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Leadership Concepts

Mohsin Rasheed
Lahore Leads University , Lahore Pakistan

10/17/2014
This paper includes brief introduction of subject leadership, How We Can defined it? And what does
it involve? Leadership and management, leaders and follower relationship is also discussed. A brief
discussion is through on the theories and philosophy of leadership, the practical importance, and
learning through leadership are discuses brusquely and critically .Finally the effective leadership
Characteristics is given and what the future of leadership focuses should be is also included.
Leadership Concepts
Mohsin Rasheed

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Table of Contents

Introduction of leadership ......................................................................................................... 3
Definition of Leadership ............................................................................................................. 3
What leadership involves? ......................................................................................................... 4
Leaders and follower ................................................................................................................. 5
Academic and Practical Importance Of The topic .................................................................... 5
Leadership and management .................................................................................................... 6
Leadership as a philosophy (Theories of Leadership): .............................................................. 6
Lack of previous study on leadership; ...................................................................................... 6
Effective Leadership Characteristics ......................................................................................... 9
Characteristics proposed by different Leaders and their need for effective leadership ......... 9
Future Directions ..................................................................................................................... 10
Leadership Learning ................................................................................................................. 11










Leadership Concepts
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Leadership Concepts
Mohsin Rasheed* Lahore Lead University, Lahore, Pakistan


Abstract;
This paper includes brief introduction of subject leadership, How We Can defined it? And what
does it involve? Leadership and management, leaders and follower relationship is also discussed.
A brief discussion is through on the theories and philosophy of leadership, the practical
importance, and learning through leadership are discuses brusquely and critically .Finally the
effective leadership Characteristics is given and what the future of leadership focuses should be, is
also included.
















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ntroduction;
While taking about the Nature of Leadership it is necessary to known about the meanings of
leadership. What does leadership means? Leadership is a topic of interest from ancient
times, but scientific study begins in our age as 21th century. Leadership is common interest
of historians and philosophers from very beginning of the history, now the management and
small organizations owners and handlers are also interested in it. One authority on the
subject has concluded that leadership is one of the most observed and least understands
phenomena on earth (Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus) ¹.
Leadership is a complex subject in its nature due to this reason the leadership is not define
clearly on a systematic way of representation. In ancient time the heroic type of leaders are
mostly demanded and they handle by their personality traits in differ circumstances, the
environment where the stress level is more, where the most lead and direction is needed.
But in today world the heroic view is challenged and much more programs are arranged to
understand the real nature of the leadership.

efinition of Leadership
Definition of Leadership is not simple process, concept of leadership is in continuous
improvement, innovation and debating in today’s world of philosophers and
Researcher, a lot of job and areas are understand and in functions. But a lot of work
will have been done. Numerous Arthur defines Leadership as influence relationship
among leaders and followers how intent real changes that reflect their mutual
purposes. (Joseph Rust) “Influencing others to do activities to fulfill a shared goals”².
Do you know what make a leader?
“It is the man or woman who can persuade people to do what they ought to do-
which they sometime do not do-without being persuaded. They also must have the
ability to persuade people to do what they do not want to do and like it”. (Carpenter,
2007) ³ ‘the Leadership is a process by which individuals and individuals in a position
of responsibility (a) discern a desire future for the community based on collaboration
with members of that community and aligned with their widely held socially
contracted principles and values, and (b) facilitate the realization of the future
through decision making, goal setting, persuasion and setting an example of services
to one another and to common good”.(Carpenter, 2007) ⁴






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hat leadership involves?
Leadership involves according to the definition ‘an influence relationship among
leaders and followers who intend real changes and outcomes that reflect their
shared purposes. ’ (Richard L daft) ⁵ it involve the following concepts and elements;



Figure 1 what leadership involves
Source: Richard L.Daft, Leadership an experience pp.5





Influence
intention
People
Activity
Change
Shared
Purpose
Followers
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eaders and Followers


Leaders and follower relationship is not passive only. Leaders are not only involve into the
accomplishment of an objective, they will also have a positive impact on their follower a
good follower will not be a “yes people” (Richard L Daft)⁶But sometime leaders are not only
influence the followers, followers are also have influence on leaders.
Leaders may be different but the qualities for an effective leadership are the same as those
needed to be an effective follower.⁷
Followers maybe leaders in some other area and acting like followers, and followers may be
leaders and leaders may be followers, so alignment between both the interests should be
exits as one party may be acting two roles at a time. Leadership is common Interest of
leaders and followers at its best, every one fully engaged and accepting higher level of
responsibility.
cademic and Practical Importance Of The topic;
Leadership is essential and Reality for today’s business as well as Other
Organization , Leadership not comes in canes ,in the beginning the leader work behind
the scene, before they come with the marvelous outcome. Then gradually they become
a trend and a name of dignity and courage. Numerous examples can be quote here
related to title the leaders who fail before they succeed as; akio Mortia of Morita co-
founded Sony. The first product of company was a rice cooker, it burned the rice. However,
this didn't stop him from moving on for building good products. Bill Gates, before success of
Microsoft Gates started a business called Traf-O-Data which was not accomplish by him and
Harvard dropped him out. But he builds the Microsoft. He became one of the three most
famous and richest men in the world.
Concept of leadership is important not only to one type of organizations ,all industries
,services NGO and even our homes ,societies ,school, university, need leader at every level
of act of life and their role brining a new world for us.
Leadership brings change and change is very necessary for the entire universe, as the time
stay, it will be the end, so leadership is a ship of innovation and change delivering.
Leadership becomes a reality of life every discipline need it
Leadership and management are very necessary for an effective outcomes and high
performance. Leadership is not management and management is not leadership.
Leadership can’t replace management.
Management can be define as process of generating organizational goal and objective on
the basis of vision and mission , effectively and efficiently managing their resources to
achieves these goals or object. Functionally it involves a process of organizing, staffing,
leading and controlling organization and these objectives.
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Source: Adapting From Shoemaker and Russo (1993)

eadership as a philosophy (Theories of Leadership):

Every matter, subject, thing develop and passed side by side with time.
Leadership is not a matter of new century; it was in debate from very beginning. The word
'leader' is believed to date from the 14th century Middle English 'leder' a quality of
character. The suffix '-ship' is also derived from Middle English meaning 'to shape'. So the
word leader-ship, literally means 'to shape character’, Leadership is today’s most observed
phenomena it includes societies, organizations and globalizations aspects.
Leadership is not Accidental it is Intentional leaders should shift themselves from old
paradigm that value control, stability and homogeneity ,but it is sometime very difficult to
go out of methods and practice have made them and their organizations successful in the
past.⁷ Now how to shift from old paradigm into new one ? Is a new gate way to study it will
vary from organization to organizations, but the one thing will be common that is leaders
and their skills.
Importance of leadership in 21
st
Century, already mention that leadership is most observed
phenomena on earth, so the existence of leadership is importance. We see large number of
group of leaders how is leading the world ,in today’s age the leader of USA are well known
as leading most of countries and brands organizations are take on the personality of their
Agenda Leadership Management

Direction
Creating vision and strategy keeping
an eye on the horizon
Planning and Budgeting
Keeping an eye on the
bottom line.


Alignment
creating shared culture and values
Helping Others develop
Reducing boundaries
Organizing and Staffing
Directing and Controlling
Creating boundaries

Relationships Focusing a people-inspiring and
motivating followers
Based on personal power
Acting as Leader: coach ,facilitation
Focusing on products
and services
Based on a position of
Power/authority
Acting as boss:
controlling

Personal qualities Emotional Connections, initiative,
inspiring ,involvement listening and
exhorting/inspiring suggesting new
ideas/new ways
Emotional distance
Discipline
Talking/Lecturing/telling
Ensuring compliance-
checking and feeding
back
Outcomes Creates Change Maintain Stability
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leaders. To maximizing the performance key leaders and their style of leadership required.
Leadership is key human resources in any organization. We generally think of companies
competing by mean of their products or services or market shares .but the leaders’ are
behind the scene effect. ‘Leaders give birth to effect followers (employee) result to quality
products and ultimately result to company success. Now, being a sole of management the
leadership in management cannot be overemphasized.’⁸
The introduction of leadership in management got thing done. Teamwork is necessary in
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very field of management, leadership make teams and teams’ leaders. Leadership
assigned authorizes to both the individuals and make their relation good. Leadership is
essential for obtaining successful work accomplishment.
A leader establishes personal relationship his followers and tries to fulfill their needs .if a
question are asked as why human group follows a particular person. The answer will only in
one word because he/she is a leader and reasons are trait, style, skill and influence of that
leader.
The basic of leadership haven’t changed over the last 100 years, while core element of
leadership don’t change .as we enter the 21
st
century the role of ‘Alpha persons’ is very
much in questions .no doubt traditionally minded books on how to lead will continuous d.
But leadership is no more far from everyone it is for every one now. [Note-1]
ack of previous study on leadership;
Leadership literature begin from personality era of leaders, the trait approach is first which
was under consideration. One question leads the people from very beginning of civilizations
and people have sought answers to this question as what make a leader and why to be
leaders?(Henman, 1937)⁹
You may find a number of studies on leader and leadership. Philosophers, psychologists,
political scientists, produced extensive literature. A lot of work have been done ,but still
there is no approach of theory which can be said as universal theory of leadership, no
formula for producing leaders are present ,a number of good practices or adopt but there
are just good practice. One debate still present about successful management and effective
leadership as these are alternative of one and others.
There exists an important gap in academic literature of leadership; in 1948 Ralph Stogdil
published a review of one hundred twenty –four studies and surveys that had appeared in
print between 1904 and 1947. Researchers in these studies identified characteristics such as
initiative, social dominance and persistence as general qualities of effectual leaders, but
unfortunately, no common list of specific leadership trait are present. Stogdil discover and
uncover a common list of leadership qualities and in consistent findings .By doing so many
Researchers discontinuous their efforts to identify leadership qualities in light of stogdil.
Stogdill’s later work build on the following conclusion from the literature search as he
concludes;




Note 1 This is not the quote of any one.
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“A person does not become a leader by virtue of the possession of some combination of
traits, but the pattern of personality dynamics, or patterns, rather than specific traits that
are advantages to the person in a leadership role (Stogdil.1985).”
‘In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in examining leadership trait from
distinguish leaders from non-leaders, locke and Kirkpatrick identified a number of traits.


Exhibit 2.1 Personal Characteristics Of leaders

Personal Characteristics

Social Characteristics
Energy Sociability, interpersonal skills
Passion Cooperativeness
Physical Stamina Ability to enlist cooperation
Intelligence And Ability Tact, Diplomacy
Intelligence, cognitive ability Work-Related Characteristics
knowledge Drive ,Desire to excel
Judgment, decisiveness Responsibility in pursuit of goal
Personality Persistence against obstacles, tenacity
Optimism Social Background
Self-confidence Education
Honesty and integrity Mobility
Enthusiasm
Charisma
Desire to lead
Independence
Source: Richard L.Daft, Leadership An experience pp.5
As other discipline of philosophy the controversies among the leadership theorists also
exists some trait theorists view traits as “convenient Constructs that used to describe
patterns of behavior” (Ryckman, 1985).Behavior approaches as the situational approaches
on the other hand denied the influence of difference attributing all various between persons
to fortuitous demands of the environment ‘ (Stogdil.1984,p.82).behavior is more easily
understand as compare to the traits, which make leadership easy to achievable with the
same way no universal list of leadership trait exists, behaviors associated with great
leadership are not consistent either.
B.F Skinner most important philosopher of behavior influenced is genetic but not by
existence of sprit within the body (skinner 1974, p.167) organizational circumstances gives
way for autocratic or democratic behavior as suggested by the Tannenbaum and Schmit
talking about boss-center or subordinate centered.
First study made in Ohio state university as “consideration” and “initiating” was main focus
.improve by the university of Michigan on taking it into new and improve direction, all these
studies including leadership ( managerial ) Grid are developed sole on the influence.
All these study involves controversies due the different in the leadership influence on
different people as the circumstance vary from place to place and the change appeal to
leadership toward new directions and leaders are result of change in culture and societies .
Today’s mangers are mostly leaders there is a new claim on the leader generating institution
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that most of the manger are not leader in other words the institute are unable to generate
the leaders . The issue is worthwhile and claim is true.
A lot of practice is made a number of work is done, due to nature of the leadership, every
effort is less and every work is little.


ffective Leadership Characteristics:


1-‘Leadership is a Collective phenomenon’(Hogan & Kaiser, 2005)¹⁰;

Leadership not only include the leaders but also the influencing people that are called
follower is a name of collective effort made by both Leader’s influence measured by the
capacity or work done by his follower, toward the direction set by that leaders.
History tells that how the big structure, innovation, was and today’s organizations are
building, create, win and made not only be leader but a positive behavior of followers.

2- Effective Leadership Encourage “Group and teams”.

The effective leadership is that which encourage the performance based on the teams and
group in organizations. Leadership should be define in terms of the ability to build and
maintain a group that performs well relative to its competition.(Hogan & Kaiser, 2005)¹¹

3- Transformational leadership is effective;

The transformational leadership is effective than other style of leadership.
Leadership should be transformational, studies shows that leadership is close indicators of
leadership effectiveness as it involve, different management activities which make and
create interaction between team and team leaders, as motivation, subordinate satisfaction,
and performance monitoring, studies based on interviews and observation, (descriptive
research) find that in a Varity of different situating of day to day management of team and
organization as a whole(Yukl, 1999).¹²

haracteristics proposed by different Leaders and their need for effective leadership:

The debate is present whatever the leaders should be possess leaders should be
poses one type of traits or other all these debate end on point, that is measure this
effectiveness, the probable answer will be by measuring new clearly and efficiently he
fulfilled ( or achieve this goal) .
On this basis, we can say one individual and second is group phenomena. Now the leader
should be fit for both of this format. Now which characteristics a leaders have should lead
toward fulfillment of objective of an organization in long run. Some of the characteristics in
these regards as;

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Extraversion;

This characteristics of leader is strongly related to the social leadership(Judge, Bono, Ilies, &
Gerhardt, 2002).¹³ the leaders should be emerge himself in a group and increase the
performance which result the effective outcomes. Extraverts appeal that the leaders should
be active, assertive and energetic(Judge et al., 2002)¹⁴.

Openness;

Openness leads to creativity, which appeal to be an important skill of effective leaders. This
is contained in (Yukl, 1998) list of leaders, which is basically on Stogdil (1994) earlier study.

Productive;

Leaders productivity is through its influence on his team and his team’ performance is being
cooperation, as cooperation is related to effective leadership characteristics.

Performance;

Leadership is for performance and outcomes, so the leader will only be leader when he
combined all his traits, skill, style and behavior toward his core objective that is
performance. The audience (the outer world) only gives clamping when the performance will
be there.

uture Directions

Leadership is world most observed, phenomena as earlier mentions, is one subject in
whom the studies are made on the topic what will be the future direction leadership?
Numbers of studies are made, almost every research paper give future direction. Leadership
is defined ,style are discussed ,theories are developed ,skills are brought into practice, but
according to my view only one things need future research how the charismatic/
transformational leadership is helpful in organizational matters?
For this purpose ,the transitional method of research like survey-based design ,not be use
only nor the limited to other designs longitudinal, qualitative , as well as use multiple mixed
method studies.






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eadership Learning:

If a question is asked what is learnt about leadership? Or what is my
understanding about leadership, while learning, a question was in my mind, is any
alternative for leadership exists? A study was made on ‘substitutes for leadership’
by the title “ Substitute for leadership; their meaning and measurement by Steven
kever in university of southern California ,and john M. jermier ,the Ohio state
university on the ground on organizational Behavior and human performance in
1978.
Leadership style, approaches, methods, theories and concepts are challenged. The one
question which comes into mind, is it necessary to be a leader for organizational success?
was given negatively and take opposite side in the above research .the conflicts are exists
among the Arthur, and it should be as a nature of philosophy .leadership is a soul of society
,which join people together and it is a blood for accomplishment of a tactic and complex
objective in fast and reliable manner.
The only reason is leadership is appeal to the mind and heart .This is victory of leadership
among others discipline, as men are not machinery. Every systematic produce will be useless
to run this social animal so only thing is leader and his influence. This is called leadership
.Today’s research and philosopher bringing this concept for every individual.


“Effective leadership is not about making speeches or being liked; leadership is defined by
results not attributes.”¹⁵
Peter Drucker














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References
1. Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus ,Leaders: The Strategies for taking charge( new
York; Harper & Row ,1985), P.4 and james MccGrager or Burns, Leadership (New
York & Row,1978) , P. 2
2. Retrieved october2013 from www.webaim.org
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Leadership, 3(3), 251 280.
4. Carpenter, D. M. (2007). Presidents of the United States on Leadership.
Leadership, 3(3), 251–280.
5.Richard L.Daft , “Leadership an experience ,” fifth edition ,pp. 22-23
6., www.webaim.org, Retrieved December 7 from www.webaim.org
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(September 2002), pp.60-66).
9. Henman, L. D. (1937). Leadership : „Theories and Controversies,
10.Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2005). What we know about leadership. Review of
General Psychology, 9(2), 169–180.
11.Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2005). What we know about leadership. Review of
General Psychology, 9(2), 169–180.
12.Yukl, G. (1999). An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and
charismatic leadership theories. The Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), 285–305.
13. Judge, T. a, Bono, J. E., Ilies, R., & Gerhardt, M. W. (2002). Personality and
leadership: a qualitative and quantitative review. The Journal of applied psychology,
87(4), 765–780.
14. Judge, T. a, Bono, J. E., Ilies, R., & Gerhardt, M. W. (2002). Personality and
leadership: a qualitative and quantitative review. The Journal of applied psychology,
87(4), 765–780.
15. retriew from www.brainyquote.com
http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/topics/topic_leadership.html#UAlVEmw2SyI2EOuf.99