes equations are given by

24
+


− =
|
|
¹
|

\
|



+


+


+


r
P
r
u
z
u
u
θ
u
r
u
r
u
u
t
u
r
z
r r
r
r
2
θ θ
ρ
r
r r r r r
F
θ
u
r z
u
θ
u
r r
u
r
u
r r
u
μ +
|
|
¹
|

\
|





+


+ −


+


θ
2 2
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2 1 1

+


− =
|
¹
|

\
|


+


+ +


+


θ
P
r z
u
u
θ
u
r
u
r
u u
r
u
u
t
u
ρ
z
r
r
1
θ θ θ θ θ θ


θ
r
F
θ
u
r z
u
θ
u
r r
u
r
u
r r
u
μ +
|
|
¹
|

\
|


+


+


+ −


+


2 2
2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2 1 1
θ θ θ θ θ

+


− =
|
¹
|

\
|


+


+


+


z
P
z
u
u
θ
u
r
u
r
u
u
t
u
ρ
z
z
z z
r
z θ

z
z z z z
F
z
u
θ
u
r r
u
r r
u
μ +
|
|
¹
|

\
|


+


+


+


2
2
2
2
2 2
2
1 1


Figure 2.3. Cylindrical coordinates.

In spherical coordinates with the components of the velocity vector given by u=(u
r
, u
θ
, u
φ
) the continuity
equation is
0
sin
1 cot 1 2
=


+ +


+ +


φ θ
θ
θ
φ
θ θ
u
r r
u u
r r
u
r
u
r r


and the Navier-Stokes equations are given by

=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− −


+


+


+


r
u
r
u u
r
u
u
r
u
r
u
u
t
u
r r
r
r
2
2
sin
φ
θ
φ
θ θ
φ θ θ
ρ
25
+


+


+ −


+


+



θ
θ
θ
µ
r r r r r
u
r
u
r r
u
r
u
r r
u
r
p
2 2
2
2 2 2
2
cot 1 2 2
(
r
r
F
u
r r
u u
r
u
r
+


− −





)
sin
2 cot 2 2
sin
1

2 2 2 2
2
2 2
φ θ
θ
θ φ θ
φ
θ θ



cot
sin
2
|
|
¹
|

\
|



+


+ +


+


r
u
u
r
u
u
r
u
r
u u
r
u
u
u
r
r
θ
φ θ θ θ
φ
θ
φ
θ θ θ θ θ

+


+


+ −


+


+



θ
θ
θ θ
µ
θ
θ θ θ θ θ
u
r
u
r r
u
r
u
r r
u p
r
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2
cot 1
sin
2
(
1

θ
φ
θ
φ θ
θ
θ φ θ
F
u
r
u
r
u
r
r
+





+


)
sin
cot 2 2
sin
1

2 2 2
2
2 2


=
|
|
¹
|

\
|


+ +


+ +


+


φ θ
θ
θ
ρ
φ φ φ θ φ
θ
φ φ φ
u
r
u
r
u u u
r
u
r
u u
r
u
u
t
u
r
r
sin
cot

+


+


+ −


+


+



θ
θ
θ θ
µ
φ θ
φ φ φ φ φ
u
r
u
r r
u
r
u
r r
u
p
r
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2
cot 1
sin
2
(
sin
1

φ
θ
φ
φ θ
θ
φ θ φ θ
F
u
r
u
r
u
r
r
+





+


)
sin
cot 2
sin
2
sin
1

2 2 2
2
2 2




Figure 2.4. Spherical Coordinates.
26
2.7 Surface Tension

When two fluids, for example a liquid and a gas, are in contact with one another, a thin
layer, called an interface, interphase or surface phase, whose properties are different from those
of the two bulk phases, in general separates them. As Young, in 1805 noted, such two fluid cases
behave as though they consist of two homogeneous fluids separated by a uniformly stretched
membrane of infinitesimal thickness. Imagine a curve AB on the surface, passing through a point
P. For an element δ l of AB, region 2 exerts a force σδ l tangential to the surface, where σ is
called the surface (or interfacial) tension. σ has the unit of force/length [N/m].






Figure 2.5. Surface tension force at the interface of two fluids.
2.7.1 Laplace’s Formula
1


Consider a fluid interface f between two fluids 1 and 2 as shown in figure 2.6. For the present
derivation we will assign pressures
1
p and
2
p to fluids 1 and 2 on the two sides of the interface.
Let this interface undergo through an infinitesimal displacement of df . If the distance between
the old and new surfaces is δζ , the displace volume is approximately df δζ . We will assume
that δζ is positive if displacement is towards fluid 2. The work needed to bring about this
volume change is
df p p δζ ) (
1 2



The total work done in displacing the surface is obtained by adding to it work connected with the
change in area of the surface:
f df p p W σδ δζ δ + − − =

) (
2 1
, (2.7.1)

where σ is the surface tension coefficient and f δ is the change in area of the surface. If surface
deformation arises purely based on pressure imbalance, thermodynamic equilibrium requires that

1
Landau, L.D., and Lifshitz, E.M., “Fluid Mechanics, volume 6, Pergamon Press, 1959.

δl
P
A
B 1
2
27
0 W δ = . Let
1
R and
2
R be the principal radii of curvature at a given point and they are positive
into fluid 1. We will define a surface element df by its two sides as
2 1
dl dl df = . If
1
dl is an
element of the circumference of a circle with radii
1
R , then, an increase in
1
dl is tan x δζ α = ,
where
1 1
tan / dl R α = . Therefore,
1 1
/ x dl R δζ = . Similarly, the change in
2
dl is
2 2
/ x dl R δζ =
Therefore, the displaced surface can be defined as
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2 1
2 1
2
2
2
1
1
1
R
d
R
d
dl dl
R
d
dl
R
d
dl
ζ
ζ ζ ζ
+ + ≈
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
¸
(

¸

+

Figure 2.7. Deformation of a fluid interface.

Therefore, an elemental change in surface is:
)
1 1
(
2 1
R R
df + δζ
And change in area of the interface becomes:
df
R R
f )
1 1
(
2 1
+ =

δζ δ (2.7.2)
Substitute (2.7.2) into (2.7.1) and set it to zero to obtain the equilibrium condition:
0 )
1 1
( ) (
2 1
2 1
=
(
¸
(

¸

+ − −

df
R R
p p σ δζ

This should hold for every infinitesimal displacement of the surface, i.e. for all δζ . Then the
expression in the brackets must be zero.
)
1 1
(
2 1
2 1
R R
p p + = − σ (2.7.3)
1
p

α
δζ
x
f
1
R
2
p
1
R
1
dl
2
dl
28
This is called Laplace’s formula. This expression indicates that if
1
R and
2
R are positive, namely
a convex interface, then
1 2
0 p p − > . This means that the pressure is greater in a medium
whose surface is convex. Therefore, the pressure inside a spherical drop with radius R is greater
than its ambient pressure by 2 / R σ .

2.7.2 Curvatures for different surfaces
1) Cartesian Surface
A surface in a Cartesian coordinates can be defined as ( , ) z x y ζ = . If the surface deviates
slightly from 0 z = , then ζ will be very small. Then the area of a surface f can be written as
2
2
1 f dxdy
x y
ζ ζ | | ∂ ∂ | |
= + +
| |
∂ ∂
\ ¹
\ ¹


For small ζ , this is approximated to:
1 1
1
2 2
f dxdy
x y
ζ ζ
( | | ∂ ∂ | |
= + +
( | |
∂ ∂
\ ¹
\ ¹
¸ ¸


The variation f δ is
f dxdy
x x y y
ζ δζ ζ δζ
δ
( ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
= +
(
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
¸ ¸


Integrating by parts:
2 2
2 2
f dxdy
x y
ζ ζ
δ δζ
( ∂ ∂
= − +
(
∂ ∂
¸ ¸


If this is compared with equation .. , we obtain
2 2
2 2
1 2
1 1
R R x y
ζ ζ | | ∂ ∂
+ = − +
|
∂ ∂
\ ¹

And change in pressure in Cartesian coordinates becomes:

) (
)
1 1
(
2
2
2
2
2 1
y x
R R
P


+


=
+ = ∆
ζ ζ
σ
σ
(2.7.4)
2) Cylindrical Surface (r, θ, z)
Similar analysis as in the previous section can be done in cylindrical coordinates. Considering a
surface of radius R
o
and deformation of ) , ( θ ζ z R
o
+
29

(
¸
(

¸



+


+ = ∆
2
2
2
2
2
2
θ
ζ ζ
ζ
σ
z
R
R
P
o
o
(2.7.5)
3) Spherical Surface

(
¸
(

¸




|
|
¹
|

\
|




− = ∆
2
2
2 2 2
sin
1
sin
sin
1 2
θ
ζ
φ φ
ζ
φ
φ φ
σ ζσ
o o
R R
P (2.7.6)

Lets consider the equilibrium condition of a liquid surface in gravity.
=
1
p constant + gz ρ
)
1 1
(
2 1
2 1
R R
p p + = − σ
Equilibrium condition:
Constant - ρgz -
z
P = )
1 1
(
2 1
R R
+ σ
Constant =
σ
ρgz
R R
+
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
2 1
1 1
(2.7.7)
g ρ
σ
has the units of
2
m . Actually, the length
g
a
ρ
σ 2
= is the capillary constant. We define
σ
ρ
2
gL
B
o
= as Bond number. This represents gravitational force/surface tension force. Note
that L is the characteristic length. If B
o
is large, the capillary pressure effects can be neglected.
One can use the differential geometry to find
2 1
& R R . We can also derive it directly for small
deformations:
Let z = ) , ( y x l be the equation of the surface. Assume l is small and surface deviation is very
slight from the plane z = 0. Area of a surface f is
dxdy
y x
f
∫ (
¸
(

¸



+


+ =
2 2
) ( ) ( 1
ζ ζ

or for small l, approximated by
dxdy
y x
f
∫ (
¸
(

¸



+


+ =
2 2
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
1
ζ ζ

The variation δf is: dxdy
y y x x
f

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦




+




=
) ( ) ( δζ ζ δζ ζ
δ
Integrate by parts
30
dxdy
y x
f δζ
ζ ζ
δ
∫ |
|
¹
|

\
|


+


− =
2
2
2
2

Compare with equation (2.11.2):
df
R R
f δζ δ )
1 1
(
2 1
+ =


and get

|
|
¹
|

\
|


+


− = +
2
2
2
2
2 1
1 1
y x R R
ζ ζ

This result is the sum of the curvatures of a slightly curved surface.

2.8 Table: Capillarity values for different materials

Material
(
¸
(

¸

m
milliN
ga ρ
σ

Water (20°C): 72,7mN/m (dyn/cm)
Glycol (20°C): 47,7mN/m (dyn/cm)
Chloroform (20°C): 27,2mN/m (dyn/cm)
Ethyl alcohol (20°C): 22,4mN/m (dyn/cm)
Isopropyl alcohol (20°C): 21,7mN/m (dyn/cm)
Paraffin – Air 24.0 @ C ° 20
Benzene 28.8
Mercury – Air 547 @ C ° 175
Liquid Helium and its vapor 0.24 @ C ° − 270

2.9 Problems

1. Show that for a general curve y=y(x) the radius of curvature is

2 / 3 2
] ) ( 1 [
) ( 1
x y
x y
R ′ +
′ ′
=

2. Show that for a general curve z=z(r) the radius of curvature is


2 / 3 2
1
] ) ( 1 [
) ( 1
r z
r z
R ′ +
′ ′
=
2 / 1 2
2
] ) ( 1 [
) ( 1
r z
r z
R ′ +

=