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Functions of the Liver

The Liver has 6 principal Functions:
1. Ensures the smooth flow of Qi
This is the most important of all Liver functions and is central to nearly all Liver disharmonies.
There are 3 aspects this function affects:
(1) the emotional state, (2) digestion, (3) the secretion of bile
2. Stores Blood
The Liver function of storing blood regulates Blood in two ways:
(1) Blood volume according to physical activity, (2) menstruation
3. Controls the sinews
This affects our capacity for movement and physical activity.
4. Manifests in the nails
If LR Blood is deficient, the nails will become dark, indented, dry and cracked.
5. Opens into the eyes
If LR Blood is deficient, there may be blurred vision, myopia, “floaters,” color blindness or the
eyes may feel dry and gritty. If the LR has heat, the eyes may feel painful or burning and be
bloodshot. If there is Wind, the eyeball may turn upwards and move involuntarily.
6. Houses the Hun
If the LR Blood is weak, the Hun is not rooted and cannot give us a sense of direction in life.
The Hun may leave the body temporarily at night during or just before going to sleep. A
person may feel a vague feeling of fear at night before falling asleep.

Summary of Function of the points:
 Resolving distention and pain due to stagnation of Liver qi in the head, throat region, chest,
Heart, Lung, Stomach, abdomen, lateral costal region, lower abdomen, intestines and genitals
 Assisting in the descent of ST and LU qi and the ascent of SP qi
 Pacifying interior wind & uprising of yang resulting in headache, dizziness, epilepsy, spasm
 Cooling Liver fire affecting any region of the body
 Benefiting the eyes
 Treating disorders characterized by pain and swelling of the external genitals (esp. in men) as
well as seminal emission, ejaculatory disorders, priapism and impotence
 Regulating menstruation and the menstrual cycle
 Treating Shan disorder
 Treating disorders of urination such as urinary retention, painful urinary dysfunction,
incontinence, frequent urination, etc.
 Treating psycho-emotional disorders deriving from LR Blood deficiency, LR qi stagnation or LR
Fire, all of which may disturb the Hun and the Spirit.

The Liver Channel

The Main Pathway

1. The pathway originates at the lateral aspect of
the dorsum of the big toe at LR 1, runs along
the foot to LR 4 and ascends along the medial
aspect of the lower leg, to SP 6.
2. It ascends up the medial aspect of the tibia to
the thigh to LR 11. The pathway connects
with the Spleen at SP 12 and SP 13.
3. It loops around the genitals and the
reproductive organs. It ascends to enter the
lower abdomen where it intersects with CV 2,
CV 3, CV 4.

The pathway continues
upwards to curve around
the Stomach before
entering the Liver and
connecting with the Gall

It crosses the diaphragm
and spreads in to the
costal and hypochondriac

It ascends along the neck
and posterior aspect of
the throat to the
nasopharynx to link with
the tissues surrounding
the eye.

It ascends across the
forehead to GV 20.

A branch descends from
the eye system through
the cheek and encircles
the inner surface of the

Another branch
separates from the Liver,
crosses the diaphragm
and spreads in the LU,
meeting with PC 1.
The pathway ascends up
to the stomach and LR
13/14, connecting with
the LR and GB organs
and the side of the
abdominal wall.

One deep pathway
arises in the liver and
passes through the
diaphragm to flow into
the lungs and link with
the LU meridian.

The main meridian runs
up through the
diaphragm, crosses by
the ribs, goes behind the
trachea, larynx and
pharynx and up onto the

It passes through the
nasal cavities to the
lachrymal canal where it
connects with the eye

It then travels up the
forehead to GV 20.

Another deep branch
travels down from the
eye, down the mandible
and encircles the lips.

The Liver Channel

Divergent Channel

 This leaves the primary channel on the dorsum of the foot and continues up the pubic region where
it joins the GB primary meridian.

Luo Channel

 The luo channel leaves the primary meridian at LR 5 on the medial aspect of the lower leg and
connects with the GB meridian.
 A branch passes up the leg to the genitals.

Muscle Channel

 This begins on the dorsal aspect of the big toe, binds anterior to the medial malleolus.
 It passes up the medial aspect of the tibia to bind at the medial condyle
 It continues upwards along the medial aspect of the thigh to the genitals where it connects with
other sinew channels
 It crosses the abdomen binding with the umbilicus
 It enters the abdominal cavity and binds with the ribs and disperses through the chest.
 An internal branch adheres to the spine.

LR 1 Great Esteem

Wood, Horary, Well, Entry  1 ∆ 5-7

Location The lateral nail point of the big toe
About .1 cun proximal to the corner of the nail
Just distal to the flare of the distal phalanx

Needling 90 or 45 insertion, directed proximally, .1-.2 cun, or prick to bleed

Function ^ Entry point ^ Wood point
^ Horary point (1-3am, 2-4am DST) ^ Well point
^ Regulates qi in the lower jiao
^ Revives consciousness

^ Promotes the smooth flow of LR qi
^ Regulates menstruation

^ Calms the Spirit
^ Regulates yang;

^ Treats shan disorder; alleviates pain
^ Frees the channels

^ Benefits the genitals & adjusts urination
^ Courses inversion qi

^ Stops menstrual bleeding
^ Resolves Damp-Heat

^ Opens Spirit portals
^ Harmonizes construction qi

Name/ER Large Pile
Da: Large, great, major
Dun: to pile up; a hill; thick
Alternate Names: Great Favorableness
Water Spring
This is the Wood point on the Wood meridian and at the beginning of the meridian. It
represents the ability of the Wood to start something, to give an impulse. As the yin organ
its function is to keep, to pile up, to endure. In the position of the point on the big toe,
there is a physical accumulation of flesh there. The firmness of the flesh reflects the firmness of
the quality of qi at this place. There is the mention of three body hairs on the big toe in the
description of the anatomical location in ancient texts (three means several). Three refers also
to the power of qi here, and the power of the Hun in the Liver, and the impulse given to the
three yin meridians by the Liver.

LJ As the horary point, LR 1 addresses the essence of the wood element. Great Esteem, the
first point on the liver meridian, is located on the big toe, which may be said to provide one’s
physical root and grounding. This point empowers the specific virtue of self esteem that
emerges from the vision of those principles that spring from one’s essential nature, rooting one’s
life. In pruning a plant, one may remove unessential branches so that growth is channeled more
fruitfully. However, the roots that anchor the plant into its ground of being must be
compromised. When basic principles are compromised, as often happens in betrayal, for
instance, self esteem slowly erodes. That person may gradually come to compromise him or
herself more and more easily, until the vision of his or her true nature disappears. A liver
imbalance often shows up when a person acts as though any compromise is a personal affront.
This point may empower the discernment of those aspects of self which (1) may be safely
compromised (the branches) and (2) those that may not: the fundamental principles (the
roots) that must be supported and preserved.
 Although this point is not particularly a spirit point, it is very powerful yet safe. It brings
a good surge of energy and is used a lot. It shakes off the dead leaves and prunes dead

LR 1 Great Esteem

branches. It lets patients see and breathe more easily when there is a lack of confidence
or when they cannot grow and change.

LR 2 Walk Between

Fire, Sedation, Spring, First Aid  3 ∆ 5-7

Location On the dorsal surface of the foot
Between the big toe and the second toe
Just distal to the base of the proximal phalanx of the big toe
Distal to the metatarso-phalangeal joint of the first digit
Just distal to the flare of the base of the proximal phalanx
Proximal to the web margin

Needling .5-1 cun 45 towards the heel, or 90 insertion .5-.8 cun.

Function ^ Fire point
^ Sedation point
^ Spring point
^ First Aid: cramps, spasms, urine retention
^ Clears Liver Fire
^ Cools Blood heat

^ Extinguishes wind
^ Spreads Liver qi

^ Pacifies Liver wind
^ Subdues Liver Yang

^ Clears heat and stops bleeding
^ Benefits the lower jiao

^ Clears the lower jiao
^ Clears Heat and drains Fire

^ Courses vessels & quickens connecting vessels
^ Rectifies qi

Name/ER Moving Between
Xing: to walk, to move
Jian: between; a space

LR 2 is between two toes and represents this ability of the LR to circulate and move in empty
spaces in an imperceptible way. It reflects the centripetal movement of the LR. In this point
the circulation of the LR is invigorated but in a kind of quiet emptiness. There is a kind of
organization of this march, as an army marches. In certain books, it is a sedation point that
allows this march around the Sheng Cycle, so that all is in good order. Chapter 20 in the
Ling Shu indicates this point for an invasion of the LR with pain in the side and cold in the
central area of the torso. It is good for stagnation of Blood. The treatment is to use this
point to guide the qi in the area of the ribs. It helps to guide the stagnation through the LR

 This point is good for menstrual/hormonal problems like PMS and irritability.
 When a person gets angry and agitated very easily, this point brings warmth and
 When the Liver is hyper tense and Heart is weak, it lets Qi seep through slowly, helping
to achieve a middle way.
 JG: When heat, anger and frustration are present, dispersion needs to take place. This
point helps someone who is bumping into things head on. It helps a person find a way
to walk between two difficult alternatives. There may be raging frustration—how can I
reach my goal and how can I relax (more smoothness). Tonify this point to bring warmth
to the wood, more joy, a creative spark. It brings incredible life to a boring landscape.
It’s good for someone who can only see things in black and white. Without the warmth
of compassion (Fire) you can never transform anger into blame into benevolence. Do not
hesitate to use moxa. If there is no light in the forest, the Wood is dead.

LR 3 Supreme Rushing

Source, Earth, Stream, First Aid  3 ∆ 3-7

Location On the dorsal surface of the foot
In the angle between the first and second metatarsal bones

Needling Aim towards KI 1, .5-1.5 cun

Function ^ Source point ^ First Aid: asphyxia
^ Earth point ^ Stream point
^ One of Ma Dan-yang’s 12 Heavenly Star points
^ Two of the Four Buddha’s Gates (+LI 4)
^ Spreads Liver qi
^ Nourishes LR blood/Liver yin

^ Subdues Liver yang
^ Regulates menstruation

^ Extinguishes Liver Fire
^ Regulates the lower jiao

^ Clears the head & eyes
^ Discharges damp-heat in the lower jiao

^ Soothes the liver
^ Rectifies qi

^ Calms spasms
^ Courses connect vessels & quickens blood

^ Extinguishes Wind
^ Calms the Spirit

Name/ER Great Surge
Tai: great, supreme; too, excessive
Chong: surge, rush; flush; empty; thoroughfare,
key position, hub
Alternate Names: Great Thoroughfare,
This point is located in a place where the ST and SP meridians are not far away and where
the first point on the KI is directly underneath. It is closely linked to the power of the
Kidneys. Another name for KI 1 is Di Chong (Di means Earth, not as an element, but in
connection with Heaven). Su Wen Chapter 6 talks about this. The function of the LR is to
give this rush of life, this dash of power. This point lies on top of KI 1 and relies on the
power of the KI. The importance of LR to give the right circulation and use of the Blood is
also manifested in this point. The Chong Mai is in charge of giving the primitive roots for
circulation and the different uses for Blood in men and women, e.g. for having a woman
menstruate for the first time at twice seven years. The Chong Mai and the LR share the same
nickname which is Sea of Blood. Another aspect of Chong Mai is to give to the meridians
their good direction, to have the qi circulate well through the meridians. The LR is one of the
heirs of the Chong Mai.

 “Happy Calm” is another name for this point.
 In many circumstances it is miraculous for hypertension; it’s also very calming and
balancing when a patient is over-excitation or agitated.
 It’s excellent with moxa, which calms and warms it.
 You can sedate this point to calm the person down.
 This point is often joined with LI 4 to help eliminate poisonous thoughts, toxins, feces
and rubbish from both the physical and mental levels. Don’t do these points in
combination unless you have an imbalance in both LI and LV.

LR 5 Insect Ditch

Metal point, River point  4 ∆ 3-5

Location At the anterior flexure of the ankle
Between the tendons of the tibialis anterior and the extensor hallucis longus

Between the medial malleolus and the tendon of the tibialis anterior muscle
Level with the prominence of the malleolus when the foot is dorsiflexed.
To expose the tibialis anterior muscle, dorsiflex and invert the foot
Note: The location of LR 4 between the tendons of the tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis
longus is given in the text by G. Soulie de Morant, but is not common elsewhere.

Needling 90 insertion .3-.5 cun, or 45 insertion medially towards SP 5 or laterally towards ST 41

Function ^ Metal point ^ River point
^ Promotes the smooth flow of LR qi in the lower jiao

^ Courses the LR & frees connecting vessels
^ Clears LR channel stagnant Heat

Name/ER Mound Center
Zhong: center, central
Feng: mound, heap; to seal, to block
Tai Chong Alternate Names: Suspended Spring
After this dashing power at LR 3, we have now the ability to establish something, to come
into the possession of a territory from the position of the center. This point belongs to the
Metal, which controls the boundaries of the body through the skin. So this point has to do
with this governing by Metal of the boundaries of the body and the movement of Wei Qi.
In the physical shape of the body at this point, the level of the hillock of the inner malleolus is
represented by an image of piling up of Earth. Also, the point is located between the
boundaries and limits of these two muscles. The point is hidden or manifested by the play of
extension and flexion of the ankle, so this reflects the idea of “innermost.” The character
Zhong is not only the middle of muscles, or the middle of the ankle, but perhaps through that
it reveals and goes to the innermost center of my body, the five Zang, to the essences
maintaining the five spirits, the vital spirits hidden in me which are well-protected by
boundaries under the right authority. This point is also a kind of signal for the protection and
concentration of the psychological or mental life. This is emphasized by the use of Feng,
which in ancient times was the name of a sacrifice offered to Heaven on a mound. You have
a limited territory so you can know who has authority over it. You also have a mound on
which to offer a sacrifice to Heaven. All this power is ordered by the center, which is not
only the authority, but also a kind of intimate, innermost part of the self. It is from the depths
that the innermost authority and power comes. The seal is the manifestation of the authority
over the fief.

 This point works slightly more on a mental level than a spiritual level. It enriches the
quality in Mind/Spirit. Use it when the Liver lacks nutrients, richness, essence, identity.
 A person may feel a void, as if there is no meaning in life, or lack self confidence.
 JG: A seal is your own individual mark, representing the honing of who you are into
that which is most meaningful to you. This is about refining within Wood: seeing the
beauty and quality of what you have planned. Many people have so many plans that
you can’t have precision—they can’t do it all. As imbalance, the person may not be
stepping into their expression of themselves in the universe as if they have nothing of
value to express.

LR 4 Middle Seal

Luo point  3 ∆ 3-7

Location On the medial surface of the leg, 6 ACI proximal to the prominence of the medial malleolus
Posterior to the edge of the tibia
To locate this point, expose the seam on the medial surface of the tibia by pulling forwards
and medially on the 2 muscle bellies of the gastrocnemius
5 ACI proximal to the prominence of the medial malleolus, on the medial surface of the tibia
Note: Dr. Wu Wei-P’ing gives the distances of LR 5/6/7 from the medial malleolus as
6/8/12 cun and puts the points posterior to the tibia. The diagram of the medial aspect of
the leg in Dr. J. Lavier’s book clearly shows the Liver and Spleen meridians sharing the same
pathway between SP 6 and SP 8, with LR 5/6/7 at 6/8/12 ACI and SP 6/7/8/9 at

Needling (1) 90 insertion .5-1 cun
(2) 45 directed proximally towards the abdomen, 1-2 cun

Function ^ Luo point ^ Spreads the Liver

^ Regulates qi
^ Clears lower jiao damp & heat

^ Benefits the genitals
^ Regulates menstruation

^ Treats plumstone qi

Name/ER Wormwood Canal
Li: a wood-boring worm; a gourd
Gou: canal, ditch, channel
Alternate Names: Intersection Apparatus
Li: A wood-burrowing insect. There is the image of an insect or worm. This is the
movement of the little worms digging ditches in wood or in a tree. Another meaning is
calabash, gourd—a hollowed or dug-out piece of fruit. It is also the name of a shellfish,
perhaps because in the shellfish is reflected this idea of little ditches. It is also the name of a
kind of skin disease making the same effect. Gou: A drain, ditch, gutter. Sometimes it means
watercourses, with the idea of penetrating something. Irrigation system.

In LR 4 we have a centripetal movement, the constitution of a center. In LR 5 we have the
other side, a lot of little ditches in the image of a wood-burrowing insect. So this represents
the distribution, through a network of pathways, from this center that has been established.
Here is the idea of a watering network or network of communication. This point arrives at the
level of the leg where the quality of the flesh is richer. It invigorates the flesh and muscles.
This is the Luo point, so this point name gives an idea of this inner communication through all
the muscles of the leg to the GB meridian. There is a Chinese commentary on LR 5 and GB
37 that says LR 5 is like an oyster (shellfish) and GB 37 is like the pearl inside the oyster
(shining of the light).

 This is a good spirit point. It calms the patient down immensely.
 A lot of people who get abnormalities of the Liver get a skin irritation. There can also be
mental irritation. Using this point digs out a ditch and get out the buried irritation.
 It’s a very powerful luo point, giving security and balance. It anchors and stabilizes,
restores sanity and harmony.

LR 5 Insect Ditch

 JG: Use this point if the person is irritated a lot. It helps take away the irritation and
creates a new conversation. The person is already super-sensitive. This point clears away
dead Wood. It nourishes blood and moves qi.

LR 6 Middle Capital

Xi Cleft, First Aid  3 ∆ 3

Location On the medial surface of the leg
8 ACI proximal to the prominence of the medial malleolus
Posterior to the edge of the tibia
To locate this point, expose the seam on the medial surface of the tibia by pulling forwards
and medially on the 2 muscle bellies of the gastrocnemius
7 ACI proximal to the prominence of the medial malleolus, On the medial surface of the tibia
Note: Dr. Wu Wei-P’ing gives the distances of LR 5/6/7 from the medial malleolus as
6/8/12 cun and puts the points posterior to the tibia. The diagram of the medial aspect of
the leg in Dr. J. Lavier’s book clearly shows the Liver and Spleen meridians sharing the same
pathway between SP 6 and SP 8, with LR 5/6/7 at 6/8/12 ACI and SP 6/7/8/9 at

Needling (1) 90 insertion .5-1 cun
(2) 45 insertion directed proximally towards the abdomen, 1-2 cun

Function ^ Xi Cleft point ^ First Aid: cramps, spasms, urine retention
^ Spreads the Liver qi
and regulates the lower jiao

^ Regulates Blood
and qi
^ Drains Damp

^ Relieves pain
^ Frees & channels & connecting vessels
^ Removes channel obstructions

Name/ER Central Metropolis
Zhong: center, central, middle
Du: metropolis, capital, market
Alternate Names: Central Cleft, Supreme Yin,
Great Yin
Zhong: is the same meaning as in LR 4.
Du: Metropolis, capitol. This is also a very corrupt meaning of the whole, because the
capital city is a representation of the whole of the country toward which all the richness of the
country is directed. It also means abundance or fullness for the same reason. In the capital
city you have the richness of art and architecture, a richness of culture. So it also can mean
elegant. In the Chinese commentaries, it is said to be a place where all the power of the LR
converges, so this is reflected in the name capital city which is where all things converge.
There is a concentration of Blood and Qi at this point to make the thickness of the flesh. It is
from this center of the capitol that all regulation and communication is done to ensure the
prosperity of the country. In LR 4 is the establishment of a territory with boundaries. In LR 5
there is the network of communication and irrigation. In LR 6, on the basis of the two
previous points, a capital city is established.

 This point revitalizes the whole body. It lifts a person up and gives him a look around.
 It’s very powerful both spiritually and mentally.
 It’s fortifying and strengthening.
 JG: “Let’s get some plans going.” This is a center of activity which helps center a person
in his/her creative juices. It heightens and strengthens. It helps a person fill up his/her
space with his/her own creativity. Use in acute situations, it’s where qi and blood

LR 5 Insect Ditch

converge. This point is a great resource when you need some balance (like a few cords
of wood stacked in the backyard.

LR 6 Middle Capital

 4 ∆ 5

Location On the medial surface of the leg
12 ACI proximal to the prominence of the medial malleolus
Posterior to the edge of the tibia
13 ACI proximal to the prominence of the medial malleolus
1 ACI posterior to SP 9
In the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle
Note: Dr. Wu Wei-P’ing gives the distances of LR 5/6/7 from the medial malleolus
as 6/8/12 cun and puts the points posterior to the tibia. The diagram of the medial
aspect of the leg in Dr. J. Lavier’s book clearly shows the Liver and Spleen meridians
sharing the same pathway between SP 6 and SP 8, with LR 5/6/7 at 6/8/12 ACI
and SP 6/7/8/9 at 4/7/9/13.

Needling 90 insertion 1-2 cun

Function ^ Dispels Wind-Damp

^ Dispels Wind and relieves pain

^ Benefits the knee and relaxes the sinews

^ Frees the channels and connecting vessels

^ Disinhibits the joints

Name/ER Knee Joint
Xi: knee
Guan: joint; gate, pass, passageway

This point name implies the presence of the passages for knee articulation.

 JG: This is a physical level point and is good for knee problems, particularly
medial knee pain and cartilage trouble.

LR 8 Crooked Spring

Water, Tonification, Sea  6 ∆ 3-5

Location On the medial surface of the knee
Posterior to the medial condyle of the tibia
Close to the extremity of the crease formed when the knee is flexed
(Haig: Between and just posterior to the condyles of the tibia and femur)
Posterior to the edge of the tibia
In the depression formed superior to the medial end of the popliteal crease when the knee is
flexed, Posterior to the medial epicondyle of the tibia, Anterior to the tendon of the
semimembranosus muscle
Note: This lies posterior to the location of LR 8 given in Meridians and Points, which is a
Japanese location.

Needling 90or slightly posterior insertion 1-1.5 cun

Function ^ Water point
^ Tonification point ^ Sea point
^ Clears lower jiao damp-heat
^ Frees the lower burner

^ Invigorates Blood and benefits the uterus
^ Benefits the genitals

^ Nourishes Blood and Yin
^ Disinhibits the Bladder

^ Benefits the Bladder
^ Drains Liver Fire

^ Soothes the sinews
and quickens the connecting vessels

Name/ER Spring at the Bend
Qu: bend, curve, curved
Quan: spring, water source

The meaning here is that at this point the LR meridian, in entering the depths and curving, is
making a new source or spring of vitality which now develops itself along the inner face of the
thigh. There is a similarity between the character Quan here and in name of KI 1 and HT 1.
There are a lot of other points with this character Quan. This character is also used for the
sources of the Yellow River, which are in the nether regions in ancient Chinese belief. So
there is some kind of spirit life in this area. It was thought the spirits and souls of the
deceased dwelt thereat the River’s source. In some texts, e.g. in the Ling Shu, it says you
have to bend your knee to locate it well, so the point name indicates this, that you have to
bend the leg. It is not only that you find the point this way, but the energy of the point
actually manifests in this curving movement. After this point, the other points on the inner
thigh imply this same movement of the hidden power of the LR meridian. This name also
deals with knee articulation and increases the movement of the LR meridian toward the

 This point has a generalized effect; it’s quite powerful but not spirit oriented.
 It’s for bad fear, anger, irritation, indecision, instability, jealousy, depression, when a
person cannot stand changes in environment or company, and is in a rut.
 Use it when the Body/Mind is very brittle—can’t take one more trial or tribulation.
 JG: This point is great for the eyes and is an excellent point for knee problems. The pain
in the knee can be from too much Water--submerged, loose footing, soggy, damp with
Wood’s clarity obscured. It can also be from too little water---brittleness and thirst.

LR 9 Yin Wrapping

 5 ∆ 3

Location On the medial surface of the thigh
5 ACI proximal to the flexure of the knee
Between the sartorius and the vastus medialis
6 cun above the knee flexure
On the medial border of the sartorius
Between the vastus medialis and sartorius muscles
Note: The Chinese give the location of LR 9 as 4 cun above the medial epicondyle
of the femur, which is the same as 6 cun above the knee flexure

Needling 90or 45 insertion 1-2 cun

Function ^ Adjusts menstruation and regulates the lower jiao

^ Courses the Liver and rectifies qi

^ Adjusts Chong Mo and CV

^ Disinhibits the lower jiao

Name/ER Yin Bladder
Yin: yin, the complement of yang
Bao: to wrap, to envelop; bag, sack

Yin: Yin of Yin/Yang, complementary of Yang. Secret, hidden, mysterious, shadow.
To express inside the body what is not exposed immediately to perception. This
character reflects the location of the point on the yin side of the thigh, moving little
by little to the most private part of the body.
Bao: To wrap up, to envelope, to encircle, in order to contain, to conceal. By this
movement of enveloping, there is a contract, a responsibility, to take care of what is
wrapped. Etymologically speaking, we have the image of a man who bends over to
enfold an object with his whole body. So, this is also a representation of the embryo
which is enveloped by the woman. It is a great power and responsibility, to
envelope and to protect, to be in charge and responsible for the well-being of what
we envelope. In the body of a woman Bao is uterus. This is also part of the name
of Pericardium, that which envelopes and protects the most precious aspect of my
life, the Heart.

This name points to both the location of the point and to the function of the LR
meridian in terms of the gynecological function as related to the Chong Mai.
Anatomically speaking, at the level of this point, there is a kind of hollow, able to
contain and envelope something. The indications for use of this point are pain in the
lower abdomen with pain coming from coccyx; difficulty in urination; spermatorrhea;
and dysmenorrhea. The only other point with Bao in its name is SP 21 and that
reflects a kind of enveloping and protection of the center, of the Heart. LR 9 refers
more to the lower abdomen.

LR 9 Yin Wrapping

LR 10 Five Miles

 5 ∆ 5

Location On the anterior surface of the thigh
Lateral to the adductor longus
Just medial to the femoral artery
1 ACI distal to the flexure of the groin
2 cun lateral to the anterior median line, 3 cun directly inferior to ST 30
1 cun below LR 11, On the lateral border of the adductor longus
Inferior to the pubic tubercle, To expose the adductor longus, adduct the leg
Note: The locations for LR 9-12 given in Meridians and Points can be found in Dr. Wu
Wei-Ping’s book

Needling 90or 45 insertion .5-1.5 cun

Function ^ Clears Damp Heat and benefits the lower jiao

^ Soothes the sinews and quickens the connecting vessels

Name/ER Foot Five Li
Zu: foot, lower leg
Wu: five, fifth

Li: Mile. Measure of distance between two villages. Village. Hamlet. The village is the
first human organization of life. The character contains the image of a field, with lots of
irrigating ditches. In China, nearly everywhere, irrigation is needed for agriculture. The idea
of this character is a small hamlet with a few families linked together to cultivate things and to
organize the smallest structure of human social life. Another meaning is two villages linked by
roads; the distance between the villages. Neighborhood. Country, countryside. This
character also represents the striation on a piece of Jade or wood if you join it with the
character for Jade.

The Jade contains within it, the image the artist forms from it. There are striations of color
and purity in the Jade which indicate the nature of the piece of Jade. If you are chiseling the
Jade, by observing the striations, if you are a good artist, you can see the inner variation of
color and the structure of this piece, and you can carve it to bring forth these unique qualities.
This is the outer manifestation showing the inner structure. It is true of the human body too.
From the outside you can see the inner being of the person, and you can also see his fate.
You can diagnose by the texture of the skin, what organ is stronger than the others, etc. So
this character Li reflects the inner structure or inner character of all living things. If you add to
Li to the character for clothes, the meaning is undergarment; inward; the movement of coming
inside. So Li reflects this idea of the inner structure of life.

Wu, this image of the Five indicates a crossing of the motion between Heaven and Earth, or
Yin and Yang, or Above and Below. The overall meaning indicates the measurement for
finding the point, and also a very inner organization, perhaps of the five zang, or the five
movements of life. These point names are never just an indication of distance, there is always
an additional meaning. Three and five are the most important symbolic numbers for life.
Three is making the presence of life and five is organizing the life that shows up.

LR 11 Yin Angle

 3 ∆ 3

Location On the flexure of the groin
Just lateral to the femoral artery
2 cun lateral to the anterior median line
2 cun directly inferior to ST 30
1 cun below LR 12
On the lateral border of the adductor longus
Inferior to the pubic tubercle
To expose the adductor longus, adduct the leg
Note: The locations for LR 9-12 given in Meridians and Points can be found in Dr.
Wu Wei-Ping’s book

Needling 90or 45 insertion .5-1.5 cun

Function ^ Benefits the uterus

^ Regulates Chong Mo and CV

^ Soothes the sinews and quickens the connecting vessels

Name/ER Yin Corner
Yin: yin, the complement of yang
Lian: angle, corner, side, ridge

Yin: LR 10 is between two points that contain the character yin, which indicates that
the quality of qi in the meridian in this area is inward-moving.
Lian: Angle, corner. Such a corner is also the meeting of two walls, which make a
more interesting place, and also a kind of limit and articulation of the space. The
character also means pure, honest, reasonable, modest, without corruption, mentally
speaking especially. A scrupulous examination of what is really needed for life.

This point name indicates the location at the inner side of the thigh where it arrives at
the corner of the groin. At this place of meeting, at this corner, there is a way of
assessing what passes through this area in moderation. It has to do with sexuality and
all this vitality coming through this area that is regulated by the Liver.

Useful for gynecological problems: to assist during childbirth; to regulate delivery; to
help the pace, to moderate the pace as appropriate. This point ensures that nothing
is tense or held up.

 This is an excellent point for easing childbirth. It lends relaxation and eliminates

LR 12 Hasty Pulse

 X ∆ 3

Location On the flexure of the groin
2 ACI lateral to the mid-line of the pubic symphysis
2.5 cun lateral to the anterior median line, Lateral and inferior to ST 30
In the inguinal groove where the pulse of the femoral artery is palpable
On the inferolateral corner of the pubic crest
Note: The locations for LR 9-12 given in Meridians and Points can be found in Dr. Wu
Wei-Ping’s book

Needling Medial, slightly 45 insertion, .5-.8 cun
! Care should be taken to avoid penetrating the femoral vein. The Essential Questions advises that
this point should only be treated with moxa. Modern texts, however, say that moxa is
contraindicated and that the point should be treated by needling !

Function ^ Eliminates Cold from the Liver channel
^ Benefits the lower jiao

^ Frees the channels

Name/ER Urgent Pulse
Ji: urgent, hasty; anxious; acute
Mai: vessel; pulse
Alternate Name Goat Arrow

Ji: Urgent, hasty, hurried, anxious, acute, emergency. Contraction of muscles.
Mai: Pulse; meridian; network of circulation of blood and qi; network for animation,
perceptible through the pulse. The quality of the circulation of blood and qi through this
network is perceptible at the pulse. Pulse. Current of animation. Meridian, vessel. All the
Luo vessels are mai, etc. There is the idea that here there is some kind of acceleration in the
network of animation. This point does not appear in ancient texts. It is not even in 17

century books. According to some traditions, it was not different from LR11 for a long time.
To differentiate between the two aspects of the LR meridian in this area, between moderation
and acceleration, this point was located with a special location and a special name. It is in
relationship with the passage of the LR meridian in this area where there is a mastering place
for all muscles in the body, an essential muscle. It is in this area, that the LR meridian is said,
in Chapter 10 of the Ling Shu, to command the muscular forces inside the body. So this is
an important point for the animation of the muscular forces inside the body. This is where the
manifestation of the muscular forces of the body is obvious. When the LR is held back by
oppression and stagnation, there are mental symptoms of madness, and there are also
symptoms in the muscles, the first of them being the contraction of the muscles at level of the
genitals. The name of this point is related to all of that.

 Use it when a person is a terrible long term planner and whose creations don’t really
come to fruition.
 This point has a deep pathway through the testicles/vagina to CV 2, making it useful to
pain in the lower jiao and in influencing the genitals.
 Also use it for physical and emotional problems around sexuality.
 This point is used for agitation in a person’s whole being which is reflected in the pulse.
Everything is done too quickly.
 It’s also useful to eliminate toxins.

LR 13 Chapter Gate

SP Alarm, Reunion, Influential point, Dai Mo  6-8 ∆ 7-20

Location At the anterior tip of the 11
Just inferior and anterior to the tip of the 11

Needling 0or 45 insertion medially or laterally (along the line of the rib) .5-1 cun
! Deep 90 needling may damage an enlarged liver or spleen !

Function ^ Spleen Alarm point
^ Reunion: HT, KI, GB, LR, LU, SP ^ Influential Point: Yin Organs
^ Regulates the middle and lower jiao
^ Harmonizes the LR and SP

^ Fortifies the SP
& ST
^ Spreads the LR & regulates qi

^ Courses the Liver and rectifies qi
^ Relieves retention of food

^ Quickens the blood and transforms stasis

Name/ER Camphorwood Gate
Zhang: complete (an essay); a chapter; a strain
of music; the flat area on top of a hill
Men: gate, door
Alternate Name Rear Camphorwood Gate,
Elbow Tip, Long Level, Free Ribs, Lard Bone-
Hole, Spleen Mu
Zhang: Contains the character for musical note and the number ten, which is also a
symbol of a good totality, of perfection. If a piece of music is perfect, it is because it
is very well composed with all the respect of the laws of musical writing. The same
thing is true for literature. Each chapter in good literature is nicely written and fits
into the totality of the whole to create beauty. Men: Door, gate, largely open
because it is a picture of two leaves of a door. It is not a back door; it is a great
door, a front door. It is related to the heavenly power. Smaller doors are related to
the earthly power. This is the same character for gate as in Ming Men. It reflects
the idea of nobility. Guan is also a gate and uses the same symbol, but has a barrier
included in the character, so there is a sense of more control over what comes in and
out. Guan refers more to the gate of a city, guarded, closed. Whereas Men is the
gate of a house, more open, less controlled as to who enters and exits.

 Liver 13 and 14 are the only two points on the body where there is one gate
after another—they’re very useful to use together.
 This point is powerful on all 3 levels but is mainly for the mind.
 If the mind is stuck, it is a gate whose quality initiates change, helps the patient
turn a chapter. It’s a powerful spirit point giving hope and vision.
 It has the punch of an AEP.
 JG: If there is constraint and blockage, this point helps a person step through to
a new beginning or opening for them. It has a lot to do with the adjustment

LR 13 Chapter Gate

between the LR and SP (encroaches or fails), cramping in intestines, bloating. It
smoothes and opens up the qi, relieving stagnation.

LR 13 Chapter Gate

Exit, LR Alarm, Reunion, Yin Wei Mo  4 ∆ 5-7

Location On the inferior edge of the thoracic cage
On the paramedian nipple line
The point lies at the level half way between CV 11 and CV 12
(Haig: On the inferior edge of the thoracic cage

Just medial to the tip of the 10
On or near the paramedian nipple line)

In the 6
intercostal space
Directly inferior to the nipple
4 cun lateral to the anterior median line
Directly superior to GB 24
Note: The origin of LR 14 as halfway between CV 11 & 12 is unknown
Note: An alternative location is on the inferior edge of the thoracic cage, just medial
to the inferior border of the 9
rib where its costal cartilage meets the 10
directly inferior to the nipple. Liver 14 in this location is approximately the same
distance from the apex of the joined ribs as this apex it is to LR 13. This is illustrated
in Ryodoraku Treatment by Dr. Masayoshi Hyodo and Dr. J. Lavier’s book.

Needling 45 medial or lateral insertion .5-1 cun
! Deep 90 or 45 needling may cause a Pneumothorax !

Function ^ Exit point
^ Liver Alarm point
^ Reunion: LR, LU, SP (+ Yin Wei Mo acc. to D)
^ Spreads the Liver and regulates qi

^ Calms the Liver and disinhibits qi

^ Invigorates Blood and disperses masses

^ Cools Blood

^ Dispels pathogens and heat from the uterus

^ Transforms phlegm and disperses stasis

^ Harmonizes the Liver and Stomach

^ Benefits the Stomach

^ Harmonizes mid stage patterns

Name/ER Cycle Gate
Qi: period, cycle; one hundred years; expect;
one year
Men: gate, door
Alternate Name Liver Mu
Qi: A date (or place) fixed for an appointment; period; cycle. To expect.
Rendezvous. The first Emperor of the Han dynasty used to go incognito in the night
to the hot places in the city. He used to make an appointment with the officers of
the guard at a certain gate of the palace in order to sneak out unobserved. The name
given to this door in the imperial palace is Qi Men.

LR 14 Gate of Hope

Men: Gate (same as LR 13)
In ancient times, the moon was used to fix a date to arrange a meeting or a
rendezvous. LR 14 is the rendezvous of the circulation of the twelve meridians. It
helps to regulate the circulation of the Blood, through the circulation of Qi. (The
monthly rendezvous of the Blood-menses). At this point there is a relationship with
the menstrual cycle, and this kind of regularity that the LR governs. This point has to
do with this kind of initiation of the next cycle of energy, which also indicates its
joining with the Lung meridian which is traditionally the beginning of the Chinese
clock. It is the extreme of yin which begins to turn to yang. The end of the one
cycle is the beginning of the next cycle. This is a kind of final opening of the Liver
for the continued regulation of the circulation of Qi and Blood, and the five zang.

LR is the only yin meridian that rises to the top of the head (in the deep pathway).
Other yin meridians (except the HT) do not pass above the mouth. The LR
meridian points end very low in the middle heater. This is because the LR is very
easy to stimulate, so it is better not to stimulate it too high. The ST meridian
continues in lieu of the LR upwards from LR 14 (the deep pathway of the LR
follows the ST meridian). This point works with the ST meridian. It helps to clear
excess heat/yang and heat in the Blood.

LJ Anatomically, this is the highest point on the liver meridian. LR 14 empowers the
quality of aspiration. Here at the top of the tree the branches reach up to touch
heaven. Heaven is represented by the E/E connection to this point to the lung
meridian at LU 1. Hence, this point may address both the virtues of aspiration (liver)
and inspiration (lungs). Gate of Hope empowers a person to keep her eyes turned
toward the future with optimism, and may be useful for treating the person who can’t
see the light at the end of the tunnel. I often combine this point with LR 1 in an
attempt to integrate both lofty (LR 14) and fundamental (LR 1) vision.

 Use this point when there is total resignation, the patient is ready to give up.
The patient can see not birth, no growth and he/she doesn’t want to plan for the
future. There is mental torture, shutting off. There is no elation, no fulfillment—
the person is achieving but all achievements are empty.
 Opening up this gate brings renewed hope. This is the closest thing to a
window point on the Liver. It’s good for a very distinctive “gloomy” quality,
characterized by being inward turned, angry and hopeless. Dark clouds, negative
future, no hope.
 It can be used with LV 13 if someone keeps making the same mistake, giving
rise to disappointment.
 Think of this as a gate of frustration if we can’t get what we want. It’s a gate that
needs to be opened in order for a person to enter the Middle palace (LU 1); a
blockage here means that they have no hope of reaching the palace, the center
within themselves, the God within.