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EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF STRENTH OF

LATEX MODIFIED FIBRE REINFORCED
CONCRETE
BY
A.DEVI PRASADH
MANUEL MARTIN
NANDAKUMAR
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
HINDUSTAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
(AFFILIATED TO ANNAUNIVERSITY)
CHENNAI-603103
SYNOPSIS
Latex modified mortar and concrete provide a good workability, water
retention over conventional cement mortar & concrete .In contrast to
ordinary cement mortar and concrete which are apt to cause bleeding
and segregation, the resistance of latex modified mortar & concrete to
bleeding and segregation is excellent in spite of their larger flow ability
characteristics. Setting time of latex modified mortar & concrete is
delayed in some extent. In concrete the tensile & flexural strengths are
improved over a normal concrete but in compressive strength there is
no improvement.
The polymercement ratio has more pronounced effect on the strength
than the water cement ratio. !hen the sandcement ratio increases, the
flexural and compressive strength of latexmodified mortars are
remarkably reduced, and the effect of the latex cement ratio on the
strengths gradually becomes smaller.
In the present work concrete has been modified using latex as the
polymer .In addition steel fibres have been added to check combined
properties of concrete.
In general there is increase in compressive, tensile & flextural strength
with increase in fibre and latex.
"
INTRODUCTION
#ngineering achievements have always been closely associated with
the availability of suitable materials for construction. $urther progress
of engineering will depend on continuous development of all forms of
construction developed of all forms of construction.
%olymer concrete composites were developed during &'()*s in +.S.,.
In I-.I, it is widely used for rehabilitation of structures. The
popularity gained by the materials is /ustified by its extraordinary high
strength, lower unit weight, total water impermeability and unmatched
chemical resistance.
#ngineers are trying to improve its 0uality, strength, etc.against adverse
condition. $or satisfactory utili1ation of this alternative material, the
various phases of examination to check its2
• Technical feasibility
• .urability of processed concrete
• #conomic feasibility
!ith the ongoing research being done to develop appropriate
technology and field trials to monitor the performance ad assessment of
economic feasibility, the use of this alternative material will become
more viable.
3
ADMIXTURES USED IN CONCRETE:
,dmixture is defined as the material other than cement water and
aggregates that is used as an ingredient of concrete and is added to
batch immediately before or during mixing. ,dditive is a material
which is added at the time of grinding cement clinker at the cement
factory.
,s per the report of ,4I committee "&", admixtures have been
classified into &5 groups according to type of materials constituting the
admixture, or characteristic affect of the use. !hen ,4I committee "&"
submitted the report in &'56, plastici1ers and super plastici1ers, as we
know them today, did not exist.
These days concrete is being used for wide varieties of purposes to
make it suitable in different conditions. In these conditions ordinary
concrete may fail to exhibit the re0uired 0uality performance or
durability. In such cases, admixture is used to modify the properties of
ordinary concrete so as to make it more suitable for any situation.
,dmixtures have been traditionally used to improve the properties of
concrete. There are two types of admixtures2 chemical admixtures and
mineral admixtures. #xamples of chemical admixtures are high range
waterreducing admixtures such as super plastici1ers which constituted
a ma/or break through in the development of 7igh performance
concrete 87%49.its use can drastically reduce the water cement ratio
8w:c9 from ).5 or higher to ).3 or low , while providing rheological
control of the concrete , given proper mixture proportioning and
materials selection.
The reduction in w:c yields denser paste matrix and strengthen paste
aggregate bonding on the micro structural level. ;ineral admixtures
such as silica fume, fly ash, slag, ricehusk, ash also provide benefits in
concrete.
The improved rheology and cohesiveness, lower heat of hydration,
lesser thermal shrinkage, and higher resistance to sulphate attack
emerged over the years on the use of different minerals admixtures. It is
therefore true to say that the combined use of chemical and mineral
admixtures has resulted in a new generation of concrete called 7%4,
which was already within the construction industry.
POLYMER BONDING AGENTS:
6
It is one of the well known facts that there will not be perfect bond
between the old concrete and the new one. <uite often new concrete or
mortar is re0uired to be laid on old concrete surface. $or example, for
providing an overlay on existing pavement, in providing a screed over
the roof for waterproofing or repair work etc... The bonding
characteristics can be greatly improved by providing a bond between
the old concrete and the new concrete surface or mixing the bonding
agent with the new concrete or mortar. The use of bonding agent
distinctly improves the adhesion of new concrete or mortar to old
surface. The mixing of bonding agents with concrete or mortar
improves the workability also at lower water cement ratio and thereby
reduces the shrinkage characteristic. It also helps in water retention in
concrete to redcap the risk of early drying. It further improves the water
proofing 0uality of treated surface.
POLYMER MODIFIED MORTAR FOR REPAIR AND
MAINTAINTENCE:
Sometimes concrete surfaces re0uire repair. The edge of a concrete
column may get chipped off= or ceiling of concrete roof may get peeled
off, or a concrete floor may get pitted in course of time. 7ydraulic
structures often re0uire repairing. %refabricated members such as pipes,
poles posts and roofing elements often get chipped off while stripping
formwork, handling and transportation. In the past cement mortar was
used for any kind of repair and as universal repair materials. 4ement
mortar is not the right kind of material for repair. -ow there are many
kinds of repair materials, mostly polymer modified, available for
effective repair. They adhere very firmly to the old concrete surface on
account of greatly improved bond characteristics. These materials are
often stronger than the parent materials. They are also admixed with
some other materials which make them set and harden very rapidly.
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ROLE OF FIBRES:
!hen the loads imposed on concrete approach that for failure cracks
will propagate, sometimes rapidly= fibres in concrete provide a means
of arresting the crack growth. >einforcing steel bars in concrete have
the same beneficial effect because they act as long continuous fibres.
Short discontinuous fibres have the advantage, however, of being
uniformly mixed and dispersed throughout the concrete.
$ibres are added to a concrete mix which normally contains cement,
water and fine coarse aggregate. ,mong the more common fibres used
steel, glass, asbestos and polypropylene.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:
>esistance of fibrereinforced concrete to environmental factors such as
frost action depends on the 0uality of the concrete. $ibres can be
effective, however in reducing frost damage because of their crack
arresting properties. 4are should be taken to ensure that an ade0uate
amount of entrained air is incorporated in the mix additional resistance
to free1ing and salt corrosion.
?ther environmental problems such as acid attack, sulphate attack and
alkaliaggregate reaction are generally not augmented by the presence
of fibres unless there is a chemical reaction between the fibre and the
concrete.
OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT:
To experimentally study compressive, tensile and flexural strength of
latexmodified fibre reinforced concrete of ;6) grade.
,nd these results are compared with conventional concrete of ;6)
grade.

LITERATURE REVIEW:
(
,ttempts to increase 4ompressive strength of concrete have been
successful. @ut tensile strength and ductility not modified.
;odification of concrete with latex is the answer today with improved
ductility.
Special applications are in the seismic areas and structures sub/ected to
dynamic loads.
 Latex modified concrete improves durability of concrete.
 Latex also reduces the permeability of concrete.
Latex modified mortar and concrete provide a good workability, water
retention over conventional cement mortar & concrete. Latex used here
is manufactured by $?S>?4 chemicals 8India9 pvt, Ltd under the
chemical name -IT?@?-. SBR.
In contrast to ordinary cement mortar and concrete which are apt to
cause bleeding and segregation, the resistance of latex modified mortar
& concrete to bleeding and segregation is excellent in spite of their
larger flow ability characteristics. Setting time of latex modified mortar
& concrete is delayed in some extent. In concrete the tensile & flexural
strengths are improved over a normal concrete but in compressive
strength there is no improvement.
MATERIALS USED:
The ingredients used in the test are as follows2
&. 53 grade ordinary %ortland cement 8IS &""('&'AB9 passing
through IS') microns sieve.
". $ine aggregate passing through " mm sieve
3. 4oarse aggregate passing ") mm sieve
6. Latex solution manufactured by $?S>?4 chemicals under the
brand name -itobond SBR.
5. 4orrugated Steel fibres with aspect ratio of ).A
B
MIXTURE PROPERTIES:
WORKABILITY:
Cenerally , latexmodified mortar and concrete provide a good
workability over unmodified cement mortar and concrete .This is
mainly interpreted in terms of improved consistency due to the ball
bearing action of polymer particles and entrained air and the dispersing
effect of surfactants in the latexes .This tendency is more significant at
smaller sandaggregate ratios at large unit cement content.
WATER RETENTION:
Latexmodified mortar and concrete have a markedly improve water
retention over unmodified cement mortar and concrete. The water
retention is dependant on the polymercement ratio.
The reasons for this can probably be explained in terms of the
hydrophilic colloidal properties of latex themselves and the filling and
sealing effects of impermeable polymer films formed. ,ccordingly, a
sufficient amount of water re0uired for cement hydration is held in the
mortar:concrete, hence dry cure is preferable rather than wet or water
cure. The water retention generally increases with rising polymer
cement ratio, and becomes nearly constant at a polymer cement ratio of
5 to&)D.Such excellent waterretention of the latex modified mortars is
most helpful to inhibit dryout phenomena in thin layer linings or
coatings on highly water E absorbable substrates such as dried cement
mortars.
BLEEDING AND SEGREGATION:
In contrast to unmodified cement mortar and concrete, which are apt to
cause bleeding and segregation, the resistance of latexmodified mortar
and concrete to bleeding and segregation is excellent in spite of their
larger flow ability characteristics. This is due to the hydrophilic
colloidal properties of latexes themselves and the airentraining and
waterreducing effects of the surfactants contained in the latex.
SETTING BEHAVIOUR2
In general the setting of latexmodified mortar and concrete is delayed
to some extent in the comparison with unmodified cement mortar and
A
concrete, and this trend is dependant ion the polymer type and cement
ratio. The slower setting does not cause inconvenience in practical
applications. -atural rubber modified mortar 8->9 causes the most
delay in setting. +sually, the reasons for the setting delay are the
surfactants such as alklylben1ene, sulfonates and caseinates contained
in the latexes inhibit the hydration of cement. >heological studies on
polyvinyl acetate modified concrete is that the hydration of cement is
inhibited by the adsorption of the surfactants on the binder surface.
STRENGTH:
The strength properties of the latexmodified mortar and concrete are
influenced by various factors, which tend to interact with each other.
The main factors are the nature of materials used such as latexes,
cement, aggregates and controlling factors for mix properties 8e.g.2
polymercement ratio, water cement ratio, bindervoids ratio, cutting
methods and testing methods etc9.
Latex Emodified mortar and concrete show a noticeable increase in the
tensile and flexural strengths but no improvement in the compressive
strengths. Thus in this investigation steel fibre is added in addition to
latex to increase certain amount of compressive strength and to
improve crack resistance.
EFFECTS OF CONTROL FACTORS FOR MIX
PROPORTIONS:
The binder of latexmodified mortar and concrete consists of polymer
latex and inorganic cement, and their strength is developed as a result
of an interaction between them. Low polymercement ratio of 5 D or
less also not effective because of little improvement in the strength.
4onse0uently the polymer cement ratio range of 5 to ")D is used in
practice. ;ost latexmodified mortars and concretes cured under
favorable conditions have effective strength properties at polymer
cement ratios up to ")D and the strength may be reduced at polymer
cement ratios exceeding ")D.
EFFECTS OF SAND-CEMENT RATIO:
!hen the sandcement ratio increases, the flexural and compressive
strengths of latexmodified mortars are remarkably reduced, and the
'
effect of the polymercement ratio on the strengths gradually becomes
smaller.
EFFECTS OF CURING CONDITIONS:
$avorable curing condition re0uirements for latexmodified mortar and
concrete differ from those for ordinary cement mortar and concrete,
because their binder consists of two ordinary cement phases of latex
and hydraulic cement with different properties. ?ptimum strength in
the cement phase is developed under wet conditions such as water
immersion and high humidifies , where strength development in the
latex phase is attained under dry conditions .It is evident that optimum
strength in most latex modified mortars and concrete is obtained by
achieving the reasonable extent of cement hydration under wet
conditions at early ages, followed by dry conditions , such curing
conditions are most suitable sensitive for the mortars than for the
concretes because of a difference in the retention due to their specimen
si1es.
RELATION BETWEEN SURFACE HARDNESS AND
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH:
The surface hardness of latexmodified systems is generally improved
to some extent over ordinary cement systems, depending on the
polymer type and the polymercement ratio. , definite correlation
between the surface hardness and compressive strength of most latex
modified systems is recogni1ed.
SRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIP MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
AND DUCTILITY:
;ost latexmodified mortars and concretes provide a higher
deformation, ductility and elasticity than ordinary cement mortar and
concrete, their magnitude depending on polymer type and polymer
cement ratio. The maximum compressive strain at failure increases
with rising polymercement ratio, even though there is no pronounced
change in the modulus of elasticity in compression. The maximum
compressive strain at a polymercement ratio of ")D increases to " to 3
times that of unmodified mortar.
The polymercement ratio is raised, the modulus of elasticity in tension
decreases, and the elongation increase and is " to 3 times grater than
that on unmodified concrete. This is explained by considering that the
polymer films formed in the concrete effectively halt propagating
micro cracks through their high tensile strength and elongation. The
&)
modulus of elasticity tends o decrease with the rise in the polymer
cement ratio.
SHRINKAGE CREEP AND THERMAL EXPANSION:
The drying shrinkage increases with additional dry curing period , and
becomes nearly constant at a dry curing period of "A days regardless to
polymer type and polymer cement ratio generally , the "A
th
day drying
shrinkage tends to decrease with increasing polymer cement ratio
%F,4 , -> and 4hloroprene rubber84>9 modified mortars have a large
shrinkage compared to that of unmodified mortars evaporation of the
large amount of water absorbed in polymer phase due to the low water
resistance of the polyvinyl acetate itself.
WATER PROOFNESS AND WATER RESISTANCE:
Latexmodified mortars and concrete have a structure in which the
large pores can be filled with polymer with continuous polymer films.
These features are referred in reduced water absorption water
permeability and water vapour transmission as a result= latexmodified
mortars and concrete have improved water proofness over ordinary
mortars and concrete.
ADHESION OR BOND STRENGTH:
, very useful accepts of latexmodified mortars and concrete is their
improved adhesion or bond strength to various substrates compared to
conventional mortars and concrete. The development of adhesion is
attributed to the high adhesion of polymers. The adhesion is usually
affected by polymercement ratio and the properties of the substrates
used. The data of adhesion often shows considerable scatter, and
many vary depending on the testing methods, service conditions or
porosity of substrates. The adhesion of most latexmodified mortars
tend to increase with rising polymer cement ratio= although for a few
types there is optimum polymercement ratios.
The mix proportions also influence the adhesion, namely, the strength
of the mortar substrates in &2" mix substrates through rather than
through the interface. 7owever it appears that the adhesion than the
flexural strength
&&
IMPACT RESISTANCE:
Latexmodified mortars or concrete has an excellent impact resistance
in compression with conventional mortars and concrete this is because
of polymer they have high impact resistance. The impact resistance
generally increase with rising polymercement ratio. The data of the
impact resistance vary markedly between the testing methods .the
impact resistance of the latexmodified mortars with elastomers is
superior to the mortars with thermo plastic resins. The impact
resistance S@> Emodified mortars with polymer cement ratio of ")D is
about &) times greater than that of the unmodified mortars.
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE:
;ost latex modified mortars and concrete are attacked by inorganic or
organic acid and sulphates since they contain hydrated cement that is
no Eresistance to these chemical resistance is generally rated as good to
fats and oils, but to organic solvents.
PROPERTIES OF FIBRES:
4oncrete lends itself to a variety of innovative designs as a result of its
many desirable properties. -ot only can it be cast in diverse shapes= but
it also posse*s high compressive strength, stiffness, low thermal and
electrical conductivity and low combustibility and toxicity.
Two characteristics, however, have limited its use it is brittle and weak
tension. >ecently, however the development of fibrereinforced
composites in the plastics and aerospace fields has provided a technical
basis for improving these deficiencies.
PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED
FIBRES
&"
TYPE
OF
FIBRE
DIAMETER
!"
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
FAILURE
STRAIN#
MODULUDS
OF
ELASTICITY
GP$
TENSILE
STRENGTH
GP$
S%&&' 55)) B.A 36 ")) &3
G'$(( '&5 ".( "3.5 A) "3
COMPOSITE PROPERTIES:
$ibres can improve the toughness, the flexural strength, or and are
chosen on the basis of their availability, cost and fibre properties.
$ibres also generally reduce creep strain, which is defined as the time
dependant deformation of concrete under a constant stress. $or
instance, steelfibrereinforced concrete can have tensile creep values
5) to () percent of those for normal concrete. 4ompressive creep
values, however, may be only &) to ") D of those for normal
concrete.
Shrinkage of concrete, which is caused by the withdrawal of water
from concrete during drying, is lessened by fibres. Shrinkage of glass
fibrereinforced concrete is decreased by up to 35D with the addition
of &.5D y volume of fibres.
?ther properties of concrete, such as compressive strength and
modulus of elasticity, are not included in the tables since they are
affected to a much lesser degree by the presence of fibres.
Innovations in engineering design, which often establish the need for
few building materials, have made fibrereinforced cements very
popular. The possibility of increased tensile strength and impact
resistance offers potential reactions in the weight and thickness of
building components and should also cut down resulting from shipping
and handling.
,lthough ,ST; 466)B6a describes the use of asbestoscement and
related products, there are, at this, no general ,ST; standards for
fibrereinforced cement, cement, mortar and concrete. +ntil these
standards become available, it will be necessary to rely on the
experience and /udgment of both the designer and the fibre
manufacturer.
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS
INTRODUCTION
&3
The aim of this experimental work is to compare the strength of
conventional concrete with concrete with steel fibres and also to
compare the first crack load, ultimate load, and crack pattern and
deflection response of plain concrete beam and with latexmodified
fibre reinforced concrete beam. Test for finding out the compressive
strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, impact strength was
conducted. In order to find out the compressive strength, concrete
cubes having a si1e of &5)x&5)x&5)mm were cast and tested using
+T;. $or finding out the spilt tensile strength concrete cylinders
having &5) mm diameter and 3)) mm height were cast and tested with
+T; with the diameter hori1ontal. In order to find out the flexural
strength concrete prism having si1e &))x&))xB5)mm were casted and
tested in +T;
MATERIALS USED AND THEIR SPECIFICATIONS:
The materials used and their specifications are as follows

CEMENT:
The type of cement used was ordinary %ortland cement and its specific
gravity is 3.&5. The cement was confirming to IS "('&'B(
FINE AGGREGATE:
Locally available sand without debris was used, tests were conducted
as per IS"3A( 8%,>T I9.
Specific gravity of fine aggregate is ".(6
COARSE AGGREGATE:
4rushed granite stone aggregates of maximum si1e of ") mm was used
tests were conducted as per IS "3A(8part III9 of &'(3.
Specific gravity of coarse aggregate is ".('
WATER:
,s per IS 65("))) recommendations, potable water was used for
mixing of concrete

CONCRETE MIX PROPOTION:
4oncrete was designed as per IS &)"("&'A". The target strength of the
mix was 6)-:mmG of cube at the age of "A days. The mix adopted is
1: 0)*+: ,),- by weight with water cement ratio of ).35
&6
STEEL FIBRES:
The corrugated steel fibres were used with aspect ratio () 83(:).(9
Length of the fibre 3( mm
Thickness of fibre ).(mm
The tensile strength of fibre is in the range of &3 Cpa
THE MIX:
Latex added is 5D of weight of cement
Steel &.5D of volume of concrete

CASTING AND CURING OF SPECIMENS:
The materials were weighed carefully using the balance for the ordinary
concrete fine aggregate and cement were weighed and mixed thoroughly, the
coarse aggregate was then added and mixed with above. Steel fibres were
then added following latex and water are added and mixed thoroughly to get
a good mix.
$or preparing the specimen for determining the compressive, tensile,
flexural strength permanent steel moulds of standard si1e &5)x&5)x&5)mm,
&5)mm diameter 3)) mm height , &5)x&5)xB5) mm respectively.
The sides and bottom of all the moulds were properly oiled for ease
demoulding. Then the fresh was filled layer by layer and then compaction
was done by table vibrator.
@efore mixing the concrete the mould and other materials were kept ready.
The fresh concrete was filled in the mould. 4are should be taken to see that
the concrete was compacted perfectly. The compaction was carried out
manually and the top surface was leveled and finished. ,ll the moulds were
demoulded "6 hrs after casting, cured in water for another "B days. They
were tested on "A
th
day as per IS 65(&'BA.
TESTING OF SPECIMENS
CUBE COMPRESION TEST:
&5
The test was conducted as per IS 5&(&'5'. the cube of standard si1e
&5)x&5)x&5)mm were uses to find the compressive strength of concrete
specimens were placed on the bearing surface of +T;, of capacity &)))
tonnes without eccentricity and a uniform of loading of &6) kg per cmH" per
minute was applied till the failure of the cube at failure, the failure of the
maximum load was noted and the compressive strength was calculated.
4ube compressive strength 8Icc9 in ;pa J %f:,b
!here %fJ failure load 8-9
,b J bearing area of the cube 8mmG9.
SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE:
This test was conducted as per IS 5A&(&'B). The cylinders of standard si1e
&5)mm diameter and 3)) mm height was placed on the +T;, with the
diameter hori1ontal at the top and bottom two strips of wood where placed
to avoid the crushing of concrete specimen at the points where the bearing
surface of the compression testing machine and the cylinder specimen
meets. The maximum load was noted down.
The spilt tensile strength 8Tsp9 J "%:Kdl 8;pa9
!here % is maximum load 8-9
d J measured diameter of specimen 8mm9
l J measured length of specimen 8mm9
FLEXTURAL STRENTH TEST2
This test is conducted as per IS5&(&'5'.prisms of standard si1e
&5)x&5)xB5)mm were used. Tests were carried in +T; the loads were
applied at &')mm from either ends. +niform loading was applied and
maximum loading was noted.
The modulus of rupture was calculated
The modulus of rupture 8fb9 J3%a:bdG
!here % J load 8-9
dJdepth of the prism mm
bJ breath mm
aJ distance between support and the point load

DISCUSSIONS AND COMPARSION OF TEST RESULTS
COMPARSION OF COMPERSSIVE STRENGTH:
&(
%ercentage
of $ibre
by weight
of cement
%ercentage
of latex by
volume of
concrete
4ompressive
strength
3days
8-:mmG9
4ompressive
strength
B days
8-:mmG9
4ompressive
strength
"A days
8-:mmG9
%ercentage
increase in
3 days
%ercentage
increase in
B days
%ercentage
increase in
"A days
) ) "3 3&.6 5B.5 BA.5
%ercentage
of $ibre
%ercentage
of latex by
volume of
concrete
4ompressive
strength
3days
8-:mmG9
4ompressive
strength
B days
8-:mmG9
4ompressive
strength
"A days
8-:mmG9
%ercentage
increase in
3 days
%ercentage
increase in
B days
%ercentage
increase in
"A days
) &.5 "3.33 36."3 5A A5
%ercentage
of $ibre
%ercentage
of latex by
volume of
concrete
4ompressive
strength
3days
8-:mmG9
4ompressive
strength
B days
8-:mmG9
4ompressive
strength
"A days
8-:mmG9
%ercentage
increase in
3 days
%ercentage
increase in
B days
%ercentage
increase in
"A days
5 &.5 "3.B( 36.AA 5' AB
COMPARSION OF SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH
&B
%ercentage
of $ibre
%ercentage
of latex by
volume of
concrete
4ompressive
strength
B days
8-:mmG9
4ompressive
strength
"A days
8-:mmG9
%ercentage
increase in
B days
%ercentage
increase in
"A days
) ) 3.))
%ercentage
of $ibre
%ercentage
of latex by
volume of
concrete
4ompressive
strength
B days
8-:mmG9
4ompressive
strength
"A days
8-:mmG9
%ercentage
increase in
B days
%ercentage
increase in
"A days
) 5 3.35
%ercentage
of $ibre
%ercentage
of latex by
volume of
concrete
4ompressive
strength
B days
8-:mmG9
4ompressive
strength
"A days
8-:mmG9
%ercentage
increase in
B days
%ercentage
increase in
"A days
&.5 5 3.5)
&A
CONCRETE DESIGN MIX
INTRODUCTION:
4oncrete ;ix .esign is a process by which we determine the relative
proportion of the various materials of concrete with an aim to achieve a
certain minimum strength and durability, as economically as possible.
@asically two factors are involved in concrete design mix. !e have to
achieve a certain minimum strength, and we have to do it as
economically as possible. Two kinds of costs are involved in the
making of concrete= namely cost of materials and cost of labor. The
labor cost, which comprises of formwork, batching, mixing,
transporting and curing is nearly the same for good concrete as well
bad concrete. ,mong the material costs in conventional concrete, the
cost of cement, which binds the aggregate together, is far higher than
the costs of the other ingredients. Therefore the mix design aims at
selecting as little cement as possible, consistent with the re0uirement of
strength and durability.
The ingredients of concrete can be broadly classified into 8&9 aggregate
and 8"9 paste. The paste lubricates the concrete and is responsible for
its workability. The lubricating effect of the paste is directly
proportional to the dilution of the paste. @ut more dilute the paste, less
strong it will be. It is be noted that the strength of concrete is limited by
the strength of the paste, because the mineral aggregate, with rare
exceptions are for stronger than the paste, because compound. ,lso the
permeability of concrete is determined by the 0uality and continuity of
the paste, since little water flows through the aggregate either under
capillarity. $urther, the predominant contribution to drying shrinkage of
concrete is that of paste.
&'
DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY FOR FINE
AGGREGATE2
This test is used to determine the specific gravity of the sand.
 Specific gravity test is conducted by using @alance &
%yconometer.
 The pyconometer is cleaned for presence of dust , or moisture
inside and its empty weight is taken
 , small 0uantity of dry sand is put inside the pyconometer so
as to fill about one fourth of the pyconometer and the weight of
pyconometer with sand is taken
 The pyconometer is then filled, completely with distilled water.
,ny entrapped air shall be eliminated by rotating the pyconometer in
its side
 The pyconometer shall be topped up with distilled water to
remove any forth from the surface, dried on the outside and weighed.
 The pyconometer is refilled with distilled water to the same
level as before, dried on the outside and weighed.
?@S#>F,TI?-S ,-. 4,L4+L?,TI?-S=
$or &))D riverbed sand2
!eight of empty pyconometer 8w&9 J
!eight of pyconometer and dry sand 8w"9 J
!eight of pyconometer, sand and water 8w39 J
!eight pyconometer and water 8w69 J
Specific gravity, C J 8w"w&9: L8w"w&9
8w3w"9M
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