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You are on page 1of 13

**• An R-tree is a depth-balanced tree
**

– Each node corresponds to a disk page

– Leaf node: an array of leaf entries

• A leaf entry: (mbb, oid)

– Non-leaf node: an array of node entries

• A node entry: (dr, nodeid)

1

1

5

2

6

14

8

9

13

11

12

3

4

7

10

a

c

b

d

R

a b c d

m=2, M=4

[1,2,5,6] [3,4,7,10] [8.9.14] [11,12,13]

2

Properties

• The number of entries of a node (except for

the root) in the tree is between m and M

where m[0, M/2]

– M: the maximum number of entries in a node,

may differ for leaf and non-leaf nodes

P: disk page E: entry

– The root has at least 2 entries unless it is a leaf

• All leaf nodes are at the same level

• An R-tree of depth d indexes at least m

d+1

objects and at most M

d+1

objects, in other

words,

) ( / ) ( E size P size M

1 log 1 log N d N

m M

3

Search with R-tree

• Given a point q, find all mbbs containing q

• A recursive process starting from the root

result =

For a node N

if N is a leaf node, then result = result {N}

else // N is a non-leaf node

for each child N’ of N

if the rectangle of N’ contains q

then recursively search N’

4

Time complexity of search

• If mbbs do not overlap on q, the

complexity is O(log

m

N).

• If mbbs overlap on q, it may not be

logarithmic, in the worst case when all

mbbs overlap on q, it is O(N).

5

Insertion – choose a leaf node

• Traverse the R-tree top-down, starting

from the root, at each level

– If there is a node whose directory rectangle

contains the mbb to be inserted, then search

the subtree

– Else choose a node such that the

enlargement of its directory rectangle is

minimal, then search the subtree

– If more than one node satisfy this, choose the

one with smallest area,

• Repeat until a leaf node is reached

6

Insertion – insert into the leaf node

• If the leaf node is not full, an entry

[mbb, oid] is inserted

• Else // the leaf node is full

– Split the leaf node

– Update the directory rectangles of the

ancestor nodes if necessary

7

1

5

2

6

14

8

9

13

11

12

3

4

7

10

a

c

b

d

R

a b c d

15

Insert object 15

m=2, M=4

[1,2,5,6] [3,4,7,10] [8.9.14] [11,12,13,15]

8

1

5

2

6

14

8

9

13

11

12

3

4

7

10

a

c

b

d

m=2, M=4

15

Insert object 16

9

16

e

[1,2,5,6]

R

a b c d

[3,4,7] [8.9.14][11,12,13,15]

e

[10,16]

f

R’

R’

f

Split - goal

• The leaf node has M entries, and one new

entry to be inserted, how to partition the

M+1 mbbs into two nodes, such that

– 1. The total area of the two nodes is minimized

– 2. The overlapping of the two nodes is

minimized

• Sometimes the two goals are conflicting

– Using 1 as the primary goal

10

11

Split - solution

• Optimal solution: check every possible

partition, complexity O(2

M+1

)

• A quadratic algorithm:

– Pick two “seed” entries e

1

and e

2

far from

each other, that is to maximize

area(mbb(e

1

,e

2

)) – area(e

1

) – area(e

2

)

here mbb(e

1

,e

2

) is the mbb containing both e

1

and e

2

, complexity O((M+1)

2

)

– Insert the remaining (M-1) entries into the two

groups

12

Quadratic split cont.

• A greedy method

• At each time, find an entry e such that e

expands a group with the minimum area, if tie

– Choose the group of small area

– Choose the group of fewer elements

• Repeat until no entry left or one group has

(M-m+1) entries, all remaining entries go to

another group

• If the parent is also full, split the parent too. The

recursive adjustment happens bottom-up until

the tree satisfies the properties required. This

can be up to the root.

13

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