!

% & ' +() * , -/.

"$#

)0)

132 4 568;79 :=< > : 2 ? @ A=@CB;DF@GE A :IH B : @ H
LJ KNM > O PRQS T 6 U 7 O+VWO :3XYO[Z \^] U V
_ `badce`gfihkjml conqpsrt`badconquvhkwe`bxyrzanqxyhLuvh{a[|qr~f{} rz `ba€‚nq|quvh{xy`b|ƒc„h{…sa[uvh‡†ˆhkco`bx‰hkl co…ŠfihŒ‹~r‡frz|qfb`b…Šcer‡uq`
€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rq‘ x’h“€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r”uq`+nqx’h•{hkwe…ihkl •ƒ`bp–wo`ih{p—` l nqx’hwe`b˜{w„h0™šnq`+uq`baef›wo`•ƒ`+fbrzxyr0nqx’h“™!nvh{|œce…suvh{uq`
`“l uq`ce`woxy…Š|vh{uvhjr{w rznŒcewohy™šnvh{|ƒco…suvh{uq`{‹žuq`0x’h{|q`b…ŠwohŸqln |q…sfihŒ¡ ‘¢q…Šadco`bx£• hkl we…¤h{a h{p¥co`wo|vhkco…¥•{h{aj–hkw„h
uq`¦v|q…¥w€‚r{wox’h{pŠxy`b|ƒco`+nqx’hg€‚nq|Žfk} h{ rq§ §adfbrzps¨q`bxrza—h”ae`b˜znq…Š|œco`k©
ª «­¬[®+¯k±‘° ³‘² ´;µ ¶¸· `¹dh{x»º0¼v½G¾À¿—Á x’hL€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rÂÃuq`¦v|q…ŠuvhY`bx/ºÄ`gfbrzxG•kh{psr{we`ba`bx/½ ` l
nqx’h0wo`b˜{w„hg™šnq`[h{aeaeršf…¤hh”fih{uvhg`ps`bxy`|œcor”ÅÁÆYºInqx È Ç ®+¯ ±~´ «É«ÊÄ«®Ë ´ÍÌ Æ¸½’
Î a|qr{c„hf{} rz `ba—nqaenvh{…sa—abh{ rq©¸©zºIϖР½ ` Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅԛ
Õ |nql xy`›wor ÅÃ`Öl f„¨vh{x’h{uqr •{hkwe…ihkl •ƒ`bp!…s|quq`jž`b|quq`b|ƒco`¡uvh+€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r` Ì •{hkwe…ihkl •ƒ`bp!uq`j`b|quq`|œco`—uvh €‚nq|Žf{} h{ rq
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ Î ae`b˜znq…Š|œce`c„hkޞ`bp¤hŒ‹ƒ™!nq`—xyrzaßcew„h+h+•kh{à{h{ rae`bx’h{|vh{pquq`‡h{l ˜znvh[uq`nqx’hwo`jqwe`baohŒ‹!we`jqwo`bae`|œc„h[nqx’h
€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rq©
á+…¤h
ð

ì

Ü

ê

é
ï

í

â‡ãåäzæåçè
ézêzë
í Üåë
îƒï{ë
îƒï{ë
ñƒí ë
ðñï
í Üåë

á+`§€òhkcorq‹khc„hkޞ`bp¤h wo`jqwo`ae`b|ƒc„h nqx’h€‚nq|Žfk} h{ rq‹{jrz…safih{uvh¡uq…shco`xIh{aeadršfb…sh{uvh¡nqx’hÁqln |q…sfih¡™!nvh{|œce…suvh{uq`
uq`“•kh{à{h{ rq¡_ r{co`™šnq`{‹–jrzaeae…¥•ƒ`bpsx`b|œce`{‹|~h{ r’`›¢Œ…sadco`nqx’hy€Nr{l woxónqp¤hxyhkco`bx‰hkl co…Šfih”j–hkwohy`›¢Œjqwo`aeaohkwh
€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ryuqr`›¢q`bxgjvpsrq‹qx’h{ab‹vh”uq`¦v|q…dfk} h{ ryuq`[€‚nq|Žfk} h{ rô`[l aohkce…sae€‚`b…¥c„hŒ
Û ì ݑõ rz…ö€‚`b…Šc„hLnqx’hLjž`bae™!nq…saoh‡uq`”jqwo`Œfb} rzauq`gjqwor!uqnŒcorzauvh‡f`badc„htޗh{l ad…sfih‡`x;cewi`b÷ aaenŒjž`woxy`›wofih{uqrza
uq`nqx£uq`ce`woxy…Š|vh{uqrgޖh{…Šwdworq‹vr{Þqco`b|quqrkøad`0hgae`˜znq…s|ƒco`[c„hkޞ`bp¤hŒ©

" 

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡  

wor!uqnŒcor
ð

ì

Ü

é
ê

· nŒj Î
ì ê
ë ñ ê
Ü ï{î
Ü ì é
é ì
ð ëƒï
ì é

í
ï

· nŒj
ì ñ

ë ñ ð
Ü í
Ü ð í
é ë
é ñ ê
ì ê ì

· nŒj

ì ízì

Ü ë
Ü ê
Ü ézê
ì ñƒí

ð ì
ì í

§  aßc„h‡c„hkÞ`p¤hY|~h{ r¸wo`jqwo`ae`b|ƒc„hˆnqxyhY€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rq‹Žjrz…sa“hÁfbh{uvh‡jqworšuqnŒcorÁfbr{wdwo`badjžrz|quq`
jqwo`Œf} rq
Û ékÝ Î hkl wo`ih”uq`™šnvh{pŠ™šnq`w—fzml wofbnqpsrÃ`[l €‚nq|Žf{} h{ ruq`ae`bntw„h{…srq
á+`€òhkcorq‹ ae`r¡w„h{…Šruqrf{ml wofbnqpŠrY`§l uq`b|qr{c„h{uqrjžr{w z`b|œcbh{ rq‹{º”Ò zÔ "
Ñ ! $#k x f{l wofbnqpŠruq`§w„h{…Šr…s˜znvh{pœh
í ‹zco`bx hkl wo`bh[º”Ò í Ô Ñ ìzí !&% (' ƒnqx f{ml wofbnqpŠr[uq` w„h{…Šr[…Š˜znvh{pqh ézëzë ‹{co`x hkl we`ihº”m Ò ézëzë Ô Ñ ñ ëzëzëzë !)% (' 
Ò % (' Ñ nq|q…suvh{uq`ba—uq` hkl wo`ihƒÔ$
Û ð Ý  x coh{|q™šnq`0j–hkw„h `badcor!fih{˜z`bx uq`gri¢q…Š˜v`b÷ |q…srLp ml ™šnq…ŠuqrL|œnqx ¨qrzadjv…Šcoh{pŽuq`•ƒ`gco`›wh €‚r{wox’h uq`”nqx
fb…Šps…s|quŒwergfb…¥wofbnqpshkw—wo`›corguq` î âCÒâ Ñ x`ceworza„Ôuq`[h{pŠconŒwohŒ‹qfbrzx nqx£¨q`bxy…sad€b`l wo…srg`bx fih{uvh”`›¢Œcewe`bxy…¥ø
uvh{uq`{ Õ •ƒrzpsnqxy`uqrgc„h{|q™!nq`ˆ`l uq`baefwe…Šcorg`bx €‚nq|Žfk} h{ ryuqrw„h{…Š*r !
r

Õ •ƒrzpŠnqxy` uqrgf…sps…Š|quŒwor ` l î
`{l © 

$# !

â ã `+rguqrza uqrz…Ša¨q`xy…sae€`›l wo…srzay` l ð  é ã ! tâ ã+qpsrz˜zrq‹šró•ƒrzpŠnqxy`cor{c„h{p

’Ò zÔ Ñ ð +#öÒ .é - ê Ô ! tâ ã 
Žr{w—`›¢q`bxgjvpsrq‹qae`[rgw„h{…Šrg€‚r{w/ Ñ Ü âˆ‹vrg•ƒrzpsnqx`Á`0
l ,’Ò Ü Ô Ñ ì î é ! âtã{
Û í Ý á+rz…saaohkcš`l ps…Šce`bahkwdco…Š¦vfb…sh{…sa`badcih{ rtfb…Šwefbnqp¤h{|quqr¸h{rtwo`buqr{w“uqrt §™!nvh{uqr{w`bx;nqx’hŸr{l weÞv…Šc„hLuq`gw„h{…Šr
…s˜znvh{ph ð ì é21ŸÜåë435 â Õ fbrzxjqwo…Šxy`b|ƒcor æ™!nq`ˆad`j–hkw„h rzaLaehkcŒ`bl ps…¥co`bab‹—ae`Á`bps`a ce…Š•ƒ`wo`x nqx’h
ae`j–hkwohf{} h{ r’h{|q˜znqp¤hkw—uq`76tÒ`bx£w„h{uq…sh{|qrza„Ô›‹Ö`“l æ Ñ 6Œ‹qrz|quq0`  `[l rgw„h{…srq
, 

  

!

"

s
θ 

rz˜zrq‹vjžršuq`bxrzauq`aefwo`•ƒ`›w rfbrzxgjqwo…sxy`|œcoræ`bx£€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r’uvh”ae`j–hkw„hf{} h{ ryh{|q˜znqp¤hkwi©
æœÒ 6ƒÔ Ñ Ò ð ì é 1RÜåë 3 Ô 6
Û êkÝ Ò ­`b…uq7` Ör ŒpŠ`åԛ© Õ •ƒrzpsnqxy`uq`nqxyh”x’h{adaohg˜ƒh{aerzaeh `l …s|ƒ•ƒ`woaoh{xy`|œco`jqwor{jr{wefb…srz|vh{ph” jqwe`baeabh{ r
h™!nq``bpshg`badcvhl aenŒÞvxy`ce…suvhŒ‹–…sadcor `{l ‹–rgjqwor!uqnŒcoryuvhgjqwo`aeabh{ ryj`psr•ƒrzpŠnqxy`¸`l fbrz|qadcoh{|œco`k‹žae`hgco`bxgø
j`›w„hkconŒw„huqr[˜‘h{l a”`l fbrz|qadc„h{|ƒco`{‘á+`b|qr{c„h{xyrza‘h+jqwo`baeabh{ r“jžr{ w g‹!r•ƒrzpsnqxy` jr{w , `¡hco`bxgj`w„hkcenŒw„h
fbrz|qadcoh{|œco`jr{ w
*v`b|ƒcih{ rq ‹  1 , Ñ
” Žršuq`xyrza `baefwo`›•ƒ`w+h”jqwe`baeabh{ ry`x €‚nq|Žfk} h{ ryuqr•ƒrzpsnqx`{© 

Ñ ÂŽÒ ,0Ô Ñ
, ¼ rznYrg•ƒrzpŠnqxy`+`bx£€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ryuvhgjqwe`baeabh{ rq© , Ñ ÂŽÒ “Ô Ñ 

Û ï Ý Ò­`b…quqrvnš¢qr[p¤h{xy…Š|vhkwöuq` Žrz…Šae`bnq…spŠps`åÔ$© õ psnš¢Œr[aoh{|q˜zn~l |q`br0hkcewohå• `bl aöuq`—nqx=•kh{aerq‹!frzxyrhkwecš`l wo…sh{a
rzn •ƒ`b…¤h{a2
ÖrzxyrÁh{a“™šnvh{|ƒco…Šuvh{uq`baó`b|œ•ƒrzp¥•Œ…Šuvh{a“abh{ rYj`™šm nq`b|vh{ab‹öjr!uq`bxyrza“frz|qae…suq`wohkwó™šnq`y•kh{aerza
co`bx£€‚r{woxyhkcorgf…sp ml |quŒwo…sfr|~h{ r`pih{l adco…Šfbrq 

R

á+`b|qr{co`bxrzayjr{w ;r woh{…sr ` r fbrzxjqwe…sxy`b|ƒcorq3á+`•š…suqr h €¤wo…sfšf{} h{ r |vh{a j–hkwe`buq`ba uqr •{h{aerq‹—h
•ƒ`bpŠršfb…Šuvh{uq`Luqryaoh{|q˜znq`^`l xyh{…sr{w¡h{rypsrz|q˜zryuqr`b…¥¢Œryfb`b|ƒcew„h{p­uqr•{h{adr’`uq`bfwe`baefb`óae`0hguq…sadckh{÷ |qf…¤h 
uqr`…¥¢q
r h” j–hkwo`uq`fwo`aefb`“`Á`[l à`wory|vhój–hkwo`buq`{ Î wo`bpshf{} h{ r`|œcewe`“h”•ƒ`psršf…suvh{uq`uvhfb…Šwefbnqp¤hf{} h{ rg` 
`
l uvh{uvhójr{wi© 
Ò 7#Ï  #bÔ 
Ò  Ô Ñ
ð  ¼
rz|quq` Í`0l hg•Œ…Šaefbr!fb…suvh{uq`“uqr’aeh{|q˜znq`“` Ähguq…s€‚`wo`|Žfi} h’`b|œcdwo`óhgjqwo`badabh{ r uq`“`b|ƒcew„h{uvhy`0huvhyaehqml uvh
uqrYaoh{|q˜znq`|qrY•{h{aerq ‘¢Œjž`wo…Šxy`b|ƒc„h{psxy`|œco`k‹j–hkw„htrYaoh{|q˜znq`y¨œnqx’h{|qr¸|œnqx’hL•ƒ`b…shŒ© Ñ ë ëzë ì ï ‹ 
Ñ ì 
‹  Ñ î 1RÜåë  `  Ñ ð 1RÜåë 㠋vpsrz˜zrq©

" 

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡  
Ò  Ô Ñ zÜ Ü î í Ü ñ ^1 Üåë  Ï Üåî í Üåî í R1 Üåë   

# 

â‡äzæNçè

Û îkÝ `bxyrza Üåëzëzë xy`cewerza“uq` hkw„h{xy`j–hkwohÁ€òh{à`wónqx»fbnŒwewoh{puq`’€‚r{wox’hkcorYwe`c„h{|q˜znqp¤hkwbŽršuq`bxrza
`baef›wo`•ƒ`wóh hkl we`ih‡uqrYfbnŒwdw„h{p `x/€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r¸uq`ynqxGuqrzapsh{uqrzab’á+`y€òhkcorq‹ad`Å ` Ì abh{ rYrza“psh{uqrzauqr
fbnŒwewoh{p ‹vae`bn‡jž`wåml xy`cewor ` l ì ÒÓÅ - Ì Ô Ñ Üåëzëzë `hôhkl wo`bhguqrgwe`ckh{÷ |q˜znqpsr `l º Ñ Å Ì qpŠrz˜zrq©
º”ÒÓÅÔ Ñ óÅ Ò í ëzë Ï^Å~Ô Ñ í ëzë ÅyÏRÅ

#

Û ñ Ýõ …Šae…srzpŠrz˜z…sadcoh{aÖuq`bae`b|ƒ•ƒrzpŠ•ƒ`woh{x nqx’hó€Nr{l woxónqp¤h0j–hkw„h”uq`co`wox…s|vhkw—h”adnŒj`wo€ml fb…s`[fbr{wejžr{w„h{puq`h{|q… ø
x’h{…Ša`x €‚nq|Žf{} h{ ruq`ae`bntj`baerq · `uq`|qr{c„h{xyrza jr{wôhgaenŒjž`wo€ ml f…s`“fbr{wdjr{w„h{p‹q`b|œcbh{ rq©
—Ò žÔ Ñ 

5 #

¼

zr |quq` `l rjž`baerô`x ™!nq…spŠrzatuqr h{|q…Šx’h{p` 5 ë `ˆl nqx’hÃfrz|qadc„h{|ƒco`^™!nq`^uq`jž`b|quq`Ruqr h{|q… ø
x’h{pÀ ‘¢šj`wo…Šxy`b|ƒc„h{psx`b|œce`{‹ `ˆl fbrz|q¨q`bf…suqrô™!nq` 5 Ñ ë ÜzÜ j–hkw„h ¨!nqxyh{|qrzat` 5 Ñ ë ÜzÜåî j–hkw„h
jqwo…Šx’hkc„h{ab Žr{w¡`$¢q`bxjvpŠrq‹qnqx ¨qrzx`bx£uq` ï{ë ™!nq…spŠrzaco`x nqx’h”aenŒj`›wo€ ml fb…Š`fbr{wdjr{w„h{p­hkjqwori¢q…sxyh{uvh
uq` Ò ï{ë Ô Ñ ë ÜzÜ 1  ï{ë # Ñ Ü îzêzî ð é ñ â # nqx’hf›wo…¤h{|Žfi} hRuq` ì ë ™šnq…Špsrza”co`bx nqx’h^aenŒjž`wo€ ml f…s`
fbr{wejžr{w„h{phkjqwori¢q…sxyh{uvhóuq` —Ò ì ë Ô Ñ ë ÜzÜ 1  ì ë # Ñ ë îŒÜåë ð î â # ‹v`cofk

ìë
íð
ï{ë
zî ê
ñë
Üìë

—Ò žÔ Ñ
ë ÜzÜ 1  ì ë #Ñ
ë ÜzÜ 1  í ð #Ñ
ë ÜzÜ 1  ï{ë #Ñ
ë ÜzÜ 1  îzê #Ñ
ë ÜzÜ 1  ñ ë #Ñ
ë ÜzÜ 1  Ü ì ë #Ñ 

ë ÜzÜ&1 #
ë îŒÜåë ð î â #
Ü í ïšÜ ízì â #
Ü îzêzîzé ñ â #
ì Ü ð éŒÜNï â #

ì ì ë ñ Ü ì â #

ì êƒï{êŒÜåê â #

¥Û ÜåëkÝ · `¹dh¸º Ñ ¿8`LÂôhYwo`b˜{w„h¸™šnq` h{adaeršfb…sh¸hYfih{uvh¸| qln xy`wor¸wo`bh{p Å Æ º0‹Žr¸ae`nÃfbnŒÞžrq‹ö…sadcorŸ`kl ©
Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å ã 
Žr{wg`›¢q`bxgjvpsrq‹ h{r^| qln xy`werÃÏ Ü h{aeaer!fb…¤h{xrza”rˆ| qln xy`wer ŽÒßÏ Ü Ô Ñ
ÒßÏ Ü Ô ã Ñ Ï Ü —h{rˆ| qln xy`wer ì 

î
h{aeaer!fb…¤h{xrzaÖrg|nql xy`›woryÂŽÒ ì Ô Ñ Ò ì Ô ã Ñ vh{r”| qln xy`wer ì h{aeadršfb…sh{xyrzaÖrg|nql x`worÂŽÒ  ì Ô Ñ ì  ì ‹
h{r|nql x`wor   - Ü h{adaeršfb…sh{xyrza r|nql xy`›wor’ÂŽÒ  - Ü Ô Ñ Ò  - Ü Ô ã ‹v`cof{ 

  

!
Å

"

ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Åžã
ÒßÏ Ü Ôdã Ñ Ï Ü
Òì Ôã Ñ î 
Ò ì Ô ã Ñ ì  ì 
ßã 
Ò   - Ü Ôßã 
 ã  
â  #
Ò   Ï ð    - Ü Ô  

øÜ
ì 
ì  

 - Ü 
  
â 
Ò   Ï 
ð   - Ü Ô 

¥Û ÜzÜbÝ · `¹dh“º Ñ Û ë ¼ -
Ôö`+Âth[wo`b˜{w„h“™!nq`h{aeadršfb…sh0hfih{uvh“| qln xy`werwo`ih{p–Å ë aenvhw„h{…Šà¡™šnvh{uŒwoh{uvhŒ‹
…saßcor `{l © Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  Å 
Žr{w`›¢q`xjvpsrq‹qh{r”| qln xy`wer ë h{aeaeršf…¤h{xyrzaÖr”| qln xy`worÂŽÒ ë Ô Ñ  ë Ñ ë vh{rg|nql x`wor   h{aeaer!fb…¤h{xrza
r | qln xy`wortŽÒ   Ô Ñ    Ñ  # `”h{r | qln xy`worÁÏ ð |~h{ r’jžršuq`bxyrza+h{adaeršfb…shkw+|q`b|q¨œnqx;|nql x`wor wo`ih{p ‹
jrz…Šab‹  Ï ð |~h{ rÃ`l nqx | qln xy`wor”wo`ih{p 
Å
ë
ð

øð

ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  Å
ì  



Ò  - ð   

  
-

â

Ü

Ü Ô 

…s|quq`›¦v|q…suqr

ë
ì
ì 

#

Ò   - ð   

   
-

â

Ü

ÜÔ

Û¥Ü ì Ý · ` ¹dhº Ñ ¿ `Âh”ae`b˜znq…s|ƒco`[€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r¸©
Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÅÅ ã#

ae` Å  ì
ea ` Å ì

Î r | qln xy`worÍÏ Ü h{aeadršfb…sh{xyrza’r | qln xy`worŽÒßÏ Ü Ô Ñ ÒÏ Ü Ô # Ñ Ü h{r |nql x`wor ì {h aeadršfb…sh{xyrzayr
| qln xy`wer’ÂŽÒ ì Ô Ñ ì ã Ñ î  h{rg| qln xy`wor  ì h{aeaeršf…¤h{xyrza r|nql x`wor’ÂŽÒ  ì Ô Ñ Ò  ì Ô # Ñ ì ‹v`cef{  

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
Å
ë

øÜ
øé
ì
é 
é 
í

ŽÒÓÅ~Ô
ë
ÒßÏ Ü Ô # Ñ Ü
ÒßÏ é Ô # Ñ ñ
Ò ì Ôdã Ñ î
Ò é Ôdã Ñ ì ï
é
íã#

Û¥ÜåékÝ · ` ¹dhº Ñ ¿ `Âh”ae`b˜znq…s|ƒco`[€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r¸©
Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Ï ÜÜ adad`` ÅÁÅÆÆä  
Žr{w+`›¢Œ`bxjvpsrq‹žh{r | qln xy`worÁÏ Ü h{adaeršfb…sh{xyrzar | qln xy`wer‡ÂŽÒÏ Ü Ô Ñ Ü h{r’| qln xy`wer ì h{aeadršfb…sh{xyrzar
| qln xy`wer ÂŽÒ ì Ô Ñ Ü  h{ry| qln xy`wer  ì h{adaeršfb…sh{xyrzary| qln xy`wor’ÂŽÒ  ì Ô Ñ Ï Ü ‹ jžrz…sa  ì `[l …Šwew„h{f…srz|vh{p 
ÂŽÒ ! Ô Ñ Ï Ü žÂ íï Ñ Ü 
_ rza`$¢q`bxjvpŠrza Û ékÝ ‹ Û ð Ý ‹ Û í Ý ‹ Û êkÝ ‹ Û ï Ý ‹ Û îkÝ ‹ Û ñ Ý ‹ Û¥ÜåëkÝ ‹ Û¥ÜzÜbÝ ` Û¥Ü ì Ý h{a€‚nq|Žfk} rz `baŽabh{ r¡uq`›¦v|q…suvh{ajr{w­`b™!nvhf{} rz `ba
Ò™!nq`€‚r{wo|q`bfb`x Ì ™!nvh{|quqr0abh{ r0hkcewo…¥Þvnq…suqrza§•kh{psr{we`baÖhÅԛŽ_ r0`›¢q`xjvpsr Û Ü ì Ý ‹!h“€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ró|~h{ rR`l uvh{uvh
jr{w—nqx’h0`b™!nvhf{} h{ rq‹vx’h{ab‹qh”uq`¦v|q…df{} h{ ruq`[€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rÃ`[l aohkce…sae€‚`b…¥c„hŒö §x£˜z`w„h{p‹q|q`bx coršuvh{ah{a€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba
abh{ rg|q`bfb`baeaehkwo…¤h{xy`|œco`k‹ uq`¦v|q…Šuvh{auq`xyh{|q`b…Šw„hó`›¢šjvp ml f…Šc„hŒ Žr{w—`›¢q`bxgjvpsrq©
Û¥Ü ð Ý · `{‹šuqnŒw„h{|œce`r“•ƒ`wih{ r“uq` ì ëzëzé ‹!|q
r —…sr“uq ` ƒh{|q`b…¥worq‹!we`b˜z…sadcdw–h{l aeae`bxrzah[co`xj`wohkconŒw„hx‰h l ¢Œ…sx’h
ršfr{wewo…suvht`bx/fih{uvhYuq…shŒ‹r{Þqco`wiml h{xyrzanqx’h‡€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rqLá+`y€òhkcorq‹Žhtfih{uvhYuq…¤hŒ‹`adc–hYl h{aeadršfb…sh{uqr¸nqx’h
qln |q…sfbhˆco`bxgj`w„hkcenŒw„hˆx h l ¢q…sxyhŒ‹Ž…sadcor `{l ‹§hÁco`xj`wohkconŒw„h `tl €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r^uqruq…shŒ   x0Þr{w„h¸|~h{ r^`$¢q…saßc„h
nqx’hY€Nr{l woxónqpshY`›¢Œjvp ml fb…¥c„h‡j–hkw„h¸`›¢Œjqwe`baeaohkwgh¸€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rˆuqrˆ`$¢q`bxjvpŠr Û¥Ü ð Ý ‹öh¸uq`¦v|q…df{} h{ rÁuq` €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r ` l
aohkco…Šae€‚`b…¥c„hŒ 
Ú 
«  ³ ± ° ´ ² « Ú ¶
…‚Ô‡  x ˜z`w„h{p‹0h x’h{…sr{we…¤hôuvh{aÁ€‚nq|Žf{} rz `baˆnqaoh{uvh{aˆ|vh{ahkjvpŠ…sfihfk} rz `ba¸abh{ rÍuvh{uvh{aÁjžr{wˆ€Nr{l woxónqp¤h{a¸rzn
`b™!nvhf{} rz `bab
…s…¤Ô   l jqwo`bfb…Šaer[co`›w nqx=jžrznqfbruq`fbnq…suvh{uqrq‹zjžrz…sa‘|q`bx=coršuvh+`b™šnvhfk} h{ r[uq`uqnvh{a‘•khkwo…bhkl •ƒ`b…saöuq`¦v|q`—nqx’h
€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rq Žr{w§`$¢q`bxjvpŠrq‹šh`b™šnvhfk} h{ r Ì # Ñ ÅL|~h{ r“uq`¦v|q`nqx’h€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rq‹šjžrz…sa j–hkwohÅ Ñ Ü co`xyrza uqrz…Ša
•kh{psr{wo`ba j–hkw„h Ì ‹–hgaohkޞ`wi© Ìg
Ñ  Ü  xyh{a Ì # Ñ ÅÁuhl r{wo…Š˜z`bx hguqnvh{a€‚nq|Žfk} rz `bab© ÌgÑ Â  ÒÓÅÔ Ñ  ň`
Ì”Ñ Â # ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Ï  Å 
Žršuq`xyrza+…sx’h{˜z…Š|vhkw+nqx’hL€‚nq|Žfk} h{
 r‡fbrzxyrLnqx’h x‰h{l ™šnq…Š|vh’™šnq`”nŒco…spŠ…sàih nqx’h’fb`wecohtx’hkcš`›l wo…¤hyjqwo…Šx’h
Ò…Š|ŒjvnŒc$Ôj–hkw„h’`bpshkÞr{w„hkw+h{pŠ˜znqx jqwor!uqnŒcory¦v|vh{p ÒrznŒcdjvnŒc$ԗ`“r fbrz| ¹ßnq|ƒcor uqrza | qln xy`worzawe`ih{…safrzxyr
nqx uq`j—rzl ae…¥cor uq`Áx’hkcš`l wo…sh{ajqwo…Šx’h{ab õ …sfih `•š…suq`b|ƒco`Á™šnq`3`¸l €‚nq|quvh{xy`|œc„h{p uq`›co`woxy…Š|vhkwi‹`›¢vhkc„h ø
xy`b|ƒco`{‹ö|q`baßco`’uq`j—rzl ae…¥corq‹ö™šnvh{px’hkcš`l wo…¤hLjqwo…sx’hY€òh{à €‚nq|qfb…Šrz|vhkw”|qrzaeaoh¸x‰h{l ™šnq…Š|vh öfih{aerˆfbrz|œcdw–hkl wo…srq‹
fbrzx£fb`wdco`bàihŒ‹ hg`baßcew„h{˜ƒhkwo`bxrza q`badc„hgh{|vh{psrz˜z…sh”|qrza—ps`•kh h{ aae`b˜znq…Š|œco`auq`¦v|q…dfk} rz `bab© 

  

!
x 

f(x)

ª «­¬[®+¯k± ° ´ ² « Ú ¶

…‚Ô Õ fbrz| ¹ßnq|ƒcoruq`coršuqrzarzaÅÁƇ¿Ã™šnq`Öaohkco…Šae€òh{àb`bxÀhuq`¦v|q…df{} h{ r+uq`ր‚nq|Žf{} h{ r¸`l f„¨vh{x’h{uqr ´ Ê  Ç ®+¯ ´ 

³  È ®L±‘° ³‘² ´ ˆ`ˆ`[l uq`b|qr{coh{uqrjr{
w â^Ò Â~Ô
…s…¤Ô Õ frz| ¹ßnq|œcor uq`‘coršuqrza­rza Ì Æt¿ coh{…sa™šnq` Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒòÅ~ԛ‹Nrz|quq` ÅÁ Æ â^Ò Â~Ô` l f„¨vh{x’h{uqr ¯ßÊ ³ «Ê
° ³‘² ´ ˆ`ˆ`[l uq`b|qr{coh{uqrjr{w 
!â^Ò Â~ԛ 
³ È ®L±‘
 l fp¤hkwor“™!nq` â^Ò Â~ԛ¼ œâRÒ Â~ÔÖ¾ô¿‹` ™!nq` â^Ò Â~Ôó`¡l r“fbrz| ¹ßnq|ƒcorguqrza •{h{pŠr{wo`bauvh•khkwo…ihkl •ƒ`p …Š|quq`›ø
j`|quq`b|œce`—j–hkw„h+rzaŽ™šnvh{…Ša§ÂÃ` l uq`¦v|q…Šuvh œâRÒ Â~ԁ` l r+fbrz| ¹ßnq|ƒcor“uqrzaŽ•kh{psr{wo`baöuvh•khkwo…ihkl •ƒ`bpšuq`j`b|quq`|œco`
fih{pŠfbnqp¤h{uqrza¡h”j–hkweco…¥wuqrza¡`bpŠ`bxy`b|ƒcorzauqryuqrzx¸ml |q…Šrq
á+nvh{a—€‚nq|Žfk} rz `ba ÂÁ` è’abh{ rguq…¥c„h{a ¯ « ®Ëv¯ ±³‘Ú ad`[co`bx rgxy`baexr0uqrzx¸ml |q…Šr `ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ è~ÒÓÅ~Ô$‹šj–hkw„h
cor!uqrLÅÆ 2jr{w[`›¢q`xjvpsrth{a[€‚nq|Žfk} rz `ba0ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å # ¼qÅ Àë `óè~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å # ¼eÅÃÆ ¿Àabh{ r‡uq…Š€‚`wo`b|ƒco`ba
jrz…Ša—ad`bnqauqrzx¸ml |q…srza abh{ ruq…Š€‚`wo`b|ƒco`ba
Î |ƒco`baÖuq` •ƒ`w h{pŠ˜znq|qaÖ`›¢q`bxgjvpsrzab‹œ•ƒrzpŠc„h{xyrza§h“…s|qae…Šadco…¥w ™šnq`j–hkw„h“`baßconquvhkw™šnvh{ps™!nq`wր‚nq|Žf{} h{ rq‹quq`›•ƒ`›ø
xyrza ae`bxgjqwo`uq`ce`woxy…Š|vhkw¡rzafbrz| ¹ßnq|ƒcorza â^Ò Â~ÔÖ` œâ^Ò Â~Ô
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ Î hkl wo`ih”uq`nqx fzml wofnqpsruq`w„h{…s*r  `[l º”Ò {Ô "
Ñ ! +#  ”ad`b|quqryrgwoh{…srq‹Œco`bxrzab©  ‰ë vpŠrz˜zrq‹
â^ÒºÔ Ñ œâ^ÒºÔ Ñ Ò ë ¼ -
Ô
Û ì Ý
Örz|qae…Šuq`wo`yh €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r ÌYÑ ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å # `”l fbp¤hkworL™šnq`”|~h{ r‡`$¢q…saßco`bx wo`baßcewo…dfk} rz `ba[j–hkw„hLrt|nql x`wor
wo`ih{p~Å vpsrz˜zrq‹Œco`bxrza™!nq`{©
NâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ ¿
` ÌˆÑ Å # ë ‹­j–hkw„h coršuqrtÅ Æÿ  `b|ƒcih{ r œâRÒ Â~Ô¾ Û ë ¼ -
Ô fbrzxyrLcoršuqrt| qln xy`wortwo`ih{pŽÅ ë
jrzadaenq…woh{…sà™šnvh{uŒw„h{uvhŒ‹v`b|ƒcih{ rq© 
œâ^Ò Â~Ô Ñ Û ë ¼ -
Ô
Û ékÝ
Örz|qae…suq`›wo`+h€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  Å­Ž x’hwoh{…s࡙!nvh{uŒw„h{uvh`›¢Œ…sadce`¡aerzxy`|œco`¡ae`—Å ë !`b|œcbh{ rq©
^â Ò Â~Ô Ñ Û ë ¼ -
Ô  |qrN•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{‹vfbrzxyr”`bx Û ì Ý ‹Œco`bxyrza© 
!â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ Û ë ¼ -
Ô

"

ˆ   ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
Û ð Ý
Örz|qae…Šuq`wo`Rh €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r Ì Ñ ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ  Å # Ï Ü 
rzxyr |qrÃfih{aer h{|ƒco`wo…Šr{wi‹  Å # Ï Ü `$¢q…saßco`
aerzxy`|œco`ae`Å # Ï Ü ë qwo`aerzpŠ•ƒ`b|quqryhg…s|q`™šnvhf{} h{ r”co`bxyrzab©
^â Ò Â~Ô Ñ ÒßÏ
Ÿ¼iÏ bÜ ÝRÛ Ü ¼ -
Ô k` ‹–|qrå•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{‹qco`bxyrza© 
!â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ Û ë ¼ -
Ô
Û í Ý
Örz|qae…suq`›wo`0h€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r ÌgÑ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å Ü `l fbpshkwory™šnq`“ ` l uq`›¦v|q…suvhyae`[`“aerzxy`b|ƒco`ae`ÅÑ  ë  pŠrz˜zr
co`bxrza™!nq`{©

NâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ ¿ Ï ë  Ñ ÒßÏ
Ÿ¼ ë Ô Ò ë ¼ -
Ô 
jr{w—rznŒceworgp¤h{uqrq‹vnqx’hó€¤w„hf{} h{ rÃ`l |œnqp¤hae``adrzxy`b|ƒco`[ad`r|œnqxy`woh{uqr{wt`l |!nqpŠr –`|œcih{ r 
œâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ ¿ 
Ï  ë 
Û êkÝ
Örz|qae…suq`we` h“€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å # Ü Ï Ü šfrzxyr“|qr0fih{aer“h{|œco`›wo…sr{wÖr0uq`|qrzxy…s|vh{uqr{w§uvh“€¤w„hf{} h{ r
|~h{ rgjžršuq`[ae`w|œnqpsr vpŠrz˜zr”Å # Ï Ü Ñ  ë v`b|ƒcih{ rq‹q Å 
Ñ   Ü `{©

NâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ ¿ ÏƒÏ Ü ¼ Ü 
 
œâ^Ò Â~Ô Ñ ¿ Ï ë

Û ï Ý
Örz|qae…Šuq`wo`th€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r Ì Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ
|q`b˜ƒhkco…¥•ƒr `+l jrzae…¥co…Š•khórznY|q`b˜ƒhkco…¥•{hŒ‹ 

Å Ö fbrzxrhÁw„h{…sà fnŒl Þv…Šfih^uq`Lnqx | qln xy`worÁjrzae…¥co…Š•ƒrˆrzn

â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ !â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ ¿
Û îkÝ
Örz|qae…Šuq`wo`h+€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ  Å -  Å # Ï Ü  Î €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r`—l uq`¦v|q…Šuvhae` Å ë ` Å # Ï Ü ë
ae…Šx”nqp¥c„h{|q`ih{xy`|œco`k —`baerzp¥•ƒ`b|quqr’h{a¡…Š|q`b™šnvhfk} rz `bab‹vr{Þqco`bxyrza Å Ü qpsrz˜zrq‹

^â Ò Â~Ô Ñ Û Ü ¼ -
Ô ` 
!â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ Ò ë ¼ -
Ô

Î z˜ r{w„h ™šnq`‘uq`co`wexy…s|vh{xyrza~|qrza`›¢Œ`bxjvpsrzarzauqrzx¸ml |q…Šrza` …Šx’h{˜z`b|qauvh{a­€‚nq|Žfk} rz `bab‹kjžršuq`bxyrzahi•{h{pŠ…¤hkwi‹
ae`bx£j`›wo…s˜zrq‹q`baßc„h{a¡€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ab
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ · `tŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ  Å­‹ö`b|œcbh{ rRÂŽÒ í Ô Ñ  í ‹ ÂŽÒ ! Ô Ñ  ! `LŽÒÓÅ # - Ü Ô Ñ  Å # - Ü ‹Žjžrz…sa“Å #/- Ü ` l
ae`bxgjqwo`jžrzae…Šce…Š•ƒrq 

  

! 

Û ì Ý · `+èÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å Ü ‹vfih{psfnqp¤h{xyrzaÖèÒ Ü Ô Ñ $‹–ad`  Ñ  ë `è~ÒÓÅ  - ð Ô Ñ ÅÜ - ð 
  l c„h{x0ÞÖ`bl x fbrzxónqx |qrzagco`›¢Œcerzaguq`
th{l pŠfbnqpsrRuq`|qr{c„hkw’h{ag€‚nq|Žf{} rz `bayfbrzxr ÂI©§ºCÏ Ð ¿ rz|quq`k‹
º Ñ NâRÒ Â~Ô
V O 1  Q T 6 U 7 O+V
JLK›J    E P T¡U 
Î we`jqwo`bae`|œc„hfk} h{ r’˜z`brzxÃ`l cewe…sfihóuq`“nqx’hó€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r’uq`nqxyhó•khkwo…ihkl •ƒ`pwe`ih{p `l uvh{uvhgjžr{w¡ae`n   ³ Ç ¬ ±~´
|qrgjvpsh{|qryfbr!r{wouq`b|vh{uqrgÅ Ì 
ª «­¬[®+¯k±‘° ³‘² ´ ¶ Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfryuq`[nqxyhg€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒòÅ~Ôy`[l rgae`b˜znq…Š|œco`[aenŒÞfrz| ¹ßnq|œcor’uqrgjvp¤h{|qrq© 

Ò Â~Ô Ñ ! ÒÓÅ­¼$ŽÒÓÅ~ÔdÔeä Å‡Æ â^Ò Â~Ô 

Ú « ³ ± ° ´ ² « Ú ¶
…‚Ô
+`brzxy`cdwo…sfih{x`b|œce`  Ò Â~Ôt`{l ‹`bx ˜z`woh{p ‹~nqx’h fbnŒwe•khL|qr jvp¤h{|qrq_ rza`$¢q`bxjvpŠrza Û¥ÜbÝ ‹ Û¥ÜåékÝ ` Û¥Ü ð Ý
uvhgad`Œf{} h{ r ì  ë ‹  Ò Â~ÔÖ|~h{ r `l nqx’hófbnŒwe•khŒ§_ rzafih{aerza`bx ™!nq`  Ò Â~Ôy`[l nqx’hófbnŒwe•khŒ‹–…s|ƒconq…Šco…¥•{h{x`b|œce`
jr!uq`bxyrza“jž`b|qaohkwg™šnq` rzaófbrz| ¹ßnq|œcerza â^Ò Â~ԓ` !â^Ò Â~Ô[wo`›jqwo`bae`b|ƒc„h{x h dp¤hkwo˜znŒw„h Á` eh{pŠcenŒw„h
x‰h l ¢Œ…sx’h“uvhfnŒwe•{hŒ‹qwo`adj`bf›co…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{
…‚Ô |q…sf…¤h{psx`b|œce`{‹hLfrz|qadcewonŽf{} h{ rtuqrza[˜{wvhkl ¦vfbrza[ad`w–h’l wo`ih{ps…Šàih{uvh €òh{àb`b|quqrYnqx’hyc„hkޞ`bp¤hŒ‹rz|quq`gh{a+`b|šø
cew„h{uvh{a0uvhYc„hkޞ`bp¤hYah{ r¸rza0`bps`bx`b|œcerza0uqrˆuqrzxYml |q…sr‡` h{a0aohqml uvh{ab‹‘h{a“wo`adj`bf›co…Š•kh{a0…sx’h{˜z`|qabY §aßco`
jqwor!fb`baeaer^`¡l uq`bxyr{w„h{uqr[`…s|q`¦vf…s`b|ƒco` `¡ad`w–h0l hkޖh{|quqrz|vh{uqr0|qrzafihkjml conqpsrza ae`b˜znq…Š|œco`ab‹Œ™šnvh{|quqr0ad`wih{ r
uvh{uvh{a cš`bl fb|q…Šfih{ax’h{…sa `¦vf…s`b|ƒco`ba+j–hkw„h €òh{àb`w[rL˜{wvhkl ¦vfbrq   l …Šxjr{wecoh{|œco`|~h{ rtfbrz|q€‚nq|quq…¥w“h €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r
fbrzx£ae`bn‡˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrq‹qjrz…Ša¡r˜{wvhkl ¦vfbr `l nqx adnŒÞfbrz| ¹ßnq|ƒcor’uqrjvpsh{|qrq
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ  §adޞršfb`r’˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr uvhy€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rLuvh{uvhj`bpsh ad`b˜znq…s|ƒco`“c„hkޞ`bp¤hŒ‹ ™šnq`“xyrzaßcew„h’h•kh{à{h{ r’ae`bx’h{|vh{puq`
h{l ˜znvhguq`[nqx’h0wo`jqwo`baehŒ© 

á+…¤h
ð

ì

Ü

ê

é
ï

í

â ã äzæåçè
ézêzë
í Üåë
îƒï{ë
îƒï{ë
ñƒí ë
ðñï
í Üåë

Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfrguq`baßc„hg€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r”|~h{ rówo`jqwo`bad`b|œcohnqx’h0fbnŒwe•khŒ Î jqwo…Šxy`b…¥w„h0fbrzpsnq|vhóuvhócohkÞ`bpsh0we`jqwo`bae`|œc„h
hgr{weuq`b|vh{uvh`“h”ae`b˜znq|quvhfrzpsnq|vhh{awo`badjž`bfco…¥•{h{a¡hkÞvaefb…Šaeaoh{a –psrz˜zrq‹qr{Þqco`xyrzab©  

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
1000

800

600

400

200

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Û ì Ý   adÞr!fb`rg˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguvh€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å #k NâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ ¿ ` œâ^Ò Â~Ô Ñ Û ë ¼
ԛ
õ h{àb`b|quqr’hóc„hkÞ`bpshŒ©
Å
ŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å #
ë
ë
Ü ä Üåê 
Ü ä ð
Üäñ
Ü ä é
Üäð 
Ü ä ì
Ü
Ü
ð 
ì
ñ 
é
Å # ë j–hkw„h coršuqr ÅôÆ ¿‹§rza+jrz|ƒcorzauq`hkÞvaefb…Šaeaoh{a[Å `LÏ Å ce`bx;htxy`badx’h’r{wouq`b|vh{uvh ÌYÑ Å #N 
rz˜zrq‹žr’˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr uq`”ˆ¦vfbh ad…Šconvh{uqr’|qr’jqwo…Šxy`b…Šwery`“ae`b˜znq|quqrL™šnvh{uŒwoh{|œco`k Õ Þvad`we•kh{|quqr‡hc„hkޞ`bp¤hŒ‹
fbrz|qfbpŠnq…¥ø ae`¡™!nq`¡ae`r[•kh{psr{w‘uq`  Å Nh{nqx`b|œcohŒ‹!rzaö•{h{pŠr{wo`ba‘uvh[fbr{wdwo`badjžrz|quq`b|œce` r{wouq`b|vh{uvhh{nqx`b|œcoh{x
x’h{…Šaw„hkjv…Šuvh{xy`b|ƒco`{ · `yrza[•{h{pŠr{wo`bauq`  Å žhkjqwer墌…sx’h{xgø ae`gh‡àb`worq‹rza[•kh{psr{wo`ba[fbr{wewo`adjrz|quq`b|ƒco`ba
uvhgr{weuq`b|vh{uvhyhkjqwori¢q…Šx’h{xgøad`xyh{…saÖw„hkjv…suvh{x`b|œce`[uq`[àb`worq Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbruq`“ `{l ©
1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

-1

-0.5

0.5

1 

  

!
#
Û ékÝ   adÞr!fb`rg˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguvh€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å ã  NâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ œâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ ¿
õ h{àb`b|quqr’hóc„hkÞ`bpshŒ©
Å
ŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Åžã
ë
ë 
Ü ä ð 
Ü ä ê ð 
Ü ä é 
Ü ä ì ï
Ü ä ì 
Ü ä î 
Ü 
Ü 
ì 
î
· `Å ë ‹–`b|ƒcih{ r Ì ë `“ae`Å  ë ‹–`b|ƒcih{ r Ì  ë  ­rz˜zrq‹ ry˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr’`adc–hyl ae…¥convh{uqry|qryjqwo…Šxy`b…Šwery`
co`wefb`b…Šwery™šnvh{uŒw„h{|ƒco`ba Õ Þvae`wd•{h{|quqrLhc„hkޞ`bp¤hŒ‹q•ƒ`bxyrza—™šnq`[™šnvh{|quqryÅ Ÿë `ňfwo`baef`{‹rza—•kh{psr{we`ba
fbr{wewe`badjrz|quq`|œco`ayuvhˆr{weuq`b|vh{uvh Ì coh{xóÞ`l xCfwo`baef`bx `tx’h{…Ša“w„hkjv…suvh{x`b|œce`{ nvh{|quqrÅ  ë `
Å uq`bfwo`aefb`{‹örza[•kh{psr{we`ba“fbr{wewe`badjrz|quq`|œco`a”uvhtr{wouq`b|vh{uvh Ì uq`bfwo`badfb`bx»`yxyh{…sa+w„hkjv…suvh{xy`|œco`k Õ
˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguq`0 `{l ©
1
0.75
0.5
0.25
-1

-0.5

0.5

1

-0.25
-0.5
-0.75

Û ð Ý   adÞr!fb`rg˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguvh€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å Ü  NâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ œ âRÒ Â~Ô Ñ ¿‰Ï ë 
õ h{àb`b|quqr’hóc„hkÞ`bpshŒ©
Å
ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å Ü 
Ü ä Üåëzë 
Üåëzë
Ü ä ð 
ð 
Ü ä é 
é
Ü ä ì 
ì
Ü 
Ü 
ì 
Ü ä ì
é 
Ü ä é
-1 

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
· `Å 3ë ‹–`b|ƒcih{ r Ì  ë `“ae`Å  ë ‹–`b|ƒcih{ r Ì  ë  ­rz˜zrq‹ ry˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr’`adc–hyl ae…¥convh{uqry|qryjqwo…Šxy`b…Šwery`
co`wefb`b…Šwery™šnvh{uŒw„h{|ƒco`ba Õ Þvae`wd•{h{|quqrLhc„hkޞ`bp¤hŒ‹q•ƒ`bxyrza—™šnq`[™šnvh{|quqryÅ Ÿë `ňfwo`baef`{‹rza—•kh{psr{we`ba
fbr{wewe`badjrz|quq`|œco`aguvh¸r{wouq`b|vh{uvh Ì hkjqwer墌…sx’h{xgø ae`uq`’à`worÁ` h¸xy`buq…suvhY™!nq`yÅ hkjqwori¢q…Šx’h øad`uq`
àb`werq‹œrza•kh{psr{we`baŽfbr{wewo`adjrz|quq`b|ƒco`ba‘uvh r{wouq`b|vh{uvh Ì h{nqxy`b|ƒc„h{x x”nq…¥corq nvh{|quqrÅ ë `ŝfwo`baef`{‹
rza•kh{psr{wo`ba fbr{wdwo`badjžrz|quq`b|œce`ba—uvhór{wouq`b|vh{uvh Ì uq`bf›wo`baefb`x ` h0 xy`buq…Šuvh0™šnq`ÅYuq`fwo`baef`{‹ rza•kh{psr{we`ba
fbr{wewe`badjrz|quq`|œco`a uvhgr{wouq`b|vh{uvh Ì hkjqwer墌…sx’h{xgø ae` uq`à`worq Õ ˜{wvhkl ¦vfbruq`“ `{l ©
3
2
1

-3

-2

-1

1

2

3

-1
-2
-3

Û í Ý   adÞr!fb`rg˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguvhae`b˜znq…Š|œco`[€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rY©   

ÌÑ ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ

ae` Å ìÜ
Å
ea ` Ï ìÜ ôÅ
Å # -ÃÅ ae` Å Ï ìÜ
ŒÏRÅ        

# 

ì

Ü

0.4

0.2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5
-0.2

-0.4

Û êkÝ á+`ce`woxy…Š|q`h”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rLÂÁfn ¹ßry˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrÃ`kl ©

1

1.5 

  

!
2

-1

1

2

3

5

Öp¤hkw„h{xy`|œco`k‹žÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ë ae`[Å Ü `[Å ‰é á+`co`›woxy…s|q`xyrza rza¡ae`b˜zx`b|œcerza¡uq`[we`c„hg™!nq`pŠ…s˜ƒh{x£rza
jrz|ƒcorza“Ò Ü ¼ ë Ô§`’Ò ì ¼ ì Ô$‹Ò ì ¼ ì Ô`yÒ é ¼ ë ԛ‹šwo`baßj`bfce…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{©
…‚Ô Î `™šnvhf{} h{ rguvh”wo`cohg™šnq`j–h{aeaohójr{w“Ò Ü ¼ ë Ô`’Ò ì ¼ ì Ԕ` l Ì”Ñ ì ÒÓÅÏ Ü Ô›
…s…¤Ô Î `b™!nvhf{} h{ ruvhgwe`c„hg™!nq`j–h{adaohgjr{w“Ò ì ¼ ì Ô`Ò é ¼ ë ԝ` l Ì”Ñ Ï ì ÒÓÅÏ é Ô q`b|ƒcih{ rq©
ë
ae` Å  Ü
Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ìÏ Òòì ŒÒÓÅ’Ï Ï Ü Ô é Ô aeae`` ìÜ ÅÅ ‰éì
ë
ae` é ôÅ       

Ú « ³ ±‘° ³ ² ´ ¶ Õ ay˜{wvhkl ¦vfbrzauq`ÁŽÒòÅ~Ô -  ‹ŽÒÓÅ -  ԛ‹  ŽÒÓÅÔó`YÂŽÒ  ÅÔtÒ  Æ ¿§ÔLjr!uq`bx ae`w
r{Þqco…Šuqrza—uq…¥wo`c„h{xy`|œco`uqry˜{w–hkl ¦vfruq`0ŽÒòÅ~ԛöá+`€òhkcorq©
Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrtuq`óè~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅ -  Ô jžršuq`”ae`w[r{Þqco…suqrthLj–hkwece…Šwuqr‡˜{w–hkl ¦vfr‡uq`Â cewoh{|qaep¤h{uvh{|quqrkø rYh{r
psrz|q˜zr uqr `b… ¢qr’uqrza ÅR`bx  nq|q…suvh{uq`ba+j–hkw„h h’`bae™!nq`wouvh ae`   ë ‹rzn¸cew„h{|qaepsh{uvh{|quqrkørth{rLpŠrz|q˜zr
uqr`…¥¢qrguqrza—ÅÁ`bx  nq|q…suvh{uq`baj–hkw„hh”uq…Šwo`…Šc„h”ae`   ë 
Õ ˜{wvhkl ¦vfbr¸uq`èÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô -  ‹  Æ ¿ jršuq`’ad`wór{Þqco…suqr¸uqr¸˜{wvhkl ¦vfbrÁuq`LÂÃcew„h{|qaepsh{uvh{|quqrkørÁh{r
psrz|q˜zrguqr`b… ¢qrguqrza Ì `bx  nq|q…suvh{uq`baj–hkw„hfb…Šx’h”ad`  ‰ë rzn  nq|q…Šuvh{uq`ba¡j–hkw„hóޖh{…¥¢Œrgae`   ë 
Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr—uq`öè~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ  ŽÒÓÅ~Ô$‹   Ü jr!uq` ae`›wr{Þqco…Šuqr z`baßco…sfih{|quqrkø ae` r˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr—uq`Ö“•ƒ`weco…Šfih{psx`b|œce`
j`psr€òhkcer{w  
Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrLuq`0èÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÂŽÒ  Å~ԛ‹   Ü jžršuq`”ae`wr{Þqco…suqr zfbrzxjqwe…sxy…Š|quqrkøae` rL˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrLuq`y ¨qr{wo… ø
àbrz|ƒc„h{psx`b|œce`jž`bpsrg€òhkcor{w  
Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrYuq`gè~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ  ŽÒÓÅ~Ô$‹ ë    Ü jršuq`gae`w0r{Þqce…suqr zfbrzxgjqwo…sxy…Š|quqrkøae` ‡rY˜{w–hkl ¦vfr¸uq`’Â
•ƒ`wece…sfih{pŠxy`b|ƒco` j`bpŠr€òhkcor{w    

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfrÃuq`Yè~ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ÂŽÒ  Åԛ‹ ë    Ü jr!uq`Áae`wtr{Þqco…suqr z`badce…sfih{|quqrkø ae` r ˜{w–hkl ¦vfrÃuq`Â
¨qr{wo…Šàbrz|œcoh{psxy`b|ƒco`+j`bpŠr€òhkcor{w  
Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguq`+è~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Ï¡ÂŽÒÓÅÔ§jršuq`ae`w¡r{Þqco…suqr”j`bpsh”wo`v`›¢~h{ rguqr˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguq`0¸`bx£cor{wo|qr”uqry`b…¥¢Œr
uqrza—Å­
Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguq`+è~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÂŽÒÏÅÔ§jršuq`ae`w¡r{Þqco…suqr”j`bpsh”wo` v`›¢~h{ rguqr˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguq`0¸`bx£cor{wo|qr”uqry`b…¥¢Œr
uqrza Ì 
 §x£fih{uvh”fih{aerÃ`l fbrz|ƒ•ƒ`b|q…s`|œco``badj`fb…Š¦vfihkwrza—uqrzxYml |q…srza `…Šx’h{˜z`b|qab
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ _+hy`bae™!nq`wouvhŒ‹~rza˜{w–hkl ¦vfrza uq` Ì Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å‰Òh{àbnqp‚Ô›‹ uq` Ì Ñ ÂŽÒßÏ ì Å~Ô Ñ Ï ì Å Òӕƒ`›woxy`bpŠ¨qrœÔ—`
Ì”Ñ ì ŽÒÓÅ - Ü Ô Ñ ì ÒÓÅ - Ü ÔÒӕƒ`wouq`iԛ
Û ì Ý _+h”uq…Šwo`b…¥c„hŒ‹vrza¡˜{w–hkl ¦vfrza¡uq` ÌgÑ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å #Òh{àbnqp‚Ô›‹vuq` ÌÑ ÂŽÒÓÅ - Ü Ô Ñ ÒÓÅ - Ü Ô #Òӕƒ`›woxy`bpŠ¨qrœÔ
` ÌÑ ì ŽÒÓÅgÏ Ü Ô Ñ ì ÒÓÅyÏ Ü Ô #Òò•ƒ`wouq`åԛ©
1
2

1

-2

-1

1

2

-1

-2

-2

-3

-1

1

2

Û ékÝ Õ aY˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrzatuq` À
Ì Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å ã Ò h{àbnqp‚Ô$‹ uq` ÌÀÑ ÂŽÒÓÅ- Ü Ô Ñ ÒÓÅ- Ü Ô ã Òӕƒ`wox`bps¨qrœÔ’`
Ì”Ñ ŽÂ ÒßÏ é ÅÔ Ñ Ï ì ï Å ã Òӕƒ`›wouq`åԛ©
1

-2

-1

1

-1

Î ea `˜znq…Šw“uvhkwe`bxyrza+• hkl wo…Šrza[`›¢Œ`bxjvpŠrzauq`€‚nq|Žfk} rz `bab‹Žfbrzx;ae`bnqawe`badj`fco…Š•ƒrzauqrzx¸ml |q…Šrzab‹­…Šx’h{˜z`b|qa`
˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrza Î …su§`l …¤h¸`—l €‚r{woxyhkwönqx zfbhkc–h{l psrz˜zr +uvh{a‘€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba§xyh{…saönqaoh{uvh{ab‹!h{aö™šnvh{…sa‘ae`wbh{ r[nŒco…Šps…Šàih{uvh{a
|qrza¡`$¢q`bxjvpŠrza ``›¢Œ`wofzml fb…srzab
-2 

  

!
JLK : X‡O[Z \^] U V ˆO 1 Q T 6 U 7 O+V
° ³ ² ´
´  È É ³  ´ È ³ É ´   ڌ´ É È Ë ´ 
eµ È ® ±‘
 §aßc„hg€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rÃ`l uq`¦v|q…Šuvhgjr{wi©
Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  Å 
Örzxyr[r•{h{pŠr{w hkÞvaerzpsnŒcor[uq`¡nqx | qln xy`worwo`ih{p`l ae`bxjqwo`—|~h{ r|q`b˜ƒhkce…Š•ƒrq‹zco`bxyrzaö™!nq` â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ ¿‹ 
œâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ Û ë ¼ -
Ôö`ad`bn ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr `
l fbrz|qadco…¥conq…suqróuq`+uqnvh{aÖae`bx…¥ø we`c„h{aÖuq` fbr!`¦vfb…s`|œco`a¡h{|q˜znqpshkwo`ba Ü
Ü
`”Ï ‹vwo`badjž`bfco…¥•{h{x`b|œce`{‹v™šnq`ae`…Š|œco`›woae`bfcoh{x `bx/Ò ë ¼ ë Ô

2

1

-2

-1

1

2

Õ Þvae`we•ƒ`—™šnq` rzaö˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrza‘uq`  ŽÒÓÅ~Ô b` uq`ŽÒ Å Ôjžršuq`bx ae`w r{Þqco…Šuqrza‘uqr˜{w–hkl ¦vfbruq`¡ÂŽÒÓÅ~Ô$á+`—€òhkcorq‹
è~ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ  ŽÒòÅ~Ô `[l r{Þqco…suqrgwo` v`co…Š|quqr’hkcew„hi• `l a¡uqry`b… ¢qrguqrza—Å­‹ |qrjqwe…sxy`b…¥wor”`ae`b˜znq|quqr’™!nvh{uŒw„h{|ƒco`ba
h”jžr{wzf{} h{ r”uqr˜{w–hkl ¦vfruq`ˆ™šnq``badce`¹dhg|qr”co`wofb`…Šworg`[™!nvhkwecor”™šnvh{uŒw„h{|ƒco`bab
rzxr”`$¢q`wof{ml fb…Šrq‹quq…s˜ƒh
fbrzxyrójr!uq`ae`›w¡r{Þqco…Šuqrrg˜{w–hkl ¦vfbryuq`“ÂŽÒ  Å ԛ
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶  §adޞršfb`rza—˜{wvhkl ¦vfbrza¡uq`+èÒÓÅÔ Ñ  ÅyÏ Ü  - ì `uq`~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ  Å ã  
· `¹dh”ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  Å (špŠrz˜zrq‹ƒè~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅ“Ï Ü Ô - ì š`|œcih{ rq‹šr0˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr0uq`—èÃ`l r{Þqco…Šuqróhj–hkweco…Šwuqr0˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr
vu h €‚nq|Žf{} h{ rÂgcew„h{|qaepsh{uvh{|quqrkør[h{r psrz|q˜zr uqr+`b…¥¢Œr+uqrzaÅy`bx Ü nq|q…Šuvh{uq` j–hkwohhuq…¥wo`b…¥c„h ` ì nq|q…Šuvh{uq`ba
j–hkw„hyfb…Šx’hŒ Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrô`0l fbrz|qaßco…Šconq…Šuqr’uq`0uqrz…saad`b˜zxy`b|ƒcorza uq`“wo`coh{auq`0fbrš`›¦vfb…s`b|ƒco`bah{|q˜znqpshkwo`ba Ü
`Ï Ü ‹ j–h{adaoh{|quqryjr{w0Ò Ü ‹ ì ÔÖ`’Ò ë ‹ é ԛ‹qwo`badjž`bfco…¥•{h{x`b|œce`{ Žr{wrznŒceweryp¤h{uqr~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅ ã ԛ w–hkl ¦vfbrza
uq`è’`  wo`baßj`bfce…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{ 

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡  

5
0.2

4

-2

-1

3

0.15

2

0.1

1

0.05

1

2

3

4

-1

-0.5

V U ]iSiQ U Z S  SV
JLKLKJ 1  Q T 6 U 7 O+
1 Q T 6 07 U U ]iSiQ U Z S  ] ˆO Ö SiZ [O S  U     U  @ P Z
 §aßc„hg€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rÃ`l uq`¦v|q…Šuvhgjr{wi©
Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ âŸÅ*- ¼

0.5

1 

rz|quq`∼ Ƈ¿
â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ ¿‹ œâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ ¿
 aoh{|quqr hyuq`¦v|q…ßf{} h{ r uq`0uq…sadc h{÷ |qfb…¤hy`b|ƒcewo`“jžrz|œcerzauqryjvp¤h{|qr’|~h{ rô`“l uq…Š€ l fb…Špjqworå•khkw+™šnq`“uvh{uqrzacewi`b÷ a
jrz|ƒcorza |qr’˜{w–hkl ¦vfr’uq`”‹ž`badce`ba abh{ r’fbrzpŠ…s|q`ihkwo`a r’˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr uq`” `0l hwe`m c„hyuq`0fbr!`¦vfb…s`|œco`óh{|q˜znqpshkw
â j–h{adaoh{|quqr¸jr{wLÒ ë ¼ Ô›L ¡‹wo`bfb…¥jqworšfih{x`b|œce`{‹Žuvh{uqrza0uqrz…sajžrz|œcerza0™šnq`yuq`ce`woxy…Š|q`bx»nqx’htwe`c„h
|~h{ rg•ƒ`›weco…sfbh{p`$¢q…saßco`[nqxyh”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ryhk¦vx fbn ¹ßr˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr `l h”wo`›c„hŒ—Ò §`›wo…Š¦v™!nq
` ԛ 
Ú 
«  ³ ± ° ´ ² « Ú ¶
…‚ÔÖâ Ñ ÂŽÒ  ÔÏÏ ÂŽÒ  Ô ‹Œj–hkw„hgceršuqr  ¼  Ƈ¿‹  Ñ   
…s…¤Ô+ÂŽÒ ë Ô Ñ  ‹­ÂŽÒ Ü Ô Ñ â - N‹ÂŽÒ ì Ô Ñ ì â -  Ñ ÂŽÒ Ü Ô - â ­`bx ˜z`w„h{p ‹­ÂŽÒ 5 - Ü Ô Ñ ÂŽÒ 5 Ô -Í∋
j–hkw„h’coršuqr 5 Æ  ­rz˜zrq‹ÂŽÒ ë Ô$¼vÂŽÒ Ü Ô›¼–ÂŽÒ ì Ô ¼vŽÒ Ô$¼ €‚r{wox’h{x nqx’hjqwerz˜{wo`baeabh{ r‡hkwo…Šcex`l co…Šfihuq`
w„h{à{h{ rgâ
…s…Š…‚Ô Î jqwor{jqwo…Š`buvh{uq`™šnq`§fihkw„h{fco`›wo…sàih h{a­€‚nq|qf{rz `baŽjrzpŠ…s|qrzxy…sh{…sauq`jqwo…Šxy`b…Šwer¡˜{w„h{n^`{l ©ŽÒÓÅ - qÔ ÏŽÒÓÅÔ
uq`jž`b|quq`hkjž`b|vh{aÖuq` ‹š…sadcorR`+l hóh{fwš`l aefb…sxrzaօs˜znvh{…sa§uvh{uqrza—hŇfbr{wewo`adjrz|quq`bx h{fwš`bl aefb…Šxyrza…s˜znvh{…Ša
j–hkw„hÂ  ‰l `badcohgfihkw„h{f›co`wåml adco…sfbhg™šnq`uq`•ƒ`[ae`wnŒce…sps…Šàih{uvhg|vh{a—hkjvps…Šfihf{} rz `ba
…Š•qÔ +nvh{|quqrgâ Ñ ë ‹ hó€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rÃ`+l f„¨vh{x’h{uvh ±~´ ® Ú Ë ³ ®Öˌ« `ae`bnt˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr `+l nqx’h0wo`cohój–hkw„h{pŠ`bp¤h”h{r
`b… ¢qruqrza ÅÁ™šnq`j–h{aeaohgjž`bpsr”jrz|ƒcor¸Ò ë ¼ bԛ 

  

!

‡× Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
coÜ …Šps…sàbh{|quqrYh‡r{Þvae`›Ü we•{hfk} h{ rYuvh‡j—h{l ˜z…s|vh Û éƒï Ý  Î  `bae™!nq`wouvhŒ‹rza[˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrza“uq`yŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å - Ü Òh{àbnqp‚Ô›‹
` ì ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å - ì Òӕƒ`wexy`bps¨qrœÔ“` ì ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ì Å - ì ÒpŠ…spih{l aoԛ‹ wo`adj`bf›co…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{ Î  uq…Šew `b…Šc„hŒ‹ rza
˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrza[uq`’ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å - Ü Ò h{àbnqp¤Ô›‹`’ Šì  Ñ Åì - Ü Òӕƒ`›woxy`bpŠ¨qrœÔ `ÂŽÒßÏ ì ÅÔ Ñ Ü Ï ì Å ÓÒ ps…spbh{l a„Ô›‹
wo`baßj`bfce…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{©
2

2
1

1

-1

-2

-1

1

-1

1

2

-1

•vÔ nvh{|quqr  Ñ ë ‹ör{Þqco`bxyrza0nqxGco…Šjžrˆ…Šxjr{wdc„h{|œce`yuq` €‚nq|Žf{} h{ rq‹ f„¨vh{x’h{uvh  È ® ±‘° ³‘² ´ É߯d® « ³  
Ž r{wec„h{|ƒcorq‹vh”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r’ps…Š|q`ihkwL`l uq`¦v|q…Šuvhjr{wi©
ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ â Å
` `Ál xyršuq`bpŠr x’hkco`bx hkl co…sfbrj–hkw„h we`baerzpŠ•ƒ`›wLjqwer{Þvps`bx’h{a’™!nq`Á`b|œ•ƒrzp¥•ƒ`bx jqwor{jžr{wofb…srz|vh{pŠ…suvh{uq`{ · `bn
˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrÃ`[l nqx’h0wo`cohguq`frš`¦vfb…Š`b|ƒco`0h{|q˜znqp¤hkw—â j–h{aeaoh{|quqryjž`bp¤h”r{wo…s˜z`xY 
 ´ Ù ž¯«  ³  « Ú ¶
…‚ Ô öhkw„hócoršuqróÅ  ¼qÅ # Æt¿—‹ŽÒÓÅ  -ÃÅ # Ô Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅ  Ô -ôŽÒÓÅ # ԛ
…s…¤Ô“ÂŽÒ Ü Ô Ñ â‹ ÂŽÒ ì Ô Ñ ÂŽÒ Ü Ô -3ÂŽÒ Ü Ô Ñ ì â  `bx»˜z`woh{p ‹‘ÂŽÒ +Å~Ô Ñ ŽÒÓÅԁj–hkw„hYcoršuqrYşÆÍ¿F` 
ˆÆ 
…s…Š…‚Ô nvh{|quqryâ Ñ Ü ‹Œco`bxyrzab©
ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å¼
™šnq`ˆ`[l f„¨vh{x’h{uvh”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r ¯  «®ÖËq¯  ³  «  · `bn¸˜{w–hkl ¦vfr `l nqx’h”wo`›c„hguq`[fbrš`¦vf…s`b|ƒco`“h{|q˜znqpshkw Ü 
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ · nŒjrz|q¨vhy™!nq`“rza¡ad`b˜znq…s|ƒco`ba uvh{uqrza€‚r{woh{xWfbrzpŠ`c„h{uqrza¡|œnqx `›¢šj`we…sxy`b|ƒcorq · `0h”co`br{wo…shaenŒÞŒ¹dh ø
fb`b|ƒco` hg `›¢šj`wo… `b÷ |qfb…shg…s|quq…Šfihg™!nq`[rzauvh{uqrza—ce`bx nqx’hgfr{wewo`bpshf{} h{ rgpŠ…s|q`ihkwb‹ h{f„¨q`+c„h{p€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rypŠ…s|q`ihkwi

" 

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
Å
Ï åÜ ë é
Ï ê î
Ü í
Ü ð ê
ì é ð ê

Ì

Ï é í ñ
Ï ìzí ð
Ï ë í
ézî î
ê ñ î î

· `¹dh Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ' Å - N Ž `p¤h{a jqwor{jqwo…s`uvh{uq`bauvh{a¡€‚nq|Žfk} rz `baps…Š|q`ihkwo`ba©
Ï ë í Ñ ÂŽÒ Ü í Ô Ñ Ü í' - 
Ï é í ñ Ñ ÂŽÒßÏ Üåë é Ô Ñ Üåë é ' 

-

¡`aerzpŠ•ƒ`b|quqrrae…Šadco`bx’hŒ‹qr{Þqce`bxyrzab© ' Ñ é `  Ñ Ï í vpsrz˜zrq‹–ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ é Å’Ï í 

100

75

50

25

-10

10

20

30

40

-25

-50

_ r{co`™šnq`+j`bpsh{ajqwer{jqwo…s`buvh{uq`auvh{a—€‚nq|Žfk} rz `baps…Š|q`ihkwo`ba‹vjžršuq`bxrzacorzxyhkw ™šnvh{ps™!nq`wj–hkw¡uq`jrz|ƒcorza
`r{Þqco`bxyrzarxy`aexyrówo`baenqp¥c„h{uqr qjr{w—`›¢q`bxgjvpsrq©
ézî î Ñ ÂŽÒ Ü ð ê Ô Ñ
ê ñ î î Ñ ÂŽÒ ì é ð ê Ô

Ü ð ê ' Ñ ì é ð ê 

' - 

Û ì Ý · hkÞ`bxyrza֙!nq`hójqwo`aeabh{ r”uvhh{l ˜znvh0uqr”x’hkw’`+l €‚nq|Žf{} h{ rguvh0jqworz€‚nq|quq…Šuvh{uq`{á+`b|qr{co`bxrzajr{w =h
jqwo`badabh{ rg`Ghjqworz€‚nq|quq…Šuvh{uq`wo`p¤hkco…¥•{h0h{ró|ml •ƒ`puqróx’hkwiŽ ‘¢šj`we…sxy`b|ƒc„h{pŠxy`b|ƒco`—•ƒ`we…Š¦vfih ø ae`+™šnq`+h
jqwo`badabh{ ruvhÃh{l ˜znvhgh{r”|ml •ƒ`p~uqrgx’hkw’`+l uq` Ü ' ß∋Ò ' â Ñ hkcoxrzae€‚`w„hƒÔ§`™šnq`h{fwš`l aefb…sxrza…Š˜znvh{…sa |vh
jqworz€‚nq|quq…Šuvh{uq`0fbr{wewo`baßjrz|quq`bxWhyh{fwš`bl adfb…sxyrza…s˜znvh{…Ša—|vh”jqwo`baeabh{ rq rz˜zrq‹–h{rgj–h{aeaehkw uq`nqx£jrz|ƒcor
uqrÁx’hkw“j–hkw„h¸rznŒcewerˆad…Šconvh{uqrˆh Ü â Òâ Ñ xy`cdworœÔ[uq`’jqworz€‚nq|quq…suvh{uq`k‹ ¨vhi•ƒ`w–hÁl nqxCh{nqxy`b|ƒcorÁuvh
jqwo`badabh{ r^uq`thkjqwori¢q…sxyh{uvh{xy`b|ƒco` Ü ' ⏠öh{aeaeh{|quqr^uqr^|~ml •ƒ`bpÖuqrˆx’hkwghˆnqx’h¸jqworz€‚nq|quq…Šuvh{uq`‡uq` 

  

!
I∋Œhjqwo`baeabh{ róh{nqx`b|œcohkw–h l 1gë Ü  Î jqwo`badabh{ róuvh h{l ˜znvhŒ‹š`bxFhkcoxyrzae€‚`›w„h{ab‹ö`l uvh{uvhj`bpsh€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r
jrzpŠ…s|qrzxy…sh{puqrgjqwe…sxy`b…¥wor”˜{w„h{n~© 

Ñ ÂŽÒ Ô Ñ ë Ü&1
-

Ü

10

8

6

4

2

20

40

60

80

100

Î qj we`baeabh{ ryuvhôh{l ˜znvhhgnqxyh”jqworz€‚nq|quq…Šuvh{uq`0uq` Üåëzë â ` l  Ñ ÂŽÒ Üåëzë Ô Ñ ë Ü 1RÜåëzë - Ü Ñ ÜzÜ ' â
· `“hójqwo`baeah{ ryuvhôh{l ˜znvh `l uq` í ë ' ∋vh”jqworz€‚nq|quq…Šuvh{uq`` l í ë Ñ ë Ü&1 - Ü –pŠrz˜zrq‹ Ñ ð ñ ë â
Û ékÝ · hkޞ`›øad`Y™šnq` Üåëzë è‰Òòè Ñ ˜{w„h{x’h{aoÔuq`‡aerk¹dh^fbrz|ƒco`bx é í è uq`tjqwer{co`zml |vh{ag` Üåëzë è uq`tps`b|ƒco…spŠ¨vh{a
fbrz|ƒco`bx ì ê è uq`tjqwor{co`{ml |vh{abÃ x h{uqnqp¥cor^xÃ`bl uq…sr|!nqx fbps…Šx’hÁxyršuq`woh{uqr^|q`bfb`aeae…ŠcohRuq` ï{ë è uq`
jqwor{co`{ml |vh{auq…bhkl wo…¤h{a[`bx;aenvh¸h{ps…Šxy`b|ƒc„hf{} h{ rq xyh jž`baeaerƒhYuq`bad`¹dhYjqworN•ƒ`›w“`badcoh{a ï{ë è¸uq`jqwor{co`{ml |vh{a
aerzxy`|œco`—fbrzx aerk¹dh`  rzn’ps`|œco…Šps¨vh{ab · `—ʼn`¡l h™šnvh{|ƒco…Šuvh{uq`uq`aerk¹dh` Ì h™!nvh{|œce…suvh{uq`¡uq`¡ps`b|ƒco…spŠ¨vh{a
uq…ihkl we…¤h{aÒÓÅÁ` Ì xy`uq…suvh{a`bx£nq|q…suvh{uq`bauq` Üåëzë èqԛ‹Œ™!nvh{p`“l hówo`bp¤hfk} h{ r`b|ƒcewo`ÅÁ` Ì 
Î ™!nvh{|œce…suvh{uq`¡uq`jqwor{co`{ml |vh|vh[adr{¹dhˆ` l é í Å `h™šnvh{|ƒco…suvh{uq`—uq`—jqwor{co`{ml |vh|vh{a ps`b|ƒco…spŠ¨vh{aó` l ì ê Ì jžr{w
uq…¤hÒ h{x0ޖh{a xy`buq…ŠuvhL`x ˜{w„h{x’h{a„Ô› Õ cor{coh{puq`0jqwor{co`zml |vé h{a[uq…bhkl woï{…srôë ` l ï{ë psrz˜zrq‹co`bxrza+hL`b™!nvhf{} h{ r
uq`[jqwe…sxy`b…¥wor”˜{w„h{n~© é í Å - ì ê ÌóÑ ï{ë `{‹ Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Ï ì í ê Å - ì ê 
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5

0.5

1

1.5

2

Å­¼ Ì ë  Õ ajžrz|œcerzauqr ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr¡abh{ r h{a­jžrzaeaiml •ƒ`b…safrzxóÞv…Š|vhf{} rz `ba­uq`aerk¹dh¡`§pŠ`b|ƒco…spŠ¨vh{a­j–hkw„h€‚r{wo|q`fb`w
ï{ë ˜{woh{x’h{a uq`[jqwor{co`{ml |vh{auq…ihkl wo…sh{ab 

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
Û ð Ý Ò­`b…uq` ršrƒ`åÔ$© · `[nqx j`baerguq`[ÅÁnq|q…Šuvh{uq`ba¡€‚r{wj`b|quqnŒwoh{uqr’`bx£nqx’h”xrzp¤h0`badc„h”ae`“h{pŠrz|q˜ƒh
`bx nqx •kh{psr{w Ì ™!nq`ˆ`“l uq…¥wo`c„h{xy`|œco`jqwor{jr{wefb…srz|vh{p­hgÅ­‹ …ŠadcorÃ`{l ‹ ÌyÑ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ 5 ŏ Î frz|qadc„h{|ƒco` 5
uq`jž`b|quq`“uvhgwo…Š˜z…suq`bàuvhgxrzp¤htÒ™šnvh{|ƒcorxyh{…saÖwåml ˜z…Šuvh”€‚r{whgxyrzpshŒ‹Œxy`b|qr{w—ae`wvhgl rg•kh{psr{w—uq` 5 Ô$
1 Q T 6 07 U U ]iSiQ U Z S  ] ˆO <‡O   Q  U     U       E  S T 
 §aßc„hg€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rÃ`l uq`¦v|q…Šuvhgjr{wi©
Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ' Å

# - 

žÅ ¼
- 

rz|quq` ' ¼  ¼  Ƈ¿  ' Ñ  ë  
Ú 
«  ³ ± ° ´ ² « Ú ¶
…‚Ô â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ ¿
…s…¤Ô öhkw„h”cor!uqr LƇ¿‹ŽÒÓÅ - qÔÏ ÂŽÒÓÅԝ`l nqx’h”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r’hk¦vx£`bx£Å
…s…Š…‚Ô Î !â^Ò Â~Ô§`+r”˜{w–hkl ¦vfbruq`[¸uq`j`|quq`bx `aeae`b|qfb…sh{psxy`|œco`uqr”uq…saefwe…sxy…Š|vh{|œco`
Fuvh”`b™šnvhf{} h{ r”uqr 
ì ˜{w„h{n ' Å # -žÅ -  Ñ ë `[uqrfbr!`¦vfb…s`|œco` ' uqrco`woxr”jqwo…Š|qfb…Šj–h{p
…Š•qԔ_0h{ r `tl uq…s€ ml fb…sp•ƒ`wo…Š¦vfbhkwy™šnq`‡rR˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr uvhR€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ' Å # `‡l nqx’hj–hkw–hkl ޞrzp¤h^uq`Y€‚r!fbr
Ü `guq…Šwo`›cewo…sà ÌÁÑ Ï Ü  õ h{àb`b|quqr¸nqx’h cew„h{|qaepshf{} h{ rYh{uq`™šnvh{uvh‡uqrza“`…¥¢qrzafbr!r{wouq`b|vh{uqrza 
ë ¼
ð'
ð'
•ƒ`wo…¥¦vfih øad`™!nq`Ör+˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr uvh €‚nq|Žf{} h{ rŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ' Å # - žÅ -  `Öl nqx’h¡j–hkw–hkl ޞrzp¤hfbn ¹ßr`b… ¢qr uq`Öae…Šxy`cewo…sh
`+l j–hkw„h{ps`bpŠryh{rg`b…¥¢Œruqrza Ì ‹Œco`bx €‚ršfr  Ï ì  ' ¼ ð '  - ð '  # Ï Ü  `uq…Šwe`cewo…Šà Ì”Ñ ð '  Ï ð '  # Ï Ü 
•vÔ Õ • `l wece…sfb`“uvh”j–hkw–hkl Þrzpsh ÌyÑ ' Å # - žÅ -  `“l rjžrz|œcorrz|quq`0hj–hkw–hkl Þrzpshg…Š|œco`›woae`bfcohyae`bnÁ`b…¥¢Œr
`ˆ`l uvh{uqrjžr{ w  Ñ  Ï ì  ' ¼iÏ ð '  
· ` '  ë ‹~`b|ƒcih{ r Ÿ`0l r’jrz|ƒcor uvh j–hkw–hkl ޞrzp¤hyuq`óxy`b|qr{wh{p¥conŒw„hŒ‹žjžrz…sa r’jrz|ƒcor x’h{…Ša¡jqw–rkl ¢q…Šxyr’uvh
uq…Šwe`cewo…ŠàÁ`[l rg• `›l weco…sf`{ · ` '  ë ‹v`b|œcbh{ r `l r”jrz|ƒcoruvhój–hkw–hkl Þrzpshguq`[x’h{…sr{wh{p¥conŒw„hŒ
_0h{ r `l uq…s€ml fb…sp~•ƒ`w—™šnq`[ae`   `[l hhkÞvaef…saeaohguqr• `l wdco…sfb`uvh”j–hkwvhkl Þrzp¤h Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅԛ‹q`b|ƒcih{ rq©
…‚ÔŽ Ò   -ÃÅÔ Ñ ÂŽ Ò   Ï^ÅÔÖj–hkwoh”cor!uqrgÅÁƇ¿
…s…¤Ô aoh{|quqryfbrzxjvpŠ`c„h{xy`|œcoróuqrza—™šnvh{uŒw„h{uqrzab©§ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ' ÒÓÅyÏ   Ô # - š‹vrz|quq` Ñ ÂŽ Ò   ԛ 
 ³ Ç ¬ ±~´Ú ¶· ` ' ‰ë ‹ ‰ë ‹ Ñ ë rz
n  ë ‹vrza˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrzawo`badjž`bfco…¥•ƒrza¡abh{ rq© 

  

!

·`
' 

ë ‹ ‰ 
ë ‹ Ñ ë rzn


#

ë ‹qrza—˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrza wo`badjž`bfco…¥•ƒrza¡abh{ rq©

×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ Î hkl wo`ih”uq`nqx’h”`bae€‚`w„h `[l €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r’™!nvh{uŒw–hkl co…Šfih”uq`[ae`bn‡woh{…srq‘á`€òhkcorq‹Ò zÔ Ñ ð ! +#k
Û ì Ý Ò­`b…quqrvnš¢qr[p¤h{xy…Š|vhkwöuq` Žrz…Šae`bnq…spŠps`åÔ$© õ psnš¢Œr[aoh{|q˜zn~ml |q`br0hkcewohå• `bl aöuq`—nqx=•kh{aerq‹!frzxyrhkwecš`l wo…sh{a
rznt•ƒ`…¤h{ab  ‰l nqx’hg€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r™šnvh{uŒw–hkl co…Šfihó`bx  © 
Ò 7#Ï  #bÔ 
Ò  Ô Ñ
ð  
öhkw„h”raoh{|q˜znq`[¨!nqx’h{|qrg|!nqxyh”•ƒ`b…shŒ©  Ñ ë ëzë ì ï 
‹  Ñ ì ‹  Ñ *î 1^Üåë   `  Ñ ð 1RÜåë 㠋–pŠrz˜zrq© 
Ò  Ô Ñ ÜzÜ î í Ü ñ 1^Üåë  Ï Üåî í Üåî í 1RÜåë   #  â‡äzæNçè
Û ékÝ Î cewohk¹ß`›c–r{l wo…¤h[uq` nqxFfbr{wejžr0p¤h{|Žfi} h{uqr0r{ÞvpŠ…s™!nvh{xy`b|ƒco`{‹œuq`badjqwo`bàbh{|quqrh[we`bae…Šci`b÷ |qfb…¤h0uqróhkwi‹‘`l uvh{uvh
jr{wnqx’h0€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rgjrzps…Š|qrzxy…¤h{p–uqrad`b˜znq|quqr˜{w„h{n~ Î j–hkweco…¥w—uq`ae`bntuq`baepŠršfih{xy`|œcor”¨qr{wo…Šàbrz|œcoh{p‘Ò h{r
psrz|q˜zr’uqr’`…¥¢qruqrzaÅ~ԛ‹ r{Þqco`bxyrza—aenvh’h{pŠcenŒw„h Ì  Žr{w `›¢Œ`bxjvpsrq‹–nqxWr{ތ¹ß`cer `l p¤h{|Žfi} h{uqr’|qr hkwi · `
aenvhLh{pŠconŒwohŒ‹`bx xy`cdworzab‹ —ae`b˜znq|quqrza[hkj—rzl a+rLpsh{|Žfi} h{xy`b|ƒcorô`0l uvh{uvh’jr{w ÌtÑ ÂŽÒ dÔ Ñ ì ë öÏ Üåë  #N‹
™šnvh{p`[l hh{p¥conŒw„hgx h l ¢q…sxyh0hkco…s|q˜z…Šuvhójž`bpsrgr{Þq¹ß`›cory``bx ™!nq`[…Š|qadc„h{|ƒco``ps`[hhkco…Š|q˜z`  

ˆ   ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
á+`co`wexy…s|q`bxrzar‡• `l weco…Šfb`yuvh‡j–hkw–hkl ޞrzp¤h ÌÑ ì ë ‘Ï Üåë  # ‹ Ñ ð ëzë ‹ ' Ñ Ï Üåë  ë `  Ñ ì ë  
Ñ Ò Ü ¼ Üåë ԛ rz˜zrq‹hh{pŠconŒw„hÁx‰h l ¢Œ…sx’h `L
l uq` Üåë ∋hkco…Š|q˜z…suvh Ü ae`b˜znq|quqrRhkj—rzl agrp¤h{|Žfi} h{xy`|œcorq
á+`bae`b|q¨qr h” `bae™!nq`wouvhŒ
Û ð Ý Ž`bp¤hhr{Þvad`we•khf{} h{ r¡uvhÖj—h{l ˜z…s|vh Û ézëkÝ  Õ a­˜{wvhkl ¦vfbrza­uq` Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å #Ò h{àbnqp¤Ô›‹å` Ì”Ñ Â  Ï ð é Å  Ñ
Ñ Üåê ñ Å # Òӕƒ`wexy`bps¨vhƒÔ` Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒ ì ÅÔ Ñ ð Å #Ï ì ÅyÏ Ü ÒÓps…spbh{l a„Ô›‹šwe`badj`fco…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{©
2

10

5

1

2

-1

1 

1  Q T 6 07 U U ]iSiQ U Z S  ] ˆO     Q
 §aßc„hg€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rÃ`l uq`¦v|q…Šuvhgjr{wi©
Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ' Å - '  Å  - - ' 
Õ |quq` ' ¼ '  ¼ ¼ '  Ƈ¿  ' Ñ  ë  â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ ¿‹Œx’h{ah 
œâRÒ Â~Ô~`‘r¡˜{wvhkl ¦vfbruq`§Â”uq`jž`b|quq`bx
`baead`b|qfb…¤h{pŠxy`b|ƒco`uqrg˜{w„h{nYuqr”jrzps…Š|rz÷ xy…sró`[uq` ' 
 §aßc„h“€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r `{l ‹Œfbpshkw„h{xy`b|ƒco`{‹šh“˜z`b|q`w„h{pŠ…sàihf{} h{ ró|vhkconŒwoh{pžuvh{aր‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba—h{|ƒco`wo…Šr{wo`bab
Örzxyr“`›¢Œ`bxjvpsrq‹
•ƒ`¹dh{xyrzah{a“€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba©ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å ã ÏÃÅÃ`gè~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ì ð Å  - Ü  !â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ ¿F` œâ^ÒòèvÔ Ñ Û¥Ü ¼ -
ԛ
· `bnqawo`badjž`bfco…¥•ƒrza¡˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrza—abh{ rq©
0.5

-1

1
1

-0.5
-1

1 

  

!
V  § O+V O D E Z \  §O+V
LJ KLK 1  Q T 6 U 7 O+
…‚Ô֐ x’h0€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rL `[l uq…¥c„h Ù ³  ea `{‹qj–hkw„h”ceršuqrgÅÁÆ â^Ò Â~Ô `|œcih{ rtÏÅÁÆ NâRÒ Â~Ô `{©
ŽÒßÏÅÔ Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ
…s…¤Ô x’h”€‚nq|Žfk} h{ r  `[l uq…Šc„hÁ Ç ÊÄÙ ³  ae`{‹vj–hkw„h”cor!uqr”ÅÁ Æ â^Ò Â~Ô `|œcih{ r‡ÏÅÁÆ NâRÒ Â~Ô `
ŽÂ ÒÏÅÔ Ñ Ï¡ÂŽÒÓÅÔ 
Ž`bpsh{auq`›¦v|q…df{} rz
 `bauq`”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rtj–hkw`óuq`ó€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rRml xj–hkw¸`ól €Nh{l fb…sp•ƒ`›w[™!nq`órt˜{w–hkl ¦vfrtuq`ónqx’h’€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r
j–hkwY`0l ae…Šx`l cewo…Šfbry`bx wo`bp¤hfk} h{ r h{r’`b…¥¢Œr’uqrza Ì `0r’˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr uq`0nqx’hy€‚nq|Žfk} h{ rˆml xj–hkw‡`“l ad…sxÃ`l cdwo…sfbr’`x
wo`bpshf{} h{ r h” r{wo…s˜z`xY
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ · `¹dh ÌLÑ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å #- Å Ü # ~fbrzxyr â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ ¿‰Ï  ë  ‹hyjqwo…Šxy`b…Šwohgj–hkweco`0uvh{a uq`¦v|q…ßf{} rz `baÁ` l
•ƒ`wo…¥¦vfih{uvh`ŽÒßÏ Å~Ô Ñ ÒßÏ Å~Ô # - ÒßÏ Ü Å~Ô # Ñ Å # - Å Ü # Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ vpŠrz˜zrq‹– `l €‚nq|Žf{} h{ rj–hkwi
Û ì Ý · `¹dh Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å  ÏyÅ ã šfbrzxr NâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ ¿ hjqwo…Šxy`b…¥w„hj–hkwece`—uvh{a uq`¦v|q…df{} rz `ay`—l •ƒ`wo…¥¦vfih{uvh
`óŽÒßÏ ÅÔ Ñ ÒßÏÅÔ  Ï ÒßÏÅ ã Ô Ñ ÏÒÓÅ  Ô -ÃÅ ã Ñ Ï¡ÂŽÒÓÅÔ –psrz˜zrq‹žÂ `l €‚nq|Žf{} h{ rˆml xj–hkwi Õ a¡wo`baßj`bfce…Š•ƒrza
˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrza—abh{ rq©
6
5
4
3

-1

1

2
1

-2

-1

1

2

Û ékÝ · `¹dh Ì Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å ‹  Æ c„h{p­™!nq`  IÜ  Î €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r‰`“l j–hkw+ae` À`“l j–hkw+`R` l ml xj–hkw¡ae` =` l
lm xgj–hkwi
…‚Ôöhkw„h ÅÁÆ Ò ë ¼ Ü Ô$‹{co`bxgø ae`{©Å #  Å ã  Å   Å   Å  ‹N…sadcor¸`{l ‹œ™šnvh{|ƒcorx’h{…sr{wör•{h{pŠr{w
uq` Ž‹x`b|qr{w“rY•kh{psr{wuvhY€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rq
Örz|qae`b™!nq`b|ƒco`bxy`b|ƒco`{‹örY˜{wvhkl ¦vfbr¸uq` ÌÑ Å  ‹`adc–h¸l hkޖh{…¥¢ŒrYuqr
˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr’uq` ÌyÑ Å  ‹ž™!nq`c„h{x0ÞÖ`bl xW`adc–h’l hkޖh{…¥¢Œryuqr’˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr uq` ÌyÑ Å ã ‹`0h{aead…sxWadnqfb`baeae…¥•{h{x`b|œce`{ 
öhkw„h^•kh{psr{wo`a’uq`ÁÅÍjqw–rkl ¢Œ…sxyrzayuq`¸à`worq‹—h{ayjr{ci`b÷ |qf…¤h{a’xy`b|qr{we`ba’uqrzxy…s|vh{x
`¸™šnvh{|ƒcor x’h{…Šr{wyr
`›¢šjrš`|œco` Ž‹qrza¡˜{w–hkl ¦vfrza¦vfih{x fih{uvhó•ƒ`bàx’h{…Ša ßjvp¤h{|qrza YÒ™šnvh{ae`+j–hkw„h{pŠ`bpsrza—h{r`b… ¢qrguqrzaÅԛ  

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
…s…¤Ô öhkw„hLÅÃÆ3Ò Ü ¼ -
ԛ‹~co`xgøae`k©+Å #  Å ã  Å   Å   Å  ‹–rzn^ae` ¹dhtj–hkw„hL•kh{psr{we`ba
˜{w„h{|quq`ba—uq`[Å­‹–h{ajžr{cå`b÷ |qfb…sh{a¡uq`xyh{…sr{w ˜{w„h{ntuqrzxy…s|vh{x h{auq`xy`b|qr{w˜{w„h{n~
á+`bae`b|q¨qrza—j–hkw„h  Ñ ì ¼ ð ¼ ê `  Ñ Ü ¼ é ¼ í ‹Œwe`badj`fco…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{© 

1

1

-1

-1

1

1

Î sp ˜znqxyh{a•ƒ`bàb`bab‹j–hkw„hL`badÞr~fb} hkwrL˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrtuq`gnqx’h’€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r `gl fbrz|ƒ•ƒ`b|q…Š`b|œce`g•ƒ`wo…¥¦vfihkw[ae`h €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r
`ól j–hkwrznÃml xj–hkwb‹jžrz…sahtad…sxy`cdwo…¤hyjqwo`bad`b|œce`y|qrza[˜{wvhkl ¦vfbrza[uq`adc„h{a€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba“€òh{fb…Šps…¥c„hkw–h’l r‡uq`bad`b|q¨qrq
_ r{co`™šnq``›¢q…Šadco`bx£xónq…Šcoh{a—€‚nq|Žf{} rz `a™šnq`|~h{ rabh{ r”j–hkwo`ba—`|q`bxGml xj–hkwe`bab 
Žr{wŽ`›¢Œ`bxjvpŠrq‹zŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å #$-0Å ƒfbrzxyr â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ ¿h—jqwo…Šxy`b…¥w„h—j–hkweco`Öuvh{auq`¦v|q…df{} rz
 `a0` l •ƒ`wo…Š¦vfbh{uvh 
ŽÒßÏ Å~Ô Ñ Å # ÏÅ psrz˜zrq‹ŽÒßÏÅÔ Ñ  ŽÒÓÅÔ+`yŽÒßÏ Å~Ô Ñ  ϡŽÒÓÅ~Ô `b|ƒcih{ rq‹ŽÂÃ|~h{ r `l €‚nq|Žf{} h{ rYj–hkw|q`bx
ml xgj–hkwi 
Ú 
«  ³ ± ° ´ ² « Ú ¶
…‚Ô Î f„¨vhkw0rza[Å coh{…sa™!nq`’ÂŽÒÓÅÔ   `l `b™!nq…Š•kh{ps`b|ƒco`yhLuq`co`wexy…s|vhkwrza`bpŠ`bxy`b|ƒcorzauq r â^Ò Â~Ô+c„h{p
™šnq`rza—jžrz|œcerza—uqry˜{wvhkl ¦vfbruq`“‹q`badcih{ rh{fb…sx’hóuvhgwo`›c„h Ì”Ñ N
…s…¤Ô Î f„¨vhkwrza+ÅRc„h{…Ša™!nq`yŽÒòÅ~Ô  ^`ól `b™!nq…Š•kh{ps`b|ƒco`ghLuq`ce`woxy…Š|vhkw[rza+`bpŠ`bxy`b|ƒcorzauqr NâRÒ Â~Ô c„h{p
™šnq`rza—jžrz|œcerza—uqry˜{wvhkl ¦vfbruq`“‹q`badcih{ rhkޖh{…¥¢qrguvh”wo`›c„h Ì”Ñ N
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ · `óŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å # –`b|œcbh{ rq‹~ŽÒÓÅÔ  Ü `[l `b™šnq…¥•{h{pŠ`b|œce`0huq`co`›woxy…s|vhkw¡rza¡`bpŠ`bxy`b|ƒcorza—uqr â^Ò Â~Ô c„h{p
™šnq`rza—jžrz|œcerza—uqry˜{wvhkl ¦vfbruq`“‹q`badcih{ rh{fb…sx’hóuvhgwo`›c„h Ì”Ñ Ü ‘á+`bae`b|q¨qr h” `bae™!nq`wouvhŒ
Û ì Ý ÂŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å # ÒÓÅ”Ï Ü Ô q`|œcih{ rq‹–ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô  ë `+l `b™šnq…¥•{h{pŠ`b|œce`[hóuq`co`›woxy…s|vhkw rza `bpŠ`bxy`b|ƒcorza uqr â^Ò Â~Ô
c„h{p~™!nq`rza jrz|ƒcorza¡uqrg˜{w–hkl ¦vfbruq`“‹v`badcih{ rhkޖh{…¥¢qr”uvh”we`c„h ÌgÑ ë öá+`bae`b|q¨qr h” uq…Šwo`…Šc„hŒ
-1

1

1

-1

-1

1

1 

  

!
…s…Š…‚ÔŽršuq`bxyrzahk¦qwox’hkw™!nq` r0˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr0uq` nqx’h“€‚nq|Žfk} h{ r `{l ‹!`bxĘz`woh{p ‹šnqxyh“fbnŒwe•khó|qr“jvpsh{|qr0fbršr{weuq`›ø
|vh{uqr ­h wo`fzml jqwor!fih |q`bx ae`bxjqwe` `0l •ƒ`wouvh{uq`…Šw„hŒ‹…saßcor `{l ‹|q`bx coršuvh fbnŒwe•kh |qrLjvpsh{|qrtfbr!r{wouq`b|vh{uqr
ÒrznÃfbrz| ¹ßnq|œcer uqr^jvp¤h{|qrœÔR`‡l r˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrRuq`‡h{ps˜znqx’hÁ€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rq +`brzxy`cewe…sfih{xy`|œco` nqx’hˆfbnŒwe•kh^|qr
jvp¤h{|qrgfbršr{weuq`b|vh{uqrÃ`l rg˜{w–hkl ¦vfruq`nqxyh”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rae`ceršuvh”we`c„h0j–hkw„h{ps`bpshh{r”`b…¥¢Œruqrza Ì …s|ƒco`woad`bfc„h
hfbnŒwd•{hy|qr’x‰h l ¢Œ…sxyró|œnqx jžrz|œcorˆÒòjr{w™!nq`  ԛ  Žr{w`›¢Œ`bxjvpŠrq‹žhad`b˜znq…s|ƒco`“fbnŒwd•{hy|~h{ rwe`jqwo`bae`|œc„h
nqx’hó€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rq©

‡× Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´ ¶ Õ fbrz| ¹ßnq|œcer’º Ñ !ÒÓÅ­¼ Ì Ô§Æt¿#‘äÅ #- Ì # Ñ Ü 
|~h{ r `[l rg˜{w–hkl ¦vfbryuq`nqx’h”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rq
á+` €òhkcerq‹ ̔Ñ  Ü ÏRÅ #  psrz˜zrq‹ij–hkw„h coršuqrÖÅÁÆ ÒßÏ Ü ¼ Ü Ôž`›¢Œ…sadco`x x’h{…sauq`önqx Ì c„h{p{™šnq`¡ÒÓÅ­¼ Ì Ô§ÆYº0 
`¹dhgr”jqw–rkl ¢q…Šxyrguq`ae`b|q¨qrq©
1

-1

1

JLK D Q  O §VŽO T 6 07 U ˆO    E P T—U V
· `¹dh{x ÌgÑ ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô` ÌgÑ è~ÒÓÅÔcoh{…sa™šnq`ad`bnqa˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrza—ae`…Š|œce`woae`bf›c„h{x |qrgjrz|ƒcor * `b|ƒcih{ rq‹–h{a¡frkø
r{wouq`b|vh{uvh{a¡uq` abh{ rq©  Ñ ÒÓÅ  ¼$ŽÒÓÅ  ÔeÔ Ñ ÒÓÅ  ¼dèÒòÅ  Ôeԛ‹qpsrz˜zryŽÒÓÅ  Ô Ñ è~ÒÓÅ  ԛ‹v`b™!nq…Š•kh{ps`b|ƒco`bxy`|œco`k‹
Å  `l aerzpsnŽf{} h{ ruqrae…Šadco`bx’hŒ©
ÌgÑ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ 

ÌgÑ èÒòÅ~Ô
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ Î f„¨vhkw¡rzajžrz|œcorza—uq`…Š|œco`›woae`Œf{} h{ ruqrza—˜{w–hkl ¦vfrza¡uq`0ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ÅÁ` èÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å #N
-1 

# 
ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
¡`aerzpŠ•ƒ`bxrza—rgae…sadce`bx’hŒ©
Ì Ñ Å 

Ì Ñ Å#¼
uq`rz|quq`[Å # Ï^Å Ñ Å”ÒÓÅgÏ Ü Ô›‹qpŠrz˜zr”ÅóÒÓÅÏ Ü Ô Ñ ë ‹–`|œcih{ róÅ Ñ ë rzn Å Ñ Ü  Õ a jrz|ƒcorzaabh{ r¸Ò ë ¼ ë Ô
`Ò Ü ¼ ë ԛ
1

1

Û ì Ý Î f„¨vhkw¡rzajžrz|œcorza—uq`…Š|œco`›woae`Œf{} h{ ruqrza—˜{w–hkl ¦vfrza¡uq`0ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å ã ÏRÅÁ`+èÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å  - Š㠏
¡`aerzpŠ•ƒ`bxrza—rgae…sadce`bx’hŒ©
Ì Ñ Å ã Ï^Å 

Ì Ñ Å - Åã¼
uq` rz|quq`Å  -ˆÅ ã Ñ Å ã χŭ‹špsrz˜zr“Å  -ˆÅ Ñ Å”ÒÓÅ ã - Ü Ô Ñ ë ‹Œ`b|ƒcih{ r0Å Ñ ë rznyÅ Ñ Ï Ü  Õ aÖjrz|ƒcorza
abh{ rYÒ ë ¼ ë Ô`yÒßÏ Ü ¼ ë ԛ

-1 

  

!
JLK @ E ] O   ˆO 1 Q T 6 U 7 O+V
· `¹dh{x Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ ` Ì”Ñ èÒòÅ~Ô€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba
ª «­¬[®+¯k± ° ´ ² « Ú ¶
¯  ¯k±‘° ³ ² ´ « Ú È  Ë  ³ ±‘° ³ ² ´  «  È ®L± ° ´ ² « Ú¶
Ò Â  èvÔbÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ  è~ÒÓÅ~Ô
¯d¯  È ÉËv¯Ù[É߯ ±~³ ±‘° ³‘² ´  «  È ® ± ° ´ ² « ڞ¶

#

Ò ÂèvÔbÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ è~ÒÓÅ~Ô

 §x j–hkwece…sfbnqpshkwi‹vae` 5 ‡Æ ¿©

Ò 5 N Â~ÔbÒÓÅÔ Ñ 5 NŽÒòÅ~Ô
¯d¯ß¯ ª ¯  ¯ ~Ú ³ ² ´  «  È L® ± ° ´ ² « Ú¶
 ÓÒ Å~Ô Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅ~Ô ¼ae`+èÒÓÅÔ Ñ  ë
è 
è ÒòÅ~Ô
Î |ƒco`ba¡uq`hkjqwo`bae`|œc„hkw¡`›¢q`xjvpsrzauq`badc„h{a—uq`¦v|q…dfk} rz `bab‹–uq`co`wox…s|q`bxyrza rzawo`badjž`bfco…¥•ƒrza¡uqrzx¸ml |q…srzab 

â^Ò Â  qè Ô Ñ â^Ò Â 
$èvÔ Ñ â^Ò Â~Ô NâRÒòèqԛ¼
Â Ñ Ò â^Ò Â~Ô NâRÒòèqÔeÔÏiÅ¸Æ â^ÒòèvÔdäNèÒÓÅÔ Ñ ë
â 
è 
Ú « ³ ±‘
° ³ ² ´ ¶ `rzxy`cewo…Šfih{xy`b|ƒco`Yr ˜{wvhkl ¦vfbr uvh aerzxyhŒ‹Öuq…s€‚`wo`|Žfi} hŒ‹—jqwor!uqnŒcor rzn͙!nqršfb…Š`b|ƒco`
uq`¸Â `’è co`bxY‹ `bx fih{uvhˆjžrz|œcer^nqx’hÁr{wouq`b|vh{uvh^™!nq`‰` l wo`baßj`bfce…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{‹Öhˆaerzx’hŒ‹‘uq…s€‚`wo`|Žfi} hŒ‹
jqwor!uqnŒcorrzn ™šnqr!fb…s`|œco` uvh{aór{wouq`b|vh{uvh{a”uq`‡Â `yèR|qrzaójžrz|œcerzagfbr{wdwo`badjžrz|quq`b|œce`bab Î hkjvps…Šfihf{} h{ r
uq`badcoh{a¡uq`¦v|q…ßf{} rz `bat`{l ‹v`bx ˜z`w„h{p‹qxónq…Šcor”ae…sxgjvps`bab‹vfbrzxrgr{Þvae`›we•{hkwe`bxyrza|qrza¡`›¢Œ`bxjvpsrza
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ Î h{uq…df{} h{ rg`“h”aenŒÞqcew„hf{} h{ rguq`€‚nq|Žf{} rz `a hk¦v|qa¡abh{ rg€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba hk¦v|qa
á+`€òhkcorq‹qad`0ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ â  Å -   ` èÒÓÅÔ Ñ â # Å -  # v`b|œcbh{ rq©
Ò Â  èvԍÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ÒÓâ   â # ԚŠ- Ò     # Ô

$# " 
ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡  
Žr{w—`›¢q`bxgjvpsrq‹qae`“ÂŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Ï ì Å’Ï Ü ‹ŒèÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å - í v`b|ƒcih{
 rq‹­Ò  - èvԍÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ð Ï^ň`Ò ÂyÏ^èvÔbÒòÅ~Ô Ñ
Ñ Ï ê Ï é ŏ +wvhkl ¦vfbrza—`xWh{àbnqp‹q•ƒ`wouq``+•ƒ`wox`bps¨qrq‹qwo`baßj`bfce…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{©
10

10

-6

4

-6

4

-10

-10

Û ì Ý Î h{uq…ßf{} h{ r `ˆh da nŒÞqcew„hf{} h{ r uq`Á€‚nq|Žf{} rz `batjžrzps…Š|qrzxy…¤h{…Ša™šnvh{uŒwvhkl co…sfih{a’ah{ rÀ‚nq|Žf{} rz `aLjžrzps…s|qrzx…¤h{…sa
™šnvh{uŒwvhkl co…sfih{a
á+`€òhkcorq‹qad`0ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ '  Å # -   Å -   ` è~ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ' # Å # -  #  # v`b|ƒcih{ rq©
Ò Â  vè ÔbÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Ò '  

'
#

ԚŠ# -3Ò   

ԚÅ
#

-  

 

#

Žr{w—`›¢q`bxgjvpsrq‹Œae`ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å #Ï ì Å - Ü ‹šèÒÓÅÔ Ñ é Å # - ÅÏ ð q`b|ƒcih{ rq‹­Ò  - èqÔbÒÓÅÔ Ñ ð Å #§Ï^ÅÏ é
`Ò  ψèvÔbÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Ï ì Å # Ï é Å - í  w–hkl ¦vfbrza¡`x h{à nqp ‹q•ƒ`wouq`[`[•ƒ`wox`bps¨qrq‹Œwo`adj`bf›co…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{© 

20

40
10

30

20
-4

10

-4

-2

-2

2

4

-10

2

4

Û ékÝ · ` ¹dh{x ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  Å # Ï Ü `+è~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å ã - Ü 
…‚Ô0Ò Â  èqÔbÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô  è~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ  Å # Ï Ü  ÒÓÅ ã uqrzx¸ml |q…srza abh{ r NâRÒ Â  èqÔ Ñ ÒßÏ
Ÿ¼iÏ ÜbÝRÛ Ü ¼ -

-20

Ü Ô›‹~`tÒ Â 
åèqÔbÒÓÅÔ Ñ Ò  Å # Ï Ü Ô Œ ÒÓÅ ã - Ü Ô rza
Ô Ñ NâRÒ
 ›èqԛ 

  

!
#
…‚Ô  Âè  ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÂŽè~ÒÓÒÓÅÅÔÔ Ñ  Å Å ã # - Ï Ü Ü vrguqrzx¸ml |q…Šr `l â  Âè  Ñ ÒßÏ
Ÿ¼iÏ Ü Ô ^Û¥Ü ¼ -
Ô
JLK K M 1 Q T 6 U 7 O+V B 0T S U Q  SV
· `¹dh{x yÒÓÅ ԁ` ¯ ® ÒòÅ~Ô É jrzps…Š|rz÷ xy…srzauq`’fbr!`¦vfb…s`|œco`a“wo`ih{…sa Žr!uq`bxyrza“uq`¦v|q…¥w”h‡ae`b˜znq…Š|œce`’€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rq‹
f„¨vh{x’h{uvh ³ ± ´ ³ ©
ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ yÒÓÓÒ ÅÅ~ÔÔ
áhRj–hkweco`¸…s…Š…‚Ôóuvh uq`›¦v|q…df{} h{ rq‹ co`bxyrza™šnq` â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ ¿ Ï iÅ ÆÀ¿’ä ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ë `bx rznŒcdw„h{a
j–h{p¤hi•šwoh{ab‹—r uqrzxYml |q…sr uq`Ánqx’h €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r w„h{fb…srz|vh{pt`ˆl r fbrz| ¹ßnq|ƒcorÃuqrzaL|nql x`worza’wo`ih{…ŠaLx`b|qrza h{a
w„hqml àb`bauqr0jrzpŠ…s|rz÷ xy…Šr™!nq` hkj–hkwo`bfb` |qr0uq`|qrzxy…s|vh{uqr{wiö_ r{co`—™šnq`+h{a€‚nq|Žfk} rz `baÖjrzps…Š|qrzxy…¤h{…Ša ah{ r0nqx
fih{aer”j–hkweco…Šfbnqp¤hkw—uvh{a¡€‚nq|Žf{} rz `a¡w„h{fb…Šrz|vh{…sa qޖh{adc„h”fbrz|qae…Šuq`w„hkw ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Ü j–hkw„h”cor!uqrgÅÁƇ¿
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ Î €‚nq|Žf{} h{ rYŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å5 ‹ 5 Æ ¿/`”l xyršuq`bpŠr x’hkco`bx‰hkl ce…sfbr’uq`ójqwor{Þvps`x’h{a+™šnq`ó`b|ƒ•ƒrzpŠ•ƒ`bx ™šnvh{|ƒco… ø
uvh{uq`ba—…s|ƒ•ƒ`woaoh{xy`|œco`jqwor{jr{wefb…srz|vh{…Šab Žr{w—`›¢Œ`bxjvpsrq‹vh”ps`b…uq`0 rŒpŠ`{—Ò ’h{l ˜z…Š|vh Û ì ékÝ Ô›
Û ì Ý · ` ¹dh ÌgÑ ÂŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å -ÃÅ ã Å - # ð - Å # Ü Ï^Å Ï í 
õ hkcor{w„h{|quqr ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å  - Å ã - ð Å #ÏôÅ¸Ï í Ñ ÒÓÅ #Ï Ü ÔbÒÓÅ #.- Å - í ԛ‹co`bx”øae`{© ÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ë ae`
Å 
Ï ƒÏ Ü ¼
Ü  
Ñ  Ü –pŠrz˜zrq‹ â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ ¿ 
Û ékÝ · ` ¹dh ÌgÑ ÂŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å  Ï ð ÅÅ ã - ÏRî Å # - ð 
õ hkcor{w„h{|quqr ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å  Ï ð Å ã ÏÅ # - ð Ñ ÒÓÅ ã Ï Ü ÔbÒòÅ # Ï ð ԛ‹šce`bxgøad`{© ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ë ae`+Å Ñ Ü ‹šÅ Ñ ì
rzntÅ Ñ Ï ì vpsrz˜zrq‹ NâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ ¿ 
Ï ƒÏ ì ¼ Ü ¼ ì  
Û ð Ý · ` ¹dh ÌgÑ ÂŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å- Å  ð - Å # ê - é 
õ hkcor{w„h{|quqr ÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å  - ð Å # - é Ñ ÒÓÅ # - Ü ÔbÒÓÅ # - é ԛ‹vco`bxgø ae`{© ÒÓÅÔ|~h{ ryjžrzaeaenq…wohqml àb`ba—wo`ih{…sa 
psrz˜zr â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ ¿
JLK  5 U Z \ U V   ˆO 1  Q T 6 U 7 O+V
· `¹dh{x Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ ` Ì”Ñ èÒòÅ~Ôuqnvh{a¡€‚nq|Žfk} rz `ba¡c„h{…Ša—™!nq`{©
!â^Ò Â~Ô¾ â^ÒòèqÔ
Ê Ù ´Ú Ë ³  ³‘Ú  È ® ± ° ´ ² « Ú è « ‰`l uq`b|qr{c„h{uvhjžr{w‘è­ÂL`¡uq`›¦v|q…suvhjr{wb©
~± ´ Ä 

ª «­¬[®+¯k±‘° ³‘² ´ ¶

# 

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡  

è —Â~Ô ÅÔ Ñ èÒ ÂŽÒòÅ~ÔeÔ
Õ Þvae`we•ƒ`“™!nq`h”uq`¦v|q…dfk} h{ ry€òh{àae`|œco…Šuqrjrz…ŠaŽÒòÅ~ÔÆ NâRÒòèqԛ
â^Òòè Â~Ô Ñ iÅ¸Æ â^Ò Â~ÔeäzŽÒòÅ~Ô§
Æ NâR҂èvÔ  ` œâ^Òòè Â~Ô Ñ bèÒ ÂŽÒòÅ~ÔeÔdä ŇÆ NâR҂è —Â~Ô 
 §aßc„hyuq`¦v|q…dfk} h{ ryjqworšuqnqà{‹hj–hkweco…Šwuq`“€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba+fbrz|q¨q`bf…suvh{ab‹~|qrå•{h{a¡€‚nq|Žf{} rz `bab‹~fbrzxr•ƒ`wo`bxrza¡x’h{…Ša
h{uq…¤h{|ƒco`{ Î uq`¦v|q…dfk} h{ r uq`fbrzxjžrzadc„h—uq`§€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba`§l uq`§€Nh{l fb…spœx’h{|q`¹ßrq‹{frzxyr—•ƒ`we`bxyrza|qrza`›¢q`xjvpsrzab
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ Î fbrzxjžrzadc„hóuq`€‚nq|Žf{} rz `bahk¦v|qa‡`[l nqxyh”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ryhk¦vxY
á+`€òhkcorq‹!ae`+ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ â  Å -   `èÒÓÅÔ Ñ â # Å -  # Œ`b|ƒcih{ rq‹~҂è ŽÂ~ԍÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Òâ  â # ԚŠ-Áâ #   -  #
`ÁÒ Â —èqÔbÒÓÅÔ Ñ â  â # Å - â   # -    Žr{w0`›¢Œ`bxjvpsrq‹­ae`LŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Ï ì Å‡Ï Ü `gè~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å - í ‹
`b|ƒcih{ rq‹Òòè ÖÂ~ÔbÒÓÅÔ Ñ Ï ì 7Å - ð `yÒ Â ‘èvԍÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Ï ì ÅÏ ÜzÜ  w–hkl ¦vfbrza`bx£h{àbnqp‹v•ƒ`›wouq`[` •ƒ`wexy`bps¨qrq‹
wo`baßj`bfce…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{©

-6

4
-6

4

Û ì Ý · ` ¹dh{xWŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ  Å # Ï Ü ` è~ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å - Ü qfih{pŠfbnqps` è Ö ¼  ‘è¼–Â  ‹šè  è  èy`“   Ö ÖÂ
wo`baßj`bfce…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{
…‚Ô œâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ Û ë ¼ -
Ô+` â^ÒòèvÔ Ñ ¿— ҂è +Â~ÔbÒòÅ~Ô Ñ è~Ò ÂŽÒÓÅÔeÔ Ñ èÒ  Å # Ï Ü Ô Ñ  Å # Ï Ü - Ü  
rz˜zrq‹
â^Òòè Â~Ô Ñ ÒßÏ
Ÿ¼iÏ ÜbÝ ^Û Ü ¼ -
Ô
…s…¤Ô !â^ÒòèqÔ Ñ ¿3` â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ ÒßÏ
Ÿ¼iÏ ÜbÝ ¸Û¥Ü ¼ -
Ô !psrz˜zrq‹š|~h{ rójr!uq`bxyrzaÖfih{pŠfbnqp¤hkw— Žè’hóx`b|qrza
™šnq`fbrz|qae…Šuq`wo`bxrza¡nqx uqrzx¸ml |q…Šrgxy`|qr{wj–hkwohóèLuq`xršuqr”™šnq` !â^ÒòèqÔ§¾ â^Ò Â~ԛ
á+`€òhkcorq©—Ò  §èvÔbÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ÂŽÒòè~ÒÓÅÔeÔ Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅ - Ü Ô Ñ ÒÓÅ - Ü Ô # Ï Ü Ñ  Å # - ì ŏ  `xyrzab©
â^Ò Â §èqÔ Ñ ÒßÏ
Ÿ¼iÏ ì Ý ^Û ë ¼ -
Ô
…s…Š…‚Ô+Ò Â Â~ÔbÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÂŽÒ ÂŽÒÓÅ~ÔdÔ Ñ ÂŽÒ  Å # Ï Ü Ô Ñ Ò  Å # Ï Ü Ô # Ï Ü Ñ  Å # Ï ì  rz˜zrq‹  

  

!

#$#

NâRÒ Â Â~Ô Ñ ÒßÏ
Ÿ¼iÏ  ì Ý =Û  ì ¼ -
Ô
…Š•qÔ+Òòè §è §èvԍÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ è~Òòè~Òòè~ÒÓÅ~ÔdÔeÔ Ñ è~Òò~è ÒÓÅ - Ü ÔeÔ Ñ èÒÓÅ - ì Ô Ñ Å - é 
NâRÒòè è èqÔ Ñ ¿
•vÔÒ Â    —Â~ÔbÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ÂŽÒ ÂŽÒ ÂŽÒ ÂŽÒÓÅ~ÔdÔeÔeÔ Ñ  Å # Ï ð 
NâRÒ Â   —Â~Ô Ñ ÒßÏ
Ÿ¼iÏ ì Ý RÛ ì ¼ -
Ô


    


á+rza—`$¢q`bxjvpŠrza¡h{|ƒco`we…sr{wo`bajr!uq`bxyrza fbrz|qfbpŠnq…Šw™!nq`{‹v`bx ˜z`w„h{p ©
Ò Â  èqÔbÒÓÅÔ Ñ  ҂è Â~ÔbÒÓÅÔ
Û ékÝ · nŒjrz|q¨vh ™šnq`ónqx’hyx’h{|qf„¨vh’uq`0jrzpsnq`|œco`”™šnq`0frz|œc„h{x…s|vh’nqx’hyp¤h{˜zrƒhyco`x h’€‚r{wox’h’uq`ónqx
uq…sadfbruq` w„h{…sr gÒ`bx  â‡ÔŽ`—aenvh^hkl wo`ih+º=Ò`x  â #NÔ[`l €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r“uqrw„h{…srq · `r[woh{…srfwo`baef`¡`bx €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r
uqryco`bxgjrÒ`x â Ôjž`bp¤hpŠ`b…  Ñ qÒ dÔ Ñ Ò Üåë  - ë í Ô  â‹–uq`co`wexy…s|q`h hkl wo`ihyuvhxyh{|qf$¨vhy`x
€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ryuqrgco`bxjžrq
Î hkl wo`ih`0l º”Ò {Ô Ñ !  # uq`›•ƒ`bxyrzafih{pŠfbnqp¤hkw+º”Ò eÔ$‹ jr{wrznŒcewor p¤h{uqr’º”Ò dÔ Ñ ÒÓº  {ÔbÒ dÔ Ñ º”Ò ŒÒ dÔeÔ 
psrz˜zrq‹qº”Ò eÔ Ñ º”Ò ŒÒdÔeÔ Ñ º”Ò Üåë  - ë í Ô Ñ ! Ò Üåë  - ë í Ô #  â #
Û ð Ý Î €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r ~ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ  Å  -ÃÜ Å # - Ü jršuq`ˆae`w‡`baefwe…Šc„h fbrzxyrôh fbrzxjžrzadc„h uq`^uqnvh{a‡rznŒcdw„h{a
€‚nq|Žf{} rz `baˆá+`’€òhkcorq‹ ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Òòè Â~ÔbÒÓÅԛ‹rz|quq`LŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å  -‰Å # - Ü `èÒòÅ~Ô Ñ  Ü Å Yá+`bae`b|q¨qrza
`b ae™!nq`wouvhŒ‹–˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrzauq`0ÂÃÒ h{àbnqp‚Ô$‹šè^Òӕƒ`woxy`ps¨qrœÔ` ž©
Û ð Ý  §adޞršfb`Lr˜{wvhkl ¦vfbruq` Ì Ñ  Å #+Ï Ü   Î €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å # Ï Ü jžršuq` ae`wg`baefwe…Šc„hÁfbrzxyrˆh
fbrzxjžrzadc„hYuvh{a0€‚nq|Žf{} rz `aÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å #+Ï Ü `è~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ  Å(‘psrz˜zrq‹  Ñ è [Ž`p¤h¸r{Þvae`we•khf{} h{ rÁuvh
j—h{l ˜z…s|vh Û é í Ý ‹qr˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguq` ~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ  ŽÒÓÅ~Ô `l rguq`bae`b|q¨qr’uvh”uq…Šwo`b…¥c„hYÒò•ƒ`woxy`bpŠ¨qrœÔ›
2

1

1

-1

-2

-1

1

2

1

# 
ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
Û í Ý á+`ce`woxy…Š|q`“ ÒÓÅ~Ô$‹–ad`{©
…‚Ô  ÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ì ÏRÜ Å `“   Ñ Â  — ‹  Ñ ë ¼ Ü ¼ ì ¼ é ¼ 
…s…¤Ô   ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å # `   Ñ Â   ‹  Ñ ë ¼ Ü ¼ ì ¼ é ¼ 
…‚Ô · `  ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ì ÏRÜ Å ‹v`b|œcbh{ rq©
  ÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Ò Â     ÔbÒÓÅÔ Ñ Â  Ò Â  ÒÓÅÔeÔ Ñ Â  Ò ì ÏRÜ Å Ô Ñ
ìÏ
Ü
 # ÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Ò Â    ÔbÒÓÅÔ Ñ Â  Ò é ì Ï ÏRì Å Å Ô Ñ
Ñ
ì
Ïì é Ï ÏRì Å Å
 ã ÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Ò Â   # ÔbÒÓÅÔ Ñ Â  Ò ðé ÏÏ éì ÅÅ Ô Ñ ðí ÏÏ ðé ÅÅ
Õ Þvae`we•kh{|quqr h{a—`$¢Œjqwo`badabrz `ba h{|ƒco`wo…Šr{wo`bajršuq`xyrzahk¦qwox’hkw—™šnq`{©
 ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Ò *- Ò  ì - ÔÏ‰Ü ÔÒ Ï  -+Å Ü ÔšÅ
…s…¤Ô · `0  ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å #N‹–`|œcih{ rq©
  ÒòÅ~Ô
 # ÒòÅ~Ô
 ã ÒòÅ~Ô
  ÒòÅ~Ô

Ü

ì ÏRÅ
Ü Ñ éÏ ìż
ì RÏ Å
éÏ ìż
ðÏ éÅ

Ñ Ò Â  Â  ÔbÒÓÅÔ Ñ Â  ÒÓÅ # Ô Ñ Å  ¼
Ñ Â  Ò Â  ÒÓÅÔeÔ Ñ Â  ÒÓÅ  Ô Ñ Å{¼
Ñ Â  Ò Â # ÒÓÅÔeÔ Ñ Â  ÒÓÅåÔ Ñ Å  ¼
Ñ Â  Ò Â ã ÒÓÅÔeÔ Ñ Â  ÒÓÅ  Ô Ñ Å ã #
_ r{co`™šnq`{© ð Ñ ì # Ñ ì   ‹ î Ñ ì ã Ñ ì #  ‹ Üåê Ñ ì  Ñ ì ã  ` é ì Ñ ì  Ñ ì   
Õ Þvae`we•kh{|quqr h{a—`$¢Œjqwo`badabrz `ba h{|ƒco`wo…Šr{wo`bajršuq`xyrzahk¦qwox’hkw—™šnq`{©§Â ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å #     

  

!
JLK D QO  V  O  Z  1  Q T 6 07 U
Õ Þvae`we•ƒ`0h{aae`b˜znq…Š|œce`ba¡c„hkޞ`bp¤h{ab©
'

ð

ë

Ü
ì

ê

é

½ Ñ ½tÒ ' Ô
ìzí
ìî
éŒÜ
éí
ézî
ðÜ
ðzð

í

½
ìzí
ìî
éŒÜ
éí
ézî
ðÜ
ðzð
'

#

Ñ ' Ò ½gÔ
ë
Ü
ì
é
ð
í
ê

Î qj wo…sxy`…Šw„hc„hkޞ`bp¤h+€‚rz…qr{Þqco…suvh+|œnqx `adconquqradr{Þqwo`¡h jr{jvnqpshf{} h{ ruq` ޖh{ps`…¤h{aöfbr{wofbnq|quvh{a |!nqx fb`›wecor
ae`cer{w¡fbrzaßco`b…ŠwernŒco…Šps…sàbh{uqrfbrzxyr0jžrz|œcoruq`wo`›jqworšuqnŽf{} h{ rgj`bpshg`badj`l fb…s`{ Õ c„h{x’h{|q¨qr”uvh”jr{jvnqpshf{} h{ r
uq`[ޖh{pŠ`b…¤h{aL`[l x`buq…suqrh{|!nvh{pŠxy`b|ƒco`{‹vuqnŒw„h{|ƒco` ê h{|qrza Õ | qln xy`wor½Fuq`[ޖh{pŠ`b…¤h{aL`[l €‚nq|Žfk} h{ ryuqr’h{|qr
l wo`bh{ps…sàbh{uvh’h x`buq…df{} h{ rq©½ Ñ ½LÒ ' Ô$ · nŒjrz|q¨vh ™šnq`k‹`bx fb`›wecor …s|qadcoh{|œco`k‹rzaÞv…srzpbrzl ˜zrza
' `x ™šnq`^`“
xónquvh{xÄr0jrz|ƒcor”uq`+•š…sadcoh“`+¦vfbh{x …s|ƒco`wo`badaoh{uqrza—|qr0co`xjr0`baßco…sx’h{uqr0j–hkw„h0™!nq`[h“jžr{jvnqp¤hf{} h{ róuq`
ޖh{ps`…¤h{aÖhkco…Š| ¹dhnqxFf`wecor0|nql xy`›wor“uq` …s|quq…¥•~ml uqnqrza½’‹šrzn’ae` ¹dhŒ‹Œuq`bae`¹dh{xFr{Þqco`w ' `bxF€‚nq|Žfk} h{ r0uq`+½ ©
 r`[l f„¨vh{x’h{uvh”uq`…Š|œ•ƒ`weaohuq`[½ ½LÒ Ô›  `¹dhh”ae`b˜znq|quvhgcohkÞ`bpshŒ
' Ñ ' Ò½gÔ$  h{p€‚nq|Žfk} h{
+wvhkl ¦vfbryuvh”jqwe…sxy`b…¥w„hó`ae˜znq|quvhgcohkÞ`bpshŒ‹Œwo`badjž`bfco…¥•{h{xy`Ñ |œco`k© '
50
6

40

5
4

30

3

20
2

10

1

1

2

3

4

5

6

10

20

30

40

ª «­¬[®+¯k±‘° ³‘² ´ ¶ Î €‚nq|Žf{} h{ rèô`[l uq…Šc„hó€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r’…s|ƒ•ƒ`woaehguq`0ÂÁae`{©

…‚Ô œâRÒòèqÔ Ñ â^Ò Â~ÔÖ` œâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ NâR҂èvԛ
…s…¤Ô öhkw„h”cor!uqrgÅ¸Æ NâR҂èvԛ¼Ò  §èqÔbÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å`+j–hkw„hócoršuqr”ÅÁÆ â^Ò Â~ԛ¼­Òòè —Â~ÔbÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å­
 §x c„h{p~fbh{aer  `l uq…Šcohg…s|ƒ•ƒ`weciml •ƒ`bp
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´ ŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å’Ï ð ¼Ï Ü Å Ü `è~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å - ð ¼~Ï í Å Ï é abh{ r…Š|œ•ƒ`weaoh{ab‹vjrz…sa©
…‚Ô â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ œâRÒòèqÔ Ñ Û Ï Ü ¼ ÜbÝ ‹ NâRÒòèqÔ Ñ !â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ Û Ï í ¼iÏ ékÝ `{‹
…s…¤Ô+Ò Â §èqÔbÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÂŽÒòèÒòÅ~ÔeÔ Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅ - ð Ô Ñ Å­¼҂è Â~ÔbÒÓÅÔ Ñ è~Ò ÂŽÒÓÅÔeÔ Ñ è~ÒÓÅÏ ð Ô Ñ Å­

# 

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 

Ú « ³ ± ° ´ ² « Ú ¶
…‚Ô · `¹dh’¸nqx’h”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ry…s|ƒ•ƒ`weciml •ƒ`bp á+`b|qr{co`xyrzaÖjr{w+  aenvh…s|ƒ•ƒ`woaehŒ
…s…¤Ô—á+…sàb`›w+™šnq`”  `ól h €‚nq|Žfk} h{ rt…Š|œ•ƒ`weaoh’uq`”ÂI`0l `™šnq…Š•kh{ps`|œco`0uq…Šàb`w+™!nq`”   `”   ¡Â^abh{ rLh
€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r”…suq`b|ƒco…Šuvh{uq`{   xFrznŒcewoh{aj–h{p¤hi•šw„h{ab‹ŒÂŸ` l  ¯ !«Ë ´  ³   Ãl uq…sàb`›wi©§h“€‚nq|Žfk} h{ ryÂÍ` l …Š|œ•ƒ`weaiml •ƒ`bp ae`
`aerzxy`b|ƒco`ad`j–hkw„h”coršuqróÅ  ¼qÅ # Æ â^Ò Â~Ô qco`bxyrza ŒÅ  Ñ  Å # `b|œcbh{ r’ÂŽÒÓÅ  Ô Ñ  ŽÒÓÅ # ԛ
…s…Š…‚Ô Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguq`0  `l ae…sxÃ`›l cewo…sfrh{rg˜{w–hkl ¦vfbruq`“ˆ`bx wo`p¤hf{} h{ r h” wo`coh Ì”Ñ Å­
…Š•qÔ · `0 `l …s|ƒ•ƒ`weciml •ƒ`bp`b|ƒcih{ r’  `[l …s|ƒ•ƒ`weciml •ƒ`bp~`’Ò    Ô   Ñ Â
•vÔ  ÒÓÅÔ Ñ  Ò ÂŽÒÓÅ~ÔdÔ   Ñ ÂŽÒÓÜ ÅÔ 
_ rad`b˜znq…s|ƒco`uq`ae`b|q¨qrq‹žrg˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr”jrz|ƒco…spŠ¨vh{uqrfbr{wewe`badjrz|quq`“h Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅԛ©  

LJ K’K M ? O E ŽU  U \    > O  O ÖZ SiQ    D QgO  V 
…‚ÔÖ §adfwo`•khh”`b™šnvhf{} h{ r Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅ~Ô™!nq`[uq`¦v|q`“hg€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r 
…s…¤Ô ¡`aerzpŠ•khóhó`™šnvhf{} h{ róuqró…Šco`xą‚Ô›‹œj–hkw„h“ÅY`bxF€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rguq` Ì j–hkw„h0r{Þqco`w Å Ñ Â  Ò Ì Ô `k‹qh0ae`b˜znq…Šwb‹
j`›woxónŒco`Å¸jžr{w Ì  Î `b™šnvhfk} h{ rr{Þqco…Šuvhguq`¦v|q`ó  
_ r{co`Á™šnq`k‹h we…s˜zr{wi‹—h €‚nq|Žfk} h{ r‰Â   corzxyh •kh{psr{we`ba |qrza Ì ÆœâRÒ Â~Ô$  Äl jrzadaiml •ƒ`bp uq`›co`woxy…Š|vhkw
˜z`brzxy`›cewo…sfbh{xy`b|ƒco`—ad`¡nqx’h€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r0jrzaeaenq…–rzny|~h{ r“€‚nq|Žfk} h{ r0…s|ƒ•ƒ`woaohŒöhkw„h…Šadcorq‹œuq`bae`b|q¨q` ™!nvh{ps™!nq`w
wo`cohj–hkw„h{ps`bpsh“h{r0`b… ¢qr“uqrzaÅ šae`+hwe`c„h“…s|ƒco`weae`bfc„h“r0˜{wvhkl ¦vfbr0uvh“€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ró|qr0x‰h l ¢q…Šxyr|!nqxFjžrz|œcerq‹
`b|ƒcih{ ryh”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ryjrzadaenq……s|ƒ•ƒ`woaohŒ 

  

!

#

×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥Übݖõ nq|qfb…srz|vh{x`b|œcer“uq`¡nqx co`woxˆrz÷ xy`ceworq© Õ •ƒrzpsnqxy`uq`nqx’h™šnvh{|ƒco…suvh{uq`—uq`¡xy`wefŒln wo…sr`¡l €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r
uvhtadnvhtco`bxjž`w„hkwecenŒw„hŒg aeh{|quqrYh‡€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r‡…s|ƒ•ƒ`woaohŒ‹­uq`co`wox…s|vh{xyrzahLce`bxj`›w„hkconŒw„hLhkcew„hi• `bl auq`
ae`bnt•ƒrzpsnqxy`{
Û ì Ý Î …s|ƒ•ƒ`woaohguq`nqx’hó€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r’hk¦vx |~h{ rfbrz|qaßc„h{|œce`ˆ`“l hk¦vx‡
á+`€òhkcerq‹ ae` Ì Ñ ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ âŸÅ -  [`b|œcbh{ rq‹Â   Ò Ì Ô Ñ â Ü Ò Ì Ï bԛ Ž`wex”nŒcoh{|quqrÃÅ jr{w Ì ‹
Ì”Ñ Â  ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ â Ü ÒÓŒÏ Ô›

Û ékÝ · ` ¹dh’ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å ‹ ^Æ 
· hkÞ`xyrza[™!nq`gad`  `”l j–hkw“hL€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rŸ`ól j–hkw`gae`  `‡l l xj–hkw[ht€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rŸ`tl l xj–hkwb rz˜zr¸ÂRjrzadaenq…
…s|ƒ•ƒ`woaehtj–hkw„hLÅ ë ae`  `”l j–hkw`”j–hkw„hLcor!uqrtÅ Æ ¿ m ae`  `Yl ml xj–hkwi Î m …Š|œ•ƒ`weaohtj–hkw„hYh{x0ޖh{aÁ` l
  Ò Ì Ô Ñ   Ì  Ž`›woxónŒc„h{|quqrgŸjžr{w Ì ‹
Ì”Ñ Â  ÒÓÅÔ Ñ   Å
á+`bae`b|q¨qrza—j–hkw„h ml xj–hkw`[j–hkwb‹vwe`badj`fco…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{

1

1

Û ð Ý · ` ¹dhRŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ' Å Å - -   ‹ '  Ï   Ñ  ë րòh{àb`b|quqr ÃÌ Ñ
wo`bpshf{} h{ ryhóÅ‹qco`xyrzab‹ŒÅ Ñ ' Ì Ï Ï  Ì  vpsrz˜zrÂ   Ò Ì Ô Ñ ' Ì Ï Ï 
1

Å -  ` wo`badrzpŠ•ƒ`b|quqr^hˆ`b™!nvhf{} h{ r^`x 
 aeÅ ` - Ì Ñ ' zr n~‹v`b™šnq…¥•{h{pŠ`b|œce`bxy`b|ƒco`{‹ 

Ì
'

1  

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
   ÓÒ Å~Ô Ñ ' ÅyÏ Ï  Å 

ae`Å Ñ  ' ‹v™!nq`ˆ`[l hg…s|ƒ•ƒ`woaehuq`“
Û í Ý  xyh+ޞrzp¤h+uq`—Þr{wdw„h{f„¨vh`badc–hl ae`b|quqr“…Š| –h{uvh`ae`bn•ƒrzpŠnqxy` ,;`—l €‚nq|Žfk} h{ r“uqr[co`xjr Ò`bx â Ô
ae`b|quq*r ,’Ò dÔ Ñ Ò ð  - í Ô  â 㠏 +nvh{|ƒcor“co`xjr[uq`bxyr{w„h“hÞrzp¤hhkcŒ` l hkco…Š|q˜z…Šw r•ƒrzpsnqxy`—uq` ð í  â ã 
á+`•ƒ`bxyrzatuq`co`wexy…s|vhkwÁhô€‚nq|Žfk} h{ r …s|ƒ•ƒ`woaoh uq` ,y
rzxyr , Ñ ð .- í `b|ƒcih{ r  Ñ , ðÏ í `
, Ï í 
Ñ ,  Ò ,0Ô Ñ
ð `  Ñ ,   Ò ð í Ô Ñ Üåë â  
Û êkÝ   l fbrzxónqxY‹`bx;uq…s€‚`wo`|œco`a
… `b÷ |qfb…¤h{a[uvh‡_+hkconŒwo`àihŒ‹nŒco…Šps…Šàihkwuqnvh{a`baefih{psh{a[j–hkw„h‡x`buq…Šwco`bxgø
j`›w„hkconŒw„h{ab‹ õ h{¨Œwo`b|q¨q`b…¥c7`
`bpŠae…snqa
…‚Ôá+`co`›woxy…s|q`[hó€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r ¸™šnq`+wo`bp¤h{f…srz|vhh0co`bxgj`w„hkcenŒw„h Ì `x ˜{woh{nqa
Ö`bpsad…snqa h0 co`bxgj`w„hkcenŒw„hóÅ
`bx ˜{w„h{nqa õ h{¨Œwo`|q¨q`b…Šci‹vaohkޞ`b|quqr’™šnq`ae`bn‡˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrÃ`l nqx’h0wo`c„hŒ
…s…¤Ôá`›co`woxy…Š|q`“  
…‚Ô · `“rg˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr`l nqxyh”wo`cohh€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r’uq`›•ƒ`ae`wuqrco…Šjžrq© ÌgÑ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ âŸ*Å - N Žr{wrznŒcdworyp¤h{uqrq‹
aohkޞ`bxyrza¡™!nq`{© ÌÑ ÂŽÒ é ì Ô Ñ ë ‹vjrz…Šahh{l ˜znvhae`“fbrz|q˜z`p¤hyh ë ˜{w„h{nq)a
Ö`bpsad…snqab ÌÑ ÂŽÒ ì Ü ì Ô Ñ Üåëzë ‹
jrz…Ša¡hh{l ˜znvhg€‚`wd•ƒ`“h Üåëzë ˜{w„h{nq/a
`bpŠae…snqa Žr{wec„h{|ƒcorq©
â Ñ ÂŽÒ ì ì Ü Ü ì ì Ô­ÏÏ éŽì Ò é ì Ô Ñ ñí ` 
Ñ Ï Üåêzñ ë  psrz˜zrq‹
ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ñí ÒÓÅ’Ï é ì Ô
…s…¤Ô · ` ¹dh ”Ì Ñ ñí ÓÒ Å’Ï é ì Ô –`|œcih{ rq‹qÅ Ñ ñí Ì - é ì `
  ÓÒ ÅÔ Ñ ñí Å - é ì 
rz˜zrq‹q`badc„h{a abh{ rgh{awe`b˜{w„h{a uq`[frz|œ•ƒ`weabh{ rg`|œcewe`co`xj`wohkconŒw„h{a uvh{uvh{a—`x ˜{w„h{nqa Ö
`bpŠae…snqa `˜{w„h{nqa
õ h{¨Œwo`b|q¨q`b…¥ci  

  

!

100

-100

-40

100

-100

Û ï Ý
h{psfnqps`“h”…s|ƒ•ƒ`woaoh”uq`nqx’h”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rjžrzps…s|qrzx…¤h{puq`ae`b˜znq|quqr’˜{w„h{n~
· `¹dh ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ' Å # - „Å -  ¼ ' Ñ  ë  r{Þvae`we•kh{|quqr’ry˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr’uq`0ˆco`bxyrza™šnq`€òh{àb`w0Ï +ì  ' Å Òrzn
Ï +ì  ' ŸÅÔj–hkw„h’r{Þqco`wh’…s|ƒ•ƒ`woaehŒ  ¡`baerzp¥•ƒ`b|quqr ÌLÑ ' Å # - „Å -  rzn ' Å # - „Å - Ò  Ï Ì Ô Ñ ë ‹
co`bxrza™!nq`{© Å Ñ Ï    # +ì Ï ' ð '  - ð ' Ì ‘ §|ƒcih{ rq©
   Ò Ì Ô Ñ Ï  -  # +ì Ï ' ð '  - ð ' Ì ae` ' Íë ¼
 #  Ò Ì Ô Ñ Ï  Ï  # +ì Ï ' ð '  - ð ' Ì ae` '  ë
Î |vh{psrz˜ƒh{x`b|œce`ad`Ï +ì  ' Å 

›" 
ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
1 Q T 6 U 7 O+V :I]O[Z OQ    OV
JLK 1 Q T 6 07 U : X‡\ U Q¸OQ T S  ]
Î €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r’`$¢Œjrz|q`|qfb…¤h{p`badc–h’l h{adaeršfb…sh{uvhyh€‚`b|rz÷ x`b|qrzauq`f›wo`baefb…Šxy`b|ƒcor’rznYuq`bf›wo`baefb…Šxy`b|ƒcorq‹žfrzxyr
jr{w—`›¢Œ`bxjvpsrq‹qf›wo`baefb…Šxy`b|ƒcorjžr{jvnqp¤h{fb…Šrz|vh{p~`uq`bae…Š|œce`b˜{w„hf{} h{ rwoh{uq…srƒhkco…¥•{hŒ
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´ ¶· nŒjrz|q¨vh ™šnq`óhkj—rzl a ï xy`bae`auq`0r{Þvad`we•khf{} h{ rt€‚r{woh{x r{Þqco…suqrza rza ad`b˜znq…s|ƒco`ba+uvh{uqrza
uq`nqxyhójžr{jvnqp¤hf{} h{ rguq`€‚r{woxy…Š˜ƒh{ab©
† 

Ü Ü í ëzëzëzë
ì Ü í{ñ ëzëzë
ñ ëzëzë
é Üåêzî í ð ë
ñƒí ð ë
ð ÜNï{îzê ízì ÜåëŒÜzÜ ì
í Üåî ñ éƒïšÜ ÜåëƒïšÜ ñ
ê ì ëzëƒï{ézé ÜzÜåézê ì
ï ì Ü ì ïzïzï Ü ì ë ðzð
† `yl rYxY`b÷ a‹ `’l hY™!nvh{|œce…suvh{uq`yuq`’€‚r{wox…s˜ƒh{a`x/fih{uvhYxY`÷ a“uvhYr{Þvae`we•khf{} h{ rÁ`  `’l h‡•khkwo…shf{} h{ r
xy`b|qaeh{p­uvhjžr{jvnqp¤hf{} h{ rq á+…Š•š…suq…s|quqryh™šnvh{|ƒco…suvh{uq`uq`“€‚r{woxy…Š˜ƒh{a¡uq`“nqx x¸`b÷ a¡`x wo`bpshf{} h{ r’h{ryxY`b÷ a
h{|ƒco`wo…Šr{wi‹ r{Þqco`bxyrzaynqx €òhkcor{w’fbrz|qaßc„h{|œce` Ü ëzê ‹Ör ™šnq`Yxrzadcew„h^™!nq`Áh^jr{jvnqpshf{} h{ r uq`¸€‚r{woxy…Š˜ƒh{a
fwo`aefb`{‹ hkjqwori¢q…sxyh{uvh{xy`b|ƒco`{‹ ê  h{rxY`b÷ a  `xyrzab©
ae`[Å Ñ ë ¼v`b|ƒcih{ r Ü í ëzëzëzë Ñ Ü í ëzëzëzë 1 Ò Ü ëzê Ô  
ae`[Å Ñ Ü ¼v`b|ƒcih{ r Ü í{ñ ëzëzë Ñ Ü í ëzëzëzë 1 Ò Ü ëzê Ô  
ae`[Å Ñ ì ¼v`b|ƒcih{ r Üåêzî í ð ë Ñ Ü í ëzëzëzë 1 Ò Ü ëzê Ô # 
ae`[Å Ñ é ¼v`b|ƒcih{ r ÜNï{îzê ízì Ñ Ü í ëzëzëzë 1 Ò Ü ëzê Ô ã
 §xF˜z`w„h{p ‹šuq`bfbr{wewo…ŠuqrzaŇxy`bae`a—hkj—rzl a h0jqwo…Šxy`b…Šwoh“r{Þvae`we•khf{} h{ rq‹vh“jr{jvnqpshf{} h{ rguq`+€‚r{wox…s˜ƒh{ag`+l uvh{uvh
jr{wŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Ü í ëzëzëzë 1 Ò Ü ëzê Ô ! w–hkl ¦vfbryuq`“©
200000

150000

100000

50000

1

2

3

4

5

6

7 

  

!
ª «­¬[®+¯k±‘° ³‘² ´ ¶ · ` ¹dh ' Ƈ¿3coh{p™šnq` ë  ' Ñ  Ü  Î €‚nq|Žf{} h{ rg`›¢Œjžrz|q`b|qfb…¤h{p~uq`+ޖh{ae` ' ` l uq`b|qr{c„h{uvh”`
uq`¦v|q…Šuvhgjr{wi©
â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ ¿‹ œâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ Ò ë ¼  '  Ü  
Ú 
«  ³ ± ° ´ ² « Ú ¶
…‚Ô · ` ^Æ ‹`b|œcbh{ rq©

ë

…s…¤Ô · ` ^ Æ
`  ‰ë ‹–`|œcih{ rq©

Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ' 
Ô$‹–ÂŽÒ ë Ô Ñ Ü ‹–ÂŽÒ Ü Ô Ñ ' `ae`bn‡˜{w–hkl ¦vfbruq`›j`b|quq`“uq`[ae`w '  Ü rzn

'

Ñ
'

1

1
'

1

Ñ 'Ü

' 

¼—|‡•ƒ`àb`ba
'

…s…Š…‚Ô · `[ÅYÆ  ‹`b|ƒcih{ rgÅ Ñ –‹ rz|quq` ¸ Æ  ` óÆ ^ Ï ë ©
Ñ ' Ñ   '
…Š•qÔ · `ÅIÆ ä ‹Ö…saßcor `{l ‹nqxG| qln xy`wor‡…Šwew„h{f…srz|vh{p‘fbrzxyr ! ‹  é ‹™šnq`ae`b|ƒco…suqrYco`x»h‡`›¢šjqwo`babh{ r '
` ' ã  Î wo`adjrzadcohˆwo…Š˜zr{worzaohÁhˆ`adc„hˆjž`wo˜znq|ƒc„had`w–h¸l wo`badjžrz|quq…suvh`x |~ml •ƒ`b…saóuq`L`badconquqrza”x’h{…Ša
`bpŠ`•{h{uqrza—™šnq`ruq`baßc„h|qr{c„h{a…s|ƒcewor!uqnŒc–r{l wo…¤h{a Žr{w—`b|q™šnvh{|ƒcorq‹q•ƒ`¹dh{xyrzanqx’hó…su§`bl …shg…Š|œconq…¥co…Š•khŒ©
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶

Örz|qae…suq`we` ì  ã vry| qln xy`worg…Šwewoh{fb…srz|vh{p  é `
l hkjqwori¢q…Šx’h{uvh{xy`b|ƒcoÜN` ï  é Ñ Ü ï{é ÜNì ï{ë é í ëzîzëƒï í êzî ð Žézr{é w
rznŒcewor psh{uqrq‹—rza’ae`˜znq…s|ƒco`ba | qln xy`worza’ah{ r w„h{f…srz|vh{…sa© Ü ï Ñ Üåë ‹ Ü ï{é Ñ Üåëzë ‹ Ü ï{é ì Ñ ìzí ë ‹
Ü ï{é ì ë í Ñ éì ðëzêëzðëzëÜ ‹ž`›cof{ rz˜zrq‹ jž`bp¤h’r{Þvae`wd•{hf{} h{ rLh{|ƒco`wo…Šr{w aohkޞ`bxyrzafih{pŠfbnqp¤hkw ì 
3 ‹ ì 
3 㠋 ì 
3 ã #å‹
ì 
3 ã #   ¼ `+jr!uq`bxyrzar{Þqco`w—nqx •kh{psr{w—hkjqwori¢q…Šx’h{uqr”j–hkwoh ì  㠏 Õ Þvae`›we•ƒ`0h”cohkÞ`bpshŒ©
' 

Å

Ü ï
Ü  ï{é
Ü  ï{é ì
Ü  ï{é ì ë í 

é



ì
é  ì ð ñ ëzë ñ
é  éŒÜNï ì ï{î
é  é ì Üåîzîzë
é  é ì Ü ñzñƒí
ìã

 

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
´ Ù ž¯«  ³  « Ú ¶
…‚ÔŽÒÓÅ  - Å # Ô Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅ  ÔvŽÒÓÅ # ԛ adcorÃ` l '    Ñ '   '   ‹Œj–hkw„hgceršuqróÅ  ¼qÅ # Ƈ¿
…s…¤Ô ÂŽÒ žÅ~Ô Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ  Ñ ÂŽÒ bÔ    adcor ` l '  Ñ Ò ' ƒÔ Ñ Ò ' Ô q‹vj–hkwoh”cor!uqrgÅ­¼ Æt¿
…s…Š…‚Ô
rz|qae…Šuq`wo`+h“jqworz˜{wo`aeabh{ róhkwo…¥coxÃ`l co…Šfihuq`w„h{àkh{ r ©ŽÅ­¼vÅ - ž¼–Å - ì ¼eÅ - é ¼vÅ)- é ž¼ 
`b|ƒcih{ rq‹vŽÒÓ)Å - vÔ Ñ ' ŽÒÓÅ~Ô$‹qŽÒÓÅ - ì qÔ Ñ ÂŽÒdÒÓ)Å - qÔ - qÔ Ñ ' ŽÒòÅ - vÔ Ñ ' #  ŽÒÓÅÔ Œ`bxF˜z`w„h{p ‹
ŽÒÓÅ -  qÔ Ñ '  ŽÒÓÅÔ qpŠrz˜zrgr{Þqco`xyrza—nqxyh”jqworz˜{wo`aeabh{ ry˜z`brzxÃ`l cewo…Šfih”uq`w„h{à{h{ r '  §_+hó•ƒ`wouvh{uq`
cor!uv*h Ž ó`[l nqxyhg€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ry`$¢Œjrz|q`|qfb…¤h{p™šnvh{|quqrgÅÁÆ 
Ž`bpshÁjqwor{jqwe…s`buvh{uq`th{|œce`wo…sr{wb‹ fih{uvh¸•ƒ`bà ™šnq`LhˆhkÞvaefb…Šaeaoh^h{nqx`b|œcohÁnqxyhÁnq|q…Šuvh{uq`‡hÁr{wouq`b|vh{uvh ` l
xónqpŠcoÜ …¥jvps…Šfih{uvhjr{w ' ` fih{uvh •ƒ`bà‘™šnq`‘h¡hkÞvaef…saeaohuq…sxy…Š|!nq…znqxyhnq|q…Šuvh{uq`h r{wouq`b|vh{uvhL`öl xónqpŠco…¥jvps…Šfih{uvh
jr{w '  · ` '  Ü ‹z`b|ƒcih{ rq‹ƒhuq…saßckh{÷ |qfb…¤h uvh fbnŒwe•khh{r `b…¥¢Œr uqrzaöÅgfwo`aefb`™šnvh{|quqr Åyfwe`baefb` `Öuq`bfwe`baefb`
™šnvh{|quqr”ňuq`bfwo`badfb`{ · ` '  Ü ršfr{wewo`rfbrz|ƒcew–hkl wo…Šrq
 xFfbh{aer0j–hkweco…sfnqp¤hkwÖ` …Šxjr{wecoh{|œco`—uq` €‚nq|Žf{} h{ ró`›¢Œjžrz|q`b|qfb…sh{p¡` Ü l ™šnvh{|quqr ' `l h“fbrzÜ |qadc„h{|ƒco`+uq`  §nqpŠ`Ü w
ç ì ¼ ïšÜåî ì îŒÜ   `¹dhYr¸fihkjml conqpsr   › +w–hkl ¦vfrza“j–hkw„h ' Ñ ì Òӕƒ`›wouq`åԛ‹ ' Ñ ð Òh{àbnqp‚Ô[` ' Ñ é
Òӕƒ`wexy`bps¨qrœÔ$‹q` ' Ñ ì Òò•ƒ`wouq`åԛ‹ ' Ñ ç Ò h{ànqp‚ÔÖ` ' Ñ ð Òò•ƒ`woxy`bpŠ¨qrœÔ›‹šwo`adj`bf›co…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{©  

1

1

@ ^\ ]iS T  T 6 U 7 OV
Î a¸€‚nq|Žf{} rz `baˆ`›¢šjrz|q`b|qfb…sh{…saÁrzn fbrzxjrzaßc„h{aYuq` `›¢Œjžrz|q`b|qfb…sh{…sa¸co`bx nqx …Šxjr{wdc„h{|œce`^j–hkj`bp0`x
†ˆhkco`bx‰hkl ce…sfih Î jvps…Šfih{uvhŒ Î ae`b˜znq…¥wi‹ hkjqwo`bae`b|ƒc„h{xyrza—h{ps˜znqxyh{auq`adc„h{ahkjvpŠ…sfihfk} rz `bab
: T—U Q U Z S   5  E ] T  ] U ˆ
O    U V T—U Z \ U V ŽU V
· `nqx’h™šnvh{|ƒco…¤h[…s|q…sf…¤h{pvº  `bx uq…s|q¨q`b…¥wor0€‚r{wօŠ|œ•ƒ`baßco…suvh“h[nqx’hc„h ¢qh[uq`‘¹ßnŒwerzafbrzxjžrzadcorza§uq/`   ‹
⠕ƒ`bàb`ba¡h{ryh{|qrq‹vrxrz|œc„h{|ƒco`+uqry…Š|œ•ƒ`baßco…sxy`|œcorq‹vhkj—rzl a  h{|qrzaae`w–hl uvh{uqr”jr{wi© 

  

!

›#

º Ñ º   Ü - â    
Žr{w[`›¢q`bxgjvpsrq‹~ae` Üåëzëzë wo`bh{…saabh{
 rt…Š|œ•ƒ`adco…suqrzahLnqxyh c„h ¢qhLuq`¹ßnŒworza[fbrzxjrzaßcorza+uq` ï  h{rth{|qrq‹
r xyrz|ƒc„h{|ƒco`Rh{fbnqë xóëƒï nqpsh{uqr hkj—rzl a í h{|qrzab‹ae`Rrza”¹ßnŒwerza¸€‚r{wo`bx fbhkjv…Šc„h{pŠ…sàih{uqrzaYad`bxy`badcdw„h{psxy`|œco` ` l
º Ñ Üåëzëzë Ü - ì   Ñ Ü ð Üåë í{ñ wo`bh{…sab
JLKLK M 5  O+V T SiZ O[Q öU O >CO T  OV T SiZ O[Q öU :3XY\ U Q¸O[Q T S  ]
 x’h^™!nvh{|œce…suvh{uq`¸™šnq`¸f›wo`baefb`Áuq`Áh{fbr{weuqr frzx h ps`b… ÒdÔ Ñ  ç    ¼ 5  ë `¸l uq…Šc„hR™!nq`
`›¢šj`wo…Šxy`b|ƒc„hÁnqx f›wo`baefb…Šxy`b|ƒcorˆ`›¢Œjžrz|q`b|qfb…¤h{p fbrzx»•kh{psr{w”…Š|q…sfb…sh{p Ò ë Ô Ñ     adco` xyršuq`psrÁae`
hkjvps…Šfihg`x uq…¥•ƒ`woaoh{a—ae…Šcenvhf{} rz `bab
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ  wer{¹ß`›c„h øae`¡™šnq``bx  h{|qrzab‹Œh[jžr{jvnqp¤hf{} h{ r0uq` nqx8`badc„h{uqr0ad`w–h“l uq` yÒ dÔ Ñ Üåë ç   #  xy…Šps¨~rz `ba‘uq`
¨vhkÞv…Šcoh{|œco`ab nvh{p+`[l hójr{jvnqpshf{} h{ ryhkconvh{p  +nvh{pae`›w–hl hójr{jvnqp¤hfk} h{ rg`bx ì ë h{|qrzab‹qae`[h”jr{jvnqpshf{} h{ r
fbrz|ƒco…s|œnvhkwf›wo`baefb`|quqr’|q`badc„hgjqwer{jr{wzf{} h{ r 
Î jžr{jvnqp¤hf{} h{ r¸hkcenvh{pó` l ’Ò ë Ô Ñ Üåë x…sps¨~rz `a[` ’Ò ì ë Ô Ñ Üåë ç   Ñ Ü ð ñ Üåî x…sps¨~rz `ab +wvhkl ¦vfbrYuq` 
Ñ ’Ò dÔ`bx£•ƒ`wouq`{
Û ì Ý Ö…irzl pŠrz˜zrza—uq`ce`woxy…Š|vhkw„h{x£™šnq`“`bx fbrz|quq…dfk} rz `ba…suq`bh{…sanqx’h”fbrzprz÷ |q…shuq`ޖh{fcš`l wo…¤h{a¡fwo`baef`0`›¢Œjžrkø
|q`b|qfb…sh{psxy`|œco`k · `{‹­…Š|q…sfb…sh{psxy`|œco`ó`›¢Œ…sadce`bx ézëzëzë ޖh{f›cŒ`l wo…sh{a[`”hkj—rzl a ézë xy…Š|!nŒcerza`adcih{ rtjqwe`bae`b|ƒco`ba
ñ ëzëzë ‹q™šnvh{|ƒc„h{aޖh{fcš`l wo…sh{a—`adc„hkwih{ r”jqwo`bae`b|ƒco`bahkj—rzl a¡nqx’hó¨qr{w„h  
Ò dÔ Ñ ézëzëzë 
ç   ‹~jrz…Ša Ò ë Ô Ñ ézëzëzë ~jžr{w[rznŒcdwortpsh{uqr ñ ëzëzë Ñ Ò ézë Ô Ñ ézëzëzë ç ã  y`”ç ã   Ñ é  
rz˜zrq‹
Ò êzë Ô Ñ ézëzëzë ç   Ñ ézëzëzë ç ã    # Ñ ézëzëzë 1 ñ Ñ ì ï{ëzëzë ޖh{fcš`l we…¤h{ab w–hkl ¦vfbr uq` Ñ yÒ dÔ
`bx h{àbnqp  

50

30000
40

25000

30

20000
15000

20

10000
10

-20

5000
20

40

60

10

20

30

40

50

60

 x’h’™šnvh{|ƒco…Šuvh{uq`g™!nq`guq`bf›wo`baefb`guq`yh{fbr{weuqrtfbrzx;h ps`b… ÒdÔ Ñ  ç      ¼ 5 Àë `gl uq…¥c„hL™!nq`
`›¢šj`wo…Šxy`b|ƒc„hgnqx£uq`bf›wo`baefb…Šxy`b|ƒcory`›¢šjrz|q`b|qf…¤h{pfbrzx •{h{pŠr{w¡…Š|q…sfb…sh{p Ò ë Ô Ñ  
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´ ¶   x õ hkwox’h{fbrzpŠrz˜z…¤hŒ‹qaohkޞ`›øad`0™šnq`0hfrz|qfb`b|ƒcew„hf{} h{ r uq`jž`b|q…sfb…Šps…Š|vh`“rznŒcew„h{a¡uŒworz˜ƒh{a
co`bx nqx uq`bfwe`baefb…Šxy`b|ƒcor`›¢šjrz|q`b|qf…¤h{p ‹œ`bx=wo`bpshf{} h{ r[h{r[co`bxgjr+uvhhkjvpŠ…sfihf{} h{ ruvh[uŒwerz˜ƒhŒ Õ xyršuq`bpŠr 

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
nŒco…Šps…sàbh{uqrÍ` l ÒdÔ Ñ  ç    ‹­rz|quq` 5 Àë `l nqx’hLfbrz|qadc„h{|ƒco`g™šnq`uq`›j`b|quq`’uvh‡uŒwerz˜ƒhŒ Õ nŒcew„h{a
hkjvps…Šfihf{} rz `baae`wbh{ r•Œ…Šadc„h{a|qrzajqw–rkl ¢Œ…sxyrzaÖj–hkw–h{l ˜{woh{€‚rzab
JLKLKJ 1 Q T 6 07 U H U  E V  S T 
Õ xyr!uq`bpsr+`›¢šjrz|q`b|qfb…sh{pÖ`—l …Š|œco`›wo`baeaoh{|ƒco`{‹œjrz…Šaó` l ae…Šxjvps`ba‘`ae`we•ƒ`fbrzxyr ޖh{ae`j–hkw„hrznŒcdworza xršuq`bpŠrza
x’h{…Ša fbrzxgjvps`›¢Œrza ™!nq`¡`badcenquvh{xFae…¥convhf{} rz `ba x’h{…sa‘˜z`w„h{…Šab Žr{wrznŒcewor[p¤h{uqrq‹œfwo`badfb…sxy`|œcorza§`›¢Œjžrz|q`b|šø
fb…sh{…sa|~h{ rYh{fbrz|œce`bfb`bxG|vh‡|vhkconŒwo`bàbhŒ‹j`bpŠrYxy`b|qrzajr{w[co`bxjžr‡…spŠ…sxy…¥c„h{uqrq”_ r‡`b|ƒc„h{|ƒcorq‹uqnŒw„h{|ƒco`
Þqwo`•ƒ`a…Š|œce`we•kh{psrza uq`co`bxjžr0jr{jvnqp¤hfk} rz `ba fwo`baef`bx fbrzx `badce`xršuq`bpŠrq Õ Þvae`›we•{h ø ae`™šnq`+rzaÖ|ml •ƒ`b…Ša
uq` |vhkc„h{ps…Šuvh{uq`Öuq` nqx’hjr{jvnqp¤hfk} h{ ruq…Šxy…s|œnq…Œ™!nvh{|quqr[hjžr{jvnqp¤hf{} h{ r[h{nqxy`b|ƒc„hŒ Õ aöxyr{co…Š•ƒrza­jršuq`x
ae`w•{hkwo…sh{uqrzab‹frzxyr‡€òhkcor{we`baaer!fb…¤h{…Šab‹`fbrz|rz÷ xy…sfrza[rzn aenŒjqwe…sxy`b|ƒcorYpŠ…sxy…¥c„h{uqr uq`’h{ps…Šxy`b|ƒcorza`uq`
`badj–hf} rq Î jžr{jvnqp¤hf{} h{ r`•ƒ`b|ƒconvh{psx`b|œce`‡ae`L`badc„hkÞv…Šps…Šàihkwo…¤hˆ|!nqx |ml •ƒ`pfrzxj–hkcåml •ƒ`pfbrzx r^™šnq`Lr
xy`b…Šrh{x0Þv…Š`b|œce`jžršuq`¡adnqadco`b|ƒc„hkwi‹!ae`bx h[`›¢šco…s|Žfk} h{ ruvh[`adjÖ`bl fb…Š`{  x r{l co…Šxyr+xyršuq`psr+j–hkw„h[r[`badconquqr
uq`badce`[co…¥jruq`[ae…Šcenvhf{} h{ r `[l hg€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rpsrz˜vml aßco…sfihŒ‹quq`›¦v|q…suvhgjžr{wi©
º ¼ 
Ò eÔ Ñ
Ü -ô½ ç  
rz|quq`Áº0¼–½ ¼§`
»ah{ r frz|qadc„h{|ƒco`ba jrzae…¥co…Š•kh{ab  §adco`Áxyr!uq`bpsrRcoh{xóÞ`l x `¸l nqaoh{uqr|qr `badcenquqruvh
jqwor{j–h{˜ƒhf{} h{ r[uq`—`›jv…suq`bxy…sh{ab‹ƒuvhjqwor{j–h{˜ƒhfk} h{ ruq`uqrš`b|Žfi} h{a …s|q€‚`bffb…srzaoh{a `—|vh+jqwor{j–h{˜ƒhf{} h{ r[uq`ޞrƒhkcorza
rzn‡|qr{ciml fb…sh{ab
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ  xyhójžr{jvnqp¤hf{} h{ rguq`xyrzaefbh{a—uŒworzaqr{l ¦vp¤h{a¡|œnqx h{xóÞv…Š`b|ƒco`[pŠ…sxy…¥c„h{uqr `[l uvh{uvh”jr{wi©
ð ëzë ¼ 
 ÒdÔ Ñ
Ü - é ñ ç    
rz|quq` uq`|qr{c„h r |nql xy`›wor uq`ˆuq…sh{aycew„h{|qaefr{wewo…suqrza nvh{p‡`Ál hRjr{jvnqpshf{} h{ rŊ|q…sfb…sh{p  nvh{p‡`Ál h
jr{jvnqpshf{} h{ r|qr Üåë uq…sh  
 Ò ë Ô Ñ Üåë xyrzaefbh{a   Ò Üåë Ô Ñ ì ézé ézé vhkjqwor墌…sx’h{uvh{x`b|œce` ì ézé xyrzaefbh{ab
Û ì Ý ánŒwoh{|œco`Lnqx’h¸`jv…Šuq`bxy…¤hÁuq` uq`b|q˜znq`{‹rˆ| qln xy`weruq`’j`aeaerƒh{a”™šnq`Lh{uqrš`bf`w„h{x hkj—rzl a “uq…¤h{a‹
|œnqx fb`›wecorÞ–h{…¥weworq‹§`l uvh{uvhójr{wi©
Üåëzëzëzë 
# ÒdÔ Ñ
Ü - ñzñ ç   # 
nvh{|œc„h{a[j`baeadrƒh{a[¦vfihkw„h{x;uqrš`|œco`a0hkj—rzl ar‡jqwe…sxy`b…¥worLuq…¤h  nvh{|ƒc„h{a[jž`baeaerƒh{a¦vfbhkw„h{xGuqr!`b|ƒco`ba
hkj—rzl a ìzí uq…¤h{a  
# Ò Ü Ô Ñ Ü ì Ü îƒï qhkjqwori¢q…Šx’h{uvh{xy`b|ƒco` Ü ì Ü uqr!`b|ƒco`ba¡
`  # Ò ìzí Ô Ñ í{ñzñ î ê qhkjqwori¢q…Šx’h{uvh{xy`b|ƒco` í{ñzñ î
uqrš`|œco`ab w–hkl ¦vfbrza¡uq`   `  # ‹Œwo`badjž`bfco…¥•{h{xy`|œco`k© 

  

!
400

10000
8000

300

6000
200

4000
100

2000

LJ K 1  Q T 6 07 U H U    E  Z S T

Örzxyr—™!nvh{ps™!nq`wwo`›c„h—j–hkw„h{pŠ`bp¤h—h{r¡`b… ¢qruqrzaÅg…Š|œce`woae`bf›c„h¡r˜{w–hkl ¦vfruvh¡€‚nq|Žf{} h{
 r `›¢šjrz|q`b|qf…¤h{p Ì”Ñ ' 
|qrx h l ¢q…sxr”|œnqx£jrz|ƒcorq‹v`bp¤hójrzaeaenq…nqx’hó…s|ƒ•ƒ`woaohguq`b|qrzxy…s|vh{uvh”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rypŠrz˜ƒhkwåml cox…sfih0uq`[ޖh{ad` ' ‹
™šnq`ˆ`[l uq`|qr{c„h{uvhgjr{wb©
Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  iè šÒÓÅ~Ô
`uq`¦v|q…suvhjžr{w Ì”Ñ  åè ŒÒÓÅÔ ad`[`[aerzxy`b|ƒco`ae` ' Ñ Å‹vrz|quq` ' ÆY¿ `+l c„h{p™šnq` ë  ' Ñ  Ü 
â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ Ò ë ¼ -
ԛ‹ œâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ ¿‹ÂŽÒ Ü Ô Ñ ë ‹–ÂŽÒ ' Ô Ñ Ü `ae`bn‡˜{w–hkl ¦vfbruq`›j`b|quq`“uq`[ae`w '  Ü rzn
ë  '  Ü  Žr{w`›¢Œ`bxjvpŠrq‹Œj–hkw„h ' Ñ éì Òӕƒ`wouq`åÔ$‹ ' Ñ éÜ Òàbnqp‚ÔÖ` ' Ñ ìÜ Òӕƒ`wexy`bps¨qrœÔÖrzauq`bae`b|q¨qrza
hg `ae™šnq`weuvh`[j–hkw„h ' Ñ ì ‹ ' Ñ é ` ' Ñ ê rza—uq`bad`b|q¨qrza hg uq…¥wo`b…¥c„hŒ©
5

10

15

20

25

30

10

20

30

40

50

1

1

 aoh{|quqr |qrå•{h{xy`|œco`0r €òhkcor uq` ÌLÑ  åèŒÒÓÅԗae`›why…Š|œ•ƒ`›woaoh uvh `$¢Œjrz|q`|qfb…¤h{pce`bxyrza h{a ae`˜znq…s|ƒco`ba
…suq`|œco…Šuvh{uq`bab©
…‚Ô  iè!Ò ' œÔ Ñ Å­‹Œj–hkw„hgcor!uqr”ÅÁƇ¿
…s…¤Ô '
  Ñ Å‹qj–hkw„hócoršuqr”Å¸Æ Ò ë ¼ -
Ô 
 ´ Ù ž¯«  ³  « Ú ¶
…‚ÔŽÒÓÅ  ›Å # Ô Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅ  Ô - ŽÒÓÅ # ԛ‹qj–hkw„h”ceršuqróÅ  ¼qÅ # Æ Ò ë ¼ -
ԛ‹q…Šadcor `{l © 

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
iè šÒÓÅ  bÅ # Ô Ñ  ièŒÒòÅ  Ô -  åèŒÒÓÅ # ԛ¼ j–hkwoh”cor!uqr Å  ¼ŒÅ # Æ Ò ë ¼ -
Ô
…s…¤Ô  åèŒÒÓÅ Ô Ñ    ièšÒÓÅ~Ô
…Š…s…‚Ô åè  ÅÅ   Ñ  åèŒÒÓÅ  ÔÏ  ièšÒÓÅ # Ô
#
Ü
…Š•qÔ  åè ŒÒ Ô Ñ  åè Ò ' Ô
•qÔ  åèŒÒÓÅÔ Ñ  å åèè ÒÓÒ Å' ÔÔ
•Œ…¤Ô '  Ñ   
  
 x fih{aerój–hkweco…Šfbnqp¤hkw `…sxgjr{wec„h{|ƒco`uq`€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rgpsrz˜ƒhkwåml coxy…sfbh`+l ™šnvh{|quqr ' `[l hófbrz|qadcoh{|œco`+uq` §nqpŠ`w
ç  ì ¼ ïšÜåî ì îŒÜ ‰ §x c„h{pfih{aer hR|qr{c„hf{} h{ r nqadnvh{p‡` l ÌÍÑ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  iè  ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ‘ÒÓÅԛ‹f„¨vh{x’h{uqr
psrz˜ƒhkwe…Šcoxyró|vhkconŒwoh{puq`+Å­  `¹dhgrgfihkjml cenqpsr ó Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguq`0ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ‘ÒòÅ~Ôg`{l © 


1 

Ú « ³ ±‘° ³ ² ´ ¶ Î wo`bp¤hfk} h{ r`b|ƒcewo` ' `ç `{l ©
' 

Ñ ç 

  

Ñ ç¼

rz|quq` 5 Ñ ‘Ò ' ԛ
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ á+`ce`woxy…Š|q`[rguqrzx¸ml |q…Šrguvh€‚nq|Žfk} h{ r ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ‘Ò ‘ÒÓÅÔeԛ 
‘Ò % ԝ`
l uq`›¦v|q…suqr’ae` % Íë vpsrz˜zrq‹qj–hkw„hg™šnq`0ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ‘Ò ‘ÒÓÅÔeÔ§`badce`¹dhyuq`¦v|q…suqr`[l |q`bfb`badavhkl wo…sr’™!nq` 
‘ÒÓÅ~Ô ‰ë qpŠrz˜zrgÅ  Ü 
` â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ Ò Ü ¼ -
ԛ +w–hkl ¦vfbrguq`0© 

  

!
0.5
2

4

6

8

10

-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2

Û ì Ý á+`ce`woxy…Š|q`h”…s|ƒ•ƒ`woaohuvh”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rLŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ îŒÜ01 ê í êŒÜ   
õ h{àb`b|quqr Ì3Ñ îŒÜ 1 Ò ê í êŒÜ Ô  Ñ é    `ˆhkjvps…Šfih{|quqrpŠrz˜ƒhkwo…Šcoxr uq`Áޖh{ad`  Ñ é h h{x0Þrza rza
p¤h{uqrza©  iè ã Ò Ì Ô Ñ î Å - ð `”Å Ñ  åè ã Ò Ìî ÔÏ ð rzn~‹  Ò Ì Ô Ñ  iè ã Ò Ìî ÔÏ ð  §™šnq…¥•{h{pŠ`b|ƒco`bxy`b|ƒco`{‹
  ÒÓÅÔ Ñ  iè ã ÒòÅ~î ÔÏ ð ‹­ÒÓÅ ‰ë Ô֙šnq`ˆ`[l hg…Š|œ•ƒ`›woaohuvh”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ryuvh{uvhŒ
Î ad`b˜znq…Šwhkjqwo`bae`b|ƒc„hkwo`xyrza¡h{pŠ˜znqx’h{ahkjvps…Šfihf{} rz `bab©
JLK LK M >CO+V‘SiQ  O    T 6 07 U B  ^S U  S  

Örz|qae…suq`we`“nqx’hh{xrzadcew„h”uq`x’hkco`›wo…¤h{p~™!nq`fbrz|ƒcš`bl x nqx’hgfb`›wec„h™!nvh{|œco…Šuvh{uq`“uq`…Šavr{l cor{jžrgw„h{uq…Šrƒh ø
co…¥•ƒrq õ rz…š`›¢Œjž`wo…sx`b|œcoh{psxy`b|ƒco`r{Þvad`we•kh{uqr[™!nq`nqxyh+€¤wohf{} h{ r+fbrz|qadc„h{|ƒco`uq`baeae`x’hkco`we…¤h{pƒw„h{uq…srƒhkco…¥•ƒr
uq`bfih{…¥w–hÁl `badjrz|ƒc„h{|q`ih{x`b|œce`^ÒÓ`bx»rznŒceworÁ`bpŠ`bxy`b|ƒcorÁrzn `bxCrznŒceworÁ…saqr{l cor{jr¸uqrˆxy`baexr¸`bps`bx`b|œcerœÔ
uqnŒw„h{|ƒco`§nqxyh—nq|q…suvh{uq` uq` co`xjrq Î xy`b…sh ø •š…suvh uq`§nqx …savr{l cer{jr—woh{uq…srƒhkco…¥•ƒr `‘l r¡co`bxgjr|q`bfb`baeaqhkl wo…sr
j–hkw„hghgxy`coh{uq`uq`ps`uq`bfih{…Šwb Žr{w`›¢q`xjvpsrq‹vh”xy`b…¤h ø •Œ…Šuvhóuqr 
hkwdÞrz|qrkø Ü ð `[l uq` í ï{ézë h{|qrzab‹–hguqr 
r{l wo…srkø ì é ð `
l uq` ì ð  í uq…sh{ab‹ƒhkjqwori¢q…sxyh{uvh{xy`b|ƒco`{  adc„h‡`Öl h f„¨vh啃`Öuqr+xÃ`›l coršuqrj–hkw„h h uq`ce`woxy…Š|vhf{} h{ r
uvh …suvh{uq`”uq`gr{ތ¹ß`corza+r{wo˜žh{÷ |q…Šfbrza+nŒco…spŠ…sàih{|quqr
hkweÞrz|qrkø Ü ð “ §adce`”…Šavr{l cor{jžr‰`”l h{fbnqxónqp¤h{uqrLuqnŒw„h{|ƒco`
cor!uvhyh•Œ…Šuvh`“fbrzxy`šfi} h’huq`bfih{…¥w fbrzxWhyxyr{weco`{
Örzxyr’hyx`b…¤h ø •Œ…suvh”uqr 
hkwdÞrz|qrkø Ü ð `“l uq` í ï{ézë
h{|qrzaghkjqwor墌…sx’h{uvh{x`b|œce`{‹Ž™šnvh{|ƒco…suvh{uq`agxy`|qaenŒw–hkl •ƒ`b…Šaguq` 
hkwdÞrz|qrkø Ü ð `badcbh{ rˆjqwo`ae`b|ƒco`bayxónq…Šcerza
h{|qrzaghkj—rzl ahÁxyr{weco` uqrr{Þq¹ß`›corr{we˜žh{÷ |q…sfbrq Žr{wg`›¢q`xjvpsrq‹önqx rzaeaer^hkj—rzl a í ï{ëzë h{|qrza”jžrzaeaenq…h
xy`coh{uq`tuvh^™!nvh{|œce…suvh{uq`‡uq2` 
hkweޞrz|qrkø Ü ð ™šnq`‡`$¢q…saßco…¤hˆ™šnvh{|quqrR`baßc„hå•kh•š…Š•ƒr  hkj—rzl a ÜzÜåëzëzë h{|qrza
jrzadaenq… nqx’hˆ™!nvhkwec„h¸j–hkweco`Luvh™!nvh{|œco…Šuvh{uq`tuq`
hkweÞrz|qrkø Ü ð ™šnq`L`›¢Œ…sadco…shˆ™!nvh{|quqr^`baßc„hå•kh¸•Œ…Š•ƒr 
hkj—rzl a Üåêzëzëzë h{|qrza+jrzadaenq…önqx’hLrz…¥c„hi•{hyj–hkweco`”uq` 
hkweޞrz|qrkø Ü ð ™šnq`”`›¢q…Šadco…sh ™!nvh{|quqr‡`baßc„hå•kh’•Œ…Š•ƒrq 
öhkw„huq`co`wox…s|vhkwh—€‚nq|Žf{} h{
 r ™!nq` wo`jqwe`bae`b|ƒc„hr¡`$¢q`bxjvpŠrq‹ frz|qae…suq`woh{xyrza í ï{ézë h{|qrzafbrzxr—nq|q…Šuvh{uq`{
· `¹dh
hy™šnvh{|ƒco…suvh{uq`0…Š|q…sfb…sh{p­uq*`
hkweÞrz|qrkø Ü ð ž`b|ƒcih{ rLhy™šnvh{|ƒco…suvh{uq`
8uq` 
hkweޞrz|qrkø Ü ð hkj—rzl a 
nq|q…suvh{uq `auq`ce`bxjr `[l fbh{psfbnqpsh{uvh”jr{wb©
Ü 

ÒdÔ Ñ  

ì
 §x ˜z`w„h{p‹!ad`h[x`b…¤h ø •Œ…suvhuq`¡nqx …savr{l cer{jr[woh{uq…srƒhkco…¥•ƒrˆ` l h{|qrzab‹œ`b|ƒcih{ r0h™!nvh{|œce…suvh{uq`¡uq`¡…savr{l cor{jžr
hkj—rzl a Ånq|q…Šuvh{uq`ba¡uq`co`bxjžr `l uq`co`wexy…s|vh{uvhójr{wi© 
  

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
ÒdÔ Ñ  

ì

Ü 

¼

rz|quq`  `[l hg™šnvh{|ƒco…Šuvh{uq`…s|q…Šfb…¤h{p
 §adfwo`•kh{xyrza h’€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r ™šnq`“we`jqwo`bae`|œc„hLr’uq`bfih{…Šxy`b|ƒcor’w„h{uq…srƒhkco…¥•ƒryuqr
hkweÞrz|qrkø Ü ð Œn ce…sps…Šàih{|quqr h
€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ry`$¢Œjrz|q`|qfb…¤h{p©ŽÒdÔ Ñ ç   á+`•ƒ`bxrzauq`›co`bxy…Š|vhkw 5 c„h{p™šnq`
  ìÜ   Ñ
 ç   
Î jvps…Šfih{|quqrpŠrz˜ƒhkwo…Šcexyr”hh{x0Þrza rza¡psh{uqrzab©
Ï í ‘ï{ézÒ ìë Ô Ñ ‘Òç   Ô Ñ 5   psrz˜zrq‹ 5 Ñ Ï í ‘ï{Ò ézì ë Ô Ñ Ï ë ëzëzëŒÜ ì Üåê
`{© 

Ò dÔ Ñ

 

ç 

    #    

1

5000

10000

15000

×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ · `gnqx’h h{xyrzaßcew„hyuq`”fihkwe•h{ r’•ƒ`b˜z`›c„h{pöh{f„¨vh{uvhLfbrz|ƒco`bx êzé  uq` 
hkweޞrz|qrkø Ü ð ‹~`bx wo`p¤hf{} h{ rLh
nqx’h”h{xyrzadcewohghkconvh{puq`[…s˜znvh{p~x’h{aeaehŒ‹quq`co`wox…s|q`[hg…suvh{uq`[uvhh{xyrzaßcew„h”h{f$¨vh{uvhŒ
1¸ë êzé Ñ
ÒdÔ Ñ

ç       #   –hkjvps…Šfih{|quqrpŠrz˜ƒhkwo…Šcexyr”hh{x0Þrza rzap¤h{uqrzab©   

‘Ò ë êzé Ô 
Ñ Ï
ë ëzëzëŒÜ ì Üåê Ñ éƒï ñzñ êzé ¼
™šnq`ˆ`[l …Š˜znvh{p ‹vhkjqwori¢q…Šx’h{uvh{xy`b|ƒco`{‹Œh ézîzëzë h{|qrza
Û ì Ý Õ `bpŠ`bxy`b|ƒcoryw„h{uq…Šrƒhkco…Š•ƒryjžrzprz÷ |q…srkø ì Üåë co`bxWnqx’h’xy`b…¤h ø •Œ…Šuvhuq` Ü ð ë uq…¤h{a+hkjqwori¢q…Šx’h{uvh{xy`b|ƒco`{
· hkÞ`|quqrô™šnq`ˆnqx’h h{xyrzadcew„h j`aoh ì ë xy…spŠ…s˜{w„h{xyh{ay…s|q…Šfb…¤h{pŠxy`b|ƒco`{‹¡™!nvh{|œcerÃwo`baßc„hkw–hl hkj—rzl aLuqnvh{a
ae`bxyh{|vh{a  
Ò dÔ Ñ ì ë ç     frzxyryh”xy`b…¤h ø •Œ…Šuvh”uqrjžrzprz
÷ |q…Šrkø ì Üåë `[l uq` Ü ð ë uq…sh{ab‹v`b|ƒcih{ rq‹ Ò Ü ð ë Ô Ñ Üåë vpsrz˜zrq‹ 
‘Ò ì Ô
ì ë ç    Ñ Üåë ` 5 Ñ Ü ð ë Ñ ë ëzë ð ñƒí Ü šjžr{wec„h{|ƒcorq‹ 

  

!
ÒdÔ Ñ ì ë ç        

` Ò Ü ð Ô Ñ Üåî êzê xy…spŠ…s˜{w„h{xyh{ab
Û ékÝ Î jžr{jvnqp¤hf{} h{ r’uq`“nqxyhfb…suvh{uq``“l uq` ì ëzëzëzë ¨vhkÞv…¥c„h{|œce`bab‹žuq`“h{fbr{wouqr’fbrzx nqxWfb`b|qadrywo`ih{ps…Šàih{uqr
`bx Ü ñzñ ë ` ìzí ëzëzë ¨vhkÞv…¥c„h{|ƒco`baóuq`‡h{fr{wouqruq` nqx fb`b|qadrwo`ih{pŠ…sàih{uqrÁ`bx Ü ñzñƒí  · hkÞ`b|quqr™šnq`Lh
jr{jvnqpshf{} h{ rgce`bx£nqx fwe`baefb…Šxy`b|ƒcory`›¢šjrz|q`b|qfb…sh{p ‹qj`›wo˜znq|œcoh øae`{©
…‚Ô֙šnvh{p~`›w„hyh”jžr{jvnqp¤hf{} h{ rg|qryh{|qrguq` Ü ñ îzë 
…s…¤Ô™šnvh{|quqr’h”fb…suvh{uq`hkco…s|q˜z…¥w–h”l nqxyhójžr{jvnqp¤hf{} h{ rguq` ð ëzëzëzë ¨vhkÞv…¥c„h{|ƒco`ba 
…‚Ô Ò dÔ Ñ ì ëzëzëzë ç   !jr{w§rznŒcewor“psh{uqrq‹ ìzí ëzëzë Ñ Ò í Ô Ñ ì ëzëzëzë ç   ` 5 Ñ íÜ   ðí  Ñ ë ë ðzð ê ì î 
psrz˜zrq‹ 
Ò dÔ Ñ ì ëzëzëzë ç     #  
` ÒßÏ Üåë Ô Ñ Ü ì îzëzë ¨vhkÞv…Šc„h{|ƒco`ba
…s…¤Ô · ` Ò eÔ Ñ ð ëzëzëzë ‹¡`b|ƒcih{ r  Ñ Ü í í éŒÜ hkjqwor墌…sx’h{uvh{x`b|œce` Ü í h{|qrzab  `¹dh rØ{w–hkl ¦vfruvh
`•ƒrzpŠnŽf{} h{ ruvhójrzpsnqpshf{} h{ rq© 

40000

30000

20000

10000

-20

-15

-10

-5

5

10

15

Û ð Ý · ` h”jžr{jvnqp¤hf{} h{ rguq`nqx’h”fb`wec„h”`badj`bl f…s`“uq`j`b… ¢q`ba|!nqx h{x0Þv…s`b|ƒco`ps…Šxy…Šc„h{uqrR`[l uvh{uvh”jr{wb©
í ëzëzëzë ¼ 
ÒdÔ Ñ
Ü - Ü ñzñ ç  
rz|quq` +uq`b|qr{cohYrY| qln xy`wor‡uq`yae`bx’h{|vh{acew„h{|qaefr{wewo…suvh{a‹™šnvh{|ƒcorYco`bxgjr‡ad`w–h‡l |q`bf`baeavhkl wo…Šr¸j–hkw„hYh
jr{jvnqpshf{} h{ ryhkce…s|q˜z…Šw ì ëzëzëzë j`b… ¢q`ba 
Ü ñzñ Ì  öhkw„h ÌYÑ ì ëzëzëzë ‹co`bxrza 
Ñ    Ò Ì Ô›‹~rz|quq` Ì‡Ñ  Ò eÔ pŠrz˜zrq‹  Ñ    Ò Ì Ô Ñ  
í ëzëzëzë Ï Ì 
é
î
ñ 
Ñ ‘Ò
é Ô Ñ ð îzî ae`x’h{|vh{ab §`¹dh”rza¡uq`bad`b|q¨qrzauq` ‰`   wo`adj`bf›co…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{©

„" 

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
8

50000

6

30000
4

2

10000

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

10000

40000

JLKNM 1 Q T 6 U 7 O+V S  U Q U Z O E  ÖS T V
õ `b|rz÷ xy`b|qrzauq`§|vhkconŒwo`bàihf{ml fbpŠ…sfih¡rzn“jž`wo…brzl uq…sfbrzaah{ r+h{aeaeršf…¤h{uqrza h{ a­€‚nq|Žf{} rz `baŽcewo…Š˜zrz|qrzx`l cewo…Šfih{ab Žr{w
`›¢Œ`bxjvpsrq‹ ryޖhkco…sx`b|œceryfihkwouml h{fbrq‹~h{arz|quvh{a uq`“w–h{l uq…Šrq‹žr’wo…¥coxyrrzadfb…spshkc–r{l wo…sruqrzaÞqw„hfb} rza uqnŒw„h{|ƒco`
nqx’hófbr{wewo…ŠuvhŒ‹vrxyr啌…Šxy`b|ƒcor0j`wo…brzl uq…sfbrguqrza—jvpsh{|q`c„h{a¡`[h”•š…ŠÞqw„hfk} h{ ruq` hkl cerzxyrzaÖ`bx fwo…saßc„h{…sab
ª «­¬[®+¯k±‘° ³‘² ´;µ ¶  x’h0€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ryŸ`l j`›wo…irzl uq…Šfih”uq` jž`wåml r!uqr $‹  ‰ë ‹qae` j–hkw„h“coršuqróŸÆ NâRÒ Â~Ô$‹
`b|ƒcih{ rq‹qÅ - ÖÆ NâRÒ Â~Ô`ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÂŽÒòÅ - eÔ$ Õ ˜{wvhkl ¦vfbruq`nqx’hó€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rgjž`wo…irzl uq…Šfihguq`+j`›wåml r!uqr 
ae`wo`j`›co``bx£fih{uvhg…s|ƒco`we•kh{psrguq`[fbrzxgjqwo…sxy`|œcor $  `¹dh”rza¡`›¢Œ`wofzml fb…srzab
JLKNM ‡KNM 1  Q T 6 07 U <‡O[Q U O 1  Q T 6 07 U 5 U  VŽO[Q U
Î aó€‚nq|Žf{} rz `baócewo…Š˜zrz|qrzx`l cewo…Šfih{ajžršuq`bxCae`›wg`adco`b|quq…Šuvh{agj–hkw„hYcor!uqrza”rza0|nql x`worza0wo`ih{…Ša”uq` xyr!uqr
™šnq`ae`¹dh{x£jqwo`bad`we•kh{uvh{a¡coršuvh{a—h{a¡adnvh{a—jqwor{jqwo…Š`buvh{uq`baޗh{l ae…sfih{a  `¹dh”j—h{l ˜z…Š|vh Û¥Ü ð Ý 
Î €‚r{wox’h¸uq`’`badce`b|quq`wÃ` l h¸ae`˜znq…s|ƒco`{©yfbrz|qad…suq`wo`LnqxCfzl wofbnqpsrÁfb`|œcewoh{uqr|vhÁr{wo…s˜z`x»uq`’w„h{…sr Ü `
¦Œ¢q`xyrza r’jrz|ƒcortº Ñ Ò Ü ¼ ë ԗ`bx coh{pfzml wofbnqpsr fbrz|qad…suq`w„mh{xrzafrzxyr’ae`b|ƒco…suqr jrzad…Šco…¥•ƒrq‹r ae`b|ƒco…suqr
h{|ƒco…¥ø ¨qr{w–hkl wo…sr vh{|vh{pŠrz˜ƒh{xy`b|ƒco`{‹qrgae`b|ƒco…suqry|q`˜ƒhkco…Š•ƒr `[l rgae`b|ƒco…suqry¨qr{wvhkl wo…srq 
öhkw„h”fih{uvh”ÅÁƇ¿ h{adaerzae…¤h{xrza—nqx jrz|ƒcor  uq`[xyršuqr”™šnq`k©
hƒÔae` ë ô Å  ì ! ‹šj–hkweco…ŠxyrzaÖuq`+º ` jž`wofbr{wewe`bxyrza rgf{ml wofbnqpŠrg|qr”ae`b|ƒco…Šuqrgjrzad…Šco…¥•ƒrghkcš` l r{Þqco`w—nqx
hkwofbrgfbn ¹ßryfbrzxgjqwo…sxy`|œcor”ae`¹dh”ŏ Õ jrz|ƒcorrz|quq`[ryhkwofbr”co`wox…s|vh `l 
Þ Ô · `yÏ ì !  Å  ë ‹–j–hkweco…sxrza—uq`“º=`[j`wofr{wewo`bxyrza—r’fzml wefbnqpsry|qr’ad`b|œce…suqr’|q`b˜ƒhkco…¥•ƒr’hkcš`“l r{Þqce`w
nqx hkwofbrfn ¹ßryfbrzxjqwo…Šxy`b|ƒcor”ae`¹dh Å  Õ jžrz|œcorgrz|quq`rhkwofbrgce`woxy…Š|vh ` l 
Î aeae…Šx hgfih{uvh|nql x`worgwe`ih{pfbr{wewo`baßjrz|quq`“nqx jrz|ƒcor 
· ` Å  ì ! ae`wvh”l |q`bf`baeaohkwo…Šruvhkwx’h{…Šanqx’h“•ƒrzpŠc„h0|qr”fzml wefbnqpsrq‹q|qr”ae`b|ƒco…suqrójrzad…Šco…¥•ƒrq‹šj–hkw„h”hkco…s|q˜z…¥w
h`›¢šcewo`bx…suvh{uq`  uqr hkwofbrq uq`bx j–hkw„hgÅ  Ï ì !  Î adae…sx hfih{uvhy|nql xy`›woryuvhy€‚r{wox’hó*Å - ì 5 !
Ò 5 Æ  Ô fbr{wdwo`badjžrz|quq`w–hyl nqx jrz|ƒcoruqrfzml wofnqpsrq 

  

!

ª «­¬[®+¯k± ° ´ ² « Ú ¶

…‚Ô ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ æåç ‘ÒòÅ~ԛ¼ `[l hgr{weuq`b|vh{uvhuq`g 
Žr{w—`›¢q`bxgjvpsræNç ‘Ò ì ëzëzé Ô…s|quq…Šfihg™!nq``baßc„h{xyrza fih{psfnqp¤h{|quqryrgae`b|qryuq` ì ëzëzé w„h{uq…sh{|qrzab
…s…¤Ô ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  {æœÒÓÅԛ¼ `l hghkÞvaefb…Šaeaohuq`  
€‚nq`|Ž¹df{h} h{ j—rYh{l l˜zx…s|vj–h hkwÛ Ü `í Ý fbŽrk_+ø aeh{`ba|qrÃuqnv`[l h{nqaÖx’€‚nqhó|Žf{€‚} nqrz |Ž`a f{} h{ cer`bxyj–rzhkwa–™!h{nqx0` ޖ h{a— â^ah{ Ò rgÂ~Ô jÑ`›wo…i¿Ÿrzl uq` …Šfiœh{âRa¡uqÒ Â~`+Ô jÑ `wil Û ršÏ uqÜ r ¼ ÜbÝ !ad`b|qr `¡l nqx’h
m
m ì!
!
Õ Þvae`we•ƒ` ™!nq`¡ae`+ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ æåç ‘ÒòÅ~ԛ‹œ`b|ƒcih{ r”  /Å - ì  Ñ  kæ!ÒÓÅÔ !psrz˜zrq‹œr“˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr“uqr0frkøae`b|qr^`¡l nqx’h
cew„h{|qadp¤hf{} h{ rguq` ! ì uqry˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguqrae`b|qrq Õ a—ae`bnqawo`badjž`bfco…¥•ƒrza¡˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrza—abh{ rq©
1

-1

1

-1

LJ KNM‡K›J 1  Q T 6 0 7 U   Q gOQ  O O 1 Q T 6 07 U t< O T  Q  O
ª «­¬[®+¯k±‘° ³‘² ´  ¶
…‚Ô ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ èÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Næ  ç {‘æœÒÓÒÓÅ~ÅÔ Ô
…s…¤Ô ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ æåç  ÒÓÅÔ Ñ  {æœÜ ÒÓÅÔ 
`¹dh”j—h{l ˜z…Š|vh Û¥ÜåêkÝ ö_+h{a—uqnvh{a—€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba¡co`xyrza—™!nq` NâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ iŸtÆ ¿ä Å Ñ  !ì
- 

¼ …s|ƒco`b…¥wor  
!

ˆ   ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
Û¥Ü ¼ -
Ô ~c„h{|q˜z`b|ƒco` `l nqx’h €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r ml xj–hkw`gae`fih{|œce`` l 
œâRÒèqÔ Ñ ¿ ` œâRÒ æåç  Ô Ñ ÒßÏ
Ÿ¼iÏ ÜbÝ
nqx’h”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ryj–hkw  h{xóޖh{aabh{ rjž`wo…brzl uq…sfih{a—uq`j`wiml ršuqrza ! ` ì ! ‹qwo`baßj`bfce…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{ · `bnqa ˜{wvhkl ¦vfbrza
abh{ rq©
4

2

-4

-2

2

4

2

4

-2

-4

4
3
2
1
-4

-2
-1
-2
-3
-4

LJ KNM‡K 1 Q T 6 0 7 U 5 U    Q gOQ  O O 1 Q T 6 07 U 5 U  VŽO T Q  O
ª «­¬[®+¯k±‘° ³‘² ´  ¶
…‚Ô ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  èÒÓÅÔ Ñ æå ç k‘æ!ÒòÒÓÅ~ÅÔ Ô
…s…¤Ô ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  {æåç  ÒÓÅÔ Ñ æåç ‘Ü ÒòÅ~Ô 
œâR`¹dhÒ  j—h{èql ˜zÔ …s|vh ¿FÛ Üåêk` Ý  œâR_+Ò h{ ag {æåuqç nv h{Ô ay€‚nqÒß|ŽÏ f{} rz
Ÿ `ba’¼iÏ co`bÜbxÝ Ûrzag¥Ü ™!¼ nq- `
Ô öâ^fbrkÒ ø Â~c„Ôh{|qÑ ˜z`b|ƒicoÅÀ`’Æ `’fb¿§rkä øadÅ `bfiÑ h{|ƒco ` ! ab¼ h{ [r¸…Š|œ€‚nqce`b|Ž…Šf{}worzr `b a 
Ñ
Ñ
m˜{l xgw–hklj–¦vhkfbworz`ba—a abh{ h{rqxó© ޖh{aLabh{ r j`wo…brzl uq…sfih{atuq`jž`wåml r!uqrza ! ` ì ! ‹¡wo`baßj`bfce…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{ · `nqatwo`baßj`bfce…Š•ƒrza 

  

!

„#

4

2

-6

-4

-2

2

4

6

2

4

6

-2

-4

4
3
2
1
-6

-4

-2
-1
-2
-3
-4

Õ Þvae`we•ƒ`“rza˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrza—uq`[ad`b|qry`frkøae`bfbh{|œco`k‹ fbrkø ae`b|qr’`ae`bfih{|ƒco`{‹vc„h{|q˜z`b|ƒco`[`fbrkø c„h{|q˜z`b|ƒco`{©
2

2

1

1

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

-1

-1

-2

-2

2

3

4

5

6 

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
2

1

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

-1

-2

×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ Õ vnš¢qr uq`ÁhkwLhkcew„hi• `l aLuvhRcewoh{™šn§`bl …shÀ`¸l nqxyhR€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rÃjž`wo…irzl uq…Šfih uqr co`bxjžr ş`¸ae`Áuh l `x
h{x0Þrza“rzaae`b|ƒco…suqrzaóuqrza“jvnqpsx‡rz `ba Ò…Š|qadjv…Šw„hfk} h{ rˆ``›¢Œjv…¥w„hf{} h{ rœÔ› Õ vnš¢qrYjžršuq`’ae`w0we`jqwo`bae`|œc„h{uqr
j`p¤h0€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rgŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ º^æåç ‘Ò Å~ԛ‹!rz|quq` º ` l rvnš¢qróx‰h l ¢q…ŠxyruqnŒwoh{|œco`+h0`›¢šjv…Šw„hfk} h{ r0` …s|qadjv…¥w„hf{} h{ r
` `Yl rRjž`wåml ršuqrRwo`baßjv…Šw„hkc–r{l we…sr  Ñ ì ! ` `Yl rRco`bxjžrR™šnq`‡r …s|quq…Š•ml uqnqr pŠ`•{h^j–hkwohR€òh{àb`w
nqx fb…sfbpŠrôfbrzxjvpŠ`corq Î €‚nq|Žf{} h{ rÍŽÒÓÅÔô`kl ‹f`wec„h{xy`|œco`k‹ nqx’hhkjqwori¢q…Šx’hf{} h{ rq‹¡jžrz…sa •khkwo…shÃuq`
…s|quq…¥•~ml uqnqr0h[…Š|quq…Š•ml uqnqrqö†h{a `badconquqrza§`›¢Œjž`wo…sÜ x`b|œcoh{…sa‘xyrzadcew„h{x é ™!nq`L`¡l nqxyh {Þrƒh “hkjqwor墌…sx’hfk} h{ r
uvh”we`ih{ps…Šuvh{uq`{§á+`bae`|q¨qrza¡j–hkw„hgº Ñ Ü ‹ Ñ ð `º Ñ ì ` Ñ Üåë ‹vwe`badj`fco…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{     

2

1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

-1

-2

Û ì Ý Õ wo…¥coxyr”rzaefb…Šp¤hkc–r{l wo…Šróuqrza—Þqw„hfb} rza—uqnŒw„h{|ƒco`nqx’h”fbr{wewo…Šuvh”jžršuq`ae`w¡we`jqwo`bae`|œc„h{uqryjžr{wi©
Ì”Ñ ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ !ñ æNç   î é ! qÅyÏ ðé 



Ñ !ñ æNç   î ! é Å  ¼

rz|quq` Ì `l r^h{÷ |q˜znqpsr’fbrzxjqwe`b`b|quq…suqr’`|œceé we`óhjrzae…ßf{} h{ r’uqr’Þqw„hfb} r’`“r’`b… ¢qry•ƒ`wdco…sfih{p`“Å “` l ryco`bxjžr
xy`buq…Šuqrt`x ae`b˜znq|quqrzab Õ j`›wåml r!uqr‰` l ð ae`b˜znq|quqrzajr{wfb…sfpsrq‹…sadcer‰`{l ‹nqx’h rzaefb…Šp¤hf{} h{ r bf rzxgjvps`c„hŒ‹
r{Þqco…Šuvh™šnvh{|quqr“r[Þqw„hfb} r“uq`badfwo`•ƒ` r“f…sfbpŠrj–hkw„h€¤wo`|œco`¡`—j–hkw„h[cdw–h{l ab‹‘`—l fbrz|qfbpŠnq…suvh“`bx ðé ea `˜znq|quqrzab
á+`bae`b|q¨qryj–hkwoh”Å¸Æ Û ë ¼ ð Ý  

  

!
0.3

1

2

3

4

-0.3

Û ékÝ Õ xyr啌…Šxy`b|ƒcory¨vhkwoxˆrz÷ |q…sfbr’ae…Šxjvps`auq`baefwe`•ƒ`”h’jžrzae…dfk} h{ rLuvh{a rzadfb…spshf{} rz `bawo`b˜znqpshkwo`ba `bx cor{wo|qr
uq`“nqx’h”jrzae…ßf{} h{ r’uq`“`b™!nq…sp l Þqwo…sr`“™šnq`•{hkwo…sh{x adnvh啃`bx`b|œce`{‹fbrzxyrgnqx j`b÷ |quqnqpŠr ™šnq`“rzaef…sp¤hgfbrz|šø
co…Š|!nvh{xy`|œco`ó|vh’•ƒ`weco…Šfih{paem `x;|q`¨!nqx co…¥jr uq`”we`badcewo…ßf{} h{ rq‹~fbrzxyr’jžr{w[`$¢q`bxjvpŠrq‹~h €¤wo…sfŒfk} h{ rq §aßc„h{a
jrzad…df{} rz `baabh{ rxónq…ŠcorÞ`bx uq`baefwe…Šc„h{ajž`bp¤h{a€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba‘ÂŽÒ dÔ Ñ 5 æNç ‘Ò  - bÔrznèÒ dÔ Ñ 5 kæ!Ò  - bÔ$‹
rz|quq` 5 ¼ +ÆÁ¿ ` Ÿë  Õ j`›wåml r!uqr`“l rco`xjr ì ! |q`bfb`baeaqhkl wo…sr’j–hkw„hnqxyhgrzaefb…Šp¤hf{} h{ rfbrzxjvps`›c„h
`[h€¤wo`b™!n`b÷ |qfb…¤h ì ! `[l rg| qln xy`worguq`rzaef…sp¤hfk} rz `bajžr{wnq|q…Šuvh{uq`uq`[ce`bxjrqöá+`bae`|q¨qr hg `bad™šnq`wouvhŒ
Õ xyr啌…sx`b|œcerL¨vhkwexrz÷ |q…sfbr‡h{xyr{weco`fb…suqrLuq`baefwe`•ƒ`y€‚`b|rz÷ xy`|qrzauq`rzadfb…spshf{} h{ r‡rz|quq`gabh{ r‡…Šxjrzadcoh{a
wo`baßcewo…dfk} rz `bab‹–fbrzxyrgjžr{w`›¢Œ`bx jvpŠrq‹qnqx j`b÷ |quqnqpŠry™šnq`[rzaefb…spshfbrzx €¤wo…sfšf{} h{ rq  h{p~co…¥jruq`[xyr啌…sx`b|œcer
`l uq`baefwo…¥corjžr{w ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ç  Öæåç ‘Ò žÅ~ԛ‹~Ò ' ¼  ‰ë ԛ‘á+`bae`b|q¨qr h” uq…Šwo`…Šc„hŒ
2

0.8

0.4

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

-0.4
-2

Û ð Ý · `Âô` l nqx’h €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r[jž`wo…irzl uq…Šfih+uq`jž`wåml r!uqr ‹ƒ`b|ƒcih{ rh+€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r[uq`¦v|q…suvh+jr{wŽèÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ÂŽÒ 5 Å- â‡Ô
`+l j`wo…brzl uq…sfihguq`[j`›wåml r!uqr 5  ‹vae` 5 ‰ë ‘á+`[€òhkcorq©
è Å
- 

5 

Ñ Â 

5

Å
-

5   

â  Ñ ÂŽÒ 5 Å*-Ãâ
-

- 

Ô Ñ ÂŽÒ 5 Å*- âYÔ Ñ èÒòÅ~Ô

Žr{w—`›¢q`bxgjvpsrq‹vh{a€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba+ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ æNç ‘Ò 5 ÅÔ `+èÒòÅ~Ô Ñ  {æœÒ 5 Å~ÔÖabh{ rgjž`wo…brzl uq…sfih{a—uq`[j`›wåml r!uqr ì 5 ! 
á+`co`wexy…s|q`bxrza­r¡jž`wåml ršuqruvh¡€‚nq|Žfk} h{ r è~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ æNç   ì Å - !é    aefwo`›•ƒ`b|quqr ì Å - !é Ñ ì šÅ- !ê  
· `¹dh’ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ æåç ‘Ò ì ÅÔ§™šnq`ˆ`l jž`wo…irzl uq…Šfihguq`j`wiml ršuqr ! šèÒÓÅÔ Ñ æåç   ì Å - !ê   Ñ ÂšÅ - !ê  
psrz˜zrq‹vh”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rgè `+l j`we…irzl uq…sfbhguq`[jž`wåml ršuqr !  +wvhkl ¦vfbryuq`èˆÒ h{àbnqp‚ÔÖ`˜{wvhkl ¦vfbruq`“ÂÃÒӕƒ`›woxy`bpŠ¨qrœÔ›©  

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
1

-4

-2

2

4

Û í Ý   adÞr!fb`rg˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguq`0ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  æåç ‘ÒòÅ~Ô  

Öp¤hkw„h{xy`|œco` â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ ¿—‹ !â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ Û ë ¼ ÜbÝ ‹  `
l nqx’h€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r’j–hkw `jž`wo…brzl uq…sfihyuq`“jž`wål r!uqr ì
`b|ƒcih{ rq‹qޖh{adc„h”`badconquvhkw ŽÒÓÅ~ÔÖ|qrgjqwe…sxy`b…¥wor”™šnvh{uŒw„h{|ƒco`{§æNç ‘ÒÓÅÔ ë ae` ë Å !  m
-1

! 

Û êkÝ   adÞr!fb`rg˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguq`0ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ì  e
Ü ‹q`|œcih{ rq‹œâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ ìÜ ¼ ì ‹– `[l nqx’hó€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r

Öp¤hkw„h{xy`|œco` NâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ ¿ ­frzxyr Ï Ü æNç ‘ÒÓÅÔ
j`›wo…irzl uq…Šfihguq`j`wiml ršuqr ì ! qpsrz˜zrq‹ŒÞ–h{aßc„hg`baßconquvhkw+ŽÒÓÅÔ|qrjqwo…Šxy`b…Šwerg™!nvh{uŒw„h{|œce`{
ÂŽÒ ë Ô Ñ Ü ‹–  ! ì  Ñ ì ©
2

1

-10

-5

5

10

Û ï Ý   adÞr!fb`rza˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrza—uq`{©
…‚ÔŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å - æåç ‘ÒòÅ~Ԅ
…s…¤Ô ŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Åæåç ‘ÒÓÅԛ
…‚ Ô
Öp¤hkwoh{xy`b|ƒco` â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ !â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ ¿ ÂY|~h{ r `+l nqx’h0€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r”jž`wo…brzl uq…sfihŒ§ÂŸ`”l ml xj–hkw vÂŽÒ ë Ô Ñ ë ‹
ÂŽÒ ! Ô Ñ ! `0ŽÒßÏ ! Ô Ñ Ï ! /Ž`p¤hyr{Þvae`wd•{hf{} h{ r uvhj—h{l ˜z…Š|vh Û ð ì Ý ‹–co`bxyrza—™šnq`0rza˜{wvhkl ¦vfbrza uq` Ì’Ñ Å
Ò h{x’hkwe`bpsrœÔ›‹ Ì”Ñ æNç ‘ÒÓÅÔ[Òò•ƒ`wouq`åÔÖ` Ì”Ñ Å -æNç ‘ÒÓÅÔ[Òò•ƒ`woxy`bpŠ¨qrœÔabh{ rq© 

  

!

…s…¤Ô â^Ò Â~Ô Ñ œâRÒ Â~Ô Ñ ¿ ˆÂ=|~h{ r£` l nqx’h‰€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rÍj`wo…brzl uq…sfihŒC»` l j–hkwi‹”ÂŽÒ 5 ! Ô Ñ ë `
ÂŽÒ Ò ì 5 - ì Ü Ô ! Ô Ñ ÒßÏ Ü Ô  Ò ì 5 - ì Ü Ô ! ‹ 5 Æ  Ž`bp¤h r{Þvae`wd•{hf{} h{ rÃuvh j—h{l ˜z…Š|vh Û ð îkÝ ‹ co`bxyrza’™!nq`
rza˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrza¡uq` Ì”Ñ ÅÃÒ h{x’hkwo`psrœÔ›‹ Ì”Ñ æåç ‘ÒÓÅÔ[Òӕƒ`›wouq`åÔÖ` Ì”Ñ Åæåç ‘ÒÓÅ~Ô+Òӕƒ`›woxy`bpŠ¨qrœÔÖah{ rq©
4

2

-6

-4

-2

2

4

6

-2

-4

Ž`bpshÃr{Þvae`wd•{hf{} h{ rÃuvh j—h{l ˜z…Š|vh Û ð îkÝ Å ‹—co`xyrza ™šnq`ˆrzat˜{w–hkl ¦vfrzatuvh{at€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba Ì Ñ æåç ‘ÒÓÅԈÒh{àbnqp‚Ô›‹
Ì”Ñ æåç ‘Ò ì ÅÔ+Òӕƒ`wouq`åÔ ` Ì”Ñ æåç  ì Òӕƒ`woxy`ps¨qrœÔabh{ rq© 

1

-6

6

-1  

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 

JLKNMgM 1  Q T 6 U 7 O+V S  U Q U Z O E  ÖS T V D QO §V  V
  l fbp¤hkwer[™!nq`¡h€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r Ì”Ñ æåç ‘ÒòÅ~Ô|~h{ r[jžrzaeaenq…–nqx’h+…s|ƒ•ƒ`woaohŒ‹ƒjrz…Ša‘j–hkw„hfih{uvh Ì `$¢q…saßco`bx …s|Œ¦v|q…¥corza
Å ™!nq`0aohkco…sad€òh{àb`bx;hywo`bp¤hfk} h{ r ÌtÑ æåç ‘ÒòÅ~ԛ `rzxy`cewo…Šfih{xy`b|ƒco`{‹ž™šnvh{ps™!nq`w+wo`c„hyj–hkw„h{pŠ`bp¤h h{rL`b…¥¢Œr
uqrza§Åtuq``b™!nvhf{} h{ r Ì”Ñ frzx  Æ Û Ï Ü ¼ ÜbÝ ‹ƒ…Š|œco`›woae`bfcohór˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr0uvh“€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ró…s|Œ¦v|q…¥c„h{a§•ƒ`bà`baböhkw„h
`•š…Šc„hkwö`baßc„h ae…Šconvhfk} h{ rq‹ƒwe`badcewo…Š|q˜z…sxyrzar[uqrzxYml |q…sr uq`—æåç ‘ÒòÅ~Ô­j–hkw„h+r{Þqco`w‘nqx’h |qrå•{h+€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r™šnq` |~h{ r
hkjqwo`bad`b|œcohkw–h‡l `badce`gjqwor{ÞvpŠ`bx’hŒ Î we…s˜zr{w`badc„h{a[uqnvh{a€‚nq|Žf{} rz `aabh{ rtuq…s€‚`wo`|œco`ab‹jrz…Šace`bx uqrzx¸ml |q…Šrza
uq…s€‚`›wo`b|ƒco`bab adcerae`wvhl €‚`b…Šcergj–hkw„h”fih{uvhg€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rycdwo…s˜zrz|qrzxÃ`›l cewo…sfbhŒ
JLKNMgMgKNM 1  Q T 6 07 U @  T—U VŽO[Q U
á+`¦v|vh{xyrzah’€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r^© Âé  Ï ! ì ¼ ! ì  Ï Ð Û Ï Ü ¼ ÜbÝ c„h{p™!nq`ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ æNç ‘ÒÓÅԛ §adcohL|qrå•{h €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r
jrzadaenq……s|ƒ•ƒ`woaeh f„¨vh{x’h{uvhy€‚nq|Žfk} h{ r ³  ±~´ Ú «® ´ Â  © Û Ï Ü ¼ ÜbÝ Ï Ð  Ï ! ì ¼ ! ì  `0l uq`b|qr{coh{uvh’jžr{w
Ì”Ñ Â  ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ '   æåç ‘ÒÓÅÔÖ`uq`¦v|q…Šuvhjr{wi©
Ì”Ñ '   æåç ‘ÒÓÅÔ ad``aerzxy`b|ƒco`ae` æNç ‘Ò Ì Ô Ñ Å 
öhkw„h[we`jqwo`bae`|œc„hkw˜{w„hk¦vfih{xy`b|ƒco`¡h[€‚nq|Žf{} h{
 r”  ÒÓÅÔ Ñ '   æNç ‘ÒÓÅԛ‹ƒnqaoh{xyrza§h[ae…Šxy`cewo…sh[uq`ÂL`+ 
`bx£wo`bpshf{} h{ rh ÌgÑ Å Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrÃ`kl ©
1.5

-1

1

-1.5

Õ uqrzx¸ml |q…Šrnqaoh{uqr0j–hkw„huq`›¦vé |q…Šwhé €‚nq|Žf{í} h{ r”hkwofrkøae`b|qrq‹!jršuq`›wo…¤had`wÖaenŒÞvadce…Šconq…Šuqrójžr{w™!nvh{ps™šnq`›wÖuqrza
s… |ƒco`wd•{h{pŠrza ae`b˜znq…s|ƒco`ba© Û ! ì ¼ ì ! Ý ¼ Û ì ! ¼ ì ! Ý ¼ ‹ž`cof{ ~`badc„h r{Þvae`we•khf{} h{ r’c„h{x0Þ`bl x ad`w–h’l • h{l ps…Šuvhj–hkw„h
h{arznŒcew„h{a¡€‚nq|Žfk} rz `ba¡cewo…Š˜zrz|qrzxÃ`l cewe…sfih{ab
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ
h{psfnqps` '   æåç    ì ì  0á+`•ƒ`bxyrza+wo`baerzp¥•ƒ`w[ht`b™!nvhf{} h{ r Ì¸Ñ '   æNç    ì ì  ‹™!nq` `”l `b™!nq…Š•kh ø
ps`|œco`—h+fih{psfbnqpshkwÖæåç ‘Ò Ì Ô Ñ  ì ì  Î aerzpsnŽf{} h{ r[uq`badc„h`b™šnvhfk} h{ rˆ` l Ì”Ñ !ð !`|œcih{ r '   æåç    ì ì  Ñ !ð  

  

!
Û ì Ý 
h{pŠfbnqps` '   æNç  væNç  Üåéê !    Õ Þvae`wd•ƒ`™!nq` Üåéê ! Æ ä Û Ï ! ì ¼ ! ì Ý z`b|œcbh{ rq‹z|~h{ r+jžršuq`bxrza`baefwe`•ƒ`w
Üåé ! Ñ Üåé ! ‡†h{a”æåç  Üåé ! Ñ æåç  ì ! - ! Ñ æNç  ! ` ! Æ Û Ï ! ¼ ! Ý 
'   æåç   æåç 
ê 
ê
ê 
ê
ê ê
ì ì
å
Ü
é
`b|ƒcih{ rq‹ '   æåç  væNç  ê !   Ñ '   æåç  –æåç  !ê   Ñ !ê ‹qjrz…Šaæåç ^` '   æåç abh{ r…Š|œ•ƒ`›woaoh{ab
Û ékÝ  `wo…¥¦v™šnq`[™šnq`  {æœÒ '   æåç ‘ÒÓÅÔeÔ Ñ  Ü ÏRÅ # ‹  Å  Ü 
· ` Ì Ñ '   æåç ‘ÒòÅ~ԛ‹`b|ƒcih{ ræNç ‘Ò Ì Ô Ñ Å‹ Ì Æ  Ï ! ì ¼ ! ì  uq`æNç  #{Ò Ì Ô -  {æ #zÒ Ì Ô Ñ Ü ‹—ae`b˜znq`
™šnq`  {æ # Ò Ì Ô Ñ Ü ÏIæåç  # Ò Ì Ô Ñ Ü Ï Å # psrz˜zrq‹  kæ!Ò Ì Ô Ñ  Ü ÏRÅ # ‹jrz…Ša Ì Æ  Ï ! ì ¼ ! ì  ` 
kæ!Ò '   æNç ‘ÒÓÅÔeÔ Ñ  Ü ÏRÅ #
JLKNMgMgK›J 1  Q T 6 07 U @  T—U T—U  VŽO[Q U

Örzxyr’|qrtfbh{aer‡h{|ƒco`we…sr{wi‹~uq`¦v|vh{xrza[h €‚nq|Žf{} h{
 rˆ©+ © Û ë ¼ ! Ý ÏžÐ Û Ï Ü ¼ ÜbÝ c„h{p™!nq`gŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ  kæ!ÒòÅ~Ô 
`badcohg|qrå•{h€‚nq|Žfk} h{ rjrzaeadnq…­…Š|œ•ƒ`weaohgf„¨vh{x’h{uvh”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r ³  ±~´ ±~´ kÚ «® ´ 
  © Û Ï Ü ¼ ÜbÝ Ï Ð Û ë ¼ ! Ý `l uq`|qr{c„h{uvh”jžr{w  Ñ Â  ÒÓÅÔ Ñ '    {æœÒÓÅÔ`uq`¦v|q…Šuvhgjr{wi©
gÌ Ñ '    kæ!ÒòÅ~Ô ae``[aerzxy`b|ƒco`ae`  {æœÒ Ì Ô Ñ Å 
öhkw„hwo`›jqwo`bae`b|ƒc„hkw˜{w„hk¦vfih{x`b|œce` h€‚nq|Žf{} h{
 rÂ   ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ '    {æœÒÓÅԛ‹šnqaoh{xrzah“ae…Šxy`cewo…shuq`Ât`Â
`bx£wo`bpshf{} h{ rh ÌgÑ Å Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrÃ`kl © 

1.5

-1

1

Õ uqrzxYml |q…sr’nqaeh{uqr j–hkwohyuq`¦v|q…Šw[h’€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rLhkwofbr fbrkø ae`b|qr jršuq`›wo…¤hyae`›w+aenŒÞvadco…¥conq…suqr jr{w ™!nvh{ps™!nq`w
uqrza¡…Š|œce`we•kh{psrzaae`b˜znq…s|ƒco`ba© Û ! ¼ ì ! Ý ¼ Û ì ! ¼ é ! Ý ¼ ‹q`cof{
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ 
h{pŠfbnqps` '    kæ!ÒßÏ Ü Ô›—á`›•ƒ`bxyrza¡wo`aerzpŠ•ƒ`why`™šnvhf{} h{ r Ì Ñ '    {æœÒßÏ Ü Ô›‹ž™!nq`R`“l `b™!nq…Š•kh{ps`b|ƒco`óh
fih{pŠfbnqp¤hkw  kæ!Ò Ì Ô Ñ Ï Ü  Î aerzpŠnŽf{} h{ ruq`adc„h`b™!nvhf{} h{ r ` l ̔Ñ"! qpsrz˜zr '    {æœÒßÏ Ü Ô Ñ"! 

›"
Û ì Ý
h{psfbnqpŠ` '    kæ 
hgfbh{psfbnqpshkw  {æœÒ Ì Ô Ñ 

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡  
ì 
ì 


+
á

`
ƒ
•
b
`
y
x
z
r
­
a
o
w
b
`
e
a
z
r
¥
p
ƒ
•

`
ö
w
¡
h
b
`
!
™
v
n 

h
{
f
}
{
h

r
'    {æ 
”
Ì
Ñ
ì 
ì  ‹z™šnq`g`l `b™šnq…¥•{h{pŠ`b|ƒco` 
ì 
ì
!
!
Î

e
a
z
r
s
p
Ž
n
{
f
}
{
h

g
r
q
u
b
`
d
a
„
c
g
h
b
`
š
™
v
n 

h
{
f
}
{
h

r
`
l 
vpŠrz˜zrq‹ '    kæ 
”
Ì
Ñ
Ñ
ð
ì
ì  ð
Û ékÝ á+`ce`woxy…Š|q`[rguqrzx¸ml |q…Šrguvh€‚nq|Žfk} h{ r ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ '    {æ  Å ì - Å Ü  
l uq`¦v|q…suqr0ae` % Æ Û Ï Ü ¼ ÜbÝ ‹œpŠrz˜zr[j–hkw„h™šnq` '    kæ  Å ì - Å Ü  `badco` ¹dhuq`¦v|q…suqr^`l |q`bfb`aeavh l ø
'    {æœÒ % Ô`
wo…Šr™!nq` Å ì - Å Ü Æ Û Ï Ü ¼ ÜbÝ ^ §|ƒcih{ rq©¸Ï Ü Å*ì - Å Ü Ü §wo`baerzp¥•ƒ`b|quqrRh{a”…s|q`™šnvhf{} rz `baóco`bxrza”™!nq`
Å Ü `+Å Ï éÜ vpsrz˜zrq‹ â^Ò Â~Ô 
Ñ  Ï éÜ ¼ Ü  
Û ð Ý  `wo…¥¦v™šnq`[™šnq` '   æNç ‘ÒÓÅÔ - '    {æœÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ! ì 
!
Ïì Ì  Ñ æåç ‘Ò Ì Ô› rz˜zrq‹  {æ  ! ì Ï '   æåç ‘ÒÓÅ~Ô  Ñ æåç  '   æNç ‘ÒÓÅÔ  Ñ Å Žpsrz˜zrq‹

Örzxyr  {æ 
!
Ïì '   æåç ‘ÒÓÅ~Ô q`b|œcbh{ rq‹ '   æNç ‘ÒÓÅÔ - '    {æœÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ! ì
'    {æœÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ
JLKNMgMgK 1  Q T 6 07 U @  T—U   Q O[Q  O

Örzxyr[|qrza§fih{aerzah{|ƒco`we…sr{wo`ba‹šuq`¦v|vh{xyrza§h[€‚nq|Žf{} h{
 r’©‘¸© Ï ! ì ¼ ! ì  Ï Ð»¿Ícoh{p–™!nq` ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ èÒÓÅԛ
 §aßc„hg|qrå•{h”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ry! jrz! adaenq……s|ƒ•ƒ`woaohf„¨vh{x’h{uvh”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r ³  ±~´ Ë ³ ®  «®Öˌ« 
  ©{¿ Ï Ð Ï ì ¼ ì  `[l uq`b|qr{coh{uvhgjr{w Ì”Ñ Â   ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ '   è~ÒÓÅ~Ô§`uq`¦v|q…Šuvhjr{wi©
Ì”Ñ '   è~ÒÓÅ~Ô ad``aerzxy`b|ƒco`ae` èÒ Ì Ô Ñ Å
öhkw„hgwe`jqwo`bae`|œc„hkw+˜{wohk¦vfih{xy`b|ƒco`“hg€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rL   ÓÒ Å~Ô Ñ
`bx£wo`bpshf{} h{ rh ÌgÑ Å Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrÃ`kl © 

'   

è~ÒÓÅԛ‹qnqaoh{xyrza—hae…Šxy`cewe…¤hguq`0ˆ`óÂ

1.5

0.5

-4

-2

2

4  

  

!
Õ uqrzx¸ml |q…Šrnqaoh{uqr[j–hkw„huq`¦v|q…¥wÖé h€‚nq|Žf{} é h{ róhkí wefbrkø c„h{|q˜z`|œco`k‹!jr!uq`wo…sh[ae`w§aenŒÞvadco…¥conq…suqr“jžr{w§™!nvh{ps™!nq`w
uqrza¡…Š|œce`we•kh{psrzaae`b˜znq…s|ƒco`ba© Ò ! ì ¼ ì ! ԛ¼­Ò ì ! ¼ ì ! ԛ¼ ‹q`cof{
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ 
h{pŠfbnqps` '   èÒßÏ  é ԛöá`›•ƒ`bxyrza§wo`aerzpŠ•ƒ`wh“`™šnvhf{} h{ r Ì”Ñ ! '   è~ÒßÏ  é ԛ‹!™šnq`¸`l `b™!nq…Š•kh{! ps`b|ƒco`+h
fih{pŠfbnqp¤hkw èÒ Ì Ô Ñ Ï  é  Î aerzpsnŽfk} h{ ruq`badcoh`b™šnvhfk} h{ r ` l Ì”Ñ Ï é vpsrz˜zrq‹ '   è~ÒßÏ  é Ô Ñ Ï é 
Û ì Ý 
h{pŠfbnqps` æåç   '   è   é é     wo…Šxy`b…Šwoh{xy`b|ƒco`Žuq`•ƒ`bxyrza~wo`aerzpŠ•ƒ`w­h `b™šnvhfk} h{ r Ì”Ñ '   è   é é  ‹
™šnq`I` l `b™!nq…Š•kh{ps`b|ƒco` h fih{pŠfbnqp¤hkw è~Ò Ì Ô Ñ  é é  Î aerzpsnŽfk} h{ rÍuq`adc„h `b™šnvhfk} h{ r£` l Ì Ñ !ê ”psrz˜zrq‹
æåç   '   è   é é   Ñ æNç   !ê  Ñ ìÜ 
Û ékÝ · `“ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ '    è~ÒÓÅԛ‹š•ƒ`we…Š¦v™šnq`™šnq`g©ŽÒòÅ~Ô -ôÂŽÒ Ì Ô Ñ   Ü Å ÏR- Å Ì Ì  
· `¹dh{x  Ñ ÂŽÒ Ü Å ÏR- Å Ì Ì Ô Ñ '   è  Ü Å ÏR- Å Ì Ì  ‹ Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅ~Ô` Ñ ÂŽÒ Ì Ô Œjž`bp¤h{auq`¦v|q…dfk} rz `ba¡co`bxrzab©
Å - Ì 
è Ò šÔ Ñ
Ü ÏRÅ Ì ¼ è~Ò Ô Ñ Å¼ è~Ò Ô ÑŸÌ 
è~Ò Ô - è~Ò Ô 
rz˜zrq‹ è~Ò šÔ Ñ
Ü Ï èÒ Ô è~Ò Ô Ñ èÒ - Ô –`|œcih{ rq‹  Ñ - 
JLKNMgMgK 1  Q T 6 U 7 O+V @  T¡U T¡U    Q gOQ  O @  T—U VŽO T  Q  O O @  T¡U
T¡U  VŽO T  Q  O
Î |vh{psrz˜ƒh{x`b|œce`[h{rzafih{aerza¡h{|œce`wo…sr{we`bab‹–h{a¡rznŒcewoh{a—…Š|œ•ƒ`weaoh{a¡abh{ rguq`b|qr{c„h{uvh{a—`uq`¦v|q…Šuvh{a—jr{wb©
hƒÔ Î wofbrfrkø c„h{|q˜z`b|ƒco`{© Ì”Ñ Â   ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ '    èÒòÅ~ԛ‹  

  ÓÒ ÅÔ Ñ 

è~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ! ì Ï

'    

â^Ò '    èqÔ Ñ ¿ `!â^Ò '    èqÔ Ñ Ò ë ¼ ! Ô
Þ Ô Î wofbrad`bfih{|ƒco`{© ”Ì Ñ Â  ÒÓÅÔ Ñ '   æNç  ÒòÅ~ԛ‹

è~ÒÓÅÔ

'   

   òÒ Å~Ô Ñ

'  

æåç  ÒÓÅÔ Ñ

kæ  Å Ü

'   

!
â^Ò '   æåç  Ô Ñ ßÒ Ï Ÿ

¼iÏ ÜbÝ^Û¥Ü ¼ -
ÔÖ`œâRÒ '   æNç  Ô Ñ ë ¼
ì  

!

ì ¼!  

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
åf Ô Î wofbrgfbrkøae`fih{|œce`{© Ì”Ñ Â  ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ '    {æåç  ÒÓÅԛ‹
  ÓÒ ÅÔ Ñ

kæNç  ÒòÅ~Ô Ñ

'   

'  

æåç   Å Ü 

^â Ò '    {æåç  Ô Ñ ÒßÏ
Ÿ¼iÏ ÜbÝ ^Û Ü ¼ -
Ô`!â^Ò '    {æåç  Ô Ñ  Ï ! ì ¼ ë  ë ¼ ! ì  
_ rå•{h{xy`|œco`j–hkwohówo`›jqwo`bae`b|ƒc„hkw¡˜{w„hk¦vfih{xy`b|ƒco`+hó€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r’  ‹qnqaoh{xrza—h0ae…Šxy`cewe…¤h0uq`[¸`[Â
wo`bpshf{} h{ ryh Ì”Ñ Å Õ a—wo`baßj`bfce…Š•ƒrza¡˜{wvhkl ¦vfbrza—ah{ rq©

Ô 

2

2

1

1

-4

`x

3

3

' 

-2

2

4

-4

-2

2

4

1

-4 

Ô

-2

2

4

-1

×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ
h{psfnqps` '    è~Ò Ü Ô›
á+`•ƒ`bxyrza­wo`baerzp¥•ƒ`w‘h `b™š! nvhf{} h{ r Ì”Ñ '   è~!Ò Ü Ô›‹ ™šnq``Öl `b™!nq…Š•kh{!ps`b|ƒco` ! h fih{ps! fnqp¤hkw è~Ò Ì Ô Ñ Ü  Î aerzpŠnŽf{} h{ r
uq`badcoh`b™šnvhfk} h{ r ` l Ì”Ñ ð  '    è~Ò Ü Ô Ñ ì Ï '   èÒ Ü Ô Ñ ì Ï ð Ñ ð 
Û ì Ý
h{psfnqps` '   æNç  Ò ì ԛ
Ü ‹vuq`•ƒ`bxyrzawo`baerzp¥•ƒ`whg`b™šnvhf{} h{ r ÌgÑ '    {æ  Ü ‹–™šnq`ˆ`[l `b™!nq…Š•œø

Örzxyr '   æNç  Ò ì Ô Ñ '    {æ 
ì
ì
Ü
h{ps`|œco`hgfih{pŠfbnqp¤hkw  kæ!Ò Ì Ô Ñ ì  Î aerzpŠnŽf{} h{ ruq`adc„h`b™!nvhf{} h{ r ` l Ì”Ñ !é vpsrz˜zrq‹ '   æåç  Ò ì Ô Ñ !é  

  

!

›#

{æåç   ì  é é  
ì  é Ñ '   æNç    é ‹ uq`•ƒ`xyrza wo`baerzp¥•ƒ`w“h `b™!nvhf{} h{ r Ì‡Ñ '   æNç    é ‹

Örzxyr '    kæNç  
é 
ì 
ì  
é
™šnq` `ˆl `b™šnq…¥•{h{pŠ`b|œce`Rh fih{psfbnqpshkw¸æåç ‘Ò Ì Ô Ñ ì  Î adrzpsnŽf{} h{ rÃuq`badc„h`™šnvhf{} h{ r ` l Ì Ñ !é psrz˜zrq‹
ì é Ñ ! 
'    {æåç  
é  é
Û ékÝ
h{psfnqps`

'   

JLKNMJ 1 Q T 6 U 7 +O V S\ÃO   EU i] S T  V
Î a€‚nq|Žfk} rz `ba“¨q…Šjž`weޗrzl pŠ…sfih{a“ah{ r‡uq`¦v|q…Šuvh{a0fbrzxyrLfbrzx0Þv…s|vhf{} rz `bauq`€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba0`$¢Œjrz|q`|qfb…¤h{…Ša``adcih{ r
wo`bpsh{fb…srz|vh{uvh{afbrzx hR¨q…Šj`›l weÞrzpŠ`{‹ uvhRxy`baex’hx’h{|q`b…Šwoh^™šnq`¸h{a’€‚nq|Žfk} rz `ba’cewo…s˜zrz|qrzxÃ`l cewo…Šfih{ag`adcih{ r
wo`bpsh{fb…srz|vh{uvh{afbrzx rf{ml wofbnqpŠrq
…‚Ô Î a€‚nq|Žf{} rz `baae`|qry`[frkøae`b|qr’¨q…¥j`wdޗrzl ps…sfrabh{ rguq`b|qr{c„h{uvh{a¡`uq`¦v|q…Šuvh{a¡wo`badjž`bfco…¥•{h{x`b|œce`fbrzxyrq©
ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ æNç  ~ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ç  Ï ì ç  
ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ  kæ ~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ç  -ì ç  

^â Ò æåç  vÔ Ñ NâRÒ  {æ vÔ Ñ œ âRÒ æNç  q Ô Ñ ¿=` ! â^Ò  {æ vÔ Ñ Û Ü ¼ -
Ô ~ad`bnqa[˜{wvhkl ¦vfbrzawe`badj`f›ø
co…¥•ƒrza—abh{ rq©

6

5

4

4

2
3

-3

-2

-1

1

2

3

2

-2
1

-4
-6

-2

-1

1

2

 aoh{|quqróh{aÖuq`¦v|q…ßf{} rz `bab‹§`¡l €Nh{l fb…sp–•ƒ`wo…Š¦vfbhkw֙šnq`  {æ  # ÒòÅ~ԞÏYæNç   # ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Ü ‹ eh{|h{l psrz˜ƒh h“ …Šuq`b|œce…suvh{uq`
cewo…Š˜zrz|qrzxÃ`l cewe…sfih  kæ #zÒÓÅÔ -=æNç  #zÒÓÅÔ Ñ Ü  Î uq…s€‚`›wo`b|Žfi} hF`Rl ™!nq`^ae`^¦và`woxyrza %8Ñ  kæ ~ÒÓÅÔt` 
Ñ æåç  ÒÓÅԛ‹co`bxyrza % # Ï  # Ñ Ü ‹™!nq` `
l ht`b™!nvhf{} h{ rYuq`ynqx’hL¨q…Šj`l wdÞrzps`g|qr‡jvp¤h{|qr % –‹rY™!nq`
ò¹ßnqadco…¥¦vfih q‹vuq`“h{pŠ˜znqx’h”€‚r{wex’hŒ‹qr|qrzxy`uq`¨q…¥j`wdޗrzl ps…sfrq

ˆ   ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
…s…¤Ô Î a¡rznŒcew„h{a€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba¡¨q…Šj`›weޗrzl ps…Šfih{a—ah{ ruq`b|qr{c„h{uvh{a—`uq`¦v|q…Šuvh{ab‹vwo`badjž`bfco…¥•{h{xy`|œco`k‹ fbrzxrq©
hƒÔ ŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ è ÒòÅ~Ô Ñ çç [ -Ï çç  
Þ Ô ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  è ÒòÅ~Ô Ñ çç / -ôÏ çç  
fåÔ ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ æåç  ~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ç  -ôì ç  
u–Ô ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  {æåç  ~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ç  Ï ì ç  
â^Ò è vÔ Ñ â^Ò æåç  vÔ Ñ ¿‹ NâRÒ  è vÔ Ñ â^Ò  kæNç  vÔ Ñ !â^Ò  kæNç  vÔ Ñ ¿ Ï ë ‹ 
œâRÒ è vÔ Ñ ÒÏ Ü ¼ Ü Ô›
¼ !â^Ò æåç  vÔ Ñ Ò ë ¼ ÜbÝ ` !â^Ò  è qÔ Ñ ÒßÏ
Ÿ¼iÏ Ü Ô Ò Ü ¼
Ô  ae`bnqa wo`baßj`bfce…Š•ƒrza
˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrza—abh{ rq©
1

3
2

0.5

1
-2

-1

1

2

-3

-2

-1

1

2

3

1

2

3

-1
-0.5

Ô
'

-2 

Ô

-1

-3

1

3
2
1

0.5

-3

-2

-1
-1

Ô
Î a€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ry¨q…Šjž`weޗrzl pŠ…sfih{aco`bx£…sxjžr{wec„h{|ƒco`ba—hkjvps…Šfihf{} rz `bab
×‡Ø «ÊÄÙÉ ´Ú ¶
Û¥ÜbÝ Î •ƒ`bpsr!fb…suvh{uq` uq`tnqx’hˆrz|quvhˆx’hkwo…Š|q¨vhˆuq`Lfbrzxjqwo…Šxy`b|ƒcor ¡‹§rz|quq`Lr^adrzpsrˆx’hkwo…s|q¨qrˆ`badcvh^l h
nqx’hgjqwerz€‚nq|quq…suvh{uq`óuq` Yx`ceworzat`l uq`baefwo…¥c„hjr{wb/© ,’Ò vÔ Ñ 5 è Ò
qÔ$‹ rz|quq`èÍ`“l hyfbrz|qadc„h{|ƒco` 

Ô

-2

-3

-2

-1

1

2

3 

-3 

  

!
˜{w„hi•Œ…¥c„h{fb…srz|vh{p‹ 5 Ñ è ì ! ` Ñ ì  !  Õ uq`bae`|q¨qrYuq`baefwe`•ƒ`yh’•ƒ`bpsr!fb…suvh{uq`óuq`”nqx’h’rz|quvhtuq` Üåëzë
xy`cdworzaÖuq`[frzxjqwo…sx`b|œcer Œ|qr{co`+™šnq`h0•ƒ`bpsr!fb…suvh{uq`h{nqxy`b|ƒc„hó™šnvh{|quqrh0jqwerz€‚nq|quq…suvh{uq`0h{nqxy`|œc„hŒ©
12
10
8
6
4
2

20

40

60

80

100

120

Û ì Ý _ r0`badcenquqr”uvh{aÖpŠ…s|q¨vh{aÖuq`cewoh{|qaexy…sadabh{ r“uq` `b|q`we˜z…¤h0`bp$`›l cewo…sfbhŒ‹Œh“fbrz|Œ¦v˜znŒw„hfk} h{ r”uq` `™šnq…sp l Þqwo…Šr“uq`
nqx fihkÞrg¨qrzxyrz˜v`b÷ |q`brg` v`›¢~ml •ƒ`bpaer{ÞÁhghf{} h{ ruq`[ae`bnYjž`baery`[aenqadj`|qaeryjr{w—uqrz…sajrz|ƒcorza—com `x£jžr{w
`›¢šjqwo`baeabh{ rq©
Ì”Ñ '  {æ   Å ¼
' 

zr |quq` ' ”` l nqÜ x’htfbrz|qaßc„h{|œce`gé jrzad…Šco…¥•{hŒ Õ ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrYuq`baßc„h‡fbnŒwe•khÍ`”l f„¨vh{x’h{uqrYfihkco`|hkl wo…¤hŒ”á+`bae`b|q¨qrza
j–hkw„h ' Ñ ì ‹ ' Ñ Ü ‹ ' Ñ ì ` ' Ñ ì ©
3

2

1

-2

-1

1

2 

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
JLKNM :3XYO  T E T S U V
Û¥ÜbÝ  ö¢Œjqwo…Šx’hófbrzxyr”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ ryuq`[Å­©
hƒÔ hôhkl wo`ih”uq`nqx cewo… h{÷ |q˜znqpsrguq`[ޖh{ae`ÅÁae`aenvhgh{pŠconŒwoh `l ruqr{Þqworyuq`[aenvh”Þ–h{ad`{
Þ ÔÖrg•ƒrzpsnqx`uq`[nqx’hg`ae€‚`w„huq`w„h{…sróÅ­
fåÔÖrg•ƒrzpŠnqxy`+uq`nqx fbrz|q`fb…¥wofbnqpshkw—wo`›coruq`w„h{…sróňae`[adnvhyh{pŠconŒwoh `l rgcewo…¥jvpsrguqrgw„h{…Šruvh”Þ–h{ad`{
u–Ôr”•ƒrzpŠnqxy`+`hhkl wo`bh”uq`nqx£fb…spŠ…s|quŒwor”fb…Šwefbnqp¤hkw wo`cerguq`+w„h{…sróŸae`|quqraenvhgh{pŠconŒw„h0…Š˜znvh{ph Üåé ë uqr
w„h{…Šruvh”Þ–h{ad`{
Û ì Ý á+`ce`woxy…Š|q`[rguqrzx¸ml |q…Šrg`hg…sxyh{˜z`bx uvh{a—ad`b˜znq…s|ƒco`ba€‚nq|Žfk} rz `bab©
hƒÔ—ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å 
Þ ÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ  Å ã Ï^Å
fåÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å’Ï Ü ð
u–ÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Ü - Ü  Å
`åÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å # ì - Å Ü
€oÔŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Ü Ï  Å
¨–ÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ÅyÏ  Å
˜œÔ—ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ  Å # Ï ð Å - é
…‚ÔŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  ŒŠ-Ï éì
¹eÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ  æNç ‘ÒÓÅÔ  
vÔŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ñ é Šŝ#Ï Ï ì ð
p‚Ô ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÒÓÅ’Ï Ü Ü ÔbÒÓÅ - ì Ô
|–ÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ  ð Å Ï^Å #
x Ô ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  ÅyÜ Ï Ü - Å’Ï Ü í
rœÔ—ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ  ŒŒÏÏ ðñ
j ÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å Å  # -Ã- Å Ü #
Û ékÝ · ` ¹dh’ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  Å åÏ ì Å vuq`co`wox…s|q` â^Ò Â~Ô vfih{psfnqps`ÂŽÒ Ü Ô›¼–Â Ï éì  `•ƒ`wo…Š¦v™!nq`[™!nq`
ÂŽÒ  '  Ô Ñ Ï  '  
Û ð Ý á+`ce`woxy…Š|q`[rguqrzx¸ml |q…Šrguq`“ÂŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ì Å’Å Ï - Ü ï `[fbh{psfbnqpŠ`0  Å Ü  ` ŽÒòÅ~Ô   
Û í Ý · …Šxjvps…¥¦v™šnq`[hgae`˜znq…s|ƒco``›¢šjqwo`baeah{ rq© ŽÒÓÅ~ŒÔÏÏ 'ÂŽÒ ' Ô ¼q Å Ñ  ' ‹qad`{©
hƒÔ—ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å # ¼ ' Ñ Ü
Þ ÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å ã ¼ ' Ñ Ï ì
fåÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å # - ż ' Ñ Ï Ü
u–ÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å Ü ¼ ' Ñ Ü
`åÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ì Å - Ü ¼ ' Ñ ì
€oÔŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å Ü # ¼ ' Ñ ì 

  

!
˜œÔ—ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å ã -ÃÅ­¼ ' Ñ ì
¨–ÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å Ü ã ¼ ' Ñ é
…‚ÔŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  Å - Ü ¼ ' Ñ Ü
¹eÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å Ü  ¼ ' Ñ ð
Û êkÝ —`jv…Šcohr`›¢Œ`wof{ml fb…srh{|œce`wo…sr{wj–hkw„h”nqx ' ™šnvh{pŠ™šnq`w—`fbrzxj–hkwo`rzawe`baenqpŠcoh{uqrza¡r{Þqco…Šuqrzab
Û ï Ýõ h{àb`b|quqrnqx’h”c„hkޞ`bp¤hŒ‹q`adÞr!fb`rza˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrza—uvh{a¡ae`b˜znq…Š|œce`ba¡€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ab©
hƒÔ Ì”Ñ Å # - Ü
Þ Ô Ì”Ñ ÒÓÅ’Ï Ü Ô #
fåÔ Ì”Ñ ÒÓÅ - Ü Ô #
u–Ô Ì”Ñ Å #Ï Ü
`iÔ Ì”Ñ Å  Å 
€eÔ Ì”Ñ Å’Ï Ü ì
˜œÔ Ì”Ñ  ð ÏRÅ #
¨–Ô Ì”Ñ  Å’Ï Ü -  é ÏRÅ m Ô Ì”Ñ Ü - Ü  Å
p¤Ô Ì”Ñ Ü - Å’Ï  Å 
¹eÔ ÌgÑ  ÅyÏ Ü  -  Å’Ï ì  qÔ Ì”Ñ Ü  ÏRÅ  Å
â‡Ô ÌgÑ Å #+ae`+Å  Ü ` Ì”Ñ ì ωÒÓÅyÏ ì Ô #+ad` Ü ôÅ­ 
Ô Ì”Ñ Å #ÖÏ Ü ae`Å ‰ë ` Ì”Ñ ÅÁae` ë ôŏ
Û îkÝ  `wo…¥¦v™šnq`[ae`h{a—ae`b˜znq…Š|œco`a¡€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba¡abh{ rfbrz|qaßc„h{|œce`bab©
ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å Ü - ŒÏÅ Ü Ô ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  ÅÅ  Ï  ÅÅ 
' Ô
Û ñ Ý   adÞr!fb`rza˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrza—|qrxy`aexyr”uq`bae`b|q¨qrq©
' Ô
Ì”Ñ  Å  ¼ Ì”Ñ  Å - Ü  ¼ Ì”Ñ  Å’Ï Ü  
bÔ Ì”Ñ  Å  ¼ Ì”Ñ ì  Å  ¼ Ì”Ñ  Åì  
Ô
Ì”Ñ  kæ!ÒòÅ~ԛ¼ Ì”Ñ  {æœÒ ì Å~ԛ¼ Ì”Ñ  kæ!Ò ð ÅÔ 
Ô
Ì”Ñ æåç ‘ÒÓÅԛ¼ Ì”Ñ æåç   Å ì  ¼ ÌgÑ æNç   Åð 
Û¥ÜåëkÝ á+`ce`woxy…Š|q`“ - 螋– Ï^螋– è `0Â~äN螋Œae`{©
hƒÔ—ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ì ż èÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å # - ì
Þ ÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ é ÅÏ ì ¼ èÒòÅ~Ô Ñ  Å - ì 
fåÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ  Å - Ü ¼ è~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å # Ï Ü
u–ÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ  Å - Ü ¼ è~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ  Å - é
`åÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å  ¼ è~ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Ò Å Ü Ô 
€oÔŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å Ü ¼ èÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å #
˜œÔ—ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å ã -ÃÅ # ¼ è~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Ò Å Ü # Ô 
¨–ÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å Ü # ¼ è~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å #
Û¥ÜzÜbÝ · ` ¹dh’Â Ñ è  ž
h{psfnqps` ‡ad`{©
hƒÔ—ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å # - Ü ¼ èÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å - Ü
Þ ÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ žÅ - ' ¼ è~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å - ' 

ˆ  ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
fåÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ  Å #Ï é Å - í  ¼ èÒÓÅÔ Ñ  Å u–ÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ æåç ‘ÒÓÅ~Ô$¼ è~ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å ã
Û¥Ü ì Ý · ` ¹dh’ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ' Å -   öhkw„hg™!nq`•kh{psr{we`ba—uq` ' ` •kh{ps`{©¡Ò  —Â~ԍÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ñ ÅyÏ é 
Û¥ÜåékÝ · `yŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ  Å’Ï ð `”è~ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ì Ü Å ‹uq`co`›woxy…s|q`gr‡uqrzxYml |q…srtuq`”è  ÂÃ``baßÞršf`rY˜{w–hkl ¦vfr‡uq`
è 
Û¥Ü ð Ý  `wo…¥¦v™šnq`™šnq` !â^Ò Â~Ô§¾ â^ÒòèqÔÖ`[uq`co`wexy…s|q` è ˆae`k©
hƒÔ—ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å - ì ¼ èÒÓÅÔ Ñ é Å - Ü
Þ ÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å #- ì ¼ èÒòÅ~Ô Ñ  Å
u–ÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ì ÅyÏ é ¼ èÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÏÅ # - é Å - Ü
fåÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å # - é ¼ èÒòÅ~Ô Ñ *ÅÅ -Ï ìÜ
`åÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ Å - Ü ¼ èÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å’Ï ì ì
€oÔŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å -Å Ü ¼ è~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÅÅy-Ï ÜÜ
Û¥Ü í Ý   aefwo`›•{h ~ÒÓÅÔ frzxyrgfrzxjrzadcoh”uq`[uqnvh{a¡rznŒcew„h{a€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba©
hƒÔ ~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÒÓÅ # - Ü Ô 
Þ Ô ~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÒòÅ # Ï ñ Ô  #
fåÔ ~ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ  é Å - í
€eÔ ~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ‘Ò Å Ü # Ô
u–Ô ~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ è~ Ò ‘ÒÓÅ~ÔdÔ
`åÔ ~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ ç 
Û¥ÜåêkÝ á+`ce`woxy…Š|q`“ ‹–ad`0  ÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å - é `0   Ñ Â  — ‹  Ñ ë ¼ Ü ¼ ì ¼ 
Û¥ÜNï Ý   adÞr!fb`rg˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguvh{a¡ae`b˜znq…Š|œce`ba¡€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ab©
hƒÔ Ì”Ñ Å  - Å ã ÏRÅ #
Þ Ô Ì”Ñ ì - ÒÓÅyÏ Ü Ô ã
fåÔ Ì”Ñ Å’Å -Ï ðÜ
u–Ô Ì”Ñ æåç ‘Ò é ÅÔ
`åÔ Ì”Ñ è  Å ì 
€eÔ Ì”Ñ æåç  ~Ò é ÅÔ
Û¥ÜåîkÝ Î f„¨q`[ruqrzx¸ml |q…sr”uvh{a¡ae`b˜znq…Š|œce`ba¡€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ab©
hƒÔ—ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ  ìÜ    
Þ Ô¡ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ‘ÒÓÅ~Ô
fåÔŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ æNç   Å Ü # 
u–Ô—ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ æNç Å‘# ÒÓÅÔ
`åԡŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ è Å Ü 
€eԗŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ '   æåç ‘ÒòÅ #›Ô
˜œÔ—ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ '    {æ  Å*é - Å Ü  ¨–Ô¡ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ '   è~ÒÓÅ # - ì Ô …¤ÔŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ '   æåç ‘Ò  ÅÔ
¹eԗŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ '   æåç ‘ÒòÅ~Ô 
vÔŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  åè šÒ  Å  Ô
p¤ÔŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ  åè šÒÓŔÒÓÅ #Ï ì ÔbÒÓÅ #Ï é ÔeÔ
Û¥Ü ñ Ý á+`ce`woxy…Š|q`h”…s|ƒ•ƒ`woaohuvh{a—ae`b˜znq…Š|œco`a¡€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba©
hƒÔ—ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å Ü
Þ Ô¡ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÅÅ -- ìÜ
fåÔŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å  ¼qÅ ‰ë
u–Ô—ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å # Ï ì Å­¼ŒÅ  Ü `åԡŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ì - Å - é Ü
€eԗŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Å #Ï ð Å - é ¼ŒÅ  ì
˜œÔ—ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ  Å # Å - Ü
¨–Ô¡ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ì ŠŒ- Ï ì Ü
…¤ÔŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å # Å - # Ü ¼vÅ ‰ë   

  

! 
vÔŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ Ü -  åè ŒÒÓÅÔ
p¤ÔŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ìÜ  åè  ÅŒ-Ï ÜÜ 
ÏôÅÃ`gè~ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ÅŒ-Ï ìÜ  §`we…Š¦v™šnq`™šnq`{©gÂÃ`èabh{ rÁh{a“…Š|œ•ƒ`›woaoh{a0uq`LÂÃ`è

¹eԗŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ðé Å Ï - é Å í
Û ì ëkÝ · `¹dh{x ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Ü
wo`baßj`bfce…Š•kh{xy`b|ƒco`{
Û ì ÜbÝ  `wo…¥¦v™šnq`{©
hƒÔ · `0¸`è abh{ rg€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba“ml xj–hkwo`ba`b|ƒcih{ r’—èL` Âè ah{ r€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba—j–hkwo`bab
Þ Ô · `0ˆ` èLabh{ rg€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba0ml xj–hkwo`ba `b|ƒcih{ r   è abh{ r€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba0ml xj–hkwo`bab
fåÔ ìÜ  ŽÒòÅ~Ô - ŽÒßÏ ÅÔ  `l €‚nq|Žf{} h{ ryj–hkw¡` ìÜ  ŽÒÓÅ~ÔÏ ÂŽÒÏÅÔ  `l €‚nq|Žf{} h{ rÁml xgj–hkwj–hkwoh”cor!uvhg€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r 
 §|ƒcih{ r“cor!uvh€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r0jr!uq`ae`w `aefwo…¥c„h“fbrzxyr[aerzx’huq` nqx’h[€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r0j–hkwÖ`uq`nqx’h“€‚nq|Žfk} h{ r ml xj–hkwi
Û ìzì Ý · ` ¹dh{x ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ìÜ  '  - '    `è~ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ìÜ  '  Ï '    ‹ '  ë ¼ ' Ñ  Ü   `wo…Š¦v™!nq`™!nq`{©
hƒÔ—ÂŽÒòÅ - Ì Ô Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅÔvÂŽÒ Ì Ô - è~ÒÓÅ~Ô!è~Ò Ì Ô
Þ Ôè~ÒÓÅ - Ì Ô Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅԚè~Ò Ì Ô - ÂŽÒ Ì Ôšè~ÒÓÅÔ
fåÔ Î |vh{ps…sad`[rgfih{aer ' Ñ çz
Û ì ékÝ   adÞr!fb`rg˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguvh{a¡ae`b˜znq…Š|œce`ba¡€‚nq|Žf{} rz `a`›¢Œjžrz|q`b|qfb…sh{…sab©
hƒÔ—ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ '  ¼ ' Ñ ì ¼ ' Ñ ìÜ
Þ Ô—ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ '  ¼ ' Ñ Üåë ¼ ' Ñ ì ë
fåÔŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ '  q¼ ' Ñ çz¼ ' Ñ é 
u–Ô—ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ '  # Œ¼ ' Ñ ì ¼ ' Ñ Üåë
Û ì ð Ý hƒÔ · `0ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ   ÜÜ -ÃÏRÅÅ  ‹q•ƒ`wo…¥¦v™šnq`™!nq`{©§ÂŽÒ ' Ô -ôŽÒ bÔ Ñ Â  Ü ' - - '    
Þ Ô · `0ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ì q‹v•ƒ`›wo…Š¦v™!nq`[™!nq`{©ŽÒòÅ - é ÔÏ ÂŽÒÓÅyÏ Ü Ô Ñ Ü í ŽÒÓÅyÏ Ü Ô›
Û ìzí Ý   adÞr!fb`rg˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrguvh{a¡ae`b˜znq…Š|œce`ba¡€‚nq|Žf{} rz `apsrz˜ƒhkwiml coxy…Šfih{ab©
' Ô
Ì”Ñ ‘ÒßÏ Å~Ô$¼ŒÅ  ë Ô Ì”Ñ ‘Ò  Å  Ô  Ô Ì”Ñ ‘Å ÒÓÅÔ 
Ô
Ì”Ñ Å ‘ÒÓÅÔ çNÔ Ì”Ñ  ‘ÒÓÅÔ WÂ~Ô Ì”Ñ ‘ÒÓÅ # Ô
Û ì êkÝ  `wo…¥¦v™šnq`™šnq`{© '   è~ÒÓÅ~ÔÏ '   èÒ Ì Ô Ñ '    èÒ Ì Ô­Ï '    è~ÒÓÅ~Ô$
Û ì ï Ý · `“ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ '    {æœ Ò  åè šÒÓÅÔeԛ‹qfbh{psfbnqpŠ`{©
hƒÔÂŽÒ ' ԛ‹šae` ' Ñ Üåë ` ' Ñ çz
Þ ÔÂŽÒ Ü Ô›¼–ÂŽÒ Üåë ԛ¼qÂŽÒ Üåëzë ԛ‹qae` ' Ñ Üåëzë 
Û ì îkÝ  `wo…Š¦v™!nq`™šnq` ŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ æåç  ÒÓÅԛ‹ƒèÒÓÅÔ Ñ è ~ÒÓÅԛ‹ ÒÓÅÔ Ñ  è ÒòÅ~Ôö` ’ÒÓÅÔ Ñ  {æåç  ~ÒÓÅÔ abh{ r
€‚nq|Žf{} rz `ba“ml xj–hkwo`a—`  ÒÓÅÔ Ñ  {æ ~ÒÓÅ~Ô$‹ ÃÒÓÅÔ Ñ æNç  ÒÓÅÔÖabh{ r€‚nq|Žf{} rz `a¡j–hkwo`bab
Û ì{ñ Ý Î a…s|ƒ•ƒ`woaeh{a¡uvh{a¡€‚nq|Žfk} rz `ba¨q…Šjž`weޞrzps…sfbh{a—abh{ ruq`¦v|q…suvh{ajr{wi©
hƒÔ Ì”Ñ ' Nèqæåç  ~ÒÓÅÔ§ae`{‹–`[adrzxy`b|ƒco`ae`k‹žæåç  Ò Ì Ô Ñ Å

›"

ˆ   ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
Þ Ô Ì”Ñ ' Nè  kæ ~ÒÓÅÔ§ae`{‹–`[aerzx`b|œce`[ae`k‹  {æ Ò Ì Ô Ñ Å
fåÔ Ì”Ñ ' åè è ÒÓÅÔ§ae`{‹–`aerzxy`b|ƒco`ae`{‹  è ~Ò Ì Ô Ñ Å­
u–Ô Ì”Ñ ' Nè   è ~ÒÓÅ~Ô§ad`{‹v`[aerzx`b|œce`ae`{‹  è ~Ò Ì Ô Ñ Å­
`åÔ Ì”Ñ ' åèvæåç  ~ÒÓÅ~Ôae`k‹ `aerzxy`b|ƒco`ae`{‹žæNç  Ò Ì Ô Ñ Å
€oÔ Ì”Ñ ' åè  {æåç  ~ÒÓÅ~ÔÖae`{‹v`aerzxy`b|ƒco`[ae`{‹  kæNç  ~Ò Ì Ô Ñ Å­ 
dÔ  `wo…¥¦v™šnq`™šnq`{©
hƒÔ ' NèqæNç  ~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ  Å -  Å # - Ü  ‹ŒÅÁƇ¿
Þ Ô ' Nè  {æ ~ÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ  Å -  Å # Ï Ü  ‹qÅ Ü
fåÔ ' Nè è ~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ   ÅÜ Ï^- Å Ü  ‹  Å   Ü
u–Ô ' Nè  è ÒòÅ~Ô Ñ   ÅŒ-Ï ÜÜ  ‹  Å  Ü
`åÔ ' Nèqæåç  ÒòÅ~Ô Ñ   Ü -  Å Ü ÏRÅ #  ‹qÅÁÆ Ò ë ¼ ÜbÝ €oÔ ' Nè  è ~ÒÓÅÔ Ñ   Å Ü -  Å  # Å-  Ü  ‹vÅ Ñ  ë 
dÔÖ §adޞršfb`r˜{w–hkl ¦vfryuq`[fbh{uvhnqx’hóuq`badc„h{a—€‚nq|Žf{} rz `bab
Û ézëkÝ · `“ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÅŒ-Ï ÜÜ ‹vuq`co`wexy…s|q` â^Ò Â~Ô`fih{pŠfbnqps`{©
Ò Â  —Â Â~ÔbÒÓÅ # - Ü Ô bÔ Ò Â —Â —Â~ԍÒeÒÓÅ - Ü Ô #bÔ  Ô Ò Â —Â~Ô  Ü ÏRÜ Å 
' Ô 
Ô
Ò Â Â~Ô  Å Ü 
á+`co`wexy…s|q``bx£fih{uvhfih{adryh{a¡frz|quq…df{} rz `baj–hkw„hh{a—fbrzxjžrzadc„h{ab
Û éŒÜbÝ +nvh{|quqr[nqx’h€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r+jrzpŠ…s|qrzxy…sh{p!uqr+jqwo…sx`b…Šwor ˜{woh{nó•ƒ`›wo…Š¦vfihŒ©ŽÂŽÒÓÅ  -gÅ # Ô Ñ ÂŽÒÓÅ  Ô -’ÂŽÒÓÅ # Ô 
 §aßc„h”jqwor{jqwe…s`buvh{uq`•{h{pŠ`[rznY|~h{ r”j–hkw„hŒ©
ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å # bÔ ÂŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ì Å ã  Ô ÂŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ì Å - Ü  Ô ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ é ŏ
' Ô
Û é ì Ý · ` ¹dh{x ' ‹ N‹  `  Ƈ¿ c„h{…Ša—™!nq` '  Ï   Ñ  ë  · `“ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ' Å Å - -   ‹–uq`›co`woxy…Š|q`“  
Û ézékÝ  `wo…¥¦v™šnq`{©
hƒÔ è ÒòÅ Ì Ô Ñ Ü è  ~ ÒÓèÅ~Ô ÒÓ Å~Ô  è è ~~Ò Ò Ì Ì Ô Ô
Þ Ô  kæ ~Ò Å ì Ô Ñ Ü -  kì æ ~ÒÓÅÔ
fåÔ ' Nèqæåç  ~Ò  Å # Ï Ü Ô Ñ ' åè  {æ ÒÓÅԛ¼Œad`Å  Ü u–Ô ' åè  {æ Ò  Å # - Ü Ô Ñ ' NèqæNç  ~Ò  Å  Ô
Ûé Ý
ÛsÛ ÝŠÝ
ÛsÛ ÝsÝ 
ð Å­á+ `¦v|vh h^€‚nq|qfkh{ rq©ˆÂŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ü Ñ Å ‹rz|quq` Å uq`|qr{c„hRrRx’h{…Šr{wg|nql x`worR…Š|œco`…Šwor  c„h{p—™!nq`
ÝsÝ Ñ Ï Ü `yŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ë ‹ad`gÅôÆ Û ë ¼ Ü Ô$ 
h{pŠfbnqps` â^Ò Â~ԛ‹ !â^Ò Â~Ô` 
Žr{w[`›¢q`bxgjvpsr ÛsÛ ! ÝŠÝ Ñ é ‹ ÛŠÛ Ï
ì
`badޞršfb`[r˜{w–hkl ¦vfruq`0
Û é í Ý   adÞr!fb`rza˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrza—uq`{©
ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ ÛŠÛ Å ÝsÝ Ï ÛŠÛ Ï Å ÝŠÝ Ô ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ ÛsÛ Å - ÜbÝsÝ  Ô ÂŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ ÛŠÛ ÅyÏ Üb݊Ý
' Ô 

  

!
Û ézêkÝ   aefwo`›•{huq`[€‚r{wox’hóx’h{…sa ae…Šxjvps`a¡h{aae`b˜znq…Š|œco`a€‚nq|Žf{} rz `bab©
ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ æåç  Ò ‘ÒÓÅÔeԛ¼ŒÅ ‰ë Ô ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ è ~Ò ì Å~Ô  Ô ÂŽÒÓÅ~Ô Ñ æåç  ÒÓÅÔ -  kæ ~ÒÓÅÔ
' Ô
Û éƒï Ý á+`ce`woxy…Š|q`[rza • `l wdco…sfb`a¡uvh{aae`b˜znq…s|ƒco`ba—j–hkw–hkl Þrzpsh{ab©
hƒÔ Ì”Ñ Ï Å # - ð ÅyÏ é Þ Ô Ì”Ñ Å # Ï î Å - Ü ì fåÔ Ì”Ñ ì Å # ÏRÅ’Ï Ü
Û ézîkÝ á+`co`wexy…s|q`hy€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r hk¦vx c„h{p™šnq`0ÂŽÒ Ü Ô Ñ ì `óÂŽÒ ì Ô Ñ Ï ð `0h€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r ™šnvh{uŒwvhkl co…sfih”c„h{p­™!nq`
è~Ò Ü Ô Ñ Ï Ü ‹Œè~Ò ì Ô Ñ Ï ì `0ÂŽÒ é Ô Ñ Ü 
Û é ñ Ý  `wo…¥¦v™šnq`™šnq`“æNç ‘Ò '    {æœÒÓÅÔeÔ Ñ  Ü ÏRÅ # ‹  Å  Ü 
Û ð ëkÝ  `wo…¥¦v™šnq`™šnq` '    kæ!ÒßÏ ÅÔ "
Ñ ! Ï '    {æœÒÓÅ~Ô$
Û ð ÜbÝ á+`ce`woxy…Š|q`[rguqrzx¸ml |q…Šrguvh”€‚nq|Žf{} h{ rLŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ '   æNç ‘Ò é Å - Ü Ô$
Û ð ì Ý · ` ¹dh’ÂŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  åè  Ò  iè  ÒÓÅ - Ü ÔeÔ$‘á+`co`wexy…s|q` â^Ò Â~ÔÖ`fih{pŠfbnqps`“ÂŽÒ ñ ԛ
Û ð ékÝ · `  iè Ò '  bÔ Ñ ð `  iè !Ò bÔ Ñ  ‹–uq`›co`woxy…Š|q`  
Û ðzð Ý  `wo…¥¦v™šnq`™šnq`hg€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r ŽÒòÅ~Ô Ñ Å’Ï ÛŠÛ Å ÝsÝ `+l j`wo…brzl uq…sfih”uq`[jž`wåml r!uqr Ü 
Û ð í Ý  `wo…¥¦v™šnq`™šnq`ad`0 `[l nqx’hg€‚nq|Žfk} h{ rj`we…irzl uq…sfbhuq`[jž`wo…irzl uqr ›‹v`b|ƒcih{ rcoh{xóÞ`l x `l j`we…irzl uq…sfbhguq`
j`›wåml r!uqr  ›‹ Æ 
Û ð êkÝ Î €‚nq|Žf{} h{ r ŽÒÓÅÔ Ñ  Ï ÜÜ aeae`` ÅŸÆÆä  ‹ `l jž`wo…brzl uq…sfihój–hkw„hh{pŠ˜znqx£jž`wåml ršuqr 
Û ð ï Ý ‘wor啃`[™!nq`“hg€‚nq|Žfk} h{ r’hk¦vx co`bx fbrzxyr”˜{w–hkl ¦vfbrnqxyh”wo`cohg|~h{ rg•ƒ`›weco…sfbh{p 
Û ð îkÝ ‘wor啃`”™!nq`hL€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r‡jžrzps…s|qrzx…¤h{puq` ì ˜{w„h{nco`x fbrzxyrL˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr‡nqxyh j–hkw–hkl ޞrzp¤h fbrzx `b…¥¢Œr
j–hkw„h{pŠ`bpsrh{rg`b… ¢qrguqrza Ì 
Û ð ñ Ý ‘wor啃`[™!nq`ae`“Â3`[l nqx’h”€‚nq|Žfk} h{ rj`we…irzl uq…sfbhuq`jž`wo…brzl uqr $‹–`|œcih{ rq©
hƒÔŽÒÓÅ - ' Ôy`+l j`we…irzl uq…sfbhguq`[jž`wo…brzl uqr $‹qj–hkw„h”cor!uqr ' Ƈ¿
Þ ÔÂŽÒ ' Å~Ôg`+l j`we…irzl uq…sfbhguq`[jž`wo…brzl uqr '  ‹vj–hkwoh”cor!uqr ' Ƈ¿ 
Ï  ë  
Û í ëkÝ öhkwoh”j`™šnq`b|vh{a•{hkwo…shf{} rz `bauq`[co`xj`wohkconŒw„hŒ‹qrxršuq`bpŠr”j–hkw„hghguq…Šp¤hkc„hf{} h{ r”uq`nqxyhóޖhkwewohguq`
xy`coh{p¨qrzxyrz˜q`b÷ |q`ih0aenŒÞvx`co…suvh hó x”nquvh{|Žfb} h{a—uq`+co`bxjž`w„hkconŒwohR` l ˆÏ   Ñ '   Ò Ï   ԛ‹qrz|quq` 
`+l rgfrzxjqwo…sx`b|œcer”uvh0ޖhkwew„hó™šnvh{|quqrgh0co`bxjž`w„hkconŒw„h^` l $‹   `+l rgfrzxjqwo…sx`b|œcer”…Š|q…sfb…sh{puvh0ޖhkwew„h
|vh”ce`bxj`›w„hkconŒw„h   ` ' `l nqx’hgfrz|qadc„h{|ƒco`™!nq`[uq`jž`b|quq`0uqrgce…Šjrguq`[x`c„h{p 
hƒÔ §`we…Š¦v™šnq`ae`  `l €‚nq|Žf{} h{ rypŠ…s|q`ihkw—uq` $
Þ Ô · nŒjrz|quqr0™šnq`¡hÞ–hkwewohŒ‹!…Š|q…sfb…sh{psxy`b|ƒco` xy`buq` Üåëzë  â£hnqx’h co`bxgj`w„hkcenŒw„h[uq` êzë 
`™šnq`j–hkw„h
róxy`c„h{p fbrzx ™šnq` €‚rz…~€‚`…Šc„h ' Ñ Üåë  ‹q`badÞr!fb`+ró˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr”™šnq` `›¢šjqwo`baeae`rófbrzxjqwo…Šxy`b|ƒcor0uvh0ޖhkwew„h
`bx €‚nq|Žf{} h{ ryuvhóco`bxjž`w„hkconŒw„hŒ
Û í ÜbÝ Õ fbnqadcer’`bx % â Ònq|q…suvh{uq`ba¡xyrz|q`c–hkl wo…sh{a„Ôj–hkw„hgwo`bxrN•ƒ`wÅ  uqrza—uq`cewo…¥corza—c–rkl ¢Œ…sfbrzauq`badjž`›ø
¹dh{uqrza¡|œnqx hkco`wewor `[l uvh{uqrgjr{w—ÒÓÅÔ Ñ Üåëzë ë î Ï^Å Å ‹qj–hkw„h ë ôÅ Üåëzë  

ˆ   ¡de
[ž + ˆ¡À 
¡ 
hƒÔ­á+`co`›woxy…s|q`§rfnqadcor wo`b€‚`we`b|œce` h¡ we`bxyr~f{} h{ r uq` ð ë  ‹ êzë  ` ñ ë  uqrzaŽuq`cewo…¥corzabŽ §aßÞršf`Ör ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr
uq`  Ñ ÒÓÅԛ
Þ Ô +nq`jžr{wofb`b|ƒconvh{puq`uq`›cewo…Šcerzajžršuq`ad`w¡wo`xyrN•š…suqrójr{w Üåë ëzëzë % â 
Û ízì Ý öhkw„h’fih{psfbnqpshkw[h uqrzaeh{˜z`bx uq`”x`buq…sfih{x`b|œcerza ™šnq`0jr!uq`”ad`w+jqwo`baefwe…Šc„h j–hkw„h’fwo…¤h{|Žfb} h{a[uq` Ü
h Ü ð h{|qrza `[l nŒco…Šps…Šàih{uvhghó€‚nq|Žf{} h{ r8ÒdÔ Ñ  - ç  Ü ð ‹vrz|quq`[ç^`l hguqrzae`+j–hkw„hh{uqnqp¥corza `bx£â èL` g`[l h
…suvh{uq``bx h{|qrzab—á+`co`wox…s|q`“hyuqrzad`0™šnq`jžršuq`“ae`›w …s|quq…Šfih{uvhj–hkw„hynqx’hf›wo…¤h{|Žfi} hyuq` ê h{|qrza¡ae`0h
uqrzae`h{uqnqpŠc„h `[l uq` ð ëzë â’è
Û í ékÝ _ nqxFabml co…Šr0hkwo™šnq`rzpirzl ˜z…sfr“€‚r{w„h{xF`|qfbrz|œcdw„h{uqrzaÖrzaeaerza֙!nq`fbrz|ƒco`bx ì ë  uvh“™šnvh{|ƒco…suvh{uq` r{we…s˜z…¥ø
|vh{puq`
   õ hfb} hgnqx’h”`badco…Šx’hkco…Š•kh0uvhg…Šuvh{uq`uqrza¡rzadaerzab
Û í ð Ý Î xy`b…sh ø •Œ…ŠuvhLuqr‡€Nrzl ae€‚r{workø é ì `gl uq` Ü ð  ì uq…¤h{ab · hkÞ`b|quqrY™!nq` Üåëzë è¸uq`baßc„h‡aenŒÞvadc h{÷ |qfb…¤h‡`adcih{ r
jqwo`bad`b|œce`bag|qrÁ…Š|ml fb…Šrq‹r{Þqco`b|q¨vh¸nqx’hY€Nr{l woxónqpsh‡j–hkw„hÁhY™šnvh{|ƒco…suvh{uq`yjqwo`ae`b|ƒco`‡hkj—rzl a [h{|qrzab nq`
™šnvh{|ƒco…Šuvh{uq`uq`€Nrzl ad€‚r{workø é ì wo`badc„hkwvhl hkj—rzl a ï uq…¤h{a 
Û ízí Ý  §x fb… `b÷ |qfb…¤h{a§|vhkconŒw„h{…sa‹Œxy`b…sh ø •Œ…ŠuvhÁ`l r[co`bxjžr“|q`bfb`badavhkl wo…sr0j–hkw„h[™šnq`nqx’h[™šnvh{|ƒco…suvh{uq` hkce…s| ¹dh
h^xy`›c„h{uq`tuq`‡ae`bnô•kh{psr{wy…Š|q…sfb…sh{p  Õ jqwor!fb`baeadr uq`Y`bps…Šxy…s|vhfk} h{ ruq`YnqxyhaenŒÞvadc h{÷ |qfb…¤h^jž`bpsrRr{we˜ƒh ø
|q…sadxyr’uqrza x’h{x¸ml €‚`worzat`ól h{|h{l pŠrz˜zr h{r’uq`”uq`fih{…sxy`|œcorywoh{uq…srƒhkco…¥•ƒr psrz˜zrq‹ nŒco…spŠ…sàih ø ae`0r xyršuq`bpŠryuq`
uq`bfwe`baefb…Šxy`b|ƒcoró`›¢Œjžrz|q`b|qfb…¤h{p · ` ézë  uq` nqx’huŒwerz˜ƒh0hkjvps…sfbh{uvh“|!nqxFj–h{f…s`b|ƒco`¸`l `bpŠ…sxy…Š|vh{uvh“hkj—rzl a
Ü ì ¨qr{woh{ab‹v™šnvh{p `l h”xy`b…sh ø •Œ…Šuvh”uvh”uŒworz˜ƒh 
Û í êkÝ · hkÞ`b|quqr[™šnq`—h+jžr{jvnqp¤hf{} h{ ruq`—nqx=f`wecor+j–hqml a‘€‚rz…q`badco…Šx’h{uvh `bx ì é xy…spŠ¨~rz `baŽ`bx Ü ñzñ ë `—uq` ì ï
xy…Šps¨~rz `baÖ`bx Ü ñzñƒí ‹q`+aenŒjžrz|quqry™šnq`h0jr{jvnqp¤hfk} h{ rgco`bx nqx£fwe`baefb…Šxy`b|ƒcor`›¢šjrz|q`b|qf…¤h{p ‹quq`›co`woxy…Š|q`
™šnvh{|quqrh”jžr{jvnqp¤hf{} h{ r’hkce…s|q˜z…Šwvh l ð ê xy…spŠ¨~rz `bab
Û í ï Ý · nŒjrz|q¨vhó™šnq` Üåëzëzëzë % â abh{ ró…Š|œ•ƒ`baßco…suqrzahónqx’h“c„h ¢vh“uq`¹ßnŒworza fbrzxjžrzadcorzaÖuq` ñ  h{r”h{|qrq
á+`co`wexy…s|q`r¡xyrz|œcoh{|œco`h{fbnqxónqp¤h{uqr+hkj—rzl a í h{|qrzaŽad`rza–¹ßnŒworzaŽ€‚r{wo`xIfihkjv…¥c„h{ps…Šàih{uqrzaxy`b|qaeh{psxy`b|ƒco`{‹
ae`bx`badcew„h{pŠxy`b|ƒco``[xy`|qaoh{psxy`|œco`k
Û í îkÝ _ nqx’h`›jv…suq`bxy…shuq`0˜{wo…¥j`{‹ r’| qln xy`wor’uq`jž`baeaerƒh{a |œnqxWޖh{…¥wewor’™šnq`[j`b˜ƒhkw„h{x ˜{wo…Šjž`0hkj—rzl a 
uq…¤h{aL`[l uvh{uqr”jr{w  ÒdÔ Ñ Ü - Ü ñ ñzëzñ ëzë ëzçë     
hƒÔ +nvh{|ƒc„h{a—jž`baeaerƒh{a—€‚r{w„h{x£…s|q€‚`bf›c„h{uvh{a hkj—rzl a Ü uq…¤hŒ‹–hkj—rzl a Üåë uq…sh{a 
Þ ÔÖ §x£™šnvh{|ƒcorza¡uq…sh{a í ëzëzëzë j`aeaerƒh{a—¦vfbhkw„h{x frzx ˜{we…Šj` 
Û í{ñ Ý co…spŠ…sàih{|quqr `›¢Œ`bxjvpŠrza’uq`co`wox…s|q`Ár fbrzxjr{wdc„h{xy`b|ƒcor uqr ˜{w–hkl ¦vfbr uvh €‚nq|Žfk} h{ rpsrz˜qml adco…ŠfihRae`
•khkwo…¤h{xyrza º0‹v½F`

Û êzëkÝ Î xyh{˜z|q…Šconquq`0uq`ónqx co`wdwo`bxyr{cor |vh `baefih{psh ¡…sf„¨ƒco`wˆ`ól uvh{uvh jžr{wÄÒ”Ô Ñ éì  iè      ‹
rz|quq`  `§l h`b|q`wo˜z…sh¡ps…¥Þ`woh{uvh—j`bpŠrco`wewe`bxyr{cor—`bx znqpŠ`baŽ`   Ñ Üåë    _ r{co`‘™šnq` ë  ‰î ñ ‹
rz|quq` î ñ `+l j–hkw„hgrgx’h{…sr{w co`›wewo`bxyr{cer”wo`˜z…sadcewoh{uqrq
hƒÔ Õ co`›wewo`bxyr{cer¡uq` · h{ r õ w„h{|qfb…Šaefbr|qrza­ §   uq` Ü ñ ëzê ps…ŠÞž`worzn0hkjqwer墌…sx’h{uvh{xy`|œco` í ñƒí 1+Üåë   
nvh{p­€‚rz…aenvh”x’h{˜z|q…Šconquq` 
Þ Ô · ` r“co`›wewo`bxyr{cer“uq `
[r!`Þ` |qr ƒhkjh{ r“co`•ƒ`¡nqx’h“x’h{˜z|q…Šcenquq`uq` ï Ü ‹œ™šnvh{|ƒc„h0`b|q`wo˜z…sh“ps…¥Þ`worzn