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Lung Functions

Principal Functions:

1. Govern Qi and Respiration
This is the most important LU function.
a. The LU inhales “clean” qi and exhales “dirty” qi. The constant exchange and renewal of
qi ensures the proper functioning of all physiological processes which use qi.
b. The LU helps in the actual process of qi formation. Gu qi + air = Zong qi which
nourishes the Heart and Lungs and promotes their functions of respiration and ruling the
Blood, helps push Qi and Blood to the limbs, and influences speech and voice.
2. Control channels and blood vessels
a. If LU qi is strong, the circulation of qi and blood will be good and the limbs will be
warm. If LU qi is weak, qi will not be able to push the Blood and the limbs, particularly
the hands, will be cold.
3. Control dispersing and descending
a. The LU spreads Wei qi and body fluids all over the body to the space between the skin
and muscles. Wei qi warms the skin and muscles and protects the body from EPFs. The
LU also spread body fluids to the skin in the form of a fine “mist.” This mist moistens the
skin and regulates the opening and closing of pores and sweating.
b. LU qi must descend to communicate with the KI which “holds” qi. The LU directs fluids
to the KI and BL for excretion. LU qi gives the LI the qi to excrete waste.
4. Regulate Water passages
a. After receiving the refined fluids from the Spleen, the LU reduce them to a fine mist and
“spray” them throughout the area under the skin. In health, the fluids are evenly spread all
over the body and the opening and closing of the pores is normal.
b. The LU also directs fluids to the Ki and BL. The KI receive them and vaporize part of
them before sending them back up to the LU to keep them moist.
5. Control skin and hair
6. Open into the nose
7. House the Po

Summary of LU points’ actions and indications

 Treating rebellion of LU qi manifesting as respiratory disorders such as: coughing, dyspnea,
wheezing, asthma and shortness of breath.
 Restoring the LU disseminating function when this is impaired by exterior pathogenic factors
which lodge in the superficial portion of the body.
 Treating nasal disorders, including nosebleed and nasal obstruction.
 Treating disorders of the throat such as dryness, soreness, congestion, swelling and pain.
 Treating edema and obstructed urination when this is caused by impairment of the LU function
of regulating the water passages and controlling disseminating and descending.
 Treating vomiting due to rebellion of ST qi.

The Lung Channel

The Main Pathway

1. The LU meridian originates in the
middle jiao around CV 12.
2. The pathway descends behind the
transverse colon then in the region of
CV 9 loops back around the colon
and travels through the upper cardiac
orifice of the stomach.
3. It joins the anterior median line at CV
13 to pass through the diaphragm.
4. Continuing upwards it branches into
the lungs, rejoining the median line at
the trachea.
5. It passes through the trachea and
larynx, finally going transversely to the
inferior border of the clavicle and from
there to LU 1, where the pathway
becomes superficial.
6. The meridian arches up over the
clavicle and axilla, descends the
anterior aspect of the upper arm lateral
to the biceps brachii muscle to the
cubital fossa.
7. It runs down the forearm to the wrist.
8. Passing the thenar eminence it ends on the radial aspect of the thumb at LU 11.
9. A branch emerges from LU 7 and runs directly to the radial side of the tip of the second digit,
where it meets LI 1.

Divergent Channel

 This leaves the primary meridian at the axilla, travels anterior to the Pericardium meridian into the
chest where it connects with the LU. It then disperses in the Large Intestine.
 A branch rises from the lung to emerge at the clavicle ST 12, then ascends the throat to join with
the Large Intestine meridian.

The Lung Channel

Luo Channel

 This separates from the LU primary channel at LU 7 and follows the LU channel into the palm and
spreads through the thenar eminence
 Another branch connects with the Large Intestine meridian.

Muscle Channel

 The sinew channel begins on the thumb, binds with the thenar eminence and crosses the wrist at the
radial artery.
 It passes up the forearm to bind with the elbow, then continues up the medial aspect of the arm
and enters the chest below the axilla.
 It reemerges at ST 12, binding at the lateral aspect of the shoulder LI 15.
 It binds at the clavicle and descends the chest to bind with the lungs, spreading over the diaphragm
and converging again at the 12

LU 1 Middle Palace

LU Entry, LU Alarm, Reunion: LU, SP, LR  3-5 ∆ 5-10
First Aid: Drowning

Location On the chest, at the level of the 1
intercostal space, 1.6 ACI inferior to LU 2

Lateral to the ribcage, at the level of the 1st intercostal space - 6 cun lateral to the
anterior median line - Directly inferior to LU 2 in the pectoralis major muscle

Needling 20° insertion .5-1 cun ! Warning Pneumothorax !

Function  Regulates LU qi and stops cough
 Descends ST qi

 Disseminates and descends LU qi
D, M
and alleviates cough and wheezing
 Disperses fullness from the chest/upper jiao and stops pain
 Transforms phlegm, clears heat and regulates the water passages

 Mainly treats the zang, not the channel (it’s a mu point)
 Excess pathogenic factors obstructing the LU: cough, phlegmy cough, coughing blood and pus,
dyspnea, asthma, wheezing, fullness and oppression of the chest, chest pain
 The above when accompanied by congestion of the nose and throat or swelling of the face.
 The above when accompanied by vomiting, retching and abdominal distention

ER Central Treasury
Zhong: central, center
Fu: treasury, storehouse; mansion
Alternate Names: Treasury Center Shu, Breast
Center Shu, Breast Shu, Lung Mu
The essences inside this palace form the radiance of the spirits. The Lung meridian starts in the middle
jiao, passing near the stomach and diaphragm which takes on a special association with the LU. The first
point then appears LU 1 near the end of the SP meridian. This point has to do with the relationship
between the middle and upper jiaos. It’s name, Zhong Fu, means the Stomach. It is appropriate that
this point subtly refers to the ST because the essences of the ST, together with the respiration of the
LU, create the Zong Qi in the chest at the Sea of Qi. The function of Zhong the center of the chest is
to make a harmonious combination of what comes from above and below, Heaven and Earth, respiration
and food essences. The blood and qi at the level of the upper jiao gives strength to meridian circulation.

LJ Virtue: empowers inspiration and connection to essence. As the mu point, LU 1 empowers the
receptive aspects of lung function associated with lung yin. Treating LU 1 may be likened to taking
someone up to the top of a mountain where the air is clear and the finest most refined qi is available to
inspire him. This point is also called “Central Treasury.” The flow of energy from LR 14 to LU 1
provides a connection between the eyes, turned up toward heaven with optimism and great vision, and
the inspiration of a spiritual connection with heaven. Zhong qi, which empowers the synchronicity of all
rhythmic movements in the organism, is a treasure in the center of the chest. A child often responds to
early trauma and/or disappointments in life by shutting off his or her heart and suppressing the lung
rhythm. As the liver qi stagnates, frustration that gives way to despair, becoming the characteristic of this
imbalance. When the lungs fail to bring quality into one’s inner landscape, or to make contact with one’s
inner worth the central treasure, it often manifests as an internal emptiness and loneliness.
 One enters into the inner palace where God resides through the middle palace. The richness and
joy of this palace should be felt every time we inhale. This is what happens when this point is
open. This point brings security and restores connection with God and nature. Use with patients
who are out of touch with the breath of heaven, where there is no quality or essence.
 Use when a person is overcome by grief--this point helps them move through the tears. It goes
directly to the source of grief.
 This point is the Receiver of Qi. Without it, the lungs can’t function. It’s good for a metal CF
who is stuck, who rejects respect or praise. This point is about opening and letting it come in. As
a palace it is a place of beauty, repose, replenishment where you can revive something that hasn’t
been used/seen in a long time.

LU 2 Cloud Gate

 3-5 ∆ 5-10
Location On the chest, in the depression found inferior to the clavicle
and medial to the apex of the coracoid process

Inferior to the clavicle, in the infraclavicular fossa
between the upper border of the pectoralis major muscle
and the anterior border of the deltoid muscle
6 cun lateral to the anterior median line

Needling 20° insertion .5-1 cun
! Warning: Pneumothorax is possible with deep or 45° insertion !

Function  Disseminates and descends Lung qi
D, M

 Clears Lung heat

 Disperses fullness from the chest
 Dispels agitation and fullness

 Stops cough

Applications Used for pain in the antero-medial portion of the shoulder

ER Cloud Gate
Yun: cloud
Men: gate, door

The only way for vapors, qi, and Heaven to circulate is through the clouds. These clouds are not black
or dark, unpleasant things. Clouds represent the way to make circulation free. Clouds are a sign of the
richness and fertilization coming from Heaven. They provide a kind of nutrition, humidity, liquids inside
the body. Life cannot exist without this humidity enriched by the power of Heaven. LU 1 represents
the attraction of the essences, the gathering. LU 2 represents the opening of the passage coming out of
the trunk.

The LU is responsible for not having too much condensation and gathering in one place. Men Door is a
passage and it must be open or closed, and always kept a watch on because it is where there is a
vulnerability. This freedom and monitoring allows the creation of good clouds and the distribution to the
extremities, at this juncture of the trunk and the extremities. Often, wind and clouds represent vitality—
for clouds can’t be used without wind, movement, circulation. You must use both to have the
interpenetration of yin and yang.

LJ Virtue: clears grief that obscures the heart
Grief in the lungs may obscure the heart’s fire in a manner similar to clouds that may obscure the sun.
This point may resolve grief, allowing the heart’s intention to shine through. For a person who is
chronically negative as if “followed by a cloud,” this point may invoke inspiration by allowing a glimpse
of heaven. I use this point, as well as LU 1 and LU 3, for treating the quality of qi stagnation that
produces the “cotton” quality on the pulse. This stagnation of the Wei-qi level may be likened to
clouds obscuring the pulse.

 This point is useful when someone is living under a dark cloud obscuring the sun/heavens. The
world is a very grey place and has lost its color. Mental clarity has completely vanished through
their loss of contact with their spiritual essence. Use this point to clear away the cloud, the murk,
confusion and darkness.
 A person may feel as though they are not clear on what they are doing on any level physical,
mental, spiritual. Their outlook is blurred and cannot come to grips with anything. They may feel
that no one cares for them.
 Use if the person is not in touch with the quality of the middle palace because there is a cloud
hanging above. Do this point to let the sun in.

LU 3 Heavenly Palace

Window of the Sky  4-6 ∆ X

Location On the antero-lateral surface of the arm, on the lateral border of the biceps
6 ACI proximal to the elbow flexure. (9 ACI in the upper arm)
To find, the arm must be in anatomical position.

Needling 90° insertion .5-1 cun, no moxa

Function  Window of the Sky
 Clears LU heat and descends/regulates LU qi
 Cools blood & stops bleeding

 Calms the Po
 Helps all emotional problems deriving from LU disharmony, such as
depression, claustrophobia, agoraphobia, mental confusion and forgetfulness

 For LR fire attacking LU: cough, asthma, wheezing, spitting or coughing blood
 Treats the Po: sadness, weeping, insomnia, disorientation and forgetfulness
 Window of the Sky: goiter and sense organ (eye) disorders)

ER Celestial Storehouse
Tian: celestial, of the heavens; sky; Nature; heaven
Fu: storehouse, treasury; mansion

This point name has a special meaning in the classics, a general meaning. Zhongzi 4

century is the most interesting philosopher in history. He said that Tian Fu represents
the infinite richness of a man who lives with the powers given by the intimacy and
communion with the power of that which is able to make life. If a man is able to free
himself of all kinds of earthly limitations in his own spiritual life, he has an infinite
treasure. He would be called Tian Fu. From him, this treasure from Heaven is
deposed and used well.

In the body, we had LU 1 which was related to food and respiration at the level of
the upper heater. After that we had a door for the distribution of vitality in the form
of vapor, clouds. Now we have Tian Fu, the celestial, heavenly inspiration for life
which is particularly active inside your head, your brain. That’s why it is a Celestial
Window. This is a serious point. All of them are on the yang meridians in area of
neck. This point is the only one which is not on the neck. It is part of the function
of the LU to present clear essences to the head, brain, and face. It is not only the
food and respiration which are important, but what we are able to do with them.
The LU is the prime minister of the Heart, the HT being the dwelling place of the
spirits, which show us the heavenly, natural way of living. The LU is called the
heaven inside the body: it is able to attract, to mix together qi and make clouds; to
circulate all that; and at same time is able to express by the passage of influences

LU 3 Heavenly Palace

coming from the spirit. The LU expresses radiance coming from the spirits of the

The character combination tian fu is a star name, a place name and a government
position. It is also an ancient expression for the breasts, the place in the upper body
where milk is “stored.”

LJ This is a Window of the Sky point. As such, it is a key point for reaching the spirit
level of the Lung meridian. If the Lungs are not in touch with quality in life, one may
feel empty inside. This may manifest as grieving for that which one has lost, or longing
for something that has eluded one. The character fu indicates a building where records
are kept; hence, Matthews translates Tian fu as “the storehouse of god-eternity.”
Knowing that heaven finds the best in us may help us to wipe the slate clean and find
the best in oneself. The virtue associated with the lungs is justice (yu). Whereas the
liver is associated with human justice, the lung is associated with heavenly justice.
Human justice is always a matter of judgment and compromise. Hence, the Dao De
Jing states, “in reconciling a great jury, there is always sure to be some injury
remaining. How can this be good?” Heavenly justice always repays injury with
original nature de, the very basis of self worth. It is interesting to compare the virtue
of self worth in contradistinction to self esteem, as empowered by LR 1. Self esteem
may be said to be predicated upon a balanced vision of those aspects of self which
comprise that roots of one’s life, which are fundamental and cannot be compromised.
This vision must discern these foundational principles as compared with the peripheral
aspect of self, which may be likened to branches that can be pruned and relinquished
as one channels energy for their growth. Self worth, on the other hand, may be
considered to be predicated upon one’s respect for a value of that fundamental
 This point deals with qualitative spiritual essence. It is the palace of the soul and
spirit, the creator. This is a palace where the spirit can be fed, cared for,
revitalized. Where all of the uncleanliness which has defiled it can be cleansed.
 Think of how the spirit moves through the middle palace and cloud gate to the
wonderful place. It is one of the most dynamic, spiritually uplifting points. It can
bring a person back into a lifestyle that is more meaningful, show them the
essence of life they have been missing.
 It makes it possible for the person to receive and let in.
 If moxa is used, it will cause counterflow and disordered qi according to the The
Systematic Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion.
 JG: This point lets fresh air in. It’s useful for a patient who can’t take in their
own value in the world or people who push people out of their lives and avoid

LU 4 Valiant White

 3-5 ∆ 5-10
Location On the antero-lateral surface of the arm,
On the lateral border of the biceps
5 ACI proximal to the elbow flexure with the arm extended

Needling 90° insertion .5-1 cun

Function  Descends LU qi

 Regulates qi and blood in the chest

 Rarely used.
 Indicated for cough, dyspnea, asthma, shortness of breath, heart pain,
palpitations, agitation and fullness, retching, pain in the medial aspect of the arm,
purple-white wind blotches (pityriasis versicolor)

ER Guarding White
Xia: to protect, go guard; hero
Bai: white
Alternate Names: Pinching White

This point is at the level of the chest on the arm, and it is white. The white could
refer to the color of the flesh at that place, and it also represents the Metal element.
The point name makes an allusion to the position of the point—you can create a kind
of protection of the chest with your arms at this level. In some texts, there is a
special current at this point that separates itself from the Lung and moves inward,
protecting the chest. The traditional way to find the point is to move the arm across
the chest; the part of arm that touches the nipple is the point. The general meaning is
always the protection and help brought forth by that which is produced by the Metal
in the white color. The location of the point expresses its function.

LJ Virtue: Harmonizes the dysfunctional expressions of resignation on the one hand
and self-righteousness on the other. The color white is associated with the metal
element, inspiring us with its brilliance and purity. The character xia also means “hero”
and refers here to the purity of intentions of one who is truly inspired by heaven. I
have found this point useful for helping someone find the inner strength to act on his
inspiration. But the virtue of righteousness can be distorted into self-righteousness
when the function of the LU is compromised. Use this point to temper the lungs’
tendency toward fanaticism.
 This is like a source point for the first three points. It’s a generalized spirit point.
 This point epitomizes all that metal stands for. It will give anything any other LU
point will but to a lesser extent.
 It’s a nice cleansing point. It also supplements LU 3 with solidity, essence.

LU 4 Valiant White

LU 6 Greatest Hole

Water point, Sedation point, Sea point  3-5 ∆ 3-5
Location On the elbow crease
Approximately 1 ACI lateral to the biceps tendon

Lateral to the tendon of the biceps brachii muscle
when the arm is slightly flexed
Chinese traditionally put this point just lateral to the tendon.
Some Japanese texts put it 1 cun lateral to the tendon.

Needling 90° insertion .5-1 cun

Function  Clears Heat from the LU
 Expels phlegm from the LU

 Descends rebellious qi
 Benefits the Bladder

 Regulates the water passages

 Activates the channel, alleviates pain
and relaxes sinews

 Important for clearing excess or def. heat: cough, shortness of breath, full chest, wheezing, asthma
 For ST or LU heat induced bleeding: vomiting or coughing blood, nosebleed
 Regulates urination: swelling of four limbs, enuresis, frequent urination
 Regulates LU and HT: pain and agitation of the heart
 Occupies a central position on the arm and treats pain and restricted movement of the shoulder,
upper arm, elbow and hand, esp. wandering pain.
 Treats lumbar and knee pain.

ER Cubit Marsh
Chi: a Chinese measure, about 1 foot
Ze: marsh; dregs

In this point we have a collecting of good influences at the level of the elbow. The first point on the
LU is at the level of the Zang Fu and the last is on the extremity; this order is sensitive to influences
coming from the outside. In this case, at the extremity of the finger there is the well point, which is a
source; after that there are five stages of the development of the flow. The well point draws from the
universe around us; something appears here, and then it develops itself like a little river in the mountain.
After that, there is a very fast and fine torrent; the water is able to regulate its course. And finally it
fertilizes the plains, becoming a river; now the river enters the sea. As the current enters the fullness of
the body, as a sea it expresses the fullness of its power. The image here is to enter the depths. At the
level of the elbow are the meeting points where this current enters the depths. He means to make a
junction with all these other sources. It is proper for the LU is to collect humidity to make benevolent
influences, the function of this point. Humidity is not just moisture, but all the best of the essences.

LJ Virtues: Cools and clears the LU, helps the LU empower a boundary that defines what is self and
what is not. If the presence of water within the LU is excess, phlegm can obscure breathing and hamper
the process of assimilation from outside to inside. Phlegm in this case can be seen as the embodiment of
negativity and grief that keeps us clinging to the past and unable to receive. Here we may evoke the
function of LU 5 as a sedation point to disperse the excess in the LU. If the presence of water within is
deficient, dryness can impinge the lungs’ function. By regulating the moisture content of the LU official,
LU 5 can help both establish a healthy boundary between self and the outside world and inspire the
assimilation of heavenly qi. Shams: balances water within LU, tonifying LU yin or clearing LU phlegm.

 This point is good for chest colds as it expels damp from the LU.
 This is a very important point within the LU official, it gives determination and flexibility.
 It’s excellent for patients who are depressed, weeping and sorrowful.
 Use when there is too much water in the LU and the person is bogged down.
 Use when there is too little water and there is rigidity and dryness.

LU 5 Outside Marsh

Xi Cleft point  5 ∆ 5
Location On the anterior surface of the arm
7 ACI proximal to LU 9, lateral to the flexor carpi radialis

This point lies between the brachioradialis muscle and the lateral border
of the pronator teres muscle.

Needling 90° insertion .5-1 cun

Function  Regulates
disseminates and descends LU qi

 Clears heat and stops bleeding

 Clears heat and moistens the LU
 Moderates acute conditions

 Xi cleft: acute cough, wheezing, asthma, chest pain
 Attack of wind-heat or wind-dry: acute swelling and pain of throat,
loss of voice, febrile disease with no sweating
 Bleeding disorders: acute coughing, spitting or vomiting blood
 Treats elbow, upper arm and finger pain

ER Collection Hole
Kong: hole, aperture
Zui: to collect, to gather; a superlative adverb
that is equivalent to “most” or the suffix “-est”
Kong: Hole; an opening. This character also has the meaning of a kind of communication
through a passage or orifice. This kind of hole indicates a relationship, e.g. the nostril is
related through the LU to the skin and the nose. The LU, by its mastery of the skin and the
authority of rhythm, is also in charge of the pulse—the good rhythm of the body, the opening
and closing, entering and exiting and so on. In this name, there is the idea of the relationships
with all kinds of hollows which are able to receive the pure heavenly qi. The LU is able to
regulate the circulation through the orifices. This name also implies a meeting place of pure
essences and qi. There is a correlation of the LU with Heaven, in this image of the mastery of
all hollows in the body. Zui: Extremely; above all; to surpass; all together.

LJ Virtue: Helps move the oppression of grief. Stagnation can correspond to phlegm as well as
old grief or longing that impedes the lungs’ function of keeping us rhythmically linked to the
movement of the dao via breath. Wei qi can become stagnant from resignation associated with
loss, evident in the pulse as a cotton or “sad” quality. This point helps break up stagnant
emotions and promotes movement of the wei qi, it can inspire the virtue of lightness in being.

 This point is good for great depletion and emptiness. Use when there is a sense of
something lacking, missing, a void that needs to be enriched and filled. This point
accumulates great wealth and quality like LU 9.
 Good on the mental and spirit levels when there’s a depth of grief that needs filling.
 It warms the meridian and is good for acute chest problems.
 JG: Think of this point in relationship to LU 9. Open the abyss with LU 9 and fill it
with LU 6. It’s a fertile void—here is the possibility of turning that void into a fountain.
What is important about that loss to that individual? It helps turn the loss into something
valuable. Acknowledge that it becomes part of that person’s uniqueness.

LU 7 Narrow Defile

Luo point, Exit point, Region Pt (head, back of neck)  2-3 ∆ 3-5
Ren Mo MP, Yin Qiao Mo CP Forbidden Months 6+

Location On the anterior surface of the forearm
2 ACI proximal to LU 9
Just lateral to the radial artery

Haig: ½-1 ACI proximal to LU 8,
Just medial to the brachioradialis tendon

In the hollow between the brachioradialis & abductor pollicis longus
To expose the abductor pollicis longus, extend the thumb
Note: In Japan this point is on the line connecting LU 9 & LU 5,
at the root of the styloid process 1.5 cun proximal to wrist crease,
just lateral to the radial artery.

Needling Pinch up skin over the point,
0° insertion proximal or distal .5-1 cun
! Avoid the cephalic vein !

Function  One of Ma Dan-yang’s 12 Heavenly Star points
 Promotes the LU descending function
and dispersing function

 Releases the exterior, expels wind
D, M

 Opens and regulates the Ren Mai

 Regulates the water passages

 Circulates wei qi and releases the exterior

 Pacifies wind and phlegm

 Benefits the head and nape

 Opens the nose

 Benefits the bladder

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain

 Principal LU point to release the ext. & descend LU qi: chills and fever, acute swelling
of limbs, nasal congestion, throat painful obstruction, cough, wheezing, dyspnea, asthma
 Clears head and neck symptoms from interior wind: headache, stiff neck, one-sided
headache, hemiplegia, deviation of mouth and eye, epilepsy
 “In treating headache, whether one-sided or not, reduce LU 7” (Ode of Spiritual Brightness)
 Regulates water passages and opens CV: blood in urine, hot and painful urination,
difficult urination, genital pain, seminal emission
 Poor memory, propensity to laughter, frequent yawning and stretching
 Important proximal point for thumb disorders

ER Broken Sequence
Lie: sequence; to arrange, to place
Que: imperfect, incomplete, deficient; vacant
Alternate Names: Child Mystery

Li: To put in order; to divide in a series; to arrange; to place according to a rule. Also a
crevasse, a crack.
Que: Something which is broken. Elizabeth says the meaning of Que is NOT narrow. The
character is a vessel that is divided, parted, cut in half; a vessel that is broken chipped into

LU 7 Narrow Defile

10,000 pieces; something is lacking or missing. This is the same word as in ST 12 Broken

Here the Luo vessel of Hand Tai Yang leaves its meridian to go to the LI meridian. The first
level of the meaning of this name relates to this. Here is a passage which allows this partition,
this separation; here the Luo is sent to the LI, like a crack or a defect in the meridian, but
with this idea of it following a certain order or rule. The name also refers to the location of
the point—it is not exactly at same track as the LU meridian; it is slightly off. This point does
not follow the same rule of organization of other points, the same flow; it is chipped off the
flow of other points by sending it off to the yang, to the LI, to the exterior.

There is also an association here with the lightning and thunder in Heaven, because Heaven
opens a space for lightning to come through. This is complicated, but there is also the idea of
fire coming out of a forge—this is too complicated to explain. The image of lightning is
common with this point. This is the image of Heaven able to make an opening for something,
and the LU having the power of the Qi of Heaven. There is a special coupling of this point
with ST 40 which is associated with thunder, like a pairing of thunder and lightning. ST 40
is associated with thunder, moving the Earth; and LU 7 is associated with lightning, coming
through crack in Heaven. This reflects the ability of the LU to act like Heaven to make clear
and fresh, to allow the way for passage. The saying goes, “Lightning in the heart, thunder in
the legs.”

LJ Virtue: opens and clears the LU official. Being both the luo and exit point, LU 7 is
particular potent for integrating the functions of receiving and letting go. As the luo point, LU
7 empowers inner clarity and openness on the deepest of levels by venting stagnation from the
LU and directing the mind inwardly toward emptiness and essence. As an exit point, LU 7
functions to empower the LU to let go and surrender what is of no value to the LI for

 This is a special junction point which affects all junction points like SP 21.
 This point can treat almost everything. It brings all officials together and harmonizes and
balances the other yin arm meridians. It affects the release of sexual hormones.
 It’s good emotionally for worry, grief, sadness, especially where the person bears it in
silence. This point can stimulate a beneficial outpouring of repressed emotion.
 It releases physical tension in the shoulders, shallow breathing, a feeling of oppression in
the chest and calms the Spirit.
 JG: This point opens to the exterior by opening the pores and regulating the sweat
glands. It makes sure that the fluids in the LU are in balance. It’s a very penetrating
point. Good for cold or flu—everything feels clogged/closed off. This point allows the
skin to breathe again, which means the outside world can get in and you can get out.

LU 8 Meridian Gutter

Metal, Horary, River  2-3 ∆ X
First Aid: electric shock Forbidden Months 6+

Location On the anterior surface of the forearm,
1 ACI proximal to LU 9, lateral to the radial artery

Haig: Just proximal to the radial styloid process,
medial to brachioradialis tendon

The anatomical description takes precedence
over the cun measurement

Needling 45° proximal or 90° .3-.5 cun ! Avoid the radial artery !

Function  Descends LU qi and alleviates cough and wheezing

 River: excess cough, dyspnea, wheezing, distention and pain of the chest and upper
back, febrile disease with no sweating

ER Channel Ditch
Jing: channel, river; warp
Qu: gutter, ditch, canal
This point is in the area of the radial pulse. What is appreciated here is the quality of blood
and qi in all the viscera and through all the meridians. The LU has the ability to gather
together all qi to all the meridians and give good rhythm for all animation. This point gathers
the quality expressed by all the meridians, and is the reason why we can have a complete
pulse investigation at that level. The sustainment of heavenly forms (meridians) are perceptible
here: the vitality, the nutrition, the substances, and also the spiritual life. There is also here a
way to know how to organize or put into good order all the functions inside the body.

This kind of canal is mostly made by man, not a river or natural stream, so there is the idea of
how to regulate the circulation since this is the purpose of canals and ditches. The wise man is
sent who is able to regulate himself through his own spiritual power, and these same characters
are used to describe this. This is called the inner map in the Nan Jing Chapter 27, and is
related to the place between the normal meridians and the extra meridians which perfectly
regulates the person’s vitality. So this point reflects the connection to the pulse in which the
heavenly norms are regulating the distribution of qi and essences. And there is also the
possibility of a great gathering of something to help with this regulation of heavenly laws.

LJ Virtue: Empowers the essential qualities of metal. The point’s name imparts a sense of
connecting us to the value of past experience while draining he meridians of all that is
inessential. As the metal and horary point, this is a strong resource for strengthening the LU
official with the essential nature of metal, to promote emptiness, inspiration and connection to
value. It is able to empower the receptive quality of the LU within the other officials.

 The meridian gutter must be clear in order for things to flow. This point gets rid of “dead
leaves” and rubbish, carries away poisons, and revitalizes qi for the Body/Mind.
 It’s good when heat and cold are out of proportion on the body surface, esp. the hands.
 JG: This point is called for when a person is constantly trying to prove themselves. It
clears out the muck and lets them know they are complete in their pristineness.

LU 9 Very Great Abyss

Source, Earth, Tonification, Stream, Influential, First Aid  2 ∆ 3

Location On the wrist crease between the radius and scaphoid bones
Upon the radial artery

Haig: Just medial to the brachioradialis tendon

Needling 90° insertion .3-.5 cun ! Avoid the radial artery !

Function  First Aid: asphyxia, collapse, concussion, food poisoning,
insensibility, poison, shock
 Influential point: Meridians
 Tonifies LU qi

 Transforms phlegm

 Tonifies LU yin
M, D

 Promotes the descending function of the LU

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain

 Regulates and harmonizes the one hundred vessels

 Stops cough
, M

 Clears LU and LR heat

 Tonifies Zong qi

 Promotes the circulation of blood and influences the pulse

 Stream & Source: principal LU point to tonify LU deficiency (qi & yin): cough, cough
with watery phlegm, wheezing, dyspnea, asthma, shortness of breath, much yawning,
heat in the palms, dry throat
 Regulates 100 vessels & zong qi: spitting, coughing or vomiting blood, agitation with
HT pain and a choppy pulse, manic raving, pulseless syndrome
 Regulates LU channel: pain of shoulder, back, supra-clavicular fossa, inner arm and wrist

ER Great Abyss
Tai: great, very
Yuan: Abyss, deep source of water
Alternate Names: Ghost Heart, Great Spring

Here we have the other side of the pulses, the abyss of vitality. An abyss is not only a great
deepness—it is something more. Sometimes in the abyss is a gathering of water, a quantity of
water, an accumulation of water, a pooling of water. Sometimes this water has some kind of
current inside, a bubbling or overflowing from every side. This kind of water is able to give
birth to a lot of things: plants, animals. Perhaps there are multiple streams coming to form
this abyss and a configuration of territories around to form this abyss. When you see a
movement on the face of the abyss there is a current inside, from the gathering of streams or
even a great fish swimming around! This describes the movement of the pulses as you feel
them at this point. The abyss lets you be sensitive to the great secrets and mysteries of life, to
delve into the very source of life. Again, as in taking pulses, it is a question of sensitivity or
presence in addition to technique and knowledge. I can perceive a pulse because my blood

LU 9 Very Great Abyss

qi are circulating well, allowing the possibility of knowledge in my heart. I can know if it is a
big fish or an underground source, but there is also the quality of contact
between the two flesh-and-blood human beings, which passes from one to the other through
this powerful abyss. This expresses this ability to go back to the very sources
of life, the real power sustaining my life, coming from the deepest level of my being. This is a
mysterious and hidden part of life. We are able to know something here about the qi, the
blood, the spirit, but there is also something hidden, deep, and primal that perhaps we know
in a different way.

LJ LU 9 is associated with the whirling abyss situated between heaven and earth. Hence, it is
the assembly point of the pulse, whose beating is patterned on the breath of dao. As the
meridian’s earth point, LU 9 can bring substantiality to deeply nourish the LU. In this way we
may come to value heaven as a source of nourishment, and cravings for material possessions
can be mitigated. For only heaven is eternal, and all worldly goods are of transient value.

 This is a great revival point. Use for complete lack of order, chaos, when the pulses are
not rhythmical or regular and you can’t get a clear diagnosis of your patient. This point is
good to use on its own before any other treatment to clarify what is going on.
 It’s a tremendous point as it unifies both Father and Mother aspects within the Body,
Mind and Spirit, thus giving a great effect in reviving all of the officials and immediate
aid to the LU official.
 As the name indicates, it penetrates to the deepest level, spirit. It’s idea of a very great
abyss plunging deep into the internal landscape, reaching down to the most intimate
levels of a person. It’s very effective when dealing with a very worried, desperate person.
It has a wonderful effect on the mental level for the patient who feels their life is cracking
 This point is also a reunion point for arteries and veins, dealing with the state of metal
within the blood nutrients and iron. It has a tremendous effect on the blood.
 JG: This point nourishes the fluids. It’s a filling point. It allows one to go down and be
filled by that experience. It’s a “corpse reviver,” bringing the spirit back from outside in
to the body. It allows a person to go into aloneness because he/she is connected to
Heaven. It helps a person go into grief gently.

LU 10 Fish Region

Fire point, Spring point  3-5 ∆ X

Location On the palmar surface of the hand
Midway along the ulnar side of the first metacarpal bone

Haig: From the midpoint of the 1
over the thenar eminence, to its medial edge

At a point midway bet. the base & head of the 1st metacarpal
On the antero-lateral aspect at the change in skin color
Oppose the 1st & 5th digits;

Needling 90° insertion .5-1 cun

Function  Benefits the throat
 Descends rebellious qi

 Clears LU heat
 Harmonizes the ST and Heart

 Clears LU channel heat in throat: throat painful obstruction, dry throat, loss of voice
 Clears excess or def. LU heat: cough with absence of sweating, fever, coughing blood
 Clears LU heat transmitted to the HT: agitation, sadness, fright, anger and mania
 Clears LU heat transmitted to the ST and ST channel: abdominal pain with inability to eat,
vomiting, cough accompanied by hiccup, breast abscess, toothache
 Pain and heat of the thumb joint

ER Fish Border
Yu: fish
Ji: border

What was perceptible at the level of spirit through the pulses is now visible at the level of the flesh,
through the health of the color of the hand and the capillaries. Fish refers to Lao Tzu, who says fish
never have to leave the abyss. This indicates the relationship between the fish and the abyss. What
was visible at LU 9 is now continued in LU 10. Yu is the same pronunciation for the character for
abundance. The Chinese eat fish and it’s good to have fish to eat. At a wedding banquet, the last
course is fish, a whole fish. If you have any trouble with the family you shouldn’t eat any of this fish
because it represents the abundance of the new life of the couple, of the family. This name also refers to
the anatomy here, the abundance of the flesh the thenar eminence with visible capillaries is called the
belly of the fish. You have to be careful needling here because there is such an abundance of life coming
to the surface here. If you insert the needle too deeply, the Su Wen Chapter 52 warns that you can
bring edema to the area, because you affect the good circulation of the blood.

LJ LU 10, the fire point on the LU meridian, can help bring the warmth of fire to an overly rigid metal
element. If the metal element becomes cold and brittle, we tend to focus on the negative, failing to
acknowledge the value in others as well as in ourselves. Without warmth, the LU as judge may lack
compassion and exact too high a toll as we criticize ourselves and others too harshly for every perceived
impurity. If the presence of fire within metal is excessive, dryness can prevent the LU from being able to
inhale and assimilate essence effectively. Pent up fire within the LU can express itself as religious zealotry
as we project our own inability to connect with heaven externally.

 This point brings warmth to the Father, this fire is greater than any volcano. This is one of the most
powerful points in the body.
 In the very early days, the fish symbolized God. This point brings tremendous warmth and heat to
the BodyMindSpirit.
 Use with moxa if the LU have gone cold, inert or brittle. It brings the warmth of fire into metal,
helping the “don’t touch me,” cut off person who is locked up inside, lacking emotional warmth
and receptivity.

LU 11 Little Merchant

Wood point, Well point, Ghost point  1 ∆ X
Forbidden Months 7+

Location The radial nail point of the thumb

About .1 cun proximal to the corner of the nail, just distal to the flare of the distal phalanx

Needling 90° or 45° aimed proximally, .1-.2 cun

Function  One of the 13 Ghost points  Clears heat

 Expels wind, both interior and exterior
 Benefits the throat

 Revives consciousness
and opens the orifices
 Stimulates LU qi dispersing and descending

 Jing well: restores consciousness (from wind stroke in LU case)
 Prick to bleed to clear LU channel heat in the throat: acute swelling, congestion and
pain of the throat, mumps
 Jing well & ghost point: fullness and agitation of the heart, mania

ER Lesser Shang
Shao: few, little
Shang: 5
sound of the Chinese musical scale;
merchant, trader
Shao: Little; yang; imperceptible not as visible as tai. Shang: The name of the musical note
proper to the Metal element; a special vibration expressing the quality of the Metal. This
also means the idea of people speaking to give advice; to consult; to deliberate; to negotiate.
It means a merchant in terms of negotiation, bargaining. This reflects its position as the most
external manifestation of the LU meridian. In this point, the vibration of the Metal is
expressing itself to the meridian. Because it is a yin meridian it is less perceptible than a yang
meridian would be. LI 1 has Shang in its name, showing the other side, the vibration proper
to the Metal on the LI meridian. Shang Yang—it’s no more secret but on the yang. The LU
is master of the zang, expressing the inner feeling of this heavenly role of the Metal.

LJ A good merchant knows the value of things, how to conserve them, and when it is best to let
go of something because the price for holding on to it is too great. If the presence of wood is
excessive, metal may become blunt as it is constrained by wood. If a field is over planted, the
soil will be depleted of minerals as the roots choke the nourishment out of the earth. If wood
is overly judgmental, metal can tend toward perfectionism as we see only the impurities in
everything. As a sedation point, LU 11 can ease the metal’s tendency to constrain wood
across the ko cycle. LU 11 can engender a deep vision of essence and comprehension of its
worth. In this way wood can be empowered to not overly draw upon metal, but to preserve
it as a good merchant preserves his treasures.

 This point supplies enough qi to “get by with.” Like the corner shop where we go when
we run out of necessities, it gives temporary support. It’s often used early in tx for this. .
 It brings relief from tension, worries, asthma, chest complains.
 It has a tremendous calming effect because you are able to fulfill some of the fundamental
needs of the body, mind and spirit. It can help people get over a crisis or critical stage.
 This point provides the connection between wood and metal. It can affect the quality of
a metal CF’s growth, decision and planning.