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Attrition; 4). Cutting.

3.1 Principle of size reduction

Criteria for size reduction

An ideal crusher would (1) have a large capacity; (2) require a small power input per

unit of product; and (3) yield a product of the single size distribution desired.

Energy and power requirements in size reduction

The cost of power is a major expense in crushing and grinding, so the factors that

control this cost are important.

3.2 Crushing efficiency

3.2.1 Empirical relationships: Rittinger’s and Kick’s law

The work required in crushing is proportional to the new surface created. This is

equivalent to the statement that the crushing efficiency is constant and, for a giving

machine and material, is independent of the sizes of feed and product. If the

sphericities

a

(before size reduction) and

b

(after size reduction) are equal and the

machine efficiency is constant, theRittinger’s law can be written as

where P is the power required, is the feed rate to crusher, is the average

particle diameter before crushing, is the average particle diameter after crushing,

and K

r

is Rittinger’s coefficient.

Kick’s law: the work required for crushing a given mass of material is constant for

the same reduction ratio, that is the ratio of the initial particle size to the finial particle

size

where K

k

is Kick’s coefficient.

3.2.2 Bond crushing law and work index

The work required to form particles of size D

p

from very large feed is proportional to

the square root of the surface-to-volume ratio of the product, s

p

/v

p

. Since

s

= 6/D

p

, it

follows that

where K

b

is a constant that depends on the type of machine and on the material being

crushed.

The work index, w

i

, is defined as the gross energy required in KWH per ton of feed to

reduce a very large feed to such a size that 80% of the product passes a 100 m

screen. If D

p

is in millimetres, P in KW, and in tons per hour, then

If 80% of the feed passes a mesh size of D

pa

millimetres and 80% of the product a

mesh of D

pb

millimetres, it follows that

Example: What is the power required to crush 100 ton/h of limestone if 80% of the

feed pass a 2-in screen and 80% of the product a 1/8 in screen? The work index for

limestone is 12.74.

Solution: =100 ton/h, w

i

=12.74, D

pa

=2 25.4=50.8 mm, D

pb

=25.4/8=3.175 mm

3.3 Size reduction equipment

Size reduction equipment is divided into crushers, grinders, ultrafine grinders, and

cutting machines. Crusher do the heavy work of breaking large pieces of solid

material into small lumps. A primary crusher operates on run-of -mine material

accepting anything that comes from mine face and breaking it into 150 to 250 mm

lumps. A secondary crusher reduces these lumps into particles perhaps 6mm in

size. Grinders reduce crushed feed to powder. The product from an intermediate

grinder might pass a 40-mesh screen; most of the product from a fine grinder would

pass a 200-mesh screen with a 74 m opening. An ultrafine grinder accepts feed

particles no larger than 6mm and the product size is typically 1 to 5 m. Cutters give

particles of definite size and shape, 2 to 10mm in length.

The principal types of size-reduction machines are as follows:

A. Crushers (coarse and fine)

1. Jaw crushers

2. Gyratory crushers

3. Crushing rolls

B. Grinders (intermediate and fine)

1. Hammer mills; impactors

2. Rolling-compression mills

3. Attrition mills

4. Tumbling mills

C. Ultrafine grinders

1. Hammer mills with internal classification

2. Fluid-energy mills

3. Agitated mills

D. Cutting machines

1. Knife cutters; dicers; slitters

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