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# Mechanical Measurements Prof. S.P.

Venkateshan

## Sub Module 2.4

Thermistors
Resistance thermometry may be performed using thermistors. Thermistors

are many times more sensitive than RTD’s and hence are useful over limited

## sintering mixtures of metallic oxides of Manganese, Nickel, Cobalt, Copper,

Iron etc. They come in different shapes as shown in Figure 29. Resistance of

## temperature relation is known to follow the law

⎛1 1 ⎞
β⎜ − ⎟
RT = R0 e ⎝ T T0 ⎠
(15)

Here is a constant and all the temperatures are in Kelvin, To is the ice point

Glass
Envelope

## Disc type Rod type Bead type

Thermistor Thermistor Thermistor

## Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Mechanical Measurements Prof. S.P.Venkateshan

## A typical thermistor has the following specifications:

R0
R 25 = 2000 Ω, = 18.64 (16)
R 70
This thermistor has a value of 3917 K and a resistance of 6656 at 0oC.

## We may compare the corresponding numbers for a standard Platinum

resistance element.

## R 0 = 100 Ω, R 70 = R 0 (1 + 0.00385 × 70) = 1.2695 R 0

Hence, we have

R0 1
= = 0.788 (17)
R 70 1.2695

The resistance change is thus very mild in the case of a PRT as compared to

## above is shown plotted in Figure 30.

7000

6000

5000
Resistance, Ω

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
0 20 40 60 80 100
o
Temperature, C

## Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Mechanical Measurements Prof. S.P.Venkateshan

Rs
Thermistor
Battery

Rp
Voltmeter

## resistance of the thermistor in parallel with Rp varies nearly linearly as shown

in Figure 32. The circuit is basically a voltage divider circuit. The potential

## Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Mechanical Measurements Prof. S.P.Venkateshan

## Data Linear (Data)

500
450

Equivalent Resistance, Ω
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
o
Temperature, C

3

## If the series resistance is chosen as R s = 500 Ω and the battery voltage is 9

V, the voltmeter reading varies as shown in Figure 33. The output decreases

## monotonically with temperature and the non-linearity is mild.

4.5

4
Output across thermistor, V

3.5

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
o
Temperature, C

temperature

## Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Mechanical Measurements Prof. S.P.Venkateshan

Example 11

## ¾ A thermistor has a resistance temperature relationship given by

⎡ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞⎤
R = R 0 exp ⎢β ⎜ − ⎟ ⎥ . For a certain thermistor R0 =80000 Ω where
⎣ ⎝ T T0 ⎠ ⎦

## R, Ω 10980 2575 858

¾ Using the above data estimate β. Use this β to estimate the resistance

of the thermistor at 10 and 110 oC. Compare the data with the values

## o Taking logarithms and rearranging, we have

ln ( R R 0 )
β=
[1 T − 1/ T0 ]
o The tabulated data in the above expression will thus give three

values for β. The average of these three values should give the

best estimate for β. The values of β are 3506, 3503 and 3495 K.

## Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Mechanical Measurements Prof. S.P.Venkateshan

t, °C 50 100 150