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Lecture 5 Tort Law

October 7
th
, 2014
CURRENT EVENTS
Keurig Coffee pods
Wated to pre!et co"petitors to "a#e #oc# off pods so the$ created a 2%0 Keurig
& Caadia co"pa$ e'a"ied the ew pods u(tra !io(et code
Copied Keurig)s pods ad a(so shared the ifor"atio to other co"petitors
Ca Keurig c(ai" protectio fro" these idi!idua( coffee pod se((ers*
The case is udeter"ied
+, ,tee(
-ought the assets of ,te((co
.ow it has goe ba#rupt ot a (ot of assets, (ots of debt
Who shou(d get the assets (eft*
+, ,tee( we were the o($ oes wi((ig to put "oe$ i whe ti"es were bad, the (ast
"oe$ i shou(d be the first "oe$ out /dip fiacers0
Log ti"e e"p(o$ees of ,te((co etit(ed uder a fuded pesio
There is)t eough "oe$ to go aroud, so"eoe is ot goig to get paid
1eriat hote( chai sued b$ 2CC /our !ersio of C3TC0
4eop(e wet to a busiess coferece at 1eriat hote(
The$ ha!e o iteret because the$ are 5a""ig their Wi2i hotspots because the$ wat
peop(e to pa$ "ore
)6f $ou co"e o to "$ propert$ shou(d)t 6 be a((owed to sa$ this is what $ou ca or caot
do)
&s a perso sta$ig ad pa$ig shou(d)t the$ be etit(ed to usig their Wi2i
.ew Or(eas -4 is as#ig a 5udge to stri#e dow a decisio that was "ade (ast $ear
7e(d that -4 acted care(ess($ with gross eg(igece whe it po((uted the 8u(f Of 1e'ico
with the offshore rig
-4 has to pa$ 19 bi((io do((ars i da"ages "ore
-4 sa$s the$ were ot gross($ eg(iget so the$ do)t ha!e to pa$ the e'tra 19 bi((io
,pet "i((ios of do((ars to tr$ ad co!ice the wor(d that the$ cared about the
e!iro"et whe c(ear($ the$ did ot /h$pocris$0
OVERVIEW
Tort Law
The co"biatio of the itetioa( torts ad eg(igece
There)s a(so so"e strict (iabi(it$ courts
4urpose of Tort Law
To co"pesate a da"aged part$
Wea(th redistributio sche"e
Ta#e "oe$ fro" peop(e who do bad thigs ad gi!e it to the !icti"s of that wrogfu(
beha!iour
Co"pesate busiess of wrog doig, gi!e it to peop(e who were hurt b$ the wrog
There is a puish"et aspect
Tort (aw "odifies peop(es beha!iours, deters peop(e fro" doig bad thigs discourages
beha!iour that we fid as uacceptab(e
Tort Law is ci!i( (aw so it)s pri"ari($ about "oe$
7as a (ow burde of proof /dea(ig with "oe$ it)s o#a$ to get it wrog0
6 tort (aw it)s $ou agaist "e
:ou i5ured "e $ou shou(d pa$ "e
;'% $ou puch so"eoe i the face, chip tooth ad brea# chee#boe ha!e to rei"burse the
"edica( bi((s
4urpose of Cri"ia( Law
6t is puiti!e
The pri"ar$ purpose is puish"et retributio
<:ou !io(ated the ru(es of ci!i( societ$ ow $ou "ust be puished=
Cri"ia( Law is about puish"et /fies, puish"et, 5ai(0
7as a high burde of proof /dea(ig with so"ebod$)s freedo", puish"et it)s ot o#a$ if we
get it wrog0
6 cri"ia( (aw it)s a(wa$s the state !s accused /societ$ !s so"eoe0
:ou bro#e the ru(es of societ$
;'% if po(ice were i!o(!ed, wi(( go to court ad crow "ight ha!e to go to 5ai(
;'% O> ,i"pso o tria( for "urder of his e'?wife ad fried
>udge (ost cotro( of the case did)t rea(($ do what he was supposed to
& (ot of prob(e"s with the case, (ead i!estigator was racist /did ot (i#e O> ,i"pso i
particu(ar0
Cou(d ot co!ice 12 5uries O> wa(#ed off a free "a /this was cri"ia( (aw0
&fter O> was sued for wrogfu( death $ou shou(d ha!e to co"pesate the fa"i(ies
>ur$ ordered hi" to pa$ @2 "i((io do((ars i da"ages /this was tort (aw0
Where does Tort Law co"e fro"*
Co"es fro" case (aw
&("ost a(( of tort (aw is a product of cases
7a!e to poit to a precedet
Tort (aw e'paded o!er ti"e
&t so"e ti"e we bega to see busiess torts
6tetioa( breach of cotract
Tort Law cotiued
The perso accused "ust ha!e acted itetioa(($
The defedat "ust ha!e iteded to do the thig that cause the har"
Aefedat does ot ecessari($ ha!e to ited to har"
4(aitiff ca"e before the court 6)!e bee wrog ad 6 deser!e a re"ed$
7as the perso acted itetioa(($ .o but he shou(d ha!e #ow better
&cted ureasoab(e, out of had, etc%
>udge sa$s o#a$ $ou wi this was #ow as eg(igece
.eg(igece "ere($ reBuires care(essess
6f $ou ca "a#e the argu"et that o reasoab(e perso wou(d ha!e doe what the
defedat did
This (ead tort (aw ito accideta( i5ur$
;'% -4 did ot ited to spi(( i the 8u(f of 1e'ico but it was care(ess ad rec#(ess
,trict Liabi(it$
7appes whe there are o defeces
6f $ou cause the har" the $ou are (iab(e
;'% if $ou ha!e so"ethig dagerous o $our propert$ ad it escapes the $ou are (iab(e
;'% a bag of acid i $our bac#$ard, seeps through goes ito $our eighbours $ard ad fuc#s
it up e!e if $ou too# a(( reasoab(e steps i tr$ig to #eep it safe /egieer "aiteace,
sa"p(es, etc0 a(( this does ot "atter because $ou shou(d ot ha!e had it a$wa$s, if $ou
caused that da"age $ou are resposib(e
;'% attac# dogs which escaped ad #i((ed a wo"a off $our propert$ if the$ are there for a
uusua( purpose attac# dogs for a grow op, if the$ were pets the it wou(d ot be strict
(iabi(it$
Cicarious (iabi(it$
;'% bar ower to boucer, <"a#e sure peop(e are beha!ig, re"o!e ad patros who are gettig
out of had, use a reasoab(e a"out of force, do)t go ifrot of cocrete stairs=
That ight, boucers drags out a gu$ at a bar ad throws hi" off the stairs, gu$ beco"es
Buadrip(egic
2%4 "i((io i da"ages
&re $ou resposib(e as the bar ower*
6deed $ou are
The boucer co""itted a batter$ ad is (iab(e
Cicarious (iabi(it$ is a e'tesio to the e"p(o$er o (iab(e because $ou did so"ethig
wrog, but because of $our re(atioship with the perso who did so"ethig wrog
;"p(o$er #eeps the profits whe $ou ru the busiess we((, the $ou shou(d pa$ the costs
whe thigs go horrib($ wrog i a positio of cotro(, cou(d ha!e pre!eted this fro"
happeig
4ass cost to custo"ers so a icrease of prices i order for this to ot occur i the future
/better traiig for boucers, isurace, etc0
Tort Law
7as our !icti" recei!ed co"pesatio* :es recei!ed co"pesatio for the i5uries he
suffered
Aeterrece* ;couraged other bar owers to "odif$ their beha!iour /ta#e the steps to
pre!et it0
Tort (aw therefore acco"p(ished its first two purposes
TOPICS
6tetioa( Torts
Trespass
.uisace
-atter$
&ssau(t
Co!ersio
2raud
6ducig breach of cotract
6terferig with ecoo"ic re(atioship
2a(se i"priso"et
Ca p(aitiff pro!e this, is there a$ defeces*
.eg(igece
Aut$ of care
-reach of reBuired stadard of care
Causatios of Aa"ages
AefecesDLi"itatios
3easoab(e forceabi(it$
3e"oteess
1itigatio
Co(utar$ assu"ptios
Cotributor$ eg(igece
6tetio
4(aitiff "ust pro!e that the defedat acted itetioa(($
The itetio to do the thig that causes the har"
.ot that the defedat iteded to har" $ou
6teded to do whate!er it was that resu(ted i the har"
;'% 4(aitiff "ust pro!e defedat trespassed
6 the woods 6 a" (ost, turs out 6 a" o $our (ad
6 do)t ited to be o $our (ad
-ut it was "$ itetio to be stadig here happes that 6 a" o $our (ad ad trespassig
;'% ,a"e e'a"p(e but with a (ie
-udd$ pushes $ou across the (ie of trespass Eoe
The this is ot itetio
Aa"ages
&("ost a(wa$s a reBuire"et that the p(aitiff suffered da"ages
4ri"ar$ purpose of tort (aw is co"pesatio
6f $ou caot pro!e that $ou suffered da"ages the $ou do ot ha!e a tort (aw case
;'% Aoctor de!e(ops groud brea#ig procedure
Laser too( to fi' a prob(e" otherwise wou(d reBuire wo"e to get a h$sterecto"$
Aa$ surger$ t$pe thig, o side effects, a"aEig pioeer a hero
The$ fi(" a buch of these procedures so the$ ca trai other peop(e to do this
3esidets see that at the ed of e!er$ procedure he is doig this thig with the (aser
7e does it without e'ceptio ad its the sa"e actio e!er$ ti"e
7e is ta#ig the (aser too( ad doig so"ethig o the (eft side of the uterie wa((
+i!ersit$ of 1ichiga fa, taggig iside of wo"e with 1ichiga footba(( (ogo
Wo"a #ows about this ad sues for batter$
,he (oses because she did ot suffer a$ da"ages
,he is 5ust horrib($ offeded, this is ot tort (aw
.o da"ages F o tort (aw
3are e'ceptios to this pricip(e /o da"ages F o tort (aw0
,o"eti"es courts award o"ia( da"ages
Trespass is oe of the"
4er se ie!itab(e withi the"se(!es
;'% brea# ito profs house ad sit ad watch TC at his house ad chi(( without his coset
4rof wi(( wi e!e though he did)t suffer a$ da"ages
;'% .aEi war cri"ia( sues for defa"atio
Techica(($ $ou wi but $ou rea(($ ha!e)t suffered a$ da"ages /get rewarded oe do((ar0
Trespass ad defa"atio $ou do)t ha!e to pro!e eg(igece
INTENTIONAL TORTS
Trespass
;terig so"eoe)s (ad without coset
.uisace
6terferig of e5o$"et of so"eoe)s propert$
;'% throwig firecrac#er thig i eighbours bac#$ard
This is a uisace
;'% ,riracha hot sauce factor$
Ower is so puget ad per!asi!e
7a!e to icrease productio
.eighbours are co"p(aiig about uisace
;$es water fro" s"e(( of sauce fro" the factor$
This is a (itt(e "ore difficu(t
This is a i"portat acti!it$ /5obs, ta' re!eue, busiess profits, etc0
,riracha sauce peop(e wi(( sa$ <we were here before $ou=
.eighbours wi(( sa$ <$ou were o($ a fa"i($ ru busiess whe we "o!ed i ow $ou
e'paded (i#e craE$=
Tr$ to ba(ace the i"portace of the acti!it$ ta#ig p(ace agaist the degree of iterferece
of the propert$ owers
-atter$
Touchig so"eoe without their coset
;'% puch so"eoe, doctor perfor"s without patiets coset
&ssau(t
Whe $ou do)t touch so"eoe but $ou #id of threate to
;'% "a#e so"eoe f(ich ad the$ hit their head agaist the bac# of the wa((
Aefa"atio
6tetioa(($ "a#e utrue state"ets about so"eoe that har"s their reputatio
6f it is spo#e it is ca((ed s(ader
Co!ersio
Aea(ig with so"eoe e(se)s propert$
;'% se(( his phoe to hi"
Ta#e fried)s (aptop ad se(( it o #i5i5i without coset
2raud
6tetioa(($ obtaiig goods or ser!ices !ia fa(se preteces
6ducig -reach of cotract
;'% 6)(( gi!e $ou 10# to breach that cotract with the"
7a!e to pro!e the$ had a cotract
6tetioa(($ iterferig with ecoo"ic re(atios
;'% 6)(( gi!e $ou 10# if $ou par# truc# i frot of his (oadig doc# so he ca)t (oad his shit
2a(se 6"priso"et
Aetaiig so"ebod$
;'% store "aager agaist shop(ifters
,it right there uti( the cops co"e
6f the$ ha!e)t sto(e so"ethig the it is ot a citiEes arrest
.ow it is fa(se i"priso"et
65urious fa(sehood
Li#e defa"atio but for a busiess product
;'% ,a"sug phoes cause cacer
6f $ou state a fa(se fact the that wou(d be i5urious fa(sehood
6t is (i#e defa"atio but it i!o(!es a product or ser!ice
NEGLIGENCE
3epresets a big phi(osophica( share
We brig ito the eBuatio )accideta()
1ust pro!e a(( @G
10 Aut$ of care
20 -reach of reBuired stadard of care
@0 Causatio of da"ages
6f she pro!es a(( three the the defedat ca go to the defeces
10 Aut$ of Care
;'% o a "outai 400#" awa$ fro" e!er$oe, $ou do)t ow a dut$ of care
Wou(d a reasoab(e perso i $our situatio foresee a ris# of har"
6f the aswer is $es, the that e(e"et is satisfied
6f we wat to #ow who the reasoab(e perso is we go to the cases
&s# i this situatio what wou(d a reasoab(e perso ha!e doe
;'% throw a baseba(( at the bac# of the roo"
Wou(d a reasoab(e perso foresee this as dagerous
Loo# at cases about throwig a pro5ecti(e i a crowded c(assroo"
6f $ou ca)t fid, fid a case that is si"i(ar
What wou(d a reasoab(e prof wou(d do i the e'act sa"e circu"staces
.eg(igece does)t ho(d the reasoab(e perso as a perfect perso
Ciews it as a ordiar$, t$pica( perso
What is reasoab(e a(wa$s depeds o the circu"staces
.o reasoab(e perso i the abstract sese
O($ a reasoab(e perso i the sa"e e'act circu"staces
Aut$ of care with peop(e who are reasoab($ c(ose /eighbourhood, pro'i"it$0 i the sa"e
!iciit$ owe the perso a dut$ of care
20 -reach the reBuired stadard of care
3easoab(e
.eg(igece reBuires $ou to act reasoab(e
What wou(d a reasoab(e perso do*
To deter"ie this $ou shou(d (oo# at cases
;'% if prof put up ettig "esh for safet$, wars a(( studets
7ad a dut$ of care, but if so"eoe got i5ured it wou(d)t be ureasoab(e
,tadard of care wi(( go up if the perso was professioa(
,o"eoe re($ig o so"eoes e'pertise
Whe the ris# of har" is great /stadard of care wi(( go up0
,tadard of care wi(( shift, i accordace to what a reasoab(e perso wi(( do i the
circu"staces
@0 Causatio of Aa"ages
2au(t based co"pesatio sche"e
;'% auto"obi(e isurace, o eed to pro!e fau(t isurace "ust co"pesate $ou
if $ou ca pro!e $ou were i a car accidet $ou wi(( get co"pesatio
Wor#ers co"pesatio if $ou are i5ured i the wor#p(ace $ou ca get co"pesatio
:ou caot sue
:ou go to wor#er)s co"pesatio, the$ assess $ou ad the$ co"pesate $ou
6f $ou are a i5ured wor#er it is difficu(t for $ou to sue $our e"p(o$er ad see that the$
were at fau(t
6t is difficu(t to sue cowor#er at fau(t* :ourse(f at fau(t*
Tort (aw is based o fau(t
4ro!e that the defedat caused $our i5ur$
<-ut for %%= test
-ut for "e ot puttig the garbage pai( at the door she wou(d ot ha!e bro#e her (eg
:ou are (iab(e
2
d
e'a"p(eG pai( of garbage, she brea#s phoe, other gu$ trips o!er her, goes to a"bu(ace,
a"bu(ace crashes ito tree
This wou(d pass the but for test -+T the$ (i"it the da"ages for da"ages that are of
t$pe foreseeab(e so prof wou(d)t be resposib(e for a"bu(ace dri!er)s death
;'% cigarette, tosses it accideta(($ i oi(, causes a fire
:ou are resposib(e
;'% puch so"eoe i the face with a rea(($ thi s#u((
:ou are resposib(e for a(( da"ages e!e though his s#u(( is soft
3e"oteess
&s#s how "a$ thigs separate what the defedat did to the e!et
6ter!eig e!ets
;'% bush part$, gets ito fight, gets stabbed
2rieds tr$ to e!acuate hi", f(ag dow a car, dropped his budd$ repeated($ carr$ig hi"
out to the road
8u$ wou(d)t ha!e died without the "u(tip(e drops of his frieds
7e wou(d)t ha!e died without those drops
6s the stabber resposib(e*
.o causatio because it is too remote too "a$ thigs that happeed
;'% gu$ gets i5ured ad para($sed does)t go through with surger$ because 0%01H chace
of death sues to get "oe$
Court a((ows defedat off the hoo#
DEFENCES
1itigatio
,a"e (ega( re"ed$ of "itigatio app(ies
Caot if(ate da"ages, "ust #eep the" reasoab($ (ow
Co(utar$ assu"ptio of ris#
;'% shoot a puc# o!er the g(ass ad brea#s a chee# boe get sued
:ou assu"e !o(utar$ of ris#
That)s so"ethig b$ puttig o $our s#ates, gettig ito the area $ou assu"e !o(utar$ of
ris#
The other wa$ to dea( with this is to use wai!ers
Courts do)t (i#e the" so the$ set the thresho(d high
7a!e to be detai(ed, ad app(icab(e
Cotributor$ .eg(igece
The defedat sa$ig that he was eg(iget but so was the p(aitiff
This was the 1cAoa(dIs hot coffee case
,he was 20H cotributoria( eg(iget
1cAoa(d)s was 90H
;'% 6 dri!e without a seat be(t ad $ou crash ito "e 6 sue $ou because "$ da"ages were
"ore because 6 did)t wear a seat be(t
40H $ou J0H the other perso
:ou were resposib(e for $our ow da"ages as we((
6 tort (aw we go bac#wards
4roduct Liabi(it$
6dea that a "aufacturer of products owes a dut$ of care for custo"ers
;'% 8iger beer wo"a dri#s ha(f a s(ug
-ott(er sa$s to her but $ou ca)t get a re"ed$ fro" us because we do)t ha!e a (ega(
re(atioship with us
:ou are (i#e a (ega( strager to us
,he sa$sG
6 thi# a reasoab(e perso i $our circu"stace wou(d ha!e foresee a prob(e"
;'% (adder busiess
2au(t$ (adders
Ob(igatio is o "aufacturer to act reasoab($
Occupiers Liabi(it$
The dut$ of care of a occupier of (ad owes whe peop(e go o that (ad
;'% i!itig peop(e o $our (ad to pait $our fece
Owe a dut$ of care
:ou a(so owe a dut$ of care to trespassers
;'% !icious dog put up a sig so it shows $ou acted reasoab($
&(coho(
,hift i the (aw towards dru# dri!ig
,eteces are "uch harsher
The (aw has e!o(!ed to ref(ect Caadia !a(ues /which ha!e chaged o!er the $ears0
6f $ou go to a bar ad get o!er?ser!ed ad dri!e ad get ito a accidet, the bar is resposib(e
4ut resposibi(it$ o bar owers because the$ are "a#ig "oe$ ad are i a positio to
pre!et it fro" happeig
;'% Koe Chi(ds
Aru# dri!er dri!es ito her car, #i((s her bo$fried ad she beco"es hadicapped
,he sued the part$ that the dri!er was at
Court said o case where socia( host was resposib(e
&ppea(, appea(, appea( fai(, fai(, fai(
,upre"e court of Caada stated that the part$ host did ot supp($ the a(coho( ad did ot
#ow he was a co!icted dru# dri!er
-ut there is a situatio where a case where the socia( host wi(( be resposib(e
6 the ear future we wi(( see socia( host (iabi(it$ i Caada
4rofessioa( (iabi(it$
6t is 5ust eg(igece
4eop(e who are professioa(s who are gi!ig ad!ice, peop(e suffer da"ages fro" re($ig o this
ad!ice
Causatio of professioa( re(iabi(it$
6f $ou re($ o the opiio the $our da"ages are caused b$ that re(iace
4rofessioa( ca be resposib(e for peop(e who are ot their c(iets