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Investigations described in this doctoral thesis concern material behaviour related to

asphalt recycling. More in detail, the thesis describes development and application of
methods for characterisation of the rejuvenation process, in which old and new binders
are mixed. The thesis also includes a state-of-the-art report on asphalt recycling
focusing on material-related aspects.
As the rejuvenation process involves diffusion of bituminous binders, a method for
measuring rate of diffusion based on FTIR-ATR (Fourier Transform Infrared
Spectroscopy by Attenuated Total Reflectance) was developed. The method was
employed for studying influence of parameters such as temperature, size and shape of
the diffusing molecules as well as the viscosity of the medium in which the diffusion
takes place. Well-defined substances, referred to as markers, were used in some of
these investigations. By aid of the FTIR-ATR method, influence of degree of binder
ageing on the rate of diffusion was analysed. Diffusion in bituminous binders was also
characterised by rheological measurements. Finally, knowledge on structural stability
of recycled binders was obtained by solubility studies using turbidimetric titrations and
three different titrants showing widely different solubility parameters (iso-octane, iso-
octanol and methyl-ethyl-ketone).
The literature review shows that there are numerous publications related to asphalt
recycling, but few investigations can be characterised as fundamental, which illustrates
the complexity of the research area. The results presented show, among other things,
that the influence of degree of ageing is in principle negligible. A possible explanation
for this behaviour could be that diffusion takes place in the maltene phase, which is
relatively unaffected by ageing. The change in recorded rheological parameters
correlated fairly well with the rates of diffusion observed using FTIR-ATR, which
indicates that chemical diffusion is accompanied by changes in binder stiffness.
Nothing in the results presented regarding structural stability of mixtures of old and
new binder suggests that binder stability should be a limiting factor in asphalt
recycling, on condition that the old and new binder are compatible.
The doctoral thesis is based on the following papers, which will be referred to by their
Roman numerals:
I. Karlsson R., Isacsson U. Material-Related Aspects of Asphalt Recycling
State-of-the-art Submitted for publication in ASCE J of Transportation
II. Karlsson R., Isacsson U. Application of FTIR-ATR to Characterisation
of Bitumen Rejuvenator Diffusion Accepted for publ. in ASCE J of
Materials in Civil Eng.
III. Karlsson R., Isacsson U. Bitumen Rejuvenator Diffusion as Influenced
by Ageing Intl J of Road Materials and Pavement Design. 3(2) 2002
IV. Karlsson R., Isacsson U. Laboratory studies of diffusion in bitumen
using markers Submitted for publication in J of Materials Science.
V. Karlsson R., Isacsson U., Ekblad J. Rheological Characterisation of
Bitumen Diffusion Submitted for publication in J of Rheology.
VI. Karlsson R., Isacsson U. Bitumen Structural Stability Characterisation
using Turbidimetric Titration Submitted for publication in Energy and