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Large Intestine Functions

The Large Intestine has 1 principal Function:

 To receive food and drink from the Small Intestine. Having re-absorbed some of the
fluids, it excretes solid waste.


Summary of LI points’ actions and indications

According to the Spiritual Pivot, “Yangming channel is abundant in qi and blood.” Points
of both the arm and leg portions of yangming are therefore much used to regulate qi and
blood in the limbs and treat atrophy disorder and painful obstruction, hemiplegia and pain
of all kinds.

In Chinese tradition, ‘the sage faces south’ and thus the light and warmth of the sun falls on
the front of the body. The yangming channels receive the full intensity of the sun, as does
the abdominal and chest portion of Stomach channel. For this reason, yangming or “yang
brightness’ is considered to be particularly replete with yang qi. Points of the LI channel,
therefore, are among the most important to clear excess of yang in the form of heat and
fever.

 Treating all disorders of the yangming channel in the head; this area includes the face
and cheeks, forehead, eyes, nose, lips, gums and teeth.
 Treating disorders of the ear LI luo channel
 Expelling wind, cold and heat from the exterior portion of the body.
 Clearing wind-heat, interior heat and fire poison from the areas traversed by the
channel, especially in the head.
 Clearing yangming fire which disturbs the Heart and spirit.
 Assisting the LU in its function of opening the water passages.



The Large Intestine Channel

The Main Channel



1. The Large Intestine meridian starts at LI 1 on the radial side of the second digit and runs up
the radial border of the forearm and the lateral aspect of the upper arm, remaining superficial as
far as LI 14.
2. At LI 14 a deep branch runs to TE 14 at the posterior border of the deltoid muscle.
3. The meridian continues over the shoulder joint to LI 16 and then travels across the trapezius
muscle to the posterior median line at the base of C7 GV 14. DEADMAN says that in this
process the meridian passes through ST 12—CTA does not.

The Large Intestine Channel

4. It crosses back over the shoulder to the supraclavicular fossa ST 12 where it divides.
5. One branch goes up from the lateral aspect of the neck, passing over the sternocleidomastoid
muscle into the lower part of the face.
6. From the mandible it travels along the side of the mouth, crossing the median line below the
nose and above the upper lip and ends at the opposite side of the nose at LI 20 where the LI
& ST link.
7. Some Japanese texts include a pathway encircling the mouth LI 18/CV 24/ST 4/GV 26/LI
19 and a branch from LI 20 to TE 20.
8. Another branch from the supraclavicular fossa passes through the chest and lung, goes down
through the diaphragm and abdomen and travels through the large intestine itself to ST 25.
Some historical texts include a deep pathway running down from ST 12 through the LU and
LI to enters the lower limb, emerging at ST 37.

Divergent Channel

 Leaving the primary meridian on the hand, this passes up across the arm and shoulder to the
breast.
 A branch separates at the top of the shoulder LI 15, enters the spine at the nape of the neck
GV 14, and passes down to join with the LI and LU.
 A second branch ascends from the shoulder along the throat, emerging at the supraclavicular
fossa ST 12 to rejoin the primary meridian.

Luo Channel

 This leaves the primary meridian at LI 6 to join the LU meridian. Another branch travels up the
arm to the shoulder LI 15, crosses the jaw and passes to the teeth.
 A third branch separates at the jaw and enters the ear to join the Chong Mai In DEADMAN
it says at the ‘zong mai’, where the channels of the LI, ST, SI, GB and TE gather and collect
at the ear.

Muscle Channel

 This originates at the tip of the first digit and binds at the dorsum of the wrist.
 It then travels across the forearm, binding at the lateral aspect of the elbow and continues up
the arm to bind at the shoulder LI 15.
 A branch encircles the scapula and attaches to the upper thoracic vertebra at the spine.
 The main muscle channel travels from LI 15 at the top of the shoulder to the neck, where a
branch separates to bind at the side of the nose, then continues upwards, anterior to the SI
muscle channel.
 It crosses over the head, connecting at the mandible on the opposite side of the face.


LI 1 Merchant Yang

Metal, Horary, Well, First Aid  1 ∆ 3

Location Radial nail point of the index finger
JRW

About .1 cun proximal to the corner of the nail
Just distal to the flare of the distal phalanx
CTA


Needling 90° or 45° aimed proximally .1-.2 cun

Function  Metal point
 Horary point 5a-7a, 6a-8a DST
 First Aid: toothache
 Well point
 Resolves the exterior
B

 Expels Wind and scatters cold
M

 Abates heat
B,D,M
reduces swelling and alleviates pain
D

 Courses and discharges yang ming pathogenic heat
B

 Clears the LU and disinhibits the throat
B

 Benefits the throat
M

 Opens the portals and revives the spirit
B,D
 Calms the Spirit
M
 Brightens the eyes
M


Name/ER Shang Yang
Shang: 5
th
notes of the Chinese scale; Merchant
Yang; yang, the complement of yin


Shang: The name of the musical note proper to the Metal element; a special
vibration expressing the quality of the Metal. This also means the idea of people
speaking to give advice; to consult; to deliberate; to negotiate. It means a merchant
in terms of negotiation, bargaining. In this point, the vibration of the Metal is
expressing itself to the meridian. Because it is a yang meridian it is more perceptible
than a yin meridian would be. Shang Yang—it’s no more secret but on the yang.

Other
 This is a revitalization and resurrection point. If a patient gets very cold, can’t
communicate and can’t see clearly, this is an excellent first step in removing the
first “mask” layer. This allows him/her to be more honest.
 The patient may be very stubborn, withdrawn or clogged up with rubbish. This
point enables direct communication with the essence of the meridian.
 It’s commonly used with LU 8 for cleaning out stuff, often on a physical level.
 JG: this point gives a person the ability to exchange something of value =
merchant often used with LU 8 for clearing out dead leaves. The clearing it
provides allows new inspiration in and helps the person take it to the outside
world. It gives a sense of purity and wholeness. It’s good for those who are
never good enough, which can show up as ruminating, circular because the
person can’t let go.

LI 2 Second Interval

Water, Sedation, Spring  3 ∆ 3
Forbidden Months 9+

Location On the posterolateral surface of the index finger
Just distal to the base of the proximal phalanx
JRW

On the midline of the radial surface of the second digit
Distal to the metacarpo-phalangeal joint
Just distal to the flare of the base of the proximal phalanx
Traditionally at the junction of the change in skin color
Located with the finger slightly flexed
Note: This location is just inferior to the description in JR Worsley’s Meridians and
Points, which is also illustrated in Acupuncture Handbook by D.& J. Lawson-
Wood.
CTA


Needling (1) 45° proximal or distal .2-.3 cun
(2) 70° towards the palm .5 cun

Function  Water point
 Sedation point 5-7a, 6-8a DST
 Spring point
 Clears Heat and reduces swelling
D,M,B
 Disinhibits the throat
B
 Expels Wind
D

 Alleviates pain
D


Name Second Space
Er: 2, second
Jian; Space, gap, crevice
Alternate Names; Space Valley, Whole Valley

Other
 This point controls the water balance within metal, lending fluidity and
movement.




LI 3 Third Interval


Wood point, Stream point  3 ∆ 3

Location On the dorsal surface of the hand
Immediately proximal and radial to the head of the second metacarpal bone
JRW

On the radial side of the second digit
Proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint
At the flare of the head of the second metacarpal bone.
When a loose fist is made, the point lies in a hollow
between the head of the 2
nd
metacarpal and 1
st
dorsal interosseous muscle
CTA


Needling 90° insertion towards SI 3, .5-2 cun

Function  Wood point
 Stream point
 Clears Heat
B,M,D

 Dispels Exterior Wind
M,D

 Disinhibits the throat
B

 Benefits the throat
M,D
and teeth
D

 Brightens the eyes
M
 Regulates bowel qi
B

 Dispels fullness and treats diarrhea
D

Name Third Space
San: 3, third
Jian; Space, gap, crevice
Alternate Names; Lesser Valley, Small Valley

Other
 Use this point when the patient needs “space”, an interval to allow what has
happened in previous treatments to process naturally.



LI 4 Joining of the Valleys


Source, Entry, Blackout, Region, First Aid  5 ∆ 5-7
Forbidden Months 1+

Location On the dorsal surface of the hand
In the angle between the proximal ends of the first and second metacarpal bones
JRW

Just distal to the flare of the radial side of the base of the 2
nd
metacarpal
CTA


Needling (1) 90° insertion .5-1 cun
(2) 45° insertion proximally 1-1.5 cun

Function  Source point  Entry point
 Point for Acupuncture blackout if needles were inserted in lower body
 Region point: Face and Mouth
 First Aid: dull pains, earache, fainting, food poisoning, poison, toothache
 Two of the Four Buddha’s Gates (+ LR 3)
 Expels wind and releases the exterior
D,M,B
 Clears and discharges LU Heat
B
 Regulates Wei qi and adjusts sweating
D
 Stimulates LU dispersing function
D
 Tonifies qi and consolidates the Exterior
M
 Harmonizes ascending/descending
M

 Frees gastrointestinal downbearing
B
 Quiets the Spirit
B

 Regulates the face, eyes, nose, mouth, ears
D
 Induces labor
D

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D, M,B
 Restores yang
D


Name Union Valley
He: a union; to meet
Gu; valley
Alternate Names; Tiger’s Mouth, Uniting Bones,
Holding Mouth

LJ The energy from the lungs enters the large intestine meridian here at the entry point. The
functions of receiving lung and letting go large intestine are joined. In Daoism, the image of the
valley is a symbol of emptiness. The virtue of emptiness is that it empowers one to be
receptive to the essential nature of life. The Yi-jing hexagram #15 for modesty qian indicates
that “the superior man reduces that which is too much, and augments that which is too little.
He weighs thing and makes them equal.” In her comment on this hexagram Anthony states,
“To equalize extremes is part of the natural law. A haughty, pretentious attitude stands like a
narrow, steep mountain that is constantly being attacks by the elements; as a consequence, it
erodes into the valley. The valley, likewise, because it is a depression, receives all that erodes
into it.” Hence the name Joining of the Valleys.

Other
 LI 4 and BL 59 are the best points for removing toxins and poisons from the
body/mind. Both are known as the “Great Eliminator”—this is especially true in mental
disorders. You may get an emotional discharge after treatment, as it eventually brings
calmness to the body/mind.
 It’s a very powerful point which is good to moxa; it’s also an important revival point.
 Use it on the physical level for sinuses, teeth, constipation, etc.
 JG: This point bridges the gap between what was and what is now. It nourishes qi,
moves qi and is a valley which gathers energy in order to let it go. You don’t know what
is next, it is pure action of the moment. It’s good for colds and releasing exterior
elements lodged inside. It opens the pores, especially good if there’s a sense of isolation.
It’s a classic point for pain.


LI 5 Yang Stream


Fire point, River point  3 ∆ 5

Location On the radial edge of the wrist
Between the styloid process of the radius and the base of the scaphoid
Between the extensor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis
In the anatomical snuffbox
JRW


Needling 90° insertion .5-1 cun

Function  Fire point
 River point
 Dispels Wind
B,M

 Releases the Exterior
M

 Drains Fire
B,D
 Dissipates yang ming pathogenic heat
B,D

 Stops pain
M,D

 Benefits the throat
M

 Benefits the wrist joint
D

 Calms the Spirit
D


Name Yang Ravine
Yang: yang, the complement of yin
Xi; Ravine, mountain creek gully, gorge
Alternate Names; Central Eminence

Other
 This is a powerful point on the mental level and then filters on to the spirit level.
 It’s a great point for bringing warmth to the meridian and clearing the mind.
 It’s a big detoxifying point, helping to clean out excess negativity. It’s great to
use in conjunction with LI 4.
 It’s good for people who see ghosts and spirits—perhaps tend towards
insanity—because it brings stability.
 JG: This point softens and lightens the metal—“yes this is a huge loss, but it
doesn’t have to be all that terrible. Let’s find some lightness in the moment.”
Pit’s particularly useful when the patient experiences several losses in a row—
with some much to cope with, here is some lightness to help you manage the
moment. It helps keep a person from getting caught in it bottom heavy. Use
when a person feels sad and inadequate, not good enough.



LI 6 Side Passage


Luo point  3 ∆ 5-7

Location On the posterior radial surface of the forearm
3 ACI proximal to the wrist flexure, along the radius
With the anterior surface of the forearm across the chest,
the point lies ulnar to the radial edge of the radius
JRW

Haig: 3
rd
line = Along the radius
HI

On the posterior aspect of the radius
On the radial border of the extensor group of muscles
3 cun proximal to LI 5
On the line connecting LI 5 with LI 11
The arm should be across the chest, with the radial border uppermost and the elbow
at an angle of 90 degrees.
CTA


Needling 20° insertion .5-1 cun

Function  Luo point
 Opens and regulates the LU Water passages
M,D,B

 Expels Wind and clears Heat
D
 Frees the vessels and connecting vessels
B


Name Veering Passageway
Pian: inclined to one side; partial
Li; to pass through; order, sequence


Other
 This is a good point for mental confusion.
 JG: This point can acknowledge the end of a period past, the passage of time.
Helps to let go of a hard experience, end the ruminating, and find closure.
Things get old—sometimes we need some freshness.




LI 7 Warm Current


Xi Cleft point  3 ∆ 5-30

Location On the posterior radial surface of the forearm
7 ACI proximal to the wrist flexure
With the anterior surface of the forearm across the chest,
the point lies on the radial border of the extensor digitorum
JRW

Haig: lies just radial to the radial border of the extensor digitorum communis
HI

5 cun proximal to LI 5
On the posterior aspect of the radius
In the seam between the extensor digitorum and extensor carpi radialist muscles.
To expose this seam, flex and extend the digits
Note: This point has traditionally been placed at 5 or 6 cun above the wrist flexure.
The origin of its location at 7 cun is unknown, but it is shown at 7 cun on a diagram
in Dr. J. Lavier’s book. Dr. Wu Wei P’ing gives it as “seven pouce below the flexure
of the wrist.” Dr. Hin puts it 6-7 proximal to the wrist, about midway off the
radius.
CTA


Needling 20° insertion .5-1 cun

Function  Xi Cleft point
 Clears pathogenic Heat
B,M,D

 Detoxifies poison
D
 Clears Yangming fire
D

 Rectifies the ST and intestines
B,D

 Stops pain
M

 Expels Wind
M

 Benefits the throat
M

 Moderates acute conditions
D

 Calms the Spirit
D


Name Warm Dwelling
Wen: warm
Liu; to flow; to slide, glide; slippery
Alternate Names; Snake Head, Pools, Head,
Counterflow Pouring

Essential Questions says that the phenomenon of yin and yang existing simultaneously
is called flowing liu. Although this is usually taken to refer to the quality of the pulse
in the Spring when yin and yang both exist, it can also be a description of the hand
yang ming large intestine channel where the yin blood and yang qi are found in
abundance.

Other
 This point is commonly used to warm the LI official if Metal is really cold.
 Use it when the person feels absolute despair. It helps to move the LI.

LI 8 Lower Side


 4 ∆ 6

Location On the posterior radial surface of the forearm
8 ACI proximal to the wrist flexure
With the anterior surface of the forearm across the chest,
the point lies on the radial border of the extensor digitorum
JRW

Haig: lies just radial to the radial border of the extensor digitorum communis
HI

On the posterior aspect of the radius
In the seam between the extensor digitorum and extensor carpi radialis muscles
8 cun proximal to LI 5
On the line between LI 5 and LI 11
CTA


Needling 90° or 45° insertion .5-1.5 cun

Function  Expels Wind and clears Heat
D,B

 Harmonizes the SI
D

 Clears Yangming Fire
D

 Calms the Spirit
D

 Frees the channels and alleviates pain
B


Name Lower Ridge
Xia: lower, below
Lian; ridge, edge; sincere, honest
Alternate Names; Lower Ridge of the Arm






LI 9 Upper Angle


 4 ∆ 5-10

Location On the posterior radial surface of the forearm
9 ACI proximal to the wrist flexure
With the anterior surface of the forearm across the chest,
the point lies on the radial border of the extensor digitorum
JRW

Haig: lies just radial to the radial border of the extensor digitorum communis
HI

On the posterior aspect of the radius
In the seam between the extensor digitorum and extensor carpi radialis muscles
9 cun proximal to LI 5
On the line between LI 5 and LI 11
CTA


Needling 90° or 45° insertion .5-1.5 cun

Function  Frees bowel qi
B

 Harmonizes the LI
B

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D

 Courses the channels and quickens the connecting vessels
B


Name Upper Ridge
Shang: upper, above
Lian; ridge, edge; honest, sincere
Alternate Names; Upper Ridge of the Arm

Other
 This point works tenderly on someone who is really overworked or stressed out.
 Use it when the Body/Mind is saying to slow down.



LI 10 Arm Three Miles


 5 ∆ 5-10
Forbidden Months 9+
Location On the posterior radial surface of the forearm
10 ACI proximal to the wrist flexure
With the anterior surface of the forearm across the chest,
the point lies on the radial border of the extensor digitorum
JRW

Haig: lies just radial to the radial border of the extensor digitorum communis
HI

On the posterior aspect of the radius
In the seam between the extensor digitorum and extensor carpi radialis muscles
10 cun proximal to LI 5
On the line between LI 5 and LI 11
CTA


Needling 90° or 45° insertion .5-1.5 cun

Function  Regulates qi and blood
D

 Tonifies qi
M

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D,M

 Harmonizes the intestines and ST
D,B

 Dispels Wind
B

 Frees the connecting vessels
B


Name Arm Three Li
Shou: arm, hand
San; three
Li: ward as in a city, a measure of
distance equal to approximately one
third of an English mile
Alternate Names; Upper Three Li,
Ghost Evil

Other
 This is a point to use when the patient is intellectually exhausted.


LI 11 Crooked Pond

Earth, Tonification, Sea, Ghost point  5-8 ∆ 5-10

Location On the posterior radial surface of the forearm
With the anterior surface of the forearm across the chest,
The point lies between the lateral end of the elbow crease
and lateral epicondyle of the humerus
JRW

Halfway between the lateral edge of the tendon of the biceps brachii
and the lateral epicondyle of the humerus,
At the lateral end of the transverse cubital crease
when the elbow is flexed at a right angle
CTA


Needling 90° insertion 1-1.5 cun

Function  Earth point
 Tonification point
 Sea point
 One of the 13 Ghost points
 One of Ma Dan-yang’s 12 Heavenly Star points
 Clears Heat
B,M,D

 Eliminates Damp
B,M,D

 Courses Wind and resolves the Exterior
B,M,D
 Harmonizes qi and blood
B,M,D
 Cools the Blood
M,D

 Disinhibits the joints
B,M
and benefits the sinews
M

 Alleviates itching
D

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D


Name Pool at the Bend
Qu: bent, crooked, curved
Chi; pool, pond
Alternate Names; Yang Marsh, Ghost Minister,
Ghost Leg

Other
 This point is more for the physical than spirit level. It has a generalized effect on
then official.
 It’s good to moxa and gives big pulse changes.
 This point treats internal devils and gives stability to epilepsy, depression and
insanity.
 JG: Ponds are moist and fertile. This point is good for getting rashes out of the
skin—it pulls out the heat. It’s good for poison ivy.


LI 12 Elbow Bone


 3 ∆ 3

Location On the lateral surface of the arm
2 ACI proximal to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus
JRW

1 cun superior and 1 cun lateral/posterior to LI 11
Superior to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus
On the lateral border of the humerus & the anterior border of the triceps brachii
Sitting Up: Flex the elbow to 90 degrees and partially pronate the forearm so that
the radial border is uppermost
Lying Down: Extend the forearm and partially pronate so that the radial border is
uppermost
Note: This point has historically been located at both 1 and 2 cun above LI 11
CTA


Needling 90° insertion .5-1 cun

Function  Benefits the elbow joint
D,M
 Benefits the joints
B
 Courses the channels and quickens the connecting vessels
B

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D


Name Elbow Bone-Hole
Zhou: elbow
Liao; bone-hole
Alternate Names; Elbow Tip





LI 13 Arm Five Miles


 X ∆ 7

Location On the lateral surface of the arm
3½ ACI proximal to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus
JRW

On the line joining LI 11 and LI 15
3 cun above LI 11
Between the lateral border of the triceps brachii
and the lateral border of the humerus
Sitting Up: Flex the elbow to 90 degrees and partially pronate the forearm so that
the radial border is uppermost
Lying Down: Extend the forearm and partially pronate so that the radial border is
uppermost
Note: The location of LI 13 at 3.5 ACI is given in Dr. Wu Wei-P’ing’s book and
illustrated in Dr. J. Lavier’s book.
CTA


Needling 90° insertion 1-1.5 cun

Function  Disinhibits the joints
B

 Courses the channels and quickens the connecting vessels
B
 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D

 Alleviates coughing
D

 Regulates qi
D

 Drains damp
D

 Transforms phlegm
D

Name Arm Five Li
Shou: Arm, hand
Wu: Five
Li: ward or district, a measure of
distance = 1/3 mile
Alternate Names: Great Prohibition

The Spiritual Axis states that needling Five Li damages the qi of the five viscera.

Other
 The Yellow Emperor says that this is a forbidden point. Insertion of the needle
may cause exhaustion of energies on the five vital points welling, outpouring,
flowing, terminal and point of lake.

LI 14 Outer Bone of the Arm


 X ∆ 7

Location On the anterolateral surface of the arm
7 ACI proximal to the elbow flexure
On the distal border of the ‘V’ of the insertion of the deltoid
JRW

On the line joining LI 11 and LI 15
7 cun above the elbow flexure, at the insertion of the deltoid
The muscle can be demonstrated by abducting the arm against resistance.
Sitting Up: Flex the elbow to 90 degrees and partially pronate the forearm so that
the radial border is uppermost
Lying Down: Extend the forearm and partially pronate so that the radial border is
uppermost
CTA


Needling 45° insertion 1-1.5 cun

Function  Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D,M

 Relieves pain
B

 Regulates qi and dissipates phlegm nodules
D,M

 Courses and frees the channels and connecting vessels
B

 Benefits the eyes
D

 Brightens the eyes
M

Name Upper Arm
Bi: arm, forearm
Nao; upper arm, humerus
Alternate Names; Head Surge, Head
Thoroughfare, Neck Surge, Neck Thoroughfare

Other
 This point connects the body and spirit, the inside and outside worlds, and lets
a person’s arms reach out for inspiration.
 It’s often used with LI 15 and 16 locally, and for mentally clarity.
 It clears obstructions. It is a first aid point for concussions.





LI 15 Shoulder Joint


Yang Qiao Mo  6 ∆ 7

Location On the lateral surface of the shoulder
Distal to the acromioclavicular joint
In the concavity between the acromion and the greater tubercle of the humerus,
Formed when the arm is abducted
JRW

On the most lateral part of the shoulder
Inferior to the acromion
Between the acromion and the greater tuberosity of the humerus
At the center of the upper portion of the deltoid muscle.
Traditionally, in the depression formed when the arm is abducted
Sitting Up: Flex the elbow to 90 degrees and partially pronate the forearm so that
the radial border is uppermost
Lying Down: Extend the forearm and partially pronate so that the radial border is
uppermost
CTA


Needling (1) With the arm abducted, 90° insertion towards the axilla 1-1.5 cun
(2) 20° insertion towards elbow 1.5-2 cun

Function  Courses Wind
B,M,D
 Dispels Wind-Damp
D
 Dispels pathogens and resolves Heat
B

 Promotes circulation of qi in the channels
M
 Harmonizes qi and blood
B,D

 Regulates qi and dissipates phlegm nodules
D

 Disinhibits the joints
B

 Benefits the shoulder joint
D

 Benefits sinews
M

 Quickens the connecting vessels
B

 Stops pain
M,D


Name Shoulder Bone
Jian: shoulder
Yu: clavicle
Alternate Names; Collarbone, Shoulder Tip, Flat
Shoulder, End Bone, Central Shoulder Well

Other
 This point provides mental clarity and releases a lot of energy to the brain.
 Use it if the patient is tired, has headaches, or is feeling pressure about holding
in the shoulder.
 Also use it for exhaustion, hemorrhage, insensibility and shock.



LI 16 Great Bone


Yang Qiao Mo  6 ∆ 3-7

Location In the depression
between the acromial end of the clavicle & the spine of the scapula
JRW

On the most lateral part of the shoulder
In the depression between the acromial extremity of the clavicle
and the scapular spine
Just posterior to the superior border of the trapezius
Sitting Up: Flex the elbow to 90 degrees and partially pronate the forearm so that
the radial border is uppermost
Lying Down: Extend the forearm and partially pronate so that the radial border is
uppermost
CTA


Needling 90° or 45° insertion .5-1 cun
! Deep medial insertion may create a Pneumothorax !

Function  Benefits the joints
M,B
 Benefits the shoulder joint
D

 Regulates qi and blood
D
moves blood locally
M

 Subdues ascending rebellious qi
M

 Dissipates phlegm nodules
D

 Opens the chest
M

 Stimulates the descending of LU qi
D

 Activates the channel
D
 Courses and quickens the connecting vessels
B

 Removes channel obstructions
M

 Alleviates pain
D


Name Great Bone
Ju: great, large, giant
Gu: bone


Other
 This point moves the blood through obstructions and joints.
 LI 15 and 16 are good together for headaches, muzziness, and freeing a
restricted flow of Qi and blood.





LI 17 Heavenly Vessel


 3 ∆ 3-7

Location On the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid
Approximately 1 ACI inferior to LI 18
JRW


Needling (1) 90° insertion .3-.5 cun
(2) 45° insertion .5-.8 cun
! Deep needling may puncture the carotid artery or jugular vein !

Function  Disinhibits the throat
B

 Benefits the throat and voice
D

 Clears LU qi
B


Name Celestial Tripod
Tian: heaven; celestial, of the heavens
Ding: an ancient Chinese sacrificial or cooking vessel
Alternate Names: Celestial Nape, Celestial Summit

The character ding is a pictographic representation of an ancient Chinese sacrificial
cooking vessel that had two ear-like extensions for handles and was supported on a
stand with three legs. Here it serves as a metaphor for the neck, which supports the
head. It is especially suitable for the head to be portrayed as a precious vessel
because it houses the brain, the “storehouse of the original spirit.”

LJ The function of this point relates directly to Yi-jing hexagram 50 the cauldron” ding.
The ding was a vessel used in banquets and in the performance of ritual. The essence
of this hexagram is that stagnation must be removed and the vessel cleaned in order
for it to receive, and be received, by spirit during the ritual. Hence this point fosters
the necessary state of open receptivity required to be nourished by heaven.

Other
 This is one of the strongest spirit points on the LI. It gets rid of toxins on a mind
and spirit level.
 It’s like a window—good for cleaning the meridian.
 JG: Stagnation must be removed and the vessel cleaned out in order for it to
receive and be received by Heaven.



LI 18 Support and Rush Out


Window of the Sky  4 ∆ 3

Location Between the two heads of the sternocleidomastoid
Lateral to, and on a level with, the middle of the laryngeal prominence and ST 9
JRW

Between the sternal & clavicular heads of the sternocleidomastoid
Following the contour between ST 9 and SI 16
Traditionally 3 cun lateral to the midpoint of the laryngeal prominence
CTA


Needling (1) 90° insertion .3-.5 cun
(2) 45° insertion .5-.8 cun
! Deep needling may puncture the carotid artery or jugular vein !

Function  Window of the Sky
 Benefits the throat and voice
D,M,B
 Alleviates cough and wheezing
D,M

 Resolves phlegm and disperses masses
M

 Regulates qi and blood
B


Name Protuberance Assistant
Fu: to assist, to aid
Tu: protuberance; sudden, abrupt
Alternate Names: Water Hole

LJ Imbalances of the large intestine’s function are often characterized by either
inappropriate clinging to the past or longing for the future. As a Window of the Sky
point, LI 18 may assist in 1 letting go of past grief and 2 directing longing for the
future to a deep level of spirit.

Other
 There is a basic need among humanity to see that if we let go of something, we’ll
get something good in return to replace it. We need the trust and recognize that
we will have something if we let go; we need perspective and balance so that
we can let go and move on. This point is good when the patient is entrenched in
a position that’s not helpful, with something almost festering. You can see
physical level effects—mucus or cough stuck in the throat, glandular swelling,
thyroid problems, swallowing issues, speech difficulties.
 If the LI is overworked with clearing rubbish, the patient can have anger, etc.
come up. You need to go to the spirit of Metal in this instance. This point lets
light into a situation that is daunting.
 JG: This is for the person who doesn’t even see that they are holding on; they
don’t even have a glimpse of the possibility of being different. The person can’t
see how their holding of the situation is contributing to their suffering. Experience
a high opening. Treat it if you have a sense that tears need to come.




LI 19 Grain Bone


 1-3 ∆ X

Location Halfway between the inferior border of the nose and the edge of the upper lip
½ ACI medial to the nasolabial fold
JRW

Directly inferior to the lateral margin of the nostril
Level with and .5 cun lateral to GV 26
Note: The origin of the location given in Meridians and Points is unknown
CTA


Needling 45° insertion .3-.5 cun
Some texts contraindicate moxa

Function  Diffuses LU qi and clears LU Heat
B

 Clears the nose
B,D

 Rouses the Spirit
B

 Eliminates Wind
D


Name Grain Bone-Hole
He; grain, rice, corn
Liao: bone-hole
Alternate Names: Long Shore, Long Cheek, Long
Plate, Long Bone-Hole






LI 20 Welcome Fragrance


Exit point  1-3 ∆ X

Location On the face
At the inferior edge of the alum
1 fen lateral to the alum
JRW

Level with the lateral part of the nasal wing
In the nasolabial groove the laugh line,
Superior to the root of the canine tooth
Note: the distance from the nostril has traditionally varied for this point.
CTA


Needling 0° insertion medio-superiorly .3-.5 cun
Some texts contraindicate moxa

Function  Exit point
 Opens the nasal passages
D,B
 Expels Wind
D,M,B
 Clears Heat
D
 Clears qi Fire
B


Name Welcome Fragrance
Ying: to welcome, to receive
Xiang: fragrance
Alternate Names: Surging Yang, Thoroughfare
Yang

LJ Energetically, the function of LI 20 relates to the receptive qualities of the metal
element and the functional connection between the large intestine and the lung
officials. The sense of smell is one of the most important ways in which the reality of
posterior heaven is transmitted to the internal world. In this regard it is important to
note the olfactory nerve terminates in an area of the brain directly related to human
emotion the limbic system. Additionally, one’s sense of smell contributes in a large
way to the way things taste. Hence, LI 20 and ST 1 may be considered to provide
significant input into the process by which alimentation and respiration support the
fires of ming men through nurturing the jing of posterior heaven. The TCM functions
of this point are to open the nasal passage and disperse wind and heat. Here, wind
and heat arise from the inability to properly digest life and eliminate that which has
lost its essential value.

Other
 This point helps a person smell the joy and beauty of life, which affects the mind
and spirit. Most people think you just pick up an odor and it’s a physical thing.
It isn’t. It’s also a mental and spiritual thing.
 This point is not just about physical level fragrance—it’s also about newness,
allowing new experiences to come in.
 A fragrance can evoke memories of the past--but old experiences can be
remembered without living in the past.