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Legal Limitations/Prohibitions Prior to Hiring:

- Labor Code Article 136. Stipulation against marriage. It shall be unlawful for an
employer to require as a condition of employment or continuation of employment that a woman
employee shall not get married, or to stipulate expressly or tacitly that upon getting married, a
woman employee shall be deemed resigned or separated, or to actually dismiss, discharge,
discriminate or otherwise prejudice a woman employee merely by reason of her marriage.

- Labor Code Article 139. Minimum employable age.
1.No child below fifteen (15) years of age shall be employed, except when he works directly
under the sole responsibility of his parents or guardian, and his employment does not in any way
interfere with his schooling.
2.Any person between fifteen (15) and eighteen (18) years of age may be employed for
such number of hours and such periods of the day as determined by the Secretary of Labor and
Employment in appropriate regulations.
3.The foregoing provisions shall in no case allow the employment of a person below
eighteen (18) years of age in an undertaking which is hazardous or deleterious in nature as
determined by the Secretary of Labor and Employment.

- Labor Code Article 248. Unfair labor practices of employers. It shall be unlawful for an
employer to commit any of the following unfair labor practice:
1.To interfere with, restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their right to self-
2.To require as a condition of employment that a person or an employee shall not join a
labor organization or shall withdraw from one to which he belongs;
3.To contract out services or functions being performed by union members when such will
interfere with, restrain or coerce employees in the exercise of their rights to self-organization;
4.To initiate, dominate, assist or otherwise interfere with the formation or administration of
any labor organization, including the giving of financial or other support to it or its organizers or
5.To discriminate in regard to wages, hours of work and other terms and conditions of
employment in order to encourage or discourage membership in any labor organization. Nothing in
this Code or in any other law shall stop the parties from requiring membership in a recognized
collective bargaining agent as a condition for employment, except those employees who are
already members of another union at the time of the signing of the collective bargaining
agreement. Employees of an appropriate bargaining unit who are not members of the recognized
collective bargaining agent may be assessed a reasonable fee equivalent to the dues and other
fees paid by members of the recognized collective bargaining agent, if such non-union members
accept the benefits under the collective bargaining agreement: Provided, that the individual
authorization required under Article 242, paragraph (o) of this Code shall not apply to the non-
members of the recognized collective bargaining agent;
6.To dismiss, discharge or otherwise prejudice or discriminate against an employee for
having given or being about to give testimony under this Code;
7.To violate the duty to bargain collectively as prescribed by this Code;
8.To pay negotiation or attorneys fees to the union or its officers or agents as part of the
settlement of any issue in collective bargaining or any other dispute; or
9.To violate a collective bargaining agreement.

- RA 7610 Section 12. Employment of Children. Children below fifteen (15) years of
age may be employed except:
1. When a child works directly under the sole responsibility of his parents or legal guardian
and where only members of the employer's family are employed: Provided, however, That his
employment neither endangers his life, safety and health and morals, nor impairs his normal
development: Provided, further, That the parent or legal guardian shall provide the said minor child
with the prescribed primary and/or secondary education; or

2. When a child's employment or participation in public & entertainment or information
through cinema, theater, radio or television is essential: Provided, The employment contract
concluded by the child's parent or guardian, with the express agreement of the child concerned, if
possible, and the approval of the Department of Labor and Employment: Provided, That the
following requirements in all instances are strictly complied with:
(a) The employer shall ensure the protection, health, safety and morals of the child;
(b) the employer shall institute measures to prevent the child's exploitation or discrimination
taking into account the system and level of remuneration, and the duration and arrangement of
working time; and;
(c) The employer shall formulate and implement, subject to the approval and supervision of
competent authorities, a continuing program for training and skill acquisition of the child.
In the above exceptional cases where any such child may be employed, the employer shall first
secure, before engaging such child, a work permit from the Department of Labor and Employment
which shall ensure observance of the above requirement.
The Department of Labor Employment shall promulgate rules and regulations necessary for the
effective implementation of this Section.

- RA 7610 Section 14. Prohibition on the Employment of Children in Certain
Advertisements. No person shall employ child models in all commercials or advertisements
promoting alcoholic beverages, intoxicating drinks, tobacco and its byproducts and violence.

- DO no. 65-04 Section 5. Prohibition on the Employment of Children in Worst Forms
of Child Labor. No child shall be engaged in the worst forms of child labor. The phrase worst
forms of child labor shall refer to any of the following:
(a) All forms of slavery, as defined under the Anti-trafficking in Persons Act of 2003, or
practices similar to slavery such as sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom and
forced or compulsory labor, including recruitment children for use in armed conflict.
(b) The use, procuring, offering or exposing of a child for prostitution, for the production of
pornography or for pornographic performances;
(c) The use, procuring or offering of a child for illegal or illicit activities, including the
production or trafficking of dangerous drugs or volatile substances prohibited under existing laws;
(d) Work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is hazardous or
likely to be harmful to the health, safety or morals of children, such that it:
i. Debases, degrades or demeans the intrinsic worth and dignity of a child as a
human being; or
ii. Exposes the child to physical, emotional or sexual abuse, or is found to be highly
stressful psychologically or may prejudice morals; or
iii. Is performed underground, underwater or at dangerous heights; or
iv. Involves the use of dangerous machinery, equipment and tools such as power-
driven or explosive power-actuated tools; or
v. Exposes the child to physical danger such as, but not limited to the dangerous
feats of balancing, physical strength or contortion, or which requires the manual transport of heavy
loads; or .
vi. Is performed in an unhealthy environment exposing the child to hazardous
working conditions, elements, substances, co-agents or processes involving ionizing, radiation,
fire, flammable substances, noxious components and the like, or to extreme temperatures, noise
levels or vibrations; or
vii. Is performed under particularly difficult conditions; or
viii. Exposes the child to biological agents such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa,
nematodes and other parasites; or ix. Involves the manufacture or handling of explosives and other
pyrotechnic products.

- RA 7877 Anti-Harassment Act Section 3. In a work-related or employment environment,
sexual harassment is committed when:

(1) The sexual favor is made as a condition in the hiring or in the employment, re-
employment or continued employment of said individual, or in granting said individual favorable
compensation, terms, conditions, promotions, or privileges; or the refusal to grant the sexual
favor results in limiting, segregating or classifying the employee which in a way would discriminate,
deprive or diminish employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect said employee;
(2) The above acts would impair the employees rights or privileges under existing labor
laws; or
(3) The above acts would result in an intimidating, hostile, or offensive environment for the

- RA 8504 Phil Aids Prevention and Control Act Section 35. Discrimination in the
workplace. Discrimination in any form from pre-employment to post-employment, including
hiring, promotion or assignment, based on the actual, perceived or suspected HIV status of an
individual is prohibited. Termination from work on the sole basis of actual, perceived or suspected
HIV status is deemed unlawful.

- RA 9208 Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 Forced Labor and Slavery - refer to
the extraction of work or services from any person by means of enticement, violence, intimidation
or threat, use of force or coercion, including deprivation of freedom, abuse of authority or moral
ascendancy, debt-bondage or deception.

-RA 7277 Magna Carta for Disabled Persons Section 32. Discrimination on
Employment. No entity, whether public or private, shall discriminate against a qualified disabled
person by reason of disability in regard to job application procedures, the hiring, promotion, or
discharge of employees, employee compensation, job training, and other terms, conditions, and
privileges of employment. The following constitute acts of discrimination:
(a) Limiting, segregating or classifying a disabled job applicant in such a manner that
adversely affects his work opportunities;
(b) Using qualification standards, employment tests or other selection criteria that screen
out or tend to screen out a disabled person unless such standards, tests or other selection criteria
are shown to be job-related for the position in question and are consistent with business necessity;
(c) Utilizing standards, criteria, or methods of administration that: (1) have the effect of
discrimination on the basis of disability; or
(2) perpetuate the discrimination of others who are subject to common administrative
(d) Providing less compensation, such as salary, wage or other forms of remuneration and
fringe benefits, to a qualified disabled employee, by reason of his disability, than the amount to
which a non-disabled person performing the same work is entitled;
(e) Favoring a non-disabled employee over a qualified disabled employee with respect to
promotion, training opportunities, study and scholarship grants, solely on account of the latter's
(f) Re-assigning or transferring a disabled employee to a job or position he cannot perform
by reason of his disability;
(g) Dismissing or terminating the services of a disabled employee by reason of his disability
unless the employer can prove that he impairs the satisfactory performance of the work involved to
the prejudice of the business entity: Provided, however, That the employer first sought to provide
reasonable accommodations for disabled persons;
(h) Failing to select or administer in the most effective manner employment tests which
accurately reflect the skills, aptitude or other factor of the disabled applicant or
employee that such tests purports to measure, rather than the impaired sensory, manual or
speaking skills of such applicant or employee, if any; and
(i)Excluding disabled persons from membership in labor unions or similar organizations.

- RA 8791 General Banking Laws of 2000 Section 55.4. Consistent with the provisions of
Republic Act No. 1405, otherwise known as the Banks Secrecy Law, no bank shall employ casual
or nonregular personnel or too lengthy probationary personnel in the conduct of its business
involving bank deposits.

- Civil Code Article 1703. No contract which practically amounts to involuntary servitude,
under any guise whatsoever, shall be valid.