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TCM Methodology

Bian Zheng Lun Zhi = Treatment is based on pattern discrimination
Yi Bing, Tong Zhi-Tong Bing, Yi Zhi =
Different diseases, same treatment Same disease, different treatment...
Pattern discrimination: In multi-organ patterns, the st element stated is the most important
Treatment principles: st element in pattern should be mirrored in st element in treatment
Guiding Formula: must be ta!en from the category of formulas corresponding to the st element
in the treatment principles
Additions & subtractions: depend on the e"act presenting signs # symp.
Pattern discrimination
Must ha$e a firm grasp of the basic %statements of fact%
Must memori&e the signs and symptoms of each simple pattern
Search for the signs and symptoms in a focused 'ay
 ( )attern is *+,+- established based on a single sign or symptom.
///// 0y it1s $ery name, pattern means more than a single thing
In comple", real-life cases, there 'ill be more than one pattern in$ol$ed. 2ne 'ill not see all of the
signs # symptoms gi$en in the boo!. Therefore, it is crucial to study 3+4 signs for each pattern.
Treatment principles
These are theoretical statements about 'hat needs to be done to rectify the imbalance implied by
the name of the pattern
Most of the time, treatment principles are addressed to the ben or root of the imbalance implied in
the pattern1s name
Sometimes the biao or branch must also be addressed and are stated in the treatment principles. 5or
e"ample, $omiting in$ol$es a loss of fluids, the finest essence of the digestate, and 6i. Therefore,
$omiting is a branch symptom that must be dealt 'ith. So, one must add: %stop $omiting%
Treatment principles are the bridge bet'een the pattern discrimination and the treatment plan.
They are 6uite important.... 4ou 'ill al'ays be e"pected to gi$e them to me....
isease !ausing Factors
In TCM theory, health is seen as dynamic mo$ement and transformation in a balanced and
harmonious manner. 7e see the $arious stages of opposition and interdependence seen in 4in -
4ang relationships.
7hen a person is in dynamic harmony 'ith the en$ironment, there is health. 7hen this harmony is
lost, there is disease. Those factors that cause this imbalance are 0in 4in 8disease causing factors9
These factors can be 'eather changes, epidemic 6i, emotional, dietary, ta"ation, sprain # strain,
'eapon in:uries, insect;animal bites.
)athological changes result from these causati$e factors and can become ne' causati$e factors.

*ei <ing
*an <ing
Shan =an >un
7en 0ing
"olistic $ie%
T!& as a st#le
4i 0ing Tong ?hi, Tong 0ing 4i ?hi
@ methods
>oo!ing -- >istening;smelling -- In6uiry -- )alpation
Pattern i''erentiation
4in-yang -- A phase -- ?ang 5u -- Bi, 0lood, 5luids C Channels # ,essels
D principles = 4in - yang -- Internal - +"ternal -- Cold - =eat -- Eu - Shi
Treatment Principles
0ased on the pattern %...if there is cold, 'arm it...%
Basic !oncept o' Yin # Yang
YA(G Y)(
>ight Dar!ness
Sun Moon
(cti$ity -est
=ea$en +arth
Time Space
Immaterial Material
+nergy 5orm;Matter
Insubstantial Substantial
(scending Descending
5ire 7ater
Transformation Storage
-estless Buiet
@ Aspects o' YinFYang
9 2pposition
G9 Interdependence
H9 Mutual consumption
@9 Inter-transformation
 In the human body, 4in is represented by the 0lood....4ang by Bi
AII 0C - Shang Dynasty
(nimal # )lant 'orld
(nimal F respected, but also !illed # eaten
3illed, consumed, 'orn as clothes
>ead to a co$enant bet'een human # animal
FF Ji$e life through ta!ing life
)lant F also !illed and eaten
*+,+ *F (AT-+,
Seasonal festi$als
*2T to control nature
0ring us I* (CC2-D 7IT= *(TK-+
To bring forth the fruits of nature, one li$es properly in relation to 'hat has to be done
!*.&)! *+,+
=igh ci$ili&ation
+"treme attention to the cycle of the planets through the constellations
Combination of these allo'ed !no'ledge to be passed from generation to generation
>ead to the notion of a C2SMIC 2-D+-..
Cycle of the =ea$ens
Idea to bring society into accord '; =ea$en
=ea$enly signs are signs of spiritual 'orld
Something transcends our e"istence
Something dri$es the cycles of nature
The deities are manifestation of this transcendent
T", A*
There is something obscure
'hich is complete before hea$en and earth aroseL
tran6uil, 6uiet,
standing alone 'ithout change,
mo$ing around 'ithout peril.
It could be the mother of e$erything.
I don1t !no' its name,
and call it D(2.
The great D(2 flo's e$ery'here...
...(ll things depend on it to e"ist,
5rom Dao arises 2ne, from 2ne arises T'o, from T'o arises Three, from Three arises Ten
Thousand MallN things
The ao that can be spo/en o' is not the Absolute ao
!heng Yi 01233-11245
Yin and yang are everywhere.
In front and behind,
To our left and to our right,
Above us and below us,
Darkness is the same as diminished light,
Light is the same as diminished darkness,
They are complementary, niversal counterparts,
Yin does not e!ist without yang and yang does not e!ist without yin,
Two in one and one in two
.u %en 6
Yin and yang, they are the "ay of heaven and earth
The fundamental principles governing the #$,$$$ beings
%ather and mother to all changes and transformations,
The basis and beginning of generating and killing,
The palace of spirit brilliance
&eaven and earth
They are the above and below of the #$,$$$ beings'
Yin and yang,
They are the beginning of the #$,$$$ beings
&eaven is yang, earth is yin
(pring is yang, fall yin
(ummer is yang, winter is yin
Daytime is yang, nighttime yin'
All of the yang categories emulate heaven. &eaven e!alts proper order.
All of the yin categories emulate the earth.
The virtue of the earth is being placid and )uiet,
properly ordered and tran)uil
.u %en 7
&eaven is yang
The earth is yin
The sun is yang,
The moon is yin.
.u %en 6
Yin is tran)uility
Yang is agitation
Yang gives life
Yin stimulates growth
Yang transforms )i
Yin completes physical appearance.
The clear yang is heaven*
The turbid yin is earth
"ater is yin
%ire is yang
Yang is )i
Yin is wei +flavor,
.u %en 4
That which leaves is yin* that which arrives is yang.
That which is )uiet is yin* that which moves is yang.
That which is retarded is yin* that which is accelerated is yang.
.u %en 8
(peaking of the yin and yang of -an,
Then the outside is yang, the inside is yin.
(peaking of the yin and yang of the human body,
Then the back is yang, the abdomen is yin.
(peaking of the yin and yang among the viscera and bowels'
Then the viscera are yin and the bowels are yang
The liver, the heart, the spleen, the lung, and the kidneys
All these . viscera are yin
The gallbladder, the stomach, the large intestine,
the small intestine, the bladder and the triple burner
all these / bowels are yang.
.u %en 7
Those in the outer region, they are yang
Those inside, they are yin.
.u %en 1
The people of high anti)uity, those who knew the "ay
They modeled their behavior after yin and yang
In high anti)uity there were the true men.
They upheld the patterns of heaven and earth, and
They grasped the regularity of yin and yang
.u %en 96
The physical appearance of human life,
It doesn0t leave yin and yang.
.u %en 8
In yin is yin* in yang is yang.
%rom dawn to noon, this is the yang of heaven*
It is the yang in the yang.
%rom noon to dusk, this is the yang of heaven*
It is the yin in the yang.
%rom early evening to the crowing of the cocks, this is the yin of heaven*
It is the yin in the yin.
%rom the crowing of the cocks to dawn, this is the yin of heaven*
It is the yang in the yin
.u %en 8
The back being yang, the yang in the yang is the heart.
The back being yang, the yin in the yang is the lung.
The abdomen being yin, the yin in the yin are the kidneys.
The abdomen being yin, the yang in the yin is the liver.
The abdomen being yin, the e!treme yin in the yin is the spleen.
"uang di nei :ing tai su
In yin there is yang, in yang there is yin.
"hen one is knowledgeable about yin and yang, he can apply needle treatment methodically.
"hen the origins of illness have been comprehended, the application of needles can be carried out
on the basis of the proper principles.
1arefully assess the causes of the affliction and the correspondences to the four seasons.
The human body consists of an inner region, comprising of the . viscera and the si! bowels, and an
outer region, containing sinews, bones and skin.
Thus yin and yang are present in both inner and outer regions.
In the inner region the five viscera belong to the yin and the si! bowels to the yang.
In the outer region, the sinews and bones belong to yin and the skin to yang.
.u %en 6
That which is of strong flavor is yin*
That with weak flavor is yang of yin.
That which is of strong )i is yang*
That with weak )i is yin of yang.
Acrid flavor and sweet flavor effuse and disperse and are yang,
(our flavor and bitter flavor cause gushing up and outflow and are yin.
.u %en 6
Yin and yang, they are
The way of heaven and earth,
The fundamental principles governing the myriad beings
%ather and mother to all changes and transformations
The source and origin of generating and killing
The palace of spirit brilliance
Lao ;i
The Dao that can be e!pressed is not the unchanging Dao*
The name that can be defined is not the eternal name.
&ence the wise man depends on non2action +wu wei,
1ontinues teaching his lessons of silence
Yet the multitudinous creatures are influenced by him*
&e does not re3ect them.
&e nurtures them, but claims no possession of them,
4versees them, but puts no pressure on them.
Accomplishes his purpose, but does not dwell on his achievements*
And precisely because he calls no attention to his actions
&e is not banished from the completion of his tasks.
5othing under heaven is weaker and softer than water,
Yet nothing surpasses it in battling the hard and strong.
Look at it, but one sees nothing,
It is called illusory.
Listen to it, but one hears no sound,
It is called undetectable.
%eel for it, but one touches a void,
It is called minuscule.
These three, because they elude us,
-eld to become one.
6!istence and non2e!istence are dependent on each other,
Difficult and easy give rise to the same concept,
Long and short are derived by comparison,
&igh differs from low only by position,
(ound and echo blend into one harmony
%ront and back follow one another se)uentially
Thirty spokes are 3oined at the nave to build a wheel,
7ut it is the space between the wheels that provide the function.
1hunks of clay are fashioned into a vessel,
7ut is it the emptiness within that renders it useful.
"indows and doors are cut to build a room,
7ut it is the enclosure that furnishes shelter.
As we benefit from that which e!ists,
Let us recogni8e the utility of that which does not.
Lao ;i
(omething nebulous and yet compositely formed,
6!isting before heaven and earth
Inaudible and limitless,
Independent and never changing
9residing over all constantly,
(he may be regarded as the :mother of everything;
I do not know it0s name
Dao is what I call it.
If pressured to assign it a title
I dub it <reat
ao de :ing
-an emulates earth for the order of his ways,
"hile earth emulates heaven,
&eaven acts according to the laws of the Dao,
7ut the Dao does that which is natural to itself.
Zhuang ;i
&ow do I know that wanting to be alive is not a great mistake=
&ow do I know that hating to die is not like thinking one has lost one0s way, when all the time one
is on the path that leads to home=
"hile a man is dreaming, he does not know that he dreams* nor can he interpret a dream till the
dream is done.
It is only when he wakes, that he knows it was dream.
5ot till the great wakening can he know that all this was one great dream'
<%ang ;u
:The #$,$$$ things come into being,
and I have watched them return.
5o matter how lu!uriantly they flourish
6ach must go back to the root from which it came.
This returning to the root is called )uietness.
It is the fulfillment of one0s destiny.
That each must fulfill his destiny is the eternal pattern.;
A P"A.,.
%7ood is the bending and the straightening% ha$ing the characteristics of upbearing and effusion
8up'ard and out'ard mo$ement9
>i$er-7ood The li$er1s physiologic characteristic is that it thri$es by orderly reaching. It go$erns
upbearing and stirring and is li!e the %sprouting of trees and plants in Spring% Spring corresponds
to 'ood in A phases, so that the li$er is ascribed to 'ood.
%5ire is the flaming up'ard,% ha$ing the 6uality of heat and up'ard mo$ement
=eart-5ire: The physiologic characteristic of the heart is that it go$erns the blood $essels. It has the
function of propelling 6i and blood to 'arm and nourish the 'hole body. It is li!ened to the heat of
summer, 'hen the 'hole of creation thri$es. Summer corresponds to fire, and so the heart is
ascribed the 6uality of fire
%+arth is the so'ing and reaping% representing the planting and har$esting of crops and the
bringing forth of phenomenon
Spleen--+arth: The spleen1s physiologic characteristic is that it go$erns mo$ement and
transformation of the essence of grain and 'ater and is the basis of the formation of blood and 6i.
I5 is associated 'ith late summer and humid 'eather, 'hen the 'hole of nature is at its pea!. >ate
summer corresponds to earth, so that the spleen is ascribed to the attribute of earth
%Metal is the 'or!ing of change% ha$ing the 6ualities of purification, elimination, and reform
>ung-Metal: The physiologic characteristic of the lung is that it thri$es by purity and go$erns
do'nbearing. It is li!ened to the clear fresh air and purifying frost frosts of autumn, 'hen nature is
'ithdra'ing into itself 5or this reason, it is ascribed the attribute of metal
%7ater is the moistening and descending to lo' places% ha$ing the 6ualities of moistening,
do'n'ard mo$ement, and coldness
3idney-7ater: The !idney has the physiologic function of storing essence and of go$erning fluids.
It is associated 'ith the bitter cold of 'inter, 'hen nature is dormant
The five phases,
The first is water,
The second is fire,
The third is wood,
The fourth is metal,
The fifth is earth.
"ater is moistening that which is below.
%ire is flaming upward.
"ood is bent and straight.
-etal is compliance and resistance.
6arth, then, is sowing and reaping.
-oistening that which is below generates salty flavor.
%laming upward generates bitter flavor
7ent and straight generates sour flavor.
1ompliance and resistance generates acrid flavor.
(owing and reaping generates sweet flavor.
.u %en 8
The eastern region* green2blue color.
&aving entered, it communicates with the liver*
Its orifice opens in the eyes.
It stores essence in the liver.
Its flavor* sour*
Its class> herbs and tress*
Its anima> chicken*
Its grain> wheat.
Its correspondence with the four seasons, above it is ?upiter.
&ence the )i of spring is in the head.
&ence one knows that its diseases are located in the sinews.
.u %en 6
The east generates wind*
"ind generates wood.
"ood generates sour flavor.
(our generates the liver.
The liver generates the sinews.
The sinews generate the heart.
The liver rules the eyes.
The spirit,
In heaven it is wind,
4n the earth it is wood,
In the body it is sinews.
Among the 8ang it is the liver*
Among the color it is )ing
Among the voices it is shouting*
Among the changes and movements of the body it is grasping*
Among the portals it is the eyes
Among the flavors it is sour*
Among the states of mind it is anger.
If anger causes harm, it harms the liver* sadness dominates anger.
If wind causes harm, it harms the sinews* dryness dominates wind.
If sour flavor causes harm, it harms the sinews* acrid flavor dominates sour
.u %en 96
"hen wood meets metal, it is felled.
"hen fire meets water, it is e!tinguished.
"hen earth meets wood, it is penetrated.
"hen metal meets fire, it is destroyed.
"hen water meets earth, it is interrupted in its flow.
These five processes apply to the interactions among all the myriad beings*
Their validity is never e!hausted.
.u %en 1>
If a massive depletion results from 3oy,
Then the )i of the kidneys takes advantage.
%rom anger,
The then )i of the liver takes advantage
%rom sadness,
Then the )i of the lung takes advantage
%rom fear,
Then the )i of the spleen takes advantage
%rom an!iety,

Then the )i of the heart takes advantage
.u %en 76
In the case of a heart disease, first the patient e!periences heartache.
After one day he coughs.
"ithin the ne!t three days the flanks e!perience propping fullness and pain
"ithin the ne!t five days there is obstruction +no passage,, the body aches and the limbs are heavy.
If the disease has not ended within the ne!t three days the patient will die,
.u %en >
The heart,
Its fullness manifests in the vessels
The lung,
Its fullness manifests in the skin
The kidneys,
Its fullness manifests in the bones
The liver
Its fullness manifests in the sinews
The spleen
Its fullness manifests in the muscles
.u %en 12
The tissue of the heart is the vessels,
Its splendor appears in the comple!ion
The tissue of the lung is the skin,
Its splendor appears in the body hair
The tissue of the liver is the sinews,
Its splendor appears in the nails
The tissue of the spleen is the flesh,
Its splendor appears in the lips
The tissue of the kidneys is the bones*
Its splendor appears in the head hair.
.u %en 93
The heart generates sweat.
The lung generates snivel.
The liver generates tears.
The spleen generates saliva.
The kidneys generate spittle.
.u %en 11
As for the so2called five 8ang,
They store the essence )i and do not drain it.
&ence, even if they are full, they cannot be replete.
As for the si! fu,
They transmit and transform things but do not store them.
&ence they may be replete, but they cannot be full.
The reason is as follows.
"hen water and grain enter the mouth,
Then the stomach is replete and the intestines are empty.
"hen the food moves down,
Then the intestines are replete and the stomach is empty.
&ence the te!t states* :replete but not full, full but not replete.;
.u %en 14
The vessels, they are the mansion of the blood.
The head, it is the mansion of essence brilliance.
The back, it is the mansion of that which is in the chest.
The lower back, it is the mansion of the kidney.
The knees, they are the mansion of the sinews.
The bones, they are the mansion of the marrow.
ong Zhong .hu 014>-128 B!,5
"ithin the universe e!ists this )i of yin and yang in which man is constantly immersed, 3ust as fish
are immersed in water. The only difference between )i and water is that water is visible whereas )i
is not. 7ut man0s e!istence is as much dependent on this )i as fish0s life is dependent on water. @i is
found everywhere in the universe but is less visible than water. Thus, although the universe seems
to be empty, yet there is substance at the same time. -an is engulfed in this vorte! and, regardless
of whether he is orderly or disorderly, is carried along on and on, in a common current.
Tang +ang !huan 01?76-1>1? !,5
A person0s body is composed of nothing outside of yin and yang, and the two words yin and yang
mean water and fire, respectively.
%urther, the two words water and fire in terms of the human body mean )i and blood, for water
transforms the )i and fire transforms the blood.
4ne might ask, how can it be that water transforms the )i=
@i resides in all material things, and all revert to water.
The 0asic Concept of Bi, it1s 5ormation, Mo$ement and Classification
9 Basic concept o' @i
Bi is the basic substance by 'hich all mo$ement and all mutations of phenomenon in the
uni$erse arise
Bi means all of the physiological functions or acti$ities of the internal organs and channels
and net'or! $essels
G9 The 'ormation o' @i
5ormer =ea$en Bi is inherited from our parents, it is finite in amount and treasured by the
>atter =ea$en Bi is transformed by the Spleen from the 'ater and grains consumed daily.
H9 @i moAement = @i Bi
The dynamic of 6i is its capacity to underta!e the four primary mo$ements that occur in the
organs and channels: upbearing, do'nbearing, out'ard # in'ard mo$ement Su 7en %there is
no organ in 'hich upbearing, do'nbearing, out'ard and in'ard mo$ement of original 6i does not
occur% 7hen this mo$ement stops, life ceases.
In a healthy normal situation, the Bi mo$ement is harmoni&ed and balanced, other'ise,
pathological mo$ement = Bi stagnation, Bi counterflo', central 6i fall, etc
@9 i''erent 'orms o' original @i, mani'esting as ph#siological actiAit#
2rgan Bi : each organ has its o'n 6i, 'hich is the basis of its physiologic acti$ity and manifests as
a ma:or aspect of its physiologic function.
!hannel @i: mo$ement is seen in the channels1 functions of transmission and con$eyance
!onstruction @i: the 6i that forms the blood and flo' 'ith it in the $essels, helping to nourish the
entire body
e'ense @i: flo's outside the $essels ... it is fierce, bold and uninhibited, so it cannot be contained
by the $essels. Its main function in the chest and abdomen is to 'arm the organs. Its function on the
e"terior is to flo' through the s!in and flesh, regulate the opening and closing of the interstices
8cou li9, protect the e"terior, !eep the s!in lustrous and healthy, and pre$ent in$asion of e"ternal
Ancestral @i: gathers in the chest, the %sea of 6i% 86i hai 9. It ascends to the trachea and descends
into the 6i thoroughfare.
Ling .hu: %ancestral )i accumulates in the chest, issues through the throat, goes through the heart
and vessels, and moves respiration%
Main 5unctions: enters the respiratory tract and controls breathing: its health is reflected in the
strength of respiration and in the $oice. It also causes the 6i deri$ed from the breath to descend into
the 6i thoroughfare. 0reath control in 6igong ma!es use of this function.
(ncestral 6i penetrates the heart and $essels, dri$ing the heart and regulating the pulses. Thus, the
circulation of 6i and blood and the temperature and mo$ement of the limbs are largely dependent
on it.
A9 5unctions of Bi -- A 5" are interrelated
(cti$ation: human gro'th and de$elopment, physiologic acti$ity and metabolism, are
manifestations of the acti$ation of 6i
=arming: body temperature and the ability of the organs and tissues to perform their functional
acti$ities are dependent on the 'arming action of 6i
e'ense: Bi is the outer defense of the body and pre$ents e$il influences from entering.
Trans'ormatiAe action: formation of blood and fluids, distribution of fluids, and con$ersion of
fluids into s'eat and urine are all the result of the transformati$e action of 6i.
!ontainment: e"tra$asation of blood or loss of body fluids is pre$ented by the containing function
of 6i.
O9 Pathologies o' Ci... main pathologies are 6i $acuity and 6i stagnation
@i Aacuit#: may be caused by enduring illness, old age, 'ea! constitution, malnutrition, or ta"ation
fatigue. Characteri&ed by fatigue, 'ea!ness and loss of strength but affects each of the $iscera and
bo'els differently
>ungs = shortness of breath and a faint $oice
Spleen-Stomach = poor appetite and loose stools
3idneys = fre6uent, long $oidings of clear urine
@i stagnation: normally the 6i flo's smoothly and freely throughout the body. If the 6i dynamic is
disturbed, it is !no'n as 6i stagnation. It may be caused by emotional constraints, dietary
irregularities, contraction of e"ternal e$ils, and e"ternal in:ury.
The main signs are local distention and possibly pain, feelings of oppression or distending
pain of fluctuating intensity and unfi"ed location.
>i$er channel there may be distention and pain in the rib-side, premenstrual breast distention and
pain or perhaps pain and hea$iness in the lateral aspects of the lo'er abdomen
@i !ounter'lo% denotes stagnation and counterflo' ascent of 6i that normally bears do'n'ard.
>ungs shortness of breath, panting or cough
Stomach nausea, belching or $omiting
!entral @i 'all: The Bi of the spleen normally bears up'ard. If the spleen becomes $acuous and
'ea!, it may fail in its duty to upbear the clear yang 6i and may lead to di&&iness, enduring
diarrhea, prolapse of the rectum or uterus
.P)+)T - .",(: The spirit is 'hat normally ma!es us conscious and alert during the day. It is
'hat becomes inacti$e during sleep.
Thus, the spirit is abundant 6i in the =eart....
%The &eart stores the spirit%
Storage is a yin function 8R9, it is primarily the =eart 0lood and yin that ha$e the function of
nourishing the =eart and pro$iding the material basis for the =eart to house the spirit8R9
&)( - Z"): )resence of mind or concentration po'er
The mind is the e"perience of Bi and the mo$ement of Bi
It is similar in meaning to the spirit shen, 'ith 'hich it is often combined to form shen &hi
Shen disturbances: insomnia, profuse dreaming, dream disturbed sleep,forgetfulness, feeble-
mindedness, $e"ation and agitation, irritability, etc
Full condition = something %harassing the heart spirit%
,mpt# condition = %=eart failing to !eep its abode%
FullD+epleteDeEcess $sF ,mpt#D$acuousDde'icient
Full G characteri;ed b# the presence o' a pathogenic 'actor o' an# /ind
,mpt# G characteri;ed b# %ea/ness o' the bod#Hs @i
I,ssence is the basis o' the bod#%
0road Sense: 0lood, Bi # 5luids
AcCuired essence G Latter heaAen essence
That 'hich is essential to maintain life
(bsorbed by the body after birth
Synonymous 'ith %essence of 'ater # grain%.. nutrients absorbed by Sp;St
*arro' Sense: stored by 3idneys and controls birth, gro'th, aging # death
+eproductiAe essence:
7hat male # female combine to produce offspring
!ongenital essence G Former heaAen essence
-ecei$ed from parents
5rom birth it1s gradually strengthened by
A!@-)+, ,..,(!,
0ody gro's to full stature # reproducti$e maturity
(fter )rime essence 'ains.....body decays
BL** F*+&AT)*(
5rom essential Bi from food deri$ed by Spleen;Stomach
0ecomes red blood after transformation by constructi$e Bi
0lood flo's through the $essels and is pumped around the 'hole body by the heart
0lood is treasured and regulated by the >i$er
0lood is pre$ented from spilling out of the $essels by the containing po'er of the Spleen
BloodHs relationship to internal organs
=eart go$erns the blood # $essels
>ungs go$ern BiFF %Bi is the commander of blood%
Spleen is the latter hea$en root of engenderment and transformation of Bi # 0lood
Spleen %manages% or contains blood in the $essels
The >i$er treasures 0lood and regulates its $olume
3idneys are the former =ea$en root of the engenderment and transformation of 0lood
3idneys Treasure <ing 8+ssence9
%0lood and essence share a common source%
+elationship o' @i & Blood
Bi engenders 0lood
Bi is the commander of 0lood
If Bi mo$es, the 0lood mo$es
If Bi stops, the 0lood stops
Bi is the commander of 0lood
It is the Bi that contains the 0lood in its $essels
Bi # 0lood flo' together. Therefore, the Bi deserts 'ith the 0lood
0lood is the Mother of Bi, it is the material basis to anchor the Bi
BloodHs Function
*ourish the 'hole body
Moisten body tissues
The material foundation to =ouse the Spirit
0lood is the Mother of Bi
Blood Patholog#
Stasis = the impairment or cessation of the normal freeflo' of 0lood
+mptiness or ,acuity = the manifestation of insufficiency of the 0lood
0lood =eat = characteri&ed by =+(T # 0lood signs
0lood Cold = Congealing cold and Bi stagnation inhibiting mo$ement of 0lood
Blood stasis
)(I* stabbing, fi"ed, boring in character and fi"ed in location
Masses fi"ed, palpable
0leeding recurrent, purple;blac! 'ith clots Jynecology
Comple"ion dull, dar! facial comple"ion
Tongue static macules on the tongue
S!in spider ne$i -- bruises -- %dry lusterless s!in% curious diseases, thin! of stasis....%
%ne' diseases are in the channels, enduring diseases are in the net'or! $essels
Blood Aacuit#
PAL, sallo' comple"ion tongue, lips, nails
5ine pulse
5lo'ery $ision 8blurry9
=ypertonicity 8stiffness, tension, spasms9
+Y Fs!in... lifeless hair
Blood heat
%primarily% due to febrile disease
%primarily% due to >i$er =eat
Blood .tasis
%!noc!s # falls% = Trauma
Bi Stagnation
Bi $acuity 8emptiness9
0lood Cold
0lood =eat
Blood $acuit#
=ea$y 0lood loss
Diminished production
5ailure to eliminate stasis # engender ne' 0lood
Blood "eat
+:ection of bright, red 0lood
Maculopapular eruptions
,e"ation 8pGIO9
Crimson Tongue
Delirious Mania
Fluids G Bin Ye
(ll normal fluid substances flo'ing 'ithin the human body
S'eat, sali$a, stomach :uice, urine, etc
M2IST+* -- organs, sine's, flesh, s!in, mucous membranes, orifices
>K0-IC(T+ -- <oints
*2K-IS= -- 0rain, Marro', 0ones
B)( 8fluids, li6uids9 -- relati$ely thin, more mobile # yang
>ocate -- surface of flesh, mucous membranes
5unction -- moisten flesh, s!in, hair, eyes, ears, nose, mouth # other
Y, 8humours9 -- thic!er, less mobile, yin
>ocate -- ?ang 5u, 0rain, 0ones
5unction -- lubricate :oints
+elationship to @) # BL**
@) -- )roduction, distribution # discharge of 5luids relies on S $ TU UT mo$ement of BI
Intimate relationship on the D action of San <iao 8'ater'ays9 # other rel organs
).T-+BA(!, *F @) &,!"A().& FL-) ).*+,+
(bnormal accumulation of fluids = 'ater Bi
Insufficiency of the source of fluid formation
$acuous @i fails to perform containing function =T hea$y fluid loss =T =T Bi desert
=27RFF great s'eat, long $oidings of urine
BL** - Important constituent of 0lood.. the richest part of <in4e # 4ing Bi tra$els $ia $essels
of >ung T =eart and D to 0lood
%7hen fluids are harmonious, they transform into 0lood
%0lood # 5luids share the same source%
5luid depletion leads to 0lood insufficiency
)athologies of <in 4e
=AT,+ .=,LL)(G 8."-) Z"*(G9 #P"L,G&-+",-& 8TA( Y)(9
(bnormal accumulations of body fluids
=ater .%elling
Impairment of >u 5" of Diff. # Do'nbear
Impairment of Sp 5" of Mo$e # D
Impairment of transformati$e action of 3idney Bi
affects the upbearing of the clear # the do'nbearing of the turbid
# the production # discharge of urine
Phlegm +heum
Causes are similar to 'ater s'elling
%The spleen is the source of phlegm engenderment and the lungs are the
place 'here phlegm is stored%
Pathologies o' Bin Ye
Damage to <in 8fluids9 and desertion of 4e
Damage to <in = minor
Damage to 4e = ma:or
!auses F great fe$er, enduring fe$er, great s'eat, profuse urine, $omiting and diarrhea
!ommon pathomechanisms F scorching fluids by e$il =eat, 'earing of fluids from enduring
)atrogenicF Inappropriate or o$er use of:
S'eat effusing agents, urine disinhibitors, draining purgati$es, 'arm, drying agents
amage to Bin 8li6uids9 = temporary
.igns = thirst, rough dry tongue coat, dry throat;lips;tongue;s!in; stool, short
$oidings of scant urine
epletion o' Ye 8humors9 = serious
.igns = more pronounced slo'er T"
poor general health, dry mouth 'ith strong desire for fluids
?(*J - 5K
A ?(*J;,ISC+-(
)+-IC(-DIKM IS C2*SID+-+D OT= ,ISCKS I* C=(**+> T=+2-4
5E = )-2DKC+ (*D ST2-+ +SS+*C+
O 5K; 027+>S
SM. I*T+ST-ST2M(C=->J. I*T+ST-K0-J0M-S(* <I(2
5E = D+C2M)2S+ 522D (*D C2*,+4 7(ST+
%... A $iscera store essential 6i and do not discharge 'aste. Thus they are full, but cannot be filled.
The si" bo'els process and con$ey matter, and do not store. Thus, they are filled, but are not full%
O +ET-(2-DI*(-4 2-J(*S
0-(I*, M(--27, 02*+S, ,+SS+>S, KT+-KS, J0M
DISTI*JKIS=+D 5-2M T=+ 027+>S I* T=(T T=+4 D2 *2T D+C2M)2S+ 522D (*D
C2*,+4 7(ST+.
DISTI*JKIS=+D 5-2M T=+ ,ISC+-( I* T=(T T=+4 D2 *2T
)-2DKC+ (*D ST2-+ +SS+*C+.
J0 Is an e"ception and is classed as both a bo'el and an e"traordinary organ.
It plays a role in the processing and con$eyance of food, and stands in an interior-e"terior
relationship 'ith a $iscus, the li$er. The bile that it produces is regarded as a %clear fluid% rather
than as 'aste.
L)F, GAT, F)+, = The basic fire of life
>i$es 'ithin 3idney 4in/
The basis of se"ual and reproducti$e function
7arms and nourishes the A $iscera and O bo'els
Intimately in$ol$ed in gro'th, de$elopment, and aging
The Spleen re6uires the 'arming action of lifegate fire to perform its1 function of mo$ing
and transforming
@i &oAements
%...yang floats..% -- 4ang by nature upbears and effuses 8ascends and thrusts out'ards9
%...yin sin!s...% -- 4in by nature is turbid and hea$y and do'nbears or descends
%...yang descends...% Interaction of =ea$en and earth, yin#yang... classical Chinese
anatomical position...yang channels descend. =eart fire must descend to interact 'ith 3idney 'ater
%...yin ascends..% 4in channels ascend the body...
3idney 'ater ascends to interact 'ith =eart fire
Spleen upbears the clear 4ang -- Stomach descends the turbid
>ungs diffuse and do'nbear Bi -- >g Int. con$eys dregs do'n'ard
3idney Bi contains # astringes -- K0 descends for e"cretion
>i$er Bi bears up# out li!e branches of a tree -- J0 R
=eart 6i descends -- Sm Int. descends
.pleen - .tomach
%the latter hea$en root of the engenderment of Bi # 0lood%
%spleen upbears the finest essence of food and drin! to the >ungs # =eart 'here it is
transformed into Bi # 0lood%
%Stomach rottens and ripens the food and drin! ta!en in and descends the turbid do'n the
Sm Int... it is the source of body fluids
Patholog# o' @i Trans'ormation
Spleen upbears the clear, if the spleen is $acuous and 'ea!, it may fail its1 duty and the clear
'ill descend mi"ed 'ith the turbid. 2-, if a yin turbid substance 8e$il damp, phlegm, etc9 obstructs
the flo' of 6i, it may also cause a failure of the arisal of the clear.
Stomach descends the turbid, if, for any reason, the 6i mechanism of the stomach is
inhibited, it may counterflo' up'ard 8belching, acid regurg., etc9
>i$er go$erns free coursing and discharge of the Bi, if the li$er is damaged, it may fail in
its1 duty and counterflo' up'ard to the lungs or hori&ontally to the Sp; ST
The lungs diffuse and do'nbear the Bi. If, for any reason, the 6i mechanism of the lungs is
inhibited, the lung 6i may counterflo' 8cough, hasty panting9
The 3idney yin is supposed to chec! heart yang and maintain the proper balance bet'een
heart fire and !idney 'ater. 0eing $acuous, !idney yin fails in that function and heart fire may
conse6uently become e"uberant. =eart fire flares up'ard in the upper <iao, dis6uieting the heart
The LiAer goAerns coursing & discharge 0shu Eie5
The LiAer stores the Blood
The LiAer thriAes on orderl# reaching 0tiao da5
The LiAer goAerns the sine%s
The LiAer opens at the e#es
The LiAer goAerns 'right
The LiAer stands in interior-eEterior relation %ith the Gall Bladder
The LiAer, itHs bloom is in the nails
The LiAer is aAerse to %ind
The LiAer 'orms tears
The LiAer holds the o''ice o' general, %hence strategies emanate
The LiAer stores Blood
The >i$er is capable of retaining blood and regulating the amount of blood in the body.
%7hen the body mo$es, the blood flo's through the channels, and 'hen the body is at rest,
the blood flo's bac! to the li$er 'here it is stored%
%..the legs recei$e blood and 'al!, the hands recei$e blood and grip..%
G scenarios from loss of blood storing function......
tissues are undernourished and fail to function
G cause a tendency to'ards bleeding
The LiAer goAerns 'ree coursing and discharge 0shu Eie5
9 -eflected in the regularity and smoothness of the 6i mechanism. 7hen this function is normal, 6i
dynamic is smooth and regular, so that 6i and blood remain in harmony, the channels are !ept free,
and the organs all function normally
G9 )roduction and secretion of bile depends on surplus of 6i from the li$er being channeled into the
Jall 0ladder.
H9 +motional disturbances may affect the 6i dynamic...impairment of free coursing can lead to
emotional disturbances such as mental depression, rashness, impatience or irascibility
.hu = to enhance flo' 8of 6i, esp. depressed li$er 6i9
to free 8the li$er or digesti$e tract of 6i stagnation and depression9
to eliminate 8e$ils such as 'ind in the e"terior9
to free 8the e"terior of channels from e$ils such as 'ind9
Chinese Character contains a picture of 'ater and is used in the combination shu :un to
dredge...course = freeing the course of 6i
Eie = spontaneous or induced out'ard 8or do'n'ard9 mo$ement
Vcoursing the >i$er # rectifying the Bi shu gan li 6iW
restoring the normal free coursing of li$er 6i in the treatment of li$er
VThe >i$er thri$es on orderly reaching 8tiao da9 W
VThe >i$er go$erns upbearing effusion 8sheng fa9 W
>i$er 6i bears up'ard #out'ard li!e the branches of a tree stretch up and out
Gall Bladder
Gall Bladder holds the o''ice o' :ustice, 'rom %hich decision emanates
The ability to maintain balanced :udgement in the face of ad$ersity
Gall Bladder stands in eEterior-interior relationship %ith the LiAer
Gall Bladder goAerns secretion o' Bile
The gallbladder is a %curious organ% since it1s 0ile is considered a %clear fluid%
>ing Shu Chapter D XThe heart holds the office of lord and sovereign. The radiance of the spirit
stems from it.;
The "eart goAerns blood and Aessels
The "eart stores the spirit
The "eart opens at the tongue
The "eart stands in interior-eEterior relation %ith the .mall )ntestine
The "eart goAerns the tongue
The "eart goAerns speech
The "eart goAerns s%eat
The "eart, itHs bloom is in the 'ace
The "eart is aAerse to heat
Small Intestine
>ing Shu Chapter D XThe small intestine is responsible for receiving and making things thrive.
Transformed substances stem from it;
The .mall )ntestine goAerns separation o' the clear and the turbid
Diseases of the small intestine are attributable to failure to separate the clear and the turbid,
manifesting as stool and urinary disturbances
It recei$es 'ater and grain that has been decomposed in the stomach.
It transforms this food further, e"tracting nutrients for the body.
It passes 'aste on to the large intestines and %clear% to the bladder
>ing Shu Chapter D XThe spleen and stomach are responsible for the storehouses and granaries.
The five tastes stem from them;
5rom 7ang 3entang and 7u Mian"ue, The !ompendium o' Traditional iagnosis 0Gu Jin
Yitong Zhengmai Quanshu5, OI:
The .pleen goAerns moAement and trans'ormation
The .pleen is the latter heaAen root
Sheng hua zhi yuan G the source o' engendering trans'ormation
The basis o' Ci and blood
The .pleen goAerns upbearing o' the clear
The .pleen goAerns the management o' the Blood
The .pleen goAerns the 'lesh and limbs
The .pleen stands in interior-eEterior relation %ith the .tomach
The .pleen opens at the mouth
The .pleen, itHs bloom is in the lips
The .pleen is aAerse to dampness
The .pleen 'orms drool
The .tomach goAerns inta/e
The Stomach recei$es ingested foods and perform the initial stage of digestion
The .tomach goAerns rotting and ripening
(llo's the essence to be e"tracted by the Spleen
The .tomach goAerns do%nbearing o' the turbid
The Stomach sends food do'n to the Small Intestine
The Clear is upborne by the Spleen, the turbid is do'nborne by the Stomach
Ling .hu !hapter ? XThe lung holds the office of minister and chancellor. The regulation of the
life2giving network stems from it.;
The Lung goAerns @i
The Lung goAerns di''usion
The Lung goAerns depuratiAe do%nbearing
The Lung goAerns regulation o' the %ater%a#s
The Lung goAerns the eEterior o' the entire bod#
The Lung goAerns the s/in & Jbod#K hair
The Lung goAerns the Aoice
The Lung stands in interior-eEterior relation %ith the Large )ntestine
The Lung is the delicate Aiscus
The Lung is the 'lorid canop#
The Lung opens at the nose
The Lung, itHs bloom is in the Jbod#K hair
The Lung is aAerse to cold
The Lung 'orms sniAel
Large Intestine
Ling .hu !hapter ? Xthe large intestine is responsible for transit. The residue from transformation
stems from it.;
The Large )ntestine goAerns conAe#ance
The >arge Intestine con$eys 'aste do'n'ard and out of the body, transforming it into stool
as it does so
The Large )ntestine goAerns liCuids
(bsorbs fluid from the food 'aste to form firm stool
The Large )ntestine hold the o''ice o' conAe#ance, %hence trans'ormation
Ling .hu !hapter ? Xthe kidneys are responsible for the creation of power. (kill and ability stem
from them;
5rom >i ?hong&i, A Primer o' &edical *b:ectiAes 8Yizong Bidu9, OHP:
The <idne#s goAern =ater
The <idne#s store ,ssence 0Bing5
The <idne#s are the root o' 'ormer heaAen
The <idne#s goAern the bones and engender marro%
The <idne#s open at the 9 #in
The <idne#s open at the ears
The <idne#s goAern 'ear
The <idne#s stand in interior-eEterior relation %ith the -rinar# Bladder
The <idne#s goAern Ci absorption
The <idne#s are the gate o' the .tomach
The <idne#, itHs bloom is in the JheadK hair
The <idne#s are aAerse to dr#ness
The <idne#s 'orm spittle
The <idne#s hold the o''ice o' labor, %hence agilit# emanates
Urinar Bladder
Ling .hu !hapter ? Xthe bladder is responsible for regions and cities. It stores the body fluids.
The transformations of the )i then give out their power;
-rinar# Bladder holds the o''ice o' +egional +ecti'ier
Su 7en %0ladder...stores fluid, and by Bi =ua VBi TransformationW
let1s it out
Ein 0ao = =eart %'rapper%
The outer co$er of the heart.
+$ils in$ading the heart st affect the pericardium...
high fe$er --T delirium = heat entering the pericardium
phlegm turbidity --T mental derangement = phlegm clouding the pericardium
)ericardium stands in interior-e"terior relationship 'ith the San <iao
San "iao
Ling .hu !hapter ? XThe triple heater is responsible for the opening up of passages and
irrigation. The regulation of fluids stems from it;
San <iao manifests as 'ater'ays
The main functions of the San <iao are the processing of fluids and ensuring free flo'
through the 'ater'ays.
Bi transformation in the San <iao is a global e!pression for the roles played by the lung, spleen,
!idney, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and bladder in regulating the bodyYs 'ater
.an Biao refers to specific body areas:
The upper refers to the head # chest, the heart # lungs
The middle refers to the upper abdomen the stomach # spleen
The lo'er refers to the lo'er abdomen inferior to the umbilicus
San <iao stands in e"terior-interior relationship 'ith the )ericardium
San <iao is also a concept in pattern identification
<no% thisLLL
The =eart go$erns the 0lood and the spleen manages blood
The heart go$erns blood 'hile the spleen is the latter hea$en root of the engenderment and
transformation of blood and manages the blood 'ithin its $essels
Mental-emotional disturbances 'ear the blood ta"ing the spleen
Spleen $acuity may cause an insufficiency of blood leading to heart blood $acuity not nourishing
the spirit leading to shen disturbances
The heart and the !idneys interact
The heart fire and the !idneys 'ater contribute to the normal balance bet'een fire 8yang9 and 'ater
8yin9 in the body. If heart and !idney yin are $acuous, their interaction may be bro!en and
e"uberant fire and $acuous 'ater result. In this case, the heart spirit 'ill become dis6uieted
The lungs go$ern 6i and the heart go$erns blood
The blood in all the channels of the body must pass through the lungs.
%The lung faces the hundred $essels%
2nly after being combined 'ith and diffused by lung 6i can blood nourish the organs and con$ey
essence to the s!in and MbodyN hair
?ong Bi Vancestral 6iW, 'hich gathers in the upper :iao, per$ades heart $essels and po'ers
The lung go$erns 6i and the !idneys are the root of 6i
The lungs dra' in the Da 6i from the en$ironment, but cannot do so unless the essential 6i of the
!idney is e"uberant V>ungs go$ern 6i !idneys go$erns 6i absorptionW
The spleen is the source of phlegm engenderment and the lungs are the receptacle that holds the
This relationship centers around fluid distribution. The spleen go$erns the mo$ement and
transformation of body fluids and the lungs ensure the regulated flo' of fluids through the
>i$er 6i influences spleen-stomach mo$ement and transformation
The normal function of the stomach and spleen is related to the li$er1s go$erning of free coursing.
%7hen there is li$er disease, first treat the spleen%
3idney yang influences spleen-stomach mo$ement # transformation
The normal acti$ities of the spleen and stomach are greatly dependent upon yang 'hich is
supposed to supply 'armth and mo$ement. The process of digestion in Chinese medicine is a
process of 'arm transformation li!ened to coo!ing and distillation.
The li$er stores blood and the heart go$erns blood
The blood is produced by the spleen, stored by the li$er and propelled throughout the body by the
Mental-emotional disturbances 'ear the blood ta"ing the spleen.
Spleen $acuity may cause an insufficiency of blood leading to heart blood $acuity not nourishing
the spirit leading to shen disturbances
The li$er can only function, ie, only course and discharge, as long as it recei$es sufficient
nourishment from blood. Therefore, li$er depression and blood $acuity mutually reinforce one
%7hen there is li$er disease, first treat the spleen%
The li$er stores the blood and the !idneys store essence.
0lood and essence share the same source. >i$er and !idneys share the same source.
The !idneys are the former hea$en root of the engenderment and transformation of the blood. It
ta!es essence to ma!e blood.
>i$er diseases such as hyperacti$ity of li$er yang or li$er fire may consume yin blood and,
ultimately, the !idney essence
The li$er go$erns free coursing and the !idneys go$ern storage
Manifest as menstruation in females and discharge of semen in males
P@ C+ <in Dynasty ---- Chen 4en =
San 4in <i 0ing ?heng 5ang >un
Treatise on H categories of )ath. factors # symptoms
*ei 4in -- Internal Causes
7ai 4in -- +"ternal Causes
0u *ei 0u 7ai 4in -- *either Internal nor +"ternal Causes
=ai Yin = >iu 4in -- O e$ils...'ind, cold, heat, summerheat, dry , damp
(ei Yin = P emotions
Bu (ei Bu =ai Yin -- Diet, tal!ing;shouting, $iolence, strains, anything beyond human control
=ai Yin = >iu 4in ... under normal conditions, these are simply O Bi. 7hen these 6i happen too
suddenly, too strongly, out of season or the personZs righteous 6i is empty and 'ea!, the normal 6i
become pathologic.
O e$ils are mostly en$ironmental... dry diseases in autumn, dry diseases 'hen li$ing in a dessert
O e$ils are promiscuous and may attac! in combinations..'ind-cold.... damp-heat...etc
O e$ils may transform into each other... cold D heat etc
O e$ils attac! from the surface.... s!in, nose, mouth
Z",(G As M),
ZhengG 9 True 6i -- especially in opposition to disease
G9 The acti$e aspect of all components in maintaining health and resisting disease
including: ?ang-5u, Eue, <ing, <in4e, Bi
H9 5orces that maintain normal 5" and see! to re-establish them 'hen e$il is present
Zhen = %True 6i is the product of that 'hich is recei$ed from =ea$en combined '; grain 6i, and
'hich ma!es the body full% 8=ea$en=congenital9
Mie = 9 (ny entity in its acti$e aspect of harming the body -- especially in opposition to right
G9 Since e$il acti$ely fights right or summons acti$ity of right to eliminate it, it is often
called e$il 6i
H9 Su 7en %for e$il to encroach, the 6i must be $acuous%
Zheng AsF Mie
15 +elationship bet%een disease and the potential o' the Zheng
(9If -ight 6i is strong, the fight bet'een -ight # Eie 'ill also be strong
09If -ight 6i is 'ea!, it can1t fight Eie
( tends to be of repletion type
0 tends to be of $acuity type or mi"ed $acuity and repletion
95 +elationship bet%een disease and the Cualit# o' the Mie
(9 If Eie is 4ang type, it 'ill tend to in:ure the body1s 4in
09 If Eie is 4in type, it 'ill tend to in:ure the body1s 4ang
( tends to manifest as replete heat type
0 tends to manifest as replete cold type or damp-cold type
35 +elationship bet%een disease and the degree o' the Mie
(9 If Eie is $irulent, the disease is more serious
09 If Eie is not, the disease is easier to treat
85 +elationship bet%een disease and the location
(9 Most Eie ha$e a tropism to certain areas of the body
 7ind is a 4ang e$il 'hich is opening # discharging by nature.... it is light # buoyant and
most easily in$ades the upper # outer parts of the body.
 7ind is s'ift #changeable. 7ind diseases are characteri&ed by changeability # symptoms
of unfi"ed location.
 7ind is blusterous, $iolent, and impetuous it can cause se$ere damage 'ithin a short time.
 7ind, although associated 'ith mo$ement, has the po'er to chec! normal mo$ement. 7ind
diseases may cause stiffness li!e facial paralysis
 7ind is a promiscuous e$il and readily combines 'ith other e$ils.
=ind isease
1-(ature G 7ind is a 4ang e$il 'hich is opening # discharging by nature.... 7ind is light and
buoyant by nature and most easily in$ades the upper body and the fleshy e"terior.
Area G Tends to affect the head and face, causing =(, di&&y, red s'ollen face and eyes
2ften first in$ades the lung =T nasal congestion, sore pharyn" # cough
9 - (ature - 7ind is s'ift and changeable by nature... 'ind diseases are characteri&ed by
changeability and symptoms of unfi"ed location
.igns G 'andering pain in the muscles and :oints, itching of unfi"ed loc., fluctuating papular
3 - (ature 7ind is blusterous, $iolent, and cause se$ere damage 'ith short
space of time....
.igns G De$iated mouth and eyes, clenched :a', rigidity of limbs....
S!in is tissue of the >ung...7= e$ils often in$ade mouth # nose 'hich connect '; >u. If 7=
congests in >u may D =eat =Tforce Bi to mo$e frenetically 7ind is nothing more than frenetic Bi.
If it forces the 6i in # out through the interstices =Titchy s!in
 %7hen dryness pre$ails, there is aridity% In (utumn, the 'eather is dry and dry air entering
the lung can cause damage to the li6uid 8<in4e9 of the lung.
 Signs;symptoms = dry cough 'ith no phlegm or scant stic!y phlegm dry lips, tongue,
pharyn" and nose
 (>7(4S from e"ternal cause
 Summerheat - heat ---- associated 'ith torrid 'eather... basically heat stro!e or sun stro!e
 Signs;symptoms = high fe$er, thirst, heart $e"ation, absence of s'eat surging pulse 8=ong
/// =igh fe$er... %5ire eats Bi% # damages <in4e =T lac! of strength, short hasty breathing,
dry tongue coat
 Summerheat-damp --- associated 'ith hot, humid 'eather
 Signs;symptoms = fluctuating generali&ed heat effusion, fatigued limbs, poor appetite, chest
oppression, nausea # $omit, sloppy diarrhea 'ith ungratifying defecation soggy pulse 8ru mai9
thic!, slimy coat
 Summerheat-'armth --- infectious encephalitis 0
5ire is a yang e$il, itYs nature is upbearing and mo$ing 'hich can lead to non-constrainment. 5ire
consumes yin fluids. 7hen 5ire causes mo$ement of 0lood, it leads to reddening. 4ello'
e"cretions are ascribed to =eat
=eat is yang Bi, 6i mo$es fluids up and out leading to s'eating
 Cold causes Bi to contract
7hen cold Bi damages the s!in and flesh, the pores close, yang 6i contracts, and s'eat
ceases to flo'.
7hen it damages the sine's, the sine's become contracted and tense -- this indicates that
the e$il has in$aded the channels....%Cold is associated 'ith contracture and tautness%
 Cold causes contracture and tension
Similar to first statement but also e"plains cold1s tendency to cause 6i to stagnate and blood
to become static leading to se$ere pain.
A"hen cold prevails, there is painA
 AAll disease with watery humors that are clear, pure and cold are ascribed to coldA
?hu bing shui ye, sheng che 6ing leng, :ie shu yu han
.igns & .#mptoms: Cold, thin, clear e"creta
e.g. runny nose 'ith clear mucus
clear phlegm
'atery $omitus
long $oidings of clear urine
clear 'atery diarrhea
 The nature of cold as and it1s clinical manifestations are similar to those of cold in the
natural en$ironment
.igns & s#mptoms: lo' temperature, deceleration of acti$ity, and congealing
Jenerali&ed or local signs of cold =
desire for 'armth
a$ersion to cold
pronounced lac! of 'armth in the e"tremities
cold and pain in the lo'er abdomen
 Differentiate in$asion of cold e$il and insufficiency of yang 6i
Dampness is hea$y and turbid --
"eaA# -- %(ll hea$y sensations are ascribed to dampness%
e.g. hea$y-headedness, general hea$iness, poss. general aches and soreness
Turbid -- e"cretions and discharges associated 'ith dampness are turbid or unclear
e.g. abnormal discharges of the facial orifices, diarrhea or 0M 'hen it is stic!y, cloudy
urine, $aginal discharge, 'eepy s!in rashes
ampness is a Yin pathogen -- Damp is hea$y, turbid and it1s nature is 'atery...all attributed to
.ubstantial-- 4in pathogens are substantial and 'ill obstruct the Bi <i or Bi mechanism
e.g. oppression of the chest, epigastrium, or abdomen M(4 be attributed to dampness, scant
urination, uncomfortable bo'el mo$ements
&utual consumption o' Yin # Yang -- Dampness as a 4in pathogen tends to damage
4ang. Spleen li!es dry and is a$erse to damp, damp e$il obstructs the Bi <i of the spleen 8a 4ang
aspect9 and damages the spleens mo$ement and transformation function...'hich can lead to more
Dampness is clammy, $iscous and persistent --
Discharge -- discharges due to dampness are usually $iscous and turbid
Damp diseases -- dampness is persistent so diseases in$ol$ing dampness are lingering and
become chronic
e.g. Damp 0i 8painful obstruction9 ec&ema, e"cess body 'eight
Dampness percolates in the body as in nature --
In nature, dampness percolates and seeps do'n into the ground. In the body, internal
dampness seeps do'n to the lo'er burner to cause problems there
e.g. edema of the lo'er e"tremities, diarrhea, abnormal $aginal discharge
"eaA#-headedness Dampness is a yin e$il and is hea$y and stic!y in nature, 'hile 'ind is a yang e$il and
tends to attac! the upper part of the body. 7hen 'ind and dampness attac! in combination, they first affect
the head and bloc! the clear yang, ma!ing the clear portals cloudy. If the clear portals become clouded and
dampness accumulates, hea$y-headedness occurs.
"eaA# Bod# Dampness causing hea$y body usually arises form enduring e"posure to 'ater dampness, such
as 'or!ing in the 'ater, repeatedly being caught in the rain, or from li$ing in a damp en$ironment.
Dampness is a yin e$il 'hich is stic!y, stagnant, hea$y and fi"ed by nature. If dampness in$ades the body
and fi"es in the fleshy e"terior, the tissues 'ill be filled 'ith more fluid than usual and therefore 'ill be
hea$ier. Thus a feeling of hea$iness of the body may occur.
dro%siness and 'atigue a'ter eating -- The spleen is the latter hea$en root of 6i and blood engenderment
and transformation. It go$erns the @ limbs and the flesh and muscles. It also upbears the clear to boost the
spirit. If, for any reason, spleen 6i becomes $acuous and 'ea!, the spleen 'ill fail to mo$e and transform
'ater and grains or upbear the clear efficiently. (s a result, first the spleen 'ill engender less 6i and blood,
pro$iding less nourishment to the limbs and muscles and gi$ing rise to fatigue and lac! of strength.
Secondly, the spleen 'ill not upbear the clear to boost the spirit, leading to dro'siness. 7ater dampness is a
yin e$il 'hich can obstruct yang, also resulting in dro'siness. 7hen 'e eat the food adds a load to the
$acuous spleen and thus gi$es rise to dro'siness and fatigue after eating.
)hlegm and dampness are yin turbid e$ils and are, by nature, hea$y and stic!y. If phlegm and
dampness accumulate in the middle burner, they may encumber the spleen and obstruct or depress spleen
yang. if the spleen is encumbered, it 'ill engender less 6i and blood, thus pro$iding the limbs...
I5 spleen yang is encumbered and depressed, the clear yang...Therefore, if there is phlegm and
dampness encumbering the spleen, dro'siness...
O depressions: 6i, blood, damp, food, phlegm, fire. Since Bi is responsible for the
mo$ement and transformation of blood, damp, phlegm, and food, if 6i becomes depressed, this may
result in the stoppage and accumulation of any of these other @. (ny of these @ yin substances
accumulate and obstruct the flo' of 6i 'hich is yang, this 'ill tend to transform into heat. Bi and
blood as the G most important. Bi and therefore blood flo' is closely related to emotions. Treat
diseases by :ie yu resol$ing depression.
Tan Yin
Tan = Phlegm 7ider meaning than 7estern idea of sputum
 Denotes a $iscus fluid that can accumulate any'here in the body causing a $ariety of disease
Yin = +heum
 Denotes a thinner, clearer form of accumulated fluid
Production --
9 Impaired mo$ement and transformation of fluids associated 'ith disease of the >ung, Spleen #;or 3idney
 %The spleen is the root of phlegm engenderment%
 )hlegm -heum 8tan yin9 usually arises from dietary irregularities or $acuous yang 'hich
fails to transform dampness.
G9 epressiAe 'ire 8a!a transformati$e fire9 %ste'ing or boiling the :uices% 8body fluids9 may form
phlegm but not rheum
 O depressions all transform 5ire
 2$ereating spicy, hot, fried foods 'hich ferment dampness, engender heat, and damage
the spleen may lead to formation of phlegm
 5ire may %ste' the :uices% causing them to congeal into phlegm
Phlegm-+heum in clinic
(ny form of rheum arising as a result of disturbances of the lung, spleen #;or !idney
pre$enting the mo$ement and transformation of fluid
 Treatment =
7arming # supplementing the spleen # !idney 8root9
Disinhibiting 'ater # e"pelling tan yin 8branch9
 The method of transforming phlegm ta!es different forms depending on the location and cause
of the phlegm pattern
Transform phlegm and suppress cough
Diffuse the >ung and transform phlegm
Dry Damp and transform phlegm
Dispel cold and transform phlegm
Clear heat and transform phlegm
Disperse phlegm and soften hardness
 Treatment 'or ampness
ispel ampness = Bu Shi
(ny method used to eliminate dampness... each <iao has a specific method
-pper = Transform Dampness
&iddle = Dry Dampness
Lo%er = Disinhibit Dampness
Trans'orm ampness =ua Shi -- treat Damp +$il 'ith aromatic medicinals
r# ampness ?ao Shi -- drying Damp +$il 'ith dry bitter medicinals
isinhbit ampness >i Shi -- cause Damp +$il to pass out in the urine by the use of dampness-percolating 'ater-
disinhibiting medicinals
Yin & Yang
4in = interior, cold, emptiness 8$acuity9
4ang = e"terior, heat, fullness 8repletion9
4in )attern = (ny interior, cold #;or $acuity pattern
4ang )attern = (ny e"terior, 'arm #;or repletion pattern
4in +$il = (ny e$il that is yin in nature e.g. cold, dry, damp, phlegm
4ang +$il = (ny e$il that is yang in nature e.g. 'ind, heat, summerheat
4in +"uberance 'ith 4ang debility = +"uberant yin cold 'ith resulting debilitation of yang 6i.
(9 7ater-damp damaging yang
09 +"cessi$e use of cold or cool medicinals
4in +"uberance 'ith 4ang $acuity = +"uberant internal yin cold 'ith emptiness of yang 6i
 Characteristic signs = a$ersion to cold, cold limbs, diarrhea, 'ater s'elling 8R9 and
pale glossy tongue
Yang $acuit#
)nsu''icienc# o' Yang @i. This is a reduction of the 'arming and acti$ating po'er of the body
.igns& .#mptoms
>ac! of strength
Shortage of Bi # la&iness to spea!
5ear of Cold
Cold >imbs
Spontaneous S'eat
)ale comple"ion
>ong $oidings of clear urine
Sloppy stool
Tongue: pale, tender
)ulse: large, empty or faint,fine
Treatment Principle 7arming yang and boosting 6i
*ccassionall# %ater# diarrhea The spleen is the latter hea$en root and the 3idneys are the
former hea$en root. The former hea$en 'arms and steams the spleen yang, promoting its function
of dispersing and transforming 'ater and grains. Thus, if, for any reason, !idney yang becomes
$acuous and 'ea!, then the spleen 'ill not be 'armed and steamed sufficiently and it 'ill not be
able to disperse and transform properly. In that case, clear and turbid 'ill not be separated but 'ill
pour do'n'ard into the intestines. Since 3idney yang also plays a role in the mo$ement and
transformation of 'ater fluids, a !idney yang $acuity 'ill only ma!e such 'ater dampness all the
'orse. In addition, the !idney 6i seals and stores, opens and closes, and go$erns the G lo'er yin. If
3idney 4ang 6i becomes $acuous and 'ea!, the !idneys may lose control of the securing and
astringing of the rear yin or anus. Thus for all of these reasons, there may be diarrhea
>ong, clear urination Krine is a form of body fluids. It is a turbid fluid not needed by the body and
thus e"creted. the formation and distribution of fluids depend mainly on the spleen and lungs, 'hile
the e"cretion of the fluids depends mainly of the !idneys. %the !idneys are the 'ater $iscus and
go$ern the li6uids% It is the 6i transformation of !idney 6i and yang that steams and e$aporates
li6uids, di$iding them into the clear and the turbid. The e$aporated clear flo's along 'ith 6i to
moisten the body, 'hile the turbid remainder is e"creted as urine. Thus, if for any reason, the
!idney yang becomes $acuous and 'ea!, it may not be able to e$aporate the clear,. This then 'ill
be e"creted together 'ith the turbid, gi$ing rise to long, clear urination.
5ear of Cold 4ang $acuity usually de$elops from constitutional insufficiency, aging, enduring
disease, etc. 4ang is responsible for 'arming the body. Therefore, if yang becomes $acuous and
insufficient, it may not be able to 'arm the body, thus leading to a fear of cold. %4ang ,acuity
causes e"ternal cold%
Fatigue 4ang 6i is responsible for acti$ity, mo$ement and 'arming. If, for any reason, the
yang 6i becomes $acuous, the functions of the ?ang 5u lessen and the spirit and the body are not
supported. This then leads to fatigue
!old hands & 'eet 4ang is supposed to 'arm the body.% The spleen go$erns the @ limbs% and
the !idneys are 'here the original yang stays. I5 there is yang $acuity, the hands and feet 'on1t get
sufficient 'armth
=hite compleEion 4ang 6i is responsible for promoting the mo$ement of blood. If there is a
yang $acuity, the blood circulation 'ill conse6uently lac! its dynamism and cannot circulate
.omnolence If yang is $acuous 'hile yin is e"uberant, yang 'ill be repressed and cannot be
upborne to 'arm the spirit light, (s it is said, %4ang e"uberance leads to insomnia, 'hile yin
e"uberance leads to hypersomnia%
disinclination to spea/ %the spleen is the source of 6i and blood engenderment and
transformation% Therefore, if there is spleen 6i $acuity, 'ater and grain can1t be transformed into
essence. 7ithout the finest essence of 'ater and grain, there is nothing from 'hich to ma!e the 6i
and blood. %the lungs go$ern 6i and control breathing% if there is lung 6i $acuity, there 'ill be
'ea! breathing and a disinclination to spea!
loss o' strength in the 8 limbs %the spleen go$erns the @ limbs -- the stomach is the sea of the
fi$e $iscera and si" bo'els and is responsible for nourishing the sine's% The spleen # stomach are
the latter hea$en root of the engenderment of 6i and blood...if the spleen and stomach become
$acuous and 'ea! there 'ill be insufficient 6i and blood leading to 'ea!ness of the @ limbs
Yin $acuit#
The manifestation of insufficiency of the yin aspect and depletion of li6uids and blood
.igns & .#mptoms
>o'-grade fe$er
=eat in the hearts of the palms and soles
)ostmeridian heat effusion
night s'eating
dry mouth and throat
short $oidings of %reddish% urine
Tongue: red 'ith little or no coat
)ulse: 5orceless, fine, rapid
Treatment Principles+nrich 4in 8clear heat9
$eEation & agitation 4in $acuity easily leads to effulgent yin $acuity fire if $acuous yin
fails to chec! yang. I5 this $acuity fire flames up'ard and disturbs the heart spirit, $e"ation and
agitation 'ill occur.
night s%eats yin $acuity arises from the loss of blood #;or essence, enduring disease, e"cessi$e
se"ual acti$ity or aging. %yin $acuity causes internal heat, and o$er-strong yang causes failure to
constrain% If internal heat is strong enough to cause non-constrainment of the interstices and forces
fluids out, s'eating may occur. 4ang flo's out'ard 'hen a'a!e and in'ard 'hen sleeping.
Therefore, yin $acuity 'ith internal heat may cause night s'eats because any internal heat 'ill
become e$en stronger 'hen yang flo's in'ard at night...%the !idneys store the original yin
/AeEatious heat in the 6 centers 4in is responsible for controlling yang. If yin becomes
$acuous and 'ea!, yang typically becomes hyperacti$e, thus gi$ing rise to internal heat. The palms
of the hands, soles of the feet and the heart and chest all pertain to yin and the interior from the
point of $ie' of Chinese anatomy. Therefore, $e"atious heat due to yin $acuity manifests in those
areas described as anatomically yin
/ chronic dr# sore throat May be due to congenital insufficiency, se"ual ta"ation, chronic
disease or aging. I5 there is !idney yin $acuity, the throat 'ill not be sufficiently nourished. In
addition, yin $acuity fire may ascend, congesting in and burning the throat. Therefore sore s'ollen
If there is !idney yin $acuity, yang 'ill not be chec!ed properly ad the frenetic
mo$ement of ministerial fire may ensue. If this fire flames up'ard and burns the throat, fluids there
'ill be damaged and thus a dry throat may occur.
/ %asting & thirsting disorder If for any reason, yin becomes $acuous, yang may become
hyperacti$e, gi$ing rise to internal heat. =eat is a yang e$il 'hich may consume and damage yin. If
internal heat continuously consumes already $acuous fluids, yin fluids 'ill become e$en more
$acuous. Therefore, doubly damaged yin fluids 'ill be e$en less able to control yang and hence
gi$e rise to e$en more effulgent yin $acuity fire. This then forms a pathological loop or cycle --
heat damages yin gi$ing rise to more heat 'hich damages yin e$en more. 0lood and fluids share
the same source, and both are responsible for nourishing and moistening the flesh. If the abo$e
pathological chain reaction continues to deteriorate, yin fluids 'ill become e"hausted, and the flesh
'ill not recei$e sufficient nourishment and moistening, thus emaciation may occur.
,P),&)! @) & F)+, T*M)(.
+pidemic disease - transmissible disease affecting many in a community
)estilential Bi - any disease that is highly contagious... formerly belie$ed to be the result of
abnormal 'eather conditions.
5ire To"in - +$il Bi due to 5ire that causes painful reddening and s'elling, suppuration, or 'eeping
)nternal amage b# 4 A''ects
Anger causes Bi to rise 8is Bi rising9 # damages the >i$er
>i$er 6i thri$es by orderly reaching and is a$erse to repression. +"cessi$e emotional stimulus
$iolates the doctrine of the mean and damages the li$er causing it to fail to perform it1s duty of
coursing and discharge.
Signs # Symptoms Those of li$er depression 6i stagnation gan yu 6i &hi
Treatment )rinciples Course the li$er rectify the 6i # -+>(E...
Fear causes Bi to precipitate # damages the !idney 8"ia9
3idneys go$ern securing and astringing the t'o lo'er yin. 5ear causes precipitation of 6i and
damages !idney 6i.
Signs # Symptoms Those of 3idney 6i $acuity shen 6i "u
Treatment )rinciples Supplement # 0oost 3idney Bi
Fright causes derangement of Bi # damages the =eart # 3idneys 8luan9
5right upsets the 6i dynamic and thro's 6i # blood into disorder causing dis6uietude of the heart
spirit and e$en mental derangement
Signs # Symptoms # Treatment )rinciples depends on the damage
Bo# causes 6i to slac!en and damages the heart 8huan9
+"cessi$e :oy leads to a dissipation of the essence-spirit
Signs # Symptoms Those of heart 6i $acuity "in 6i "u
Treatment )rinciples Supplement # 0oost heart Bi
.orro% disperses 6i and damages the lung 8"iao9
+"cessi$e sorro' and grief cause depression in the upper burner that transforms into heat, 'hich
disperses and 'ears the lung 6i
Signs # Symptoms crying, heat $e"ation and agitation, insufficient spirit 6i
Treatment )rinciples clear depressi$e heat in the lungs
Thought # %orr# bind the 6i and damage the spleen # lungs 8:ie9
+"cessi$e thought causes binding depression of spleen 6i, affecting mo$ement and transformation
 In TCM, e"cesses of the P affects is seen to cause disturbances of the 6i and depletion of the true
yin of the $iscera # bo'els 8?ang5u9 causing heat signs... %the A minds transform fire% 'u &hi hua
Former "eaAen ,ssence -- finite amount recei$ed from parents determines the length and 6uality of life
Latter "eaAen ,ssence -- manufactured from the food and drin! ingested and bolsters the 5ormer =ea$en
(t night, 'hen 'e sleep, the e"cess 6i and blood that 'as not consumed during the day is
con$erted to latter hea$en essence and stored in the !idneys. This is 'hy proper diet and good
digestion as 'ell as proper rest and sleep are so important...
igestion -- The stomach is li!e a coo!ing pot 'here the food %rottens and ripens% The spleen is
the fire beneath the pot and the %distillation mechanism% to 'hich the pot is attached.
The clear 86ing9# the turbid 8&huo9 The spleen %distills% the purest part of food and drin! and sends
this up'ards. The pure of foods goes to the lungs and the pure part of the li6uids goes to the heart.
The stomach descends the turbid part of the food to the large intestine for further absorption and the
turbid part of the li6uids to the small intestine for further separation of the clear and the turbid.
The stomach is aAerse to dr#ness -- the stomach 'ants to create a soup in the pot
The spleen is aAerse to dampness -- too much 'ater or dampness can douse the fire
!oo/ed As +a% !oo/ing is predigestion and ma!es food more digestible. Most people, most of
the time, should eat coo!ed food. This begins the %rottening and ripening%
!old 'ood # drin/s -- (ll transformation in the body is 'arm transformation as the host 6i of the
body is 'arm. Thus, to %coo!% the mash in the stomach, the spleen must e"pend more Bi to 'arm
the cold food to the proper temperature. This 'ea!ens the spleen;stomach 'hich then fail to
ade6uately mo$e and transform foods and li6uids and a type of sludge accumulates. This sludge is
stagnated food and dampness.
amp # Phlegm -- Too large portions, too much cold food and drin!s or too much difficult to digest foods cause
the spleen;stomach to 'ea!en and lead to accumulation of stagnant food in the stomach.
The stomach heats up in an attempt to burn off the accumulation and may become chronically hot. This heat in
the stomach is sensed as hunger.
The stagnant food tends to obstruct the 6i :i of the spleen, further 'ea!ening the spleen 'hich may fail in it1s duty to
mo$e and transform body fluids. These body fluids may accumulate to form e$il dampness and 'hen combined 'ith
heat 8perhaps from the stomach9 may then congeal to form e$il phlegm.
@i # =ei (ll foods 8all things9 are a combination of 6i and 'ei. Bi is the light, airy, aromatic and
yang part of a thing. 7ei literally means taste and refers to the hea$ier, more substantial, more
nourishing, yin aspect
Dairy products, meats, nuts, eggs, oils and fats are rich is 7ei and thus can nourish the yin aspect of
the body. In e"cess, they damage the spleen and lead to the accumulation of e$il dampness and
FlaAors # .pices -- 7e thin! of all things as a combination of A fla$ors: s'eet, acrid, salty, bitter,
sour...sometimes 'e ac!no'ledge a Oth fla$or = bland
Small amount of s'eet is good and supplements Bi 8nobody does this either9
Most spices are acrid and 'arm or hot. In moderation, they aid digestion by strengthening the
middle burner fire
Good ones = cardamom, cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, mace, clo$es
Spices are rich in Bi and less 'ei
Moderate use is good for the spleen....o$eruse heats up and dries the stomach 8doesn1t li!e it9
Sum it up -- =umans are omni$oires and should consume a 'ide $ariety of foods. +at mostly
$egetables and grains and small amounts of e$erything else
Dietary Therapy --
9Treat based on the )(TT+-*.....
G9 )rotect and promote the Spleen # Stomach
H9 ($oid prohibited foods
amage b# the 6 TaEations
)rolonged $ision damages the blood
)rolonged lying damages the Bi
)rolonged sitting damages the 5lesh
)rolonged standing damages the bones
)rolonged 'al!ing damages the sine's
amage b# the 6 FlaAors
Too much sour causes the li$er 6i fullness 'ith conse6uent spleen 6i "u
Too much salt ta"es the 6i of the large bones and 'ither the flesh in addition to repressing the heart
Too much s'eet causes the heart 6i to be full and stuffy, the facial color blac!ish, and the !idney 6i
not balanced
Too much bitter causes the spleen 6i to lose its moisture and the stomach 6i to become too broad
Too much acrid causes the sine's to be slac! and the $essels stopped up 'hile the essence spirit
suffers disaster.
4 amages
Jreat o$ereating damages the spleen
Jreat anger and 6i counterflo' damages the li$er
+"ertion or lifting hea$y 'eights and long sitting on 'et ground damages the !idney
Cold in the body and cold drin!s damage the lung
(n"iety, 'orry, and thought and cognition damage the heart
7ind, rain, cold and summerheat damage the body
Jreat fear damages the mind
Loss o' harmon# o' Ci & blood: the main cause o' disease
Bi # 0lood disharmony of the heart = palpitations and shortness of breath aggra$ated by
mo$ement. The heart spirit 'ill not be 6uiet and there 'ill be insomnia, poor memory, and
e"cessi$e dreams
Bi # 0lood disharmony of the lungs = cough and panting 'ith copious phlegm 'orse 'ith
mo$ement as 'ell as spontaneous s'eat
Bi # 0lood disharmony in the spleen = sallo' yello' comple"ion, 'ea!ness and fatigue of the @
limbs, abdominal distention after eating, loose stools, poss. uterine bleeding or bloody stools
Bi # 0lood disharmony of the li$er = emotional depression, timidity, dry eyes or diminished
$ision, numbness in the e"tremities, lusterless nails, and spasms of the sine's and $essels
Bi # 0lood disharmony of the !idney = lo' bac! soreness, 'ea! !nees, tinnitus, deafness, poor
>oss of harmony of the 6i and blood manifests pathologically as disease 'ithin the human body
and loss of regulation of $iscera and bo'els. These both ha$e a close relationship 'ith the
production of $arious pathological metabolic products, such as blood stasis and phlegm turbidity
 0y coursing, freeing the flo', regulating, and harmoni&ing the 6i and blood, one can regulate the
functions of the $iscera and bo'ls and the body1s tissues, disperse and eliminate static blood,
phlegm turbidity and other such e$ils and con$ert a pathological situation into normal
@i & Blood Aacuit# %ea/ness
Bi $acuity is a diminishment of the function of the ?ang5u and a lo'ering of the resistance to
disease. The production and spread of 6i are closely related to the lungs, spleen and !idneys
0lood $acuity means an insufficiency of constructing and nourishing blood in the body.
)athological changes in the blood are most prominent in the li$er, spleen and !idneys
Bi # 0lood $acuity 'ea!ness refers to the pathological condition of blood $acuity caused by 6i
$acuity...the $acuous 6i is unable to engender blood
@i Aacuit# & Blood stasis
Bi $acuity results in the mo$ement of the blood being inhibited. Bi $acuity is the root and blood
stasis is merely a branch symptom, this is repletion in the midst of $acuity.
(fter ta"ation and fatigue, the symptoms of blood stasis become 'orse. The o$er-ta"ation
aggra$ates the 6i $acuity, ma!ing it more difficult to propel the blood
@i stagnation & blood stasis
There is not only 6i stagnation leading to blood stasis...but also blood stasis leading to 6i
stagnation. Commonly obser$ed to do 'ith loss of the li$er1s coursing and discharge. >i$er
depression leads to 6i stagnation. If 6i stagnation endures, it 'ill lead to the formation of blood
@i counter'lo% & Blood counter'lo%
There is confusion and chaos of the 6i mechanism. The 6i mechanism counterflo's and does not
flo' normally 'hich results in pathological symptoms of rec!less mo$ement of the blood. This
mostly manifests as diseases of the cerebral blood $essels
@i not containing the Blood
,acuous 6i in not able to contain and restrain the blood 'hich e"its causing $arious types of
hemorrhagic conditions. This in mostly due to enduring illness damaging spleen 6i.
<oining and binding of phlegm # stasis
This is 6i stagnation and phlegm obstruction resulting in the blood1s not mo$ing uninhibitedly. If
blood stasis stagnates internally, it may cause stoppage of the fluids and humors and this may also
cause the pathological pattern of phlegm and stasis mutually binding together
)hlegm is a yin turbid e$il and 'ill cause stagnation in the coming and going of the 6i. This 'ill
gather and the blood 'ill congeal and e$en more phlegm 'ill be produced.
Static blood obstructing internally may also affect the functioning of the $iscera and bo'els leading
to their loss of command of the spread of fluids and humors 'ith the subse6uent engenderment of
phlegm turbidity