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Functions of the Stomach

The Stomach has 4 principal functions:

1. To control the “rotting and ripening” of food
2. To control the transportation of food essences
3. To control the descending of qi
4. It is the origin of fluids

Summary of ST points’ actions and indications

 Treats all disorders of the yangming channel in the head including the eyes, face and
cheeks, forehead, nose, lips, gums and teeth.
 Treats disorders of the ear.
 Treats disorders of the throat.
 Regulates the functions of the intestines.
 Treats disorders of the upper, middle and lower jiao, especially the LU, HT, chest,
epigastrium, ST, SP, uterus and BL.
 Tonifies qi, blood, yang and yang.
 Treats both acute and chronic disorders of the breast.
 Treats disturbance of the spirit, especially mania-depression.


The Stomach Channel

The Main Pathway

1. The Stomach meridian
begins on the face at LI
20, ascends the side of
the nose to the anterior
median line at the bridge
of the nose and goes to
BL 1.

2. It then turns downwards
to ST 1-3. At ST 3 the
pathway goes to GV 26
(D says also GV 28,
back to ST 4 and down
to CV 24, encircling the
mouth.)

3. The meridian continues to
ST 5 and around to ST 8
at the temporal hairline via
the cheek, the angle of the
mandible and the
zygomatic arch. It crosses
GB 3 in front of the ear
and GB 6/5/4, and
finally reaches the forehead
at GV 24. Some texts
mention another deep
pathway passing through
the eyes and into the
brain.

4. A branch emerges at ST 5
and continues down the
throat to ST 12 (D says a
deep pathway travels from ST 12 to the upper back to GV 14, CTA does not).

5. At ST 12 a deep pathway travels alongside the superficial meridian through the chest and
diaphragm to CV 13, where it enters the stomach and connects to the spleen. It continues to CV
12 and down to ST 30, where it rejoins the superficial meridian.

6. From ST 12 the main meridian travels straight down the chest, passing through the nipple. It
descends the abdomen to ST 30.

The Stomach Channel


7. Yet another branch travels from ST 11 to GV 14 on the posterior torso (D does not have this but
instead says there is a further branch originating from the pyloric orifice of the Stomach descending
within the abdomen and meeting with the rest of the channel at ST 30).

8. The rejoined meridian now runs down the leg to ST 36.

9. At ST 36 a tibial branch runs lateral to the main channel and ends at the lateral nail point of the
third digit (D says 2
nd
digit), while the meridian continues through points 35-45 at the lateral side
of the second digit.

10. Another branch runs from ST 42 to link with SP 1 at the medial side of the big toe.

Divergent Channel

 Leaving the primary meridian on the thigh, this enters the abdomen, connects with the Stomach and
disperses through the spleen.
 It then ascends through the heart and follows the esophagus to the mouth.
 It continues up beside the nose to connect with the eye and then rejoins the primary meridian. In
other words, makes a big circle 

Luo Channel

 Leaving the primary meridian at ST 40, this connects with the Spleen meridian.
 One branch follows the lateral margin of the tibia up across the thigh and trunk to the top of the
head to converge with the other Yang channels.
 A second branch divers in the neck and connects with the throat.

Muscle Channel

 This originates at the 2
nd
, 3
rd
, and 4
th
digits, binds at the dorsum of the foot and slants upwards
along the lateral aspect of the leg. It binds at the lateral aspect of the knee.
 This branch then crosses and binds at the hip and lower ribs before circling behind the body to
connect with the spine.
 A second branch divides from the first above the ankle, following the tibia to bind at the knee. A
sub branch crosses to the head of the fibula to join with the GB channel.
 From the knee, the channel ascends the thigh and binds again in the pelvic region where it joins with
the reproductive organs.
 It then continues up the abdomen and chest to bind with the clavicle ST 12, then passes up the
neck and around the mouth, binding at the inferior border of the nose.
 Above, it joins the Bladder muscle channel to form a muscular net around the eye.
 A sub branch separates at the jaw and crosses the face, binding in front of the ear.


ST 1 Receive Tears
Entry, Reunion point, Yang Qiao Mo, Ren Mo ⊥ 1-3 ∆ X

Location On the cheek
Immediately superior to the infra-orbital foramen
On the inferior border of the orbit
In line with the center of the pupil with the eye looking straight ahead
JRW

Between the eyeball and the infraorbital margin
Inferior to the center of the pupil w/the eyes looking straight ahead.
Traditionally .7 cun below the pupil.
CTA


Function  Entry point
 Reunion: ST, LI, CV, Yang Qiao Mo
 Benefits the eyes and stops lacrimation
D,M

 Eliminates Wind
D,B,M
and clears Heat from the eye
D

 Dissipates Fire from the eye
B
 Courses pathogens
B

 Brightens the eye
B,M


Name Tear Container
Cheng: to contain, to hold, to carry; to receive
Qi: tears
Alternate Names: Face Bone-Hole, Brimming
Tears,
Mouse Hole, Ravine Hole

This point helps the body “contain tears,” hence the name.

LJ The role of the stomach is to digest and integrate life’s contribution to physiological
function. When emotional material has not been digested and integrated, it is
emotionally burdening in the same way undigested food makes one feel heavy. When
the stomach function is compromised, the large intestine may be unable to let go of
undigested emotional material, and one may never reach the stage of grieving, for
instance, over a traumatic loss. Hence, ST 1 may empower the receiving of tears,
indicating that the stuck energy has moved on and that one is now integrating the
experience. This point opens up the flow of qi at the source of the stomach meridian
and, therefore, may help to flush out undigested materials, both physiologically and
emotionally.

Other
 The emphasis of this point is on the mental and spirit levels. It helps processing
and digesting which enriches and enhances the spirit.
 It improves secretions to aid the digestive process
 JG: This point allows a person to take in and receive nourishment. Use if a
person is unable to cry in a painful situation. It brings forth tears of compassion.

ST 2 Four Whites
Yang Qiao Mo ⊥ 1-3 ∆ 3

Location On the cheek
In the depression of the infra-orbital foramen
3 fen inferior to the inferior edge of the orbit
JRW

Inferior to ST 1
In the infraorbital foramen
Traditionally 1 cun below the pupil
CTA


Needling (1) 90° insertion .2-.4 cun
(2) 45° insertion superio-laterally, along infraorbital foramen .3-.5 cun
This point is contraindicated for moxa by several classical texts

Function  Eliminates Wind
D,M

 Courses Wind and quickens the connecting vessels
B

 Clears Heat and benefits the eyes
D

 Brightens the eyes
M

 Soothes the sinews
B

 Relieves pain
B


Name Four Whites
Si: four
Bai: white
Alternate Name: Grain Gate

The four white areas of the eye, located above, below and to either side of the iris
are called the four whites.” ST 2 is used to treat such ailments in these areas such as
painful redness, nearsightedness and eye screen.

The alternate name Grain Gate is a reference to the mouth, which is the gate to the
stomach. The 4 areas around the mouth are also considered diagnostic of the body’s
earth qi.

Other
 This point brightens the eyes in seeing the 4 directions.
 It’s good for smoke in the eyes



ST 3 Great Cheekbone
Yang Qiao Mo ⊥ 1-3 ∆ 5

Location On the zygomatic bone
Directly inferior to the infra-orbital foramen
At the level of the inferior border of the alum of the nose
JRW

Inferior to ST 1
Level with the inferior border of the nostrils
CTA


Needling (1) 90° insertion .3-.4 cun
(2) 0° insertion to join with ST 4, SI 18, etc.

Function  Eliminates Wind
D,B,M

 Dissipates swelling and alleviates pain
D,B,M

 Quickens the connecting vessels
B

 Removes channel obstructions
M


Name Great Bone-Hole
Ju: great, big, giant
Liao: bone-hole


This point is so named because it is found in the largest bone-hole in the cheek.

Other
 Good for acne


ST 4 Earth Granary
Reunion point, Yang Qiao Mo ⊥ 1-3 ∆ 5
Forbidden Months 5+

Location 4 fen lateral to and level with the angle of the mouth
JRW

Inferior to ST 1, level with the corner of the mouth
Traditionally .4 cun lateral to the corner of the mouth,
directly below ST 3
CTA


Needling 0° insertion to join with ST 6, LI 20, CV 24 etc.

Function  Reunion: ST, LI, Yang Qiao Mo, CV acc. to D
 Eliminates Wind from the face
D,B,M

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D,M

 Benefits tendons and muscles
M

 Frees qi stagnation
B


Name Earth Granary
Di: earth
Cang: granary, storehouse
Alternate Names: Stomach Link, Linking
Confluence, Ghost Bed

The face is divided into three sections: the area above the nose corresponds to
heaven, the nose to man, and the area below the nose to earth. This point is located
next to the mouth and is thus called Earth Granary. ST 4 is called a “granary”
because the mouth receives the five grains, food, the material manifestations of earthly
qi. The character for granary resembles a mouth esp. in its older form and is formed
from the character for food and the character for mouth.

Other
 This is a granary for all levels: mental, physical and spiritual. Food and drink are
stored and called upon to be processed. If the storehouse is empty, in times of
trouble there will be distress. Ensure that it is full in the event of an emergency.
 Use when there is excessive chewing over problems spirit level.
 Use when leg points are not holding and depletion persists

ST 5 Great Welcome
Reunion point ⊥ 3-5 ∆ 3-5

Location On the inferior border of the mandible
Anterior to the masseter
In the depression of the facial artery
JRW

On the lower jaw
In the groove on the border anterior to the masseter when the teeth are clenched
Traditionally, 1.3 cun anterior to the angle of the mandible, where
the pulse of the facial artery is palpable
CTA


Needling (1) 45° insertion .3-.5 cun
(2) 0° insertion to join with ST 4, ST 6, etc.

Function  Reunion: GB, ST not in D
 Eliminates Wind
B
and reduces swelling
D,B
 Quickens the connecting vessels
B


Name Great Reception
Da: great, large
Ying: to receive, to welcome
Alternate Name: Marrow Hole

ST 5 may be called Great Reception because it is a point where the stomach channel
receives or welcomes the LI channel and it is an internal branch of its own channel.

Other
 This is sometimes used as a spirit point for people who are “closed off.”
 JG: This point encourages one to open up and welcome life. Open your mouth
and ask. Open your mouth and time a bit of life.

ST 6 Mandible Wheel
Reunion point, Ghost point ⊥ 3 ∆ 7

Location 4 fen anterior and superior to the angle of the mandible
In the depression between the two bellies of the masseter
JRW

On the highest point of the masseter muscle when the teeth are clenched.
One finger breadth .8 cun superior to the angle of the mandible
CTA


Needling (1) 90° insertion .5 cun
(2) 0° insertion to join with ST 4, ST 5, ST 7, etc.
(3) 0° insertion towards upper or lower jaw for toothache

Function  Reunion: GB, ST not in D
 One of the 13 Ghost Points
 Eliminates Wind
D,B

 Benefits the jaw and teeth
D

 Opens the jaw and frees the connecting vessels
B

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D


Name Jawbone
Jia: jaw
Che: vehicle, chariot, car
Alternate Names: Hinge, Tooth Bend, Ghost
Bed,
Ghost Forest

The character combination jia che is an ancient name for the jawbone. The jawbone is
a “vehicle” that carries teeth, which is also seen in its synonym ya che, which means
literally “tooth vehicle.”

Other
 Use this point for Bell’s Palsy or any neuralgia of the face.

ST 7 Lower Passage
Reunion point ⊥ 3 ∆ X

Location In the depression inferior to the zygomatic arch & anterior to the mandibular condyle
When the mouth is open wide, this depression disappears
JRW

Inferior to the zygomatic arch
Anterior to the condyle of the mandible
Directly superior to ST 6
You may open the mouth to located the condyle, but close it to locate the point
CTA


Needling (1) 90° insertion slightly infreriorly.5-.1 cun
(2) 0° insertion to join with SI 19, ST 6, SI 18
Use option 2 for diseases of the ear, teeth, face, and jaw

Function  Reunion: ST, GB acc. to D
 Benefits the ears
D,M
jaw and teeth
D

 Opens the portals and sharpens the hearing
B

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D,M

 Courses Wind and quickens the connecting vessels
B


Name Below the Joint
Xia: below, lower
Guan: joint, hinge; barrier; to shut, to close


ST 7 may derive its name from its location below the joint of the mandible. Also, it
is located just below the zygomatic arch, an area that reminded the ancient Chinese
of the door bolt guan. See also GB 3 above the joint.



ST 8 Head Tied
Reunion point ⊥ 3 ∆ X

Location On the head
½ ACI posterior and superior to the natural hair line
At the superior corner of the forehead
JRW

At the corner of the forehead
4.5 cun lateral to the anterior median line
(distance between 2 corners of forehead = 9 cun)
.5 cun posterior to the anterior hairline
At the level of GV 24
CTA


Needling 0° insertion .5-1 cun
Moxa contraindicated in classics

Function  Reunion: ST, GB, Yang Wei Mo acc. to D
 Eliminates Wind and alleviates pain
D,B,M

 Clears the head and brightens the eyes
B,M

 Relieves dizziness
M

 Benefits the eyes
D

 Discharges Fire
B

 Clears Heat
M

 Stops lacrimation
M


Name Head Corner
Tou: head
Wei: to bind, to tie together originally, a net or
catching birds, corner
Alternate Name: Forehead Large

From its original meaning of net, the we character came to mean to “bind or tie.”
However, the character wei often carries the meaning of corner. The expression si we
refers to the four corners of a net, and b y extension, the four cardinal points and the
four limbs.

LJ This is a key point for obsession. ST 8 is ideal for someone who is bound by their
own thoughts.

Other
 Use this point for people tied up in knots and experiencing mental and spirit
level turmoil.
 JG: This point gets a person’s energy down and out of their head. The patient
may even present as dizzy.


ST 9 People Welcome
Window of the Sky, Sea of Energy, Reunion point ⊥ 1-3 ∆ X

Location On the anterior surface of the neck
Upon the carotid artery
At the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid
At the level of the laryngeal prominence, level with LI 18 and SI 16
JRW

Between the sternocleidomastoid muscle and laryngeal prominence (Adam’s Apple), on the
anterior border of the muscle,
on a contour between the laryngeal prominence and SI 16
Note: to display the sternocleidomastoid, raise the head halfway off the couch. To expose it
on one side, place the flat of the hand against the cheek on the opposite side and ask the
patient to push towards and against the hand.
CTA


Needling 90° insertion .5-1 cun
! To avoid puncturing the carotid artery, palpate it and held it laterally during needling !

Function  Window of the Sky
 Sea of Energy  Reunion: ST, GB acc. to D
 Regulates qi
D,M
and blood
D,B
 Benefits the throat and neck
D,M

 Lowers rebellion
D
 Alleviates pain
D

 Removes masses
M
 Relieves swelling
M

 Clears Heat and calms dyspnea
B
 Frees the channels and connecting vessels
B


Name Man’s Prognosis
Ren: man, person
ying: to predict, calculate; welcome, to receive; to face
Alternate Names: Fivefold Confluence, Celestial
Fivefold Confluence
There is an expression: ying ri tui ce, which literally translates as “to receive the days and
predict events,” and is used to describe a type of astrological prediction. The alternate names
stress the point’s function of receiving the qi of the five viscera.

LJ This is a Window of the Sky point. It addresses deep aspects of spirit as they emerge through
the Earth element. This is a main point for treating resentment built up by being ingratiating
people-pleasing. It is ideal for the person who takes care of everybody else in attempt to
avoid conflict, who eventually comes to resent others. This resentment is often evidenced as a
constricted feeling in the throat at the level of this point. Patients often instinctively point to
this area when they say “they’ve had it up to here.” This point may also empower a person
who is unable to welcome others into their process.

Other
 This is a very strong point with both spirit and mental connotations. The patient must
really have lost their resignation before using this. Use when the focus has been turned
inward. There is nothing coming in and the patient has closed down.
 It’s great when a person has become paranoid about people not loving them, talking
about them; they’ve lost touch with the reality of life.
 “Welcome” is about being there, giving what you have and receiving.
 The patient can see that things can be different. This point lets them make a conscious
decision to allow change.

ST 10 Water Rushing Out
⊥ 1-3 ∆ X

Location On the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid
At the level of the cricoid cartilage
Approximately 1 ACI inferior to ST 9
JRW

Midway between ST 9 and 11
At the level of the cricoid cartilage,
on the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid
The cricoid cartilage is felt as the first broad band of cartilage on the trachea from the
sternal notch upwards
Note: the exact origin of ST 10 as 1 ACI inferior to ST 9 is nknown.
J.R. Worsley’s location may be of Japanese origin.
Note: to display the sternocleidomastoid, raise the head halfway off the couch. To
expose it on one side, place the flat of the hand against the cheek on the opposite
side and ask the patient to push towards and against the hand.
CTA


Needling 70° insertion directed medially .5-1 cun
! To avoid puncturing the carotid artery, palpate it and held it laterally during needling !

Function  Benefits the throat and neck
D

 Disinhibits the throat
B

 Descends LU qi
D,B


Name Water Prominence
Shui: water
Tu: Abruptly, suddenly. To rush out, to run
against; to offend. A chimney; smooth
Alternate Names: Water Gate, Water Heaven




ST 11 Qi Cottage
⊥ 3 ∆ 3

Location Superior to the clavicle
Between the two heads of the sternocleidomastoid
2 ACI lateral to the median line
JRW

Between the sternal and clavicular heads of the ternocleidomastoid
On the superior border of the sternal end of the clavicle
Where there is a palpable groove.
Note: This will lie more medial than the 2 ACI measurement given in Meridians and
Points.
CTA


Needling 90° insertion .3-.5 cun
! Deep insertion may puncture the Lung !

Function  Benefits the throat and neck
D

 Descends qi
D,B
and courses qi
B


Name/ER Qi Abode
Qi: qi, breath
She: residence, to reside; to bestow, to give away
something

The functions of the ST channel points 11-16 and 18 are primarily associated with
their location in relation to the chest and lung. The point names reflect these
associations through the metaphor of the chest as a house. The house has a window,
roof, door and storeroom, while ST 11 represents the abode itself.

This is a place for the reception of qi. ER

Other
 This point brings a sense of security and comfort to the body, mind and spirit.
It’s a place where someone is there waiting for you with food.
 Open the Qi Door ST 13 to walk into the Qi cottage to enrich the spirit or
barren earth



ST 12 Broken Bowl
Reunion point ⊥ 3 ∆ 3

Location In the center of the supraclavicular fossa
4 ACI lateral to the median line and on the paramedian nipple line
JRW


Needling 90° insertion .3-.5 cun
! Deep or posterior insertion may injure the subclavian vessels or puncture the
Lung ! Note: Some sources contraindicate this point in pregnancy.

Function  Reunion: ST, SI, LI, GB, LR (ST, SI, LI, GB, TE acc. to D)
 Descends LU qi
D,B

 Clears heat from the chest
D

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D

 Subdues rebellious qi
M

 Frees the channels and quickens the connecting vessels
B


Name Empty Basin
Que: empty, vacant; imperfect, defective
Pen: basin, bowl
Alternate Names: Celestial Cover, Cubit Cover

LJ Just as a broken bowl may be unable to contain one’s meal, so too may an individual
fail to embody acquired sources of nourishment. His imbalance may evidence as an
emotional spilling in the form of neediness, worry and inappropriate boundaries
regarding the fulfillment of one’s own needs and the needs of others.

Other
 Use this point when things have been shattered. Use when there is a sense of
loss.
 Use when there is a need to let go of what is not needed instead of mourning—
it is time to change.
 This is a very powerful point. It’s a description of an energetic state where the
patient is not getting nourishment and there is no containment.
 You can get big pulse changes with this point.
 It has a direct effect on milk production
 JG: This point really lifts deficient qi depression sinking. It’s for a deep,
shattered depression where the person can’t imagine how to put things back
together. The person can’t even begin to ask for what I need. It’s about taking in
and moving down. There may be an absence of mothering. It transforms hurt in
irreparable places.

ST 13 Qi Door
⊥ 3 ∆ 5

Location On the inferior edge of the clavicle
4 ACI lateral to the median oline4 and on the paramedian nipple line
JRW

Directly inferior to ST 12 in a palpable notch
CTA


Needling (1) 20° insertion laterally or medially, .5-.8 cun
(2) 0° insertion inferiorly along the channel
! Deep or 90° insertion = BIG risk of injuring subclavian vessels or the Lung !

Function  Unbinds the chest
D,B

 Descends rebellious qi
D

 Clears Heat
B


Name/ER Qi Door
Qi: Breath, vapor, air, steam. Weather;
atmosphere. Manner; temper; feelings; influence;
force; life-giving principle; vital fluid.

Hu: Half of a big double gate. The character Men implies main entrance; Hu
implies the door inside the house, e.g. between two rooms. When Men and Hu are
used together, Men means Heaven and Hu means Earth. For example on the outer
Bladder line, Hun which belongs to Heaven is called Hun Men, but Po, which
belongs to Earth, is called Po Hu. A door; an individual; a family.

Because Hu implies that which belongs to the Earth, this refers to the descending
movement of the ST. A door to let the qi move downward. Also, by the use of
Hu, it connotes what is coming from the Earth, i.e. food that the ST works on.

Other
 One of the first symptoms telling you this door is closed is digestive disorder
after E/E blocks are clear.
 You must make sure the doors and gates are open when a person is stuck e.g.
rejecting sympathy.
 JG: This is a point which opens to let qi come down. Use when a person is
unable to give or receive sympathy.



ST 14 Storehouse
⊥ 3 ∆ 5

Location In the first intercostal space
4 ACI lateral to the median line and on the paramedian nipple line
JRW


Needling (1) 20° insertion laterally or medially along the intercostal space .5-.8 cun
(2) 0° insertion superiorly or inferiorly along the channel
! Deep or 90° insertion = BIG risk of puncturing the Lung !

Function  Descends rebellious qi
D,B

 Unbinds the chest
D,B


Name/ER Storeroom
Ku: This character contains ideograms for building
and chariot. Chariots were originally used for war.
So, Ku means a sort of armory—a house for the
chariots or a place to store useful things. A
treasury; a storehouse; a granary; an armory which is just outside of the central city.

Fang: A lateral room in a house. A room, a building. Similar idea to storeroom or
pantry. Branches of a family. A wife or concubine. Office or bureau in a yamen.
The seed-case of a flower.

Here is where Yang Ming begins to descend into the chest. This is where the
richness of the work of the ST and SP show up. All that is needed for the protection
of the center is here.

Other
 This is a reservoir or reserve of energy. Using this point is like taking someone to
the larder and letting them choose what they would like.
 It’s a storehouse for the spirit.
 It’s a good point when you’re not quite sure the patient is beginning to take in
e.g. reserves of sexual energy on a physical level.
 JG: Use this when a patient can’t access energy due to long term deprivation.
The person is given out too much and may need to fill up his/her own
storehouse.



ST 15 Room Screen
⊥ 3 ∆ 5

Location In the second intercostal space
4 ACI lateral to the median line and on the paramedian nipple line
JRW


Needling (1) 20° insertion laterally or medially along the intercostal space .5-.8 cun
(2) 0° insertion superiorly or inferiorly along the channel
! Deep or 90° insertion = BIG risk of puncturing the Lung !

Function  Descends rebellious qi
D

 Unbinds the chest
D

 Benefits the breasts
D

 Alleviates pain and itching of the skin
D,B


Name/ER Room Screen
Wu: House, room. Here is the idea of a well-
protected place; a room for resting. The room to
put a corpse in while waiting for a ritual. Not a
central room. A room that is quiet and protected.

Yi: Feathers—big feathers to make a fan, to protect or cover. This is the idea of
something covering and protecting. In pathology, this character is used for the white
film that covers the eyes possibly cataracts. The ancient meaning is a structure you
would hide behind during battle, e.g. armor, breast plate.

So, on the Yang Ming, ST 15 is where the breast starts coming down the meridian.
A sense of the breast covering and protecting the chest and Heart—a vulnerable
area. This point functions as a breastplate of armor protecting this area. It is a yang
meridian on the yin part of the body, facilitating the downward movement so that the
protection described above does not become excessive, stifling, stuck. This reflects
the ability of the ST to descend well for circulation and to free blockages that create
heat, which affects the ST liquids. The function here is protecting and circulating at
the same time.

Other
 Think of the partial privacy a screen affords. We need to have empathy and
make the person feel at ease and secure. Or use it for someone who needs
partial shielding/protection.

ST 16 Breast Window
⊥ 3 ∆ 5

Location In the third intercostal space
4 ACI lateral to the median line and on the paramedian nipple line
JRW


Needling (1) 20° insertion laterally or medially along the intercostal space .5-.8 cun
(2) 0° insertion superiorly or inferiorly along the channel
! Deep or 90° insertion = BIG risk of puncturing the Lung !

Function  Alleviates cough and wheezing
D

 Benefits the breasts
D

 Clears Heat
B

 Resolves depression
B

 Relieves pain and disperses swelling
B


Name/ER Breast Window
Ying: Lateral; wings of a building. The breast.
Ornaments on the breast of a horse. To bear; to
sustain. To receive. To oppose.

Chuang: Hole, cave, opening, window, shutter. Common name for acupuncture
point.

Here is an opening for the flowing down of milk. Milk is a special transformation of
bodily fluids made by the chest. It is at the level of the Heart, so if the Heart is at
the window, it may see what happens. It can mean cleverness; opening of the mind.
Here there is a circulation of liquids so the Heart is not blocked. The point name is
directed towards liquids. The function of the point is to nourish the presence of the
Spirits by calming the Yang Ming. An opening to maintain circulation.

Other
 This point is good for the person who is unsympathetic, judgmental and has a
lack of empathy.
 This point helps one to hold people to our hearts when we feel for them. It
brings in compassion.
 This point has a direct effect on milk production.


ST 17 Center of the Breasts
⊥ X ∆ X
Location In the fourth intercostal space
In the center of the nipple
JRW


Needling This point is contraindicated for both needling and moxa—it is used as a reference.

Function  This point is used as a reference point.


Name/ER Breast Center
Ru: Breast, milk. Ru is the image of a swallow
covering her chick. The swallow image is used for
any kind of mothering. So Ru implies mother’s milk.

Zhong: Anterior middle; center

Forbidden to needle or moxa. Resuscitation point by pinching. A lot is said about
this point in the texts, even though it is forbidden to needle or moxa. An important
point on the body.

Other
 This point is at the root of the breasts. Good when the energy is stuck, e.g.
mastitis or when a person isn’t able to give milk or nourishment.




ST 18 Root of the Breasts
⊥ 3 ∆ 3-5
Location In the fifth intercostal space
4 ACI lateral to the median line and on the paramedian nipple line
JRW


Needling (1) 20° insertion laterally or medially along the intercostal space .5-1 cun
(2) 0° insertion superiorly or inferiorly along the channel
! Deep or 90° insertion = BIG risk of puncturing the Lung !

Function  Benefits the breasts and reduces swelling
D

 Regulates the breasts and lactation
M

 Unbinds the chest and alleviates cough and wheezing
D

 Diffuses the connecting vessels of the breast
B

 Quickens the blood and transforms depression
B

 Regulates ST qi
M

 Dispels stagnation
M


Name/ER Breast Root
Ru: Breast. Ru is the image of a swallow covering
her chick. The swallow image is used for any kind
of mothering. So Ru implies mother’s milk.
Gen: Root

This point ensures that all circulation is proper; nothing is blocking the making of milk.
Not only used for lactation, but this point also effects the descending movement of qi
in the chest.

Other
 This is a local point for mastitis. It is not available on all women.

ST 19 Not at Ease
⊥ 5 ∆ 3-7

Location On the thorax
3 ACI lateral to the median line
6 ACI superior to the level of the umbilicus, level with CV 14
JRW

On the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle
CTA


Needling 90° insertion .5-1 cun
! Deep insertion may injure the heart or the liver if either organ is enlarged !

Function  Harmonizes the middle jiao
D

 Lower rebellion
D

 Descends qi and alleviates cough and wheezing
D

 Regulates the center and harmonizes the ST
B


Name/ER Not Contained
Bu: Not; a negative
Rong: Appearance, manner, bearing, demeanor.
To allow; to bear; to endure; to forgive; to wait
for; to attend upon; to contain; to admit; capacity. Easy. Continence. The ability
to contain; to bear what is received.

The meaning is not to accept to contain too much. A refusal of bearing or enduring
something. To refuse the coming of the food. This point lets us know whether it is
time to eat or time not to eat. Regulates appetite.

Other
 Use when a person is not at ease in an Earth way. The basic rhythms of life are
out of balance e.g. eating, sleeping, periods. A person’s mind might also be
restless. It’s a good point for internal agitation.
 Life is never processed/digested. There is discomfort, stuck ideas and the person
can’t take anything from it.
 It’s good for obsessions, ideas which should nourish are stuck or rush through the
mind. An Earth CF might have bad news and go on about it all day as they
can’t digest it further and process it.
 Then name says it all: insecurity, instability, uneasy because the person isn’t
grounded. The person is tied up with worry which becomes endless mental
chewing.
 This plus ST 24 and SP 16 are a very practical application when the stomach is
blocked.
 JG: This is for the child that can’t find its mom and feels insecure, unstable and
panicked. It puts Earth at east in a person. Use when there’s a need to be
comforted, held and secure.


ST 20 Receiving Fullness
⊥ 5 ∆ 3-7

Location On the abdomen
3 ACI lateral to the median line
5 ACI superior to the level of the umbilicus, level with CV 13
JRW

On the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle
CTA


Needling 90° insertion .5-1 cun
! In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
! Deep needling, on the right may penetrate an enlarged Liver !

Function  Harmonizes the middle jiao
D
and stomach
B

 Descends rebellion of the LU and ST
D,B


Name/ER Assuming Fullness
Cheng: To receive; to inherit; to hold; to contain;
to support. To contract for; to undertake. To
continue a given line of thought in composition and
enlarge upon it; to carry on. To confess; to acknowledge. The image is two hands,
both offering and receiving. In worship we offer sacrifice, music, etc. and receive the
blessings of Heaven.

Man: Full, satisfied, self-sufficient. The whole of. Complete. The fullness of the
five zang when they are full of essences. There is a whole different character that
indicates the fullness of the Fu. This can be a pathological fullness—too much
fullness, stagnation—or it can be a healthy fullness.

This is the first point in the line of points that are the gates for descending and
circulating. ST 20 receives and creates the essences, then sends them down to the
doors below.

LJ This point may empower someone to experience abundance in life rather than
wallowing in feelings of neediness.

Other
 This point helps a person receive appropriate please. Helps a person reap the
harvest, the fullness in oneself.
 It’s for patients which no joy, a sense of emptiness on a deep level.
 It gives the patient the feeling of OK, work has been done now it’s time to
pause.
 It’s a good point for anorexics who reject “fullness” i.e. food and nourishment.
 JG: This point is about wanting. I can’t get what I need and I’m not able to fill
myself. Sometimes there’s a not letting in, not receiving fullness. This point opens
the person up and helps to receive the fullness that is there for him/her. This
point also moves bloated, epigastric distention through the middle—moves qi.

ST 21 Bridge Gate
⊥ 7 ∆ 5-15

Location On the abdomen
3 ACI lateral to the median line
4 ACI superior to the level of the umbilicus, level with CV 12
JRW

On the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle
CTA


Needling 90° insertion 1-1.5 cun
! In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
! Deep needling, on the right may penetrate an enlarged Liver !

Function  Harmonizes the middle jiao
D

 Regulates center qi
B

 Harmonizes the stomach and intestines
B

 Transforms stagnation and accumulations
D,B

 Fortifies the SP, strengthening its function of moving and transforming
B

 Raises qi and stops diarrhea
D

 Regulates qi
D

 Alleviates pain
D


Name Beam Gate
Liang: crossbeam, beam
Men: gate, door


ST 21 may have acquired its name from one of the five accumulations wu ji
mentioned in the Classic of Difficult Issues. Known as fu liang, “deep-lying beam,”
this condition is described as a condition in which a palpable mass the size of an arm
located in the upper abdomen causes irritability and insomnia. Since ST 21 may be
used in the treatment of this condition, it is a gateway to the beam.

Additionally, liang men is a place name.

Other
 Use this point when fullness is sticking. This gate may need to be opened.
 After moving through the gate you find unity, harmony and peace.
 This is a wonderful point for someone who is moving forward with his/her mind
yet his/her body or emotions is stuck. There is a sense of disjointedness or
fracture.
 It’s good with ST 22 and ST 24; it’s good for people with “funny tummys.”



ST 22 Border Gate
⊥ 8 ∆ 5-15

Location On the abdomen
3 ACI lateral to the median line
3 ACI superior to the level of the umbilicus, level with CV 11
JRW

On the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle
CTA


Needling 90° insertion 1-1.5 cun
! In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.

Function  Regulates qi and alleviates pain
D

 Regulates the intestines and benefits urination
D

 Regulates the ST and intestines
B


Name/ER Pass Gate
Guan: Gate; custom; frontier pass; juncture. To
connect; to involve; to inform. To close; to shut;
to fasten.
Men: Door, gateway, opening, entrance, duct. Family; profession; sect; a school or
party.

Here is the idea of conveying essences through passages throughout the body. This
point has to do with passage. There are lots of points with the character for door,
gate, or passage in the name. There is a concentration of these ST 21, 22, 24 in
the middle heater. This point is linked with the good functioning of the KI. Use ST
22 to help the KI in controlling the lower abdomen qi, liquids and with edema even
general edema. The ST and KI help each other, and CV in the middle burner makes
sure all is organized and well-founded.





ST 23 Great Oneness
⊥ 8 ∆ 5-10

Location On the abdomen
3 ACI lateral to the median line
2 ACI superior to the level of the umbilicus, level with CV 10
JRW

On the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle
CTA


Needling 90° insertion 1-1.5 cun
! In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.

Function  Transforms phlegm
D

 Harmonizes the middle jiao
D

 Harmonizes the center
B

 Fortifies the Spleen
B

 Clears the Heart and quiets the Spirit
B

 Calms the Spirit
D


Name Supreme Unity
Tai: supreme, most, excessive
Yi: one, the intestines of a fish; second of the ten
heavenly stems

Because, as Lao Tzu says in the Tao Te Ching, “the ten thousand things spring from one,” the
point name Supreme Unity is a metaphor for the stomach or middle burner, which is the
source of post natal qi. Also, as one thing i.e., the supreme unity splits to become heaven
and earth, so the turbid and the clear are divided at ST 23.
 Tai yi is the name of a star that is related to the abdomen in Chinese astrological theory. 

LJ
The name of this point relates to the function of the stomach in breaking down all things into a
meaningful and integrated whole. For someone whose life appears as a conglomeration of
unrelated and fragmented experiences, the function of this point may help that person integrate
the experiences and move on in life.

Other
 This is a beautifully named point because if you look at a child being fed by its mother,
you don’t have two separate entities. You have the one where the two are joined
together by the mother’s arms holding and loving the child and the child being connected
to her breast.
 Many patients do feel very insecure. They feel as though they haven’t really got their feet
on the ground. They feel unloved; there is no richness or harvest.
 This point brings the person back to the breasts—it’s a harvest for the spirit, mind and
body. We come through the gates ST 21 and 22 to achieve unity, harmony and peace.
It restores the “Great Oneness.”
 This point can be used after balance in achieved so that oneness is equally distributed.
 The body and mind may be moving at one pace and there spirit will be behind or
ahead—the three are not traveling as one. And you may have a good pulse picture but
the patient is in dire straights. With this point you cement the Body Mind and Spirit
together. You will get a true pulse picture after using it, which may be terrible.

ST 24 Lubrication Food Gate
⊥ 8 ∆ 5-15

Location On the abdomen
3 ACI lateral to the median line
1 ACI superior to the level of the umbilicus, level with CV 9
JRW

On the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle
CTA


Needling 90° insertion 1-1.5 cun
! In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.

Function  Regulates and harmonizes the Stomach
D,B
and intestines
B

 Calms the Spirit
D,B

 Alleviates vomiting
D

 Transforms phlegm
D


Name Slippery Flesh Gate
Hua: slippery, glossy
Rou: flesh, meat, muscle
Men: gate, door
Alternate Names: Slippery Dark
The point is located near the opening of Gate, Slippery Flesh, Celestial
The Small Intestine the pylorus, which is Manager
A gate of “slippery flesh.” An alternate name for this point is hua you men, which is
the Chinese name for the pylorus literally, “slippery dark gate.”

Other
 This point is for those who feel bloated and full. Food lies in the stomach like a
brick.
 This point helps in processing and digestion. The Lubrication Food Gate can
help to bring greater secretion here.
 This point lubricates the nourishment of the Body, Mind and Spirit right in the
center.
 Use if someone says they “can’t stomach something” on any level. It generally
brings greater energy throughout the body.
 JG: This point is about transformation not getting out of the mind into the
body. Obsession with rehashing. There is eating but not getting the nourishment.
This point moves qi through the middle.




ST 25 Heavenly Pivot
LI Alarm point, ID point ⊥ 5 ∆ 5-20

Location On the abdomen
3 ACI lateral to the median line
At the level of the center of the umbilicus
On the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle
JRW


Needling (1) 90° insertion 1-1.5 cun
(2) 45° inferior insertion towards the uterus for diseases of the uterus
! In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.

Function  LI Alarm point  ID point
 Regulates the intestines
D,B,,M
 Eliminates stagnation
D

 Regulates the SP and ST
D
; supports Earth
B
 Clears Heat
M

 Resolves dampness and damp-heat
D,B
 Regulates qi and blood
D,M

 Relieves retention of food
M


Name Celestial Pivot
Tian: celestial, of the heavens; sky; Nature; heaven
Shu: pivot, axis


Essential Questions states: “The
area above the celestial pivot is ruled by celestial qi; the area below the celestial pivot is ruled
by the earthly qi. The place where the qi intersect is the origin of man’s qi and the ten
thousand things.” This quote shows that the junction of celestial and earthly qi in the body is
the Celestial Pivot. The point name refers to the point’s importance as a juncture of celestial
and earthly qi.

Tian Shu is the ancient name of the central star in the Northern Dipper; the other six stars in
that constellation rotate around it. The Essential Questions states that “the upper body has
three qis, this is the celestial part and is ruled by celestial qi; the lower body has three qis and
is ruled by earthly qi.” The three stars above and below the Celestial Pivot are representative
of the three qis above and below ST 25.

LJ Located on both sides of the navel, ST 25 addresses the nature of the hara as a fixed
reference point that may empower stability during transitions. This point empowers the virtue
of being able to move dynamically in any direction without excessive deliberation. Tian Shu is
a name for the central star in the Big Dipper constellation, the residence of the gods shen who
preside over one’ destiny.
Other
 Use when a person’s center is not holding. It’s good when a person is going through a
growth period. They have improved and have lots of new, good, exciting ideas but you
nee dot make sure they are coming from a steady center.
 This point is on the border of the two jiao. It’s about anchoring, stability and is often
used with SP 15.
 This point is very good for rhythmic disorders. Use when there are lots of ups and
downs, mood swings and instability. It’s good for grounding when the earth is moving
from under a person’s feet.
 This point can help HT 1 be more effective.
Alternate Names: Long Grain, Long Ravine, Long
Chicken, Long Link, Valley Gate, Cycle Border,

ST 26 Outside Mound
⊥ 8-10 ∆ 5

Location On the abdomen
3 ACI lateral to the median line
1 ACI inferior to the level of the umbilicus, level with CV 7
JRW

On the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle
CTA


Needling 90° insertion 1-1.5 cun
! In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.

Function  Regulates and rectifies qi
D,B

 Alleviates pain
D,B

 Dissipates cold
B


Name Outer Mound
Wai: outside, outer
Ling: tomb, burial mound


Other
 This point is good for bringing attention to the lower jiao.



ST 27 Great Might
⊥ 8-10 ∆ 5-10

Location On the abdomen
3 ACI lateral to the median line
2 ACI inferior to the level of the umbilicus, level with CV 5
JRW

On the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle
CTA


Needling 90° insertion 1-1.5 cun
! In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.

Function  Benefits the KI and firms jing
D

 Supplements the KI and boosts qi
B

 Regulates qi and promotes urination
D

 Invigorates yang
B

 Regulates ST qi
M


Name Great Gigantic
Da: big, great
Ju: large, big, great
Alternate Names: Humor Gate, Armpit Gate,
At the Spring

Other
 The power of this element is to decrease. It has to do with cycles—letting go.
Use when the mind or spirit is not letting go, when it is denying the power of
return and harvest.
 It’s a good point for revitalizing, similar to KI 12. It lifts depression and
supplements energy.


ST 28 Water Path
⊥ 8 ∆ 5-10

Location On the abdomen
3 ACI lateral to the median line
3 ACI inferior to the level of the umbilicus, level with CV 4
JRW

On the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle
CTA


Needling 90° insertion 1-1.5 cun
! In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity, or a full bladder.
Ask the patient to empty his/her bladder before needling !

Function  Regulates the lower jiao
D

 Clears damp-heat and disinhibits the lower jiao
B
 Dispels stagnation
D

 Benefits the BL and the uterus
D

 Benefits urination
M

 Opens the Water passages
M

 Regulates menstruation
M

 Stops pain
M


Name Waterway
Shui: water
Dao: path


The three organs most intimately connected with water metabolism are the Bladder,
Kidney and Triple Burner. ST 28 clears damp-heat from the lower burner, disinhibits
the lower burner and clear TE heat bind. It may also be employed in treating urinary
inhibition and cold bladder. Because of its ability to affect the body’s water
metabolism freeing the waterways, ST 28 is called Waterway.

Other
 If there is drying up in the lower jiao, there will be no movement, activity or
fluidity. The patient will be unable to conceive on a physical or mental level.
 This point is good for the processes of elimination and procreation.
 This helps move anything that’s stuck, like obsessions. It helps the person let go.



ST 29 The Return
⊥ 5 ∆ 5-10

Location On the abdomen
3 ACI lateral to the median line
4 ACI inferior to the level of the umbilicus, level with CV 3
JRW

On the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle
CTA


Needling 90° insertion 1-1.5 cun
! In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity, or a full bladder.
Ask the patient to empty his/her bladder before needling !

Function  Warms and rectifies the lower jiao
D,B

 Regulates menstruation and benefits the genital region
D

 Warms the womb
B
 Relieves blood stagnation
M


Name Return
Gui: to return; to restore
Lai: to come, to arrive
Alternate Names: Ravine Hole, Ravine Valley

A branch of the ST channel that diverges from the main channel at ST 12 passes
downward through the stomach and rejoins the main channel at ST 30.

Other
 Use this when a person is becoming barren because of not being able to harvest
the fruits of life. It’s for the patient who is undernourished, anorexic or barren.


ST 30 Qi Rushing
Sea of Nourishment, First Aid, Reunion, Chong Mo ⊥ 3 ∆ 7

Location On the abdomen
3 ACI lateral to the median line
5 ACI inferior to the level of the umbilicus, level with CV 2
JRW

At the level of the superior edge of the pubic symphysis

Needling 90° insertion 1-1.5 cun
! In thin subjects, deep needling in a superior direction may penetrate the
! peritoneal cavity or a full bladder. Ask the patient to empty his/her bladder
! before needling
! Deep insertion in an inferior direction in a male may penetrate the spermatic cord

Function  Sea of Nourishment
 First Aid: Food poisoning
 Reunion: GB, ST
 Regulates qi in the lower jiao
D
 Regulates Chong Mo
D,M
 Subdues running piglet qi
D
 Soothes the sinew gathering
B

 Dissipates inversion qi
B

 Regulates the bladder
B

 Harmonizes construction and the blood
B,M

 Promotes Jing
M

 Regulates ST qi
M


Name Surging Qi
Qi: qi, breath
Chong: to flush, surge; a thoroughfare; an important
place; to rush against
Alternate Names: Qi Thoroughfare,
Sheep’s Droppings

The name Surging Qi reflects this point’s location at the beginning of Chong Mo and
its ability to treat disorders related to that vessel. ST 30 also treats disorders
characterized by surging qi, such as running piglet and upward surge of qi attacking
the heart.

Sheep’s Droppings may be taken as a reference to the lumps in the inguinal region
formed by tendons and lymph nodes.

Other
 Use this when you need to get something rushing. It’s the first aid for food
poisoning.



ST 31 Thigh Border
⊥ 6 ∆ 3-7

Location On the anterior surface of the thigh
13 ACI proximal to eh flexure of the knee
Between the vastus lateralis and the rectus femoris
JRW

14 cun proximal to the knee flexure
Directly inferior to the anterior superior iliac spine
Level with a line drawn bet. the pubic symphysis’ lower border & the gluteal groove.
In the seam between the rectus femoris and the vastus lateralis muscles
On the lateral border of the sartorius muscle
To expose this seam, flex and extend the knee
CTA

Note: CTA, along with many other sources, uses 14 cun as the accepted
measurement from the popliteal crease to the gluteal groove. JRW uses 13 cun.

Needling 90° or 45° insertion 1-2 cun

Function  Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D,M

 Dispels wind-damp
D

 Warms the channels and quickens the connecting vessels
B

 Courses Wind and dissipates cold
B


Name Thigh Joint
Bi: thigh; the lateral aspect of the groin
Guan: gate; joint, hinge; pass




ST 32 Prostrate Hare
ID point ⊥ 6 ∆ 3-7

Location On the anterior surface of the thigh
7 ACI proximal to the flexure of the knee
Between the vastus lateralis and the rectus femoris
JRW

8 cun (7.4 ACI) proximal to the knee flexure
In the belly of the rectus femoris muscle
Note: CTA, along with many other sources, uses 14 cun as the accepted
measurement from the popliteal crease to the gluteal groove. JR uses 13 cun.
Note: Many texts give the cun for ST 32, 33, 34 as 6/3/2 above the
laterosuperior border of the patella. There is no discrepancy with CTA’s locations;
the distance from the lateral end of the popliteal crease to the laterosuperior border
of the patella = 2 cun
CTA


Needling 90° or 45° insertion 1-2 cun

Function  ID point
 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D,M

 Warms the channels and dissipates cold
B

 Dispels Wind-Damp
D

 Expels Wind-Heat
M

 Courses Wind and quickens the connecting vessels
B

Name Crouching Rabbit
Fu: to bend over; lie prostrate; to hide
Tu: rabbit
Alternate Names: Outer Hill, Outer Hook

Other
 This point dissipates wind and cold and dampness in the lower back.


ST 33 Yin Market
⊥ 4 ∆ 3-5

Location On the anterior surface of the thigh
5 ACI proximal to the flexure of the knee
Between the vastus lateralis and the rectus femoris
JRW

5 cun (4.65 ACI) proximal to the knee flexure
Between the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles
Note: CTA, along with many other sources, uses 14 cun as the accepted
measurement from the popliteal crease to the gluteal groove. JR uses 13 cun.
Note: Many texts give the cun for ST 32, 33, 34 as 6/3/2 above the
laterosuperior border of the patella. There is no discrepancy with CTA’s locations;
the distance from the lateral end of the popliteal crease to the laterosuperior border
of the patella = 2 cun
CTA


Needling 90° or 45° insertion 1-1.5 cun

Function  Dispels Wind-Damp
D

 Courses Wind and dissipates Cold
B
 Disinhibits the joints
B

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D

 Frees the channels and quickens the connecting vessels
B


Name Yin Market
Yin: yin, the complement of yang
Shi: city, market
Alternate Name: Yin Tripod

Although the stomach channel is a yang channel, it traverses the front of the body,
which is considered yin. ST 33 is a point where qi and blood are gathered and
dispersed, like goods at a marketplace. In addition, the word market may be taken as
a reference to the stomach, which receives and distributes the five grains.



ST 34 Beam Mound
Xi Cleft point ⊥ 4 ∆ 3-5

Location On the anterior surface of the thigh
4 ACI proximal to the flexure of the knee
Between the vastus lateralis and the rectus femoris
JRW

4 cun proximal to the knee flexure = 3.8 ACI using JR’s measurement
Between the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles
Note: CTA, along with many other sources, uses 14 cun as the accepted
measurement from the popliteal crease to the gluteal groove. JR uses 13 cun.
Note: Many texts give the cun for ST 32, 33, 34 as 6/3/2 above the
laterosuperior border of the patella. There is no discrepancy with CTA’s locations;
the distance from the lateral end of the popliteal crease to the laterosuperior border
of the patella = 2 cun
CTA


Needling 90° or 45° insertion 1-1.5 cun

Function  Xi Cleft point
 Harmonizes the ST
D,B

 Rectifies qi
B

 Harmonizes the center and downbears counterflow
B,M

 Expels Dampness and Wind
M

 Moderates acute conditions
D

 Frees the channels and quickens the connecting vessels
B

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D,M


Name Beam Hill
Liang: crossbeam, beam
Qiu: mound, hill
Alternate Names: Hip Bone, Chicken Top, Crane
Top




ST 35 Calf’s Nose
⊥ 3 ∆ 3

Location On the anterior surface of the knee
Between the patella and the tibia
Lateral to the patellar tendon.
When the knee is flexed, a depression appears at this point
JRW

At the inferolateral corner of the patella
On the lateral border of the patellar ligament
CTA


Needling (1) With the knee flexed and supported, 90° insertion towards BL 54 1-2 cun
(2) 45° insertion in a medial and superior direction behind the patella 1-2 cun
(3) Behind the patellar ligament to join with medial Xiyan (MN-LE-16)

Function  Reduces swelling D,B,M
 Activates the channel and alleviates pain D,B,M
 Dispels Wind-Damp D
 Courses Wind and dissipates Cold B
 Frees the channels and quickens the connecting vessels B

Name Calf’s Nose
Du: calf
Bi: nose




ST 36 Leg Three Miles
Earth, Horary, Sea, Sea of Nourishment, First Aid, ⊥ 5-8 ∆ 7-20
Blackout, Region, Lower Uniting Forbidden Months 8+

Location On the anterior surface of the leg
13 ACI proximal to the prominence of the lateral malleolus
Lateral to the edge of the tibia
JRW

Approximately 13 cun proximal to the prominence of the lateral malleolus
Approximately 3 cun below ST 35
On the medial border of the tibialis anterior muscle
To expose the tibialis anterior, flex the foot and rotate it medially
ST 36 is lateral to the anterior crest of the tibia
Just inferior to the inferior border of the tibial tuberosity
1 cun inferior to the level of GB 34
Note: Place your emphasis on the anatomical descriptions
CTA


Needling 90° insertion 1-1.5 cun

Function  Earth point
 Horary point 7-9am, 8-10am DST
 Sea point
 Sea of Nourishment
 First Aid: Fainting, Indigestion
 Blackout point for upper body
 Region point: Abdomen
 Lower Uniting point for the Stomach
 One of Ma Dan Yang’s 12 Heavenly Star points
 Benefits the ST and SP
M,B,D

 Expels Damp
M,B,D
and Wind
M,B

 Tonifies qi and blood
M,D
and yin
D

 Frees and regulates the qi and blood of the channels
B

 Regulates Ying and Wei qi
M

 Raises yang
M,D
and restores consciousness
D

 Regulates Central qi
B

 Strengthens the body
M
; dispels pathogens and prevents disease
B

 Supports the correct and banks up yuan qi
B,D
 Dispels Cold
M

 Breaks thoracic blood stasis
B

 Regulates the intestines
M,B
and disperses stagnation
B

 Brightens the eyes
M

 Resolves edema
M

 Clears Fire
D

 Calms the Spirit
D



ST 36 Leg Three Miles


Name Leg Three Li
Zu: foot
San: three
Li: measurement of distance
Alternate Names: Lower Hollow
In ancient times, when the primary mode of Three Li, Ghost Evil, Lower Mound,
Transportation was walking, stimulation of Lower Sea of Qi, Three Li, Lower
ST 36 could relieve fatigue sufficient to Three Li
Allow one to travel another three li.

LJ This is one of the strongest points for stabilizing and grounding someone at the source
of their being. I often combine this with other points, depending on the effect I am
seeking. A particularly good combination for strengthening resolves, structure, and
one’s spiritual backbone consists of ST 36, BL 54, GV 3, and BL 10. I have
successfully used this or a similar combination for empowering women to summon the
courage to confront family members who had sexually abused them.

Other
 You can gain a lot of ground and cover great distances when this point is used
with LI 13 Arm 5 miles or each is used individually.
 This point provides the means for a patient to move on, whether physical, mental
or spiritual. It shakes up and revitalizes the energy.
 Use where there is laziness or apathy.
 This point brings great strength and richness to the soil. It feeds the Earth in
order that things can grow more richly. It brings stability and security to the
element.
 One of the points for the Sea of Nourishment, it bestows longevity and
endurance, keeps you free from disease, conserves vitality and revitalizes the
energy, the Official and the entire system.
 Used with moxa, this point steps up the white blood cell count.





ST 37 Upper Great Void
Sea of Blood, Lower Uniting point ⊥ 5 ∆ 3-7

Location On the anterior surface of the leg
10 ACI proximal to the prominence of the lateral malleolus
Lateral to the edge of the tibia
JRW

Lateral to the anterior crest of the tibia
On the medial border of the tibialis anterior muscle
10 cun proximal tot eh prominence of the LM 3 cun below ST 36
CTA


Needling 90° or 45° insertion 1-1.5 cun

Function  Sea of Blood
 Lower Uniting point of the Large Intestine
 Regulates the intestines and transforms stagnation
D,B,M
 Clears damp heat and alleviates diarrhea and dysenteric disorder
D,B,M
 Regulates the SP
D,B
and ST
D,B,M
 Dispels food retention
M

 Calms asthma
M

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D

 Courses the channels and regulates qi
B


Name Upper Great Hollow
Shang: upper
Ju: great, large
Xu: vacuous, empty; hollow

Anecdotally, there was a type of wild horse in ancient China called ju xu. This type
of horse was particularly quick and could roam far and wide. The point name, if taken
to be derived from the horse name, is a reference to the point’s effectiveness in
treating leg disorders and to the traveling nature of qi here. As ST 37 is the lower
uniting point of the LI, qi travels form here up to the LI.

Other
 This point relates to the upper body. Use on someone stable but not
connected. They are solid on the ground, but there is still some emptiness. Most
of the seas are empty or overflow together.
 If you tonify one sea, you should also tonify the related ones i.e. all of the Seas
of Blood in this case, if they need it. You would never replenish the Sea of
Nourishment if the Sea of Blood is deficient.
 For Earth CFs with shoulder problems, ST 37 and 39 are key points to the
small and large intestines.
 It’s also good for the mental level.
 JG: When used as a Sea of Blood it allows someone to fill a void that has been
empty for a long time. It fills and moves at the same time.


ST 38 Branch Opening
⊥ 5 ∆ 3-7

Location On the anterior surface of the leg
8 ACI proximal to the prominence of the lateral malleolus
Lateral to the edge of the tibia
JRW

Lateral to the anterior crest of the tibia
On the medial border of the tibialis anterior muscle
8 cun proximal tot eh prominence of the LM 2 cun below ST 37
CTA


Needling 90° or 45° insertion 1-1.5 cun

Function  Benefits the shoulder
D,M

 Expels Wind-Damp
D

 Alleviates pain
D

 Removes channel obstructions
D

 Soothes the sinews and quickens the connecting vessels
B

 Warms the channels and dissipates cold
B


Name Ribbon Opening
Tiao: a long and narrow item, ribbon
Kou: mouth, opening


One way to interpret the meaning of the point name is to visualize the qi flowing
from the Upper Great Hollow to the Lower Great Hollow. It must go through a
narrow passage at ST 38.

Other
 Used as a non-specific command point, this enriches all levels if not certain of
the level.
 It’s good for shoulder trouble.
 It’s also good for malfunctions of qi in the ST caused by “branch opening” being
closed manifesting as a blockage on the ST pulse. In this case, the pulse will
come straight up when you use this point.



ST 39 Lower Great Void
Sea of Blood, Lower Uniting Point ⊥ 5 ∆ 3-7

Location On the anterior surface of the leg
7 ACI proximal to the prominence of the lateral malleolus
Lateral to the edge of the tibia
JRW

Lateral to the anterior crest of the tibia
On the medial border of the tibialis anterior muscle
7 cun proximal to the prominence of the LM 1 cun below ST 38
CTA


Needling 90° or 45° insertion 1-1.5 cun

Function  Sea of Blood
 Lower Uniting point of the SI
 Moves SI qi and transforms stagnation
D
 Regulates and harmonizes the intestines and clears Damp-Heat
D,M

 Clears Heat and disinhibits damp
B

 Clears the bowels and transforms stasis
B

 Regulates the function of the ST
M

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D,M


Name Lower Great Hollow
Xia: lower
Ju: great, large
Xu: hollow, deficiency, vacancy

Other
 Use when the patient feels empty inside, insecure, unstable, has no contact with
the earth. This point opens up a blockage inside like a gutter or a ditch.
 It energizes the lower jiao.
 It’s good when a person is frigid and/or has poor conception.
 Some people need both of the voids together
 JG: When used as a Sea of Blood it allows someone to fill a void that has been
empty for a long time. It fills and moves at the same time.


ST 40 Abundant Splendor
Luo point ⊥ 3 ∆ 3-5

Location On the antero-lateral surface of the leg
8 ACI proximal to the prominence of the lateral malleolus
On the lateral edge of the tibialis anterior
At the level of ST 38
JRW

8 cun proximal to the prominence of the lateral malleolus
About 1 cun lateral to ST 38
On the lateral border of the tibialis anterior muscle
Traditionally 2 finger widths from the anterior crest of the tibia
CTA


Needling 90° or 45° insertion 1-1.5 cun

Function  Luo point
 Transforms phlegm and damp
D,B,,M

 Calms the Spirit
D,B,M
 Benefits the chest
D
Opens the chest
M

 Clears phlegm from the LU and alleviates cough and wheezing
D
 Calms asthma
M

 Clears phlegm from the Heart
D

 Harmonizes the Stomach
B
 Clears Heat
M

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D


Name Bountiful Bulge
Feng: abundant, great, bountiful
Long: prosperous; swell, bulge

The point name is the name of a cloud spirit and an expression describing the sound of
thunder.

LJ As the luo point, ST 40 harmonizes the relationship between the spleen and the stomach
officials. Physiologically, this point is said to transform phlegm and dampness, and to calm the
spirit. In this context, phlegm and dampness represent the accumulation of one’s unintegrated
experiences in life. Insatiable appetite and feelings of neediness may result if the past prevents
one from becoming nourished in the present. This point is ideal for the person that feels
burdened by typical sources of nourishment such as family, friends, and career. Feng long may
assist in transforming burdensome feeling so that one may, once again, receive abundance.

Other
 In order to receive a harvest we need to work and toil. Many people struggle through
life and they get no harvest at all. This point allows a person to get a glimpse of the
harvest which is available.
 Use for the spirit when a person doesn’t feel satisfied.
 This point is good for the mental side of Earth problems i.e., ghosts, obsessions, lack of
contact with the earth.
 This point provides a plentiful supply of energy. It’s very rarely empty. It brings up the
general energy of a person. It almost has the same effect as a Source point because of its
reservoir-like qualities.

ST 41 Released Stream
Fire, Tonification, River, ID point ⊥ 5 ∆ 3-7

Location At the middle of the anterior flexure of the ankle
Between the tendons of the extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus
JRW

To expose the tendons, actively extend the toes remembering that the
most medial and prominent tendon of the three tendons is the endon
of the tibialis anterior muscle.
CTA


Needling (1) 90° insertion .5 cun
(2) 45° insertion beneath the tendons to join with SP 5 medially or GB 40 laterally
! The anterior tibial vessels and nerve lie deep to this point !

Function  Fire point
 Tonification point
 River point
 ID point
 Clears ST heat
B,D,M

 Calms the Spirit
B,D,M
 Transforms damp and stagnation
B

 Supports SP qi
B

 Eliminates Wind
M

 Brightens the eyes
M

 Activates the channel and alleviates pain
D,M


Name Ravine Divide
Jie: separate, divide, untie, undo
Xi: brook, stream, gorge, ravine
Alternate Name: Shoelace

Other
 This point breaks a lot of blocks on the ST meridian. It gets qi to flow to the
ends of the meridian feet and mind.
 Fire brings warmth to the earth. It releases the streams that come from the sea.
 JG: This point brings joy to the harvest. Use when a person is collapsed within
to reengage them with the outer world. It’s no good to have a full plate if you
are not getting any spirit out of it. This point relishes in abundance, ignites
appetite, removes self-absorption. Use if a person is sad or lack of joy or moldy,
stagnant and damp.

ST 42 Rushing Yang
Source point, Exit point ⊥ 3 ∆ 3-5

Location On the dorsal surface of the foot
In the concavity at the meeting of the navicular, lateral cuneiform and intermediate
cuneiform bones
JRW

Haig: Approximately ½ the distance between ST 43 and ST 41
HI

On the dorsum of the foot, between the extensor digitorum longus & hallucis longus
The point lies on a line drawn between the 2nd and 3rd digits to ST 41,
in a hollow exposed when the foot and digits are dorsiflexed.
This will be in the indentation between the medial and lateral cuneiform bones
Note: Acupuncture texts vary enormously as to where this point is drawn. It is said
that ST 42 is on the dome of the instep of the foot, where the pulsation of the
dorsalis pedis artery is palpable. Also, that it is 3 cun proximal to ST 43; 1.5 distal
ST 41 is also given which would put it approximately at the meeting of the navicular
and cuneiform bones. Other texts refer to it being in a depression between the
bases of the second and third metatarsal bones and the cuneiform bones. This is
further complicated by the fact that there are Extra points on the line between ST 41
and 43.
CTA


Needling 45° or 90° insertion .3-.5 cun
! Don’t puncture the dorsalis pedis artery which lies beneath this point !

Function  Source point
 Exit point
 Calms the Spirit
D,B,M

 Harmonizes the Stomach
D,B

 Clears heat from the ST channel
D

 Supports Earth
B

 Tonifies the ST and SP
M

 Transforms Damp
B

 Removes channel obstructions
M,D


Name Surging Yang
Chong: to flush, rinse, dash; thoroughfare
Yang: yang, the complement of yin
Alternate Names: Meeting Bones, Meeting Bend,
Meeting Gush, Meeting Source, Unrestrained Yang

Other
 This point like a powerful shot in the arm. It’s especially good for instability on a
mental level.
 JG: This is a very grounding point. It’s good for someone who is over the top,
spinning out of control; someone who likes to stand up on a table and sing
naked or “pins you to the ground.” It’s good for circular thinking on a mental
level when nothing is getting completed.

ST 43 Sinking Valley
Wood point, Stream point ⊥ 3 ∆ 3

Location On the dorsal surface of the foot
In the angle between the 2
nd
and 3
rd
metatarsal bones
JRW

At the junction of the 2nd and 3rd metatarsal bones
Just distal to the flare at the base of the 2nd metatarsal
CTA


Needling 90° or 45° insertion .5-1 cun

Function  Wood point
 Stream point
 Disinhibits Damp
B,D

 Harmonizes the Stomach
B,D

 Harmonizes the intestines
D

 Tonifies the SP
B

 Regulates the SP
D

 Downbears counterflow
B

 Clears Wind and Heat
M

 Removes channel obstructions
M


Name Sunken Valley
Xian: to sink
Gu: a valley


Other
 JG: Use when someone needs to set down new roots in the earth. This point is
about movement. It breaks things up and helps a person find new direction. Use
when someone can’t get out of a spin. The releases force of the earth when it
has been entrapped in a pit.

ST 44 Inner Courtyard
Water point, Spring point ⊥ 3 ∆ 3

Location On the dorsal surface of the foot
Between the 2
nd
and 3
rd
toes
Just distal to the base of the proximal phalanx of the second toe
JRW

Distal to the metacarpo-phalangeal joint of the 2nd digit,
Just distal to the flare of the base of the proximal phalanx
Traditionally proximal to the web margin bet. the 2nd & 3rd digits
CTA


Needling (1) 90° insertion to .5 cun
(2) 45° insertion directed proximally .5-1 cun

Function  Water point
 Spring point
 One of Ma Dan-yang’s 12 Heavenly Star points
 Clears Heat from the ST channel
M,D

 Harmonizes intestines
D,B
and clears Damp-Heat
D

 Eliminates fullness
M

 Transforms stagnation
B

 Stops pain
M,D

 Promotes free downward movement of ST qi
B

 Promotes digestion
M

 Eliminates Wind from the face
M
 Calms the Spirit
D

 Regulates qi
M


Name Inner Court
Nei: inside, inner
Ting: courtyard, court

Other
 This is probably the best point on the Stomach meridian for abdominal disorders,
especially when they are accompanied by pain and fear—“What is it? What is
causing it? Is it going to come back again?” There is fear out of proportion to
the pain.
 Use when Earth CFs have fears/nightmares.
 It’s good for people who cannot stand the human voice, who do not wish to
communicate.
 JG: This is a filling and settling point. It helps a person fill their own inner
space, their own center from within. If a person exhibits worry and fear and
anxiety all at once agitation. This point allows the person to go somewhere
peaceful and comfortable.


ST 45 Hard Bargain
Metal, Sedation, Well, First Aid point ⊥ 1 ∆ 3
Forbidden Months 6+

Location Lateral nail point of the second toe
JRW

About .1 cun proximal to the corner of the nail
Just distal to the flare of the distal phalanx
CTA


Needling 90° or 45° insertion directed proximally .1-.2 cun, or prick to bleed

Function  Water point
 Sedation point
 Well point
 First Aid: hangover, indigestion, toothache
 Calms the Spirit
M,B,D
and restores consciousness
D,B

 Harmonizes the Stomach
B
 Courses and discharges yang ming pathogenic heat
B

 Clears Heat from the ST channel
D

 Brightens the eyes
M

 Clears the Heart
M

 Relieves food retention
M

 Frees the channels
B


Name Severe Mouth
Li: harsh, severe, fierce; to oppress; quick, rapid
Dui: exchange, convert; mouth, a hole


LJ This point is excellent for the person who feels his needs are never met; consequently
he continually whines, complains, and demands sympathy. If the metal within earth
becomes cold, rigid and inert, then physical and emotional digestion may become
sluggish. Emotionally, this coldness may manifest as a lack of sympathy toward self
and others.

Other
 This is good for the person who feels cold mentally. There is no tolerance,
understanding or compassion.
 Metal gives richness to the Earth, so this is good for a barren Earth e.g.
menstrual difficulties.