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Lecture 5 Tort Law

October 7
, 2014
Keurig Coffee pods
Wated to pre!et co"petitors to "a#e #oc# off pods so the$ created a 2%0 Keurig
& Caadia co"pa$ e'a"ied the ew pods u(tra !io(et code
Copied Keurig)s pods ad a(so shared the ifor"atio to other co"petitors
Ca Keurig c(ai" protectio fro" these idi!idua( coffee pod se((ers*
The case is udeter"ied
+, ,tee(
-ought the assets of ,te((co
.ow it has goe ba#rupt ot a (ot of assets, (ots of debt
Who shou(d get the assets (eft*
+, ,tee( we were the o($ oes wi((ig to put "oe$ i whe ti"es were bad, the (ast
"oe$ i shou(d be the first "oe$ out /dip fiacers0
Log ti"e e"p(o$ees of ,te((co etit(ed uder a fuded pesio
There is)t eough "oe$ to go aroud, so"eoe is ot goig to get paid
1eriat hote( chai sued b$ 2CC /our !ersio of C3TC0
4eop(e wet to a busiess coferece at 1eriat hote(
The$ ha!e o iteret because the$ are 5a""ig their Wi2i hotspots because the$ wat
peop(e to pa$ "ore
)6f $ou co"e o to "$ propert$ shou(d)t 6 be a((owed to sa$ this is what $ou ca or caot
&s a perso sta$ig ad pa$ig shou(d)t the$ be etit(ed to usig their Wi2i
.ew Or(eas -4 is as#ig a 5udge to stri#e dow a decisio that was "ade (ast $ear
7e(d that -4 acted care(ess($ with gross eg(igece whe it po((uted the 8u(f Of 1e'ico
with the offshore rig
-4 has to pa$ 19 bi((io do((ars i da"ages "ore
-4 sa$s the$ were ot gross($ eg(iget so the$ do)t ha!e to pa$ the e'tra 19 bi((io
,pet "i((ios of do((ars to tr$ ad co!ice the wor(d that the$ cared about the
e!iro"et whe c(ear($ the$ did ot /h$pocris$0
Tort Law
The co"biatio of the itetioa( torts ad eg(igece
There)s a(so so"e strict (iabi(it$ courts
4urpose of Tort Law
To co"pesate a da"aged part$
Wea(th redistributio sche"e
Ta#e "oe$ fro" peop(e who do bad thigs ad gi!e it to the !icti"s of that wrogfu(
Co"pesate busiess of wrog doig, gi!e it to peop(e who were hurt b$ the wrog
There is a puish"et aspect
Tort (aw "odifies peop(es beha!iours, deters peop(e fro" doig bad thigs discourages
beha!iour that we fid as uacceptab(e
Tort Law is ci!i( (aw so it)s pri"ari($ about "oe$
7as a (ow burde of proof /dea(ig with "oe$ it)s o#a$ to get it wrog0
6 tort (aw it)s $ou agaist "e
:ou i5ured "e $ou shou(d pa$ "e
;'% $ou puch so"eoe i the face, chip tooth ad brea# chee#boe ha!e to rei"burse the
"edica( bi((s
4urpose of Cri"ia( Law
6t is puiti!e
The pri"ar$ purpose is puish"et retributio
<:ou !io(ated the ru(es of ci!i( societ$ ow $ou "ust be puished=
Cri"ia( Law is about puish"et /fies, puish"et, 5ai(0
7as a high burde of proof /dea(ig with so"ebod$)s freedo", puish"et it)s ot o#a$ if we
get it wrog0
6 cri"ia( (aw it)s a(wa$s the state !s accused /societ$ !s so"eoe0
:ou bro#e the ru(es of societ$
;'% if po(ice were i!o(!ed, wi(( go to court ad crow "ight ha!e to go to 5ai(
;'% O> ,i"pso o tria( for "urder of his e'?wife ad fried
>udge (ost cotro( of the case did)t rea(($ do what he was supposed to
& (ot of prob(e"s with the case, (ead i!estigator was racist /did ot (i#e O> ,i"pso i
Cou(d ot co!ice 12 5uries O> wa(#ed off a free "a /this was cri"ia( (aw0
&fter O> was sued for wrogfu( death $ou shou(d ha!e to co"pesate the fa"i(ies
>ur$ ordered hi" to pa$ @2 "i((io do((ars i da"ages /this was tort (aw0
Where does Tort Law co"e fro"*
Co"es fro" case (aw
&("ost a(( of tort (aw is a product of cases
7a!e to poit to a precedet
Tort (aw e'paded o!er ti"e
&t so"e ti"e we bega to see busiess torts
6tetioa( breach of cotract
Tort Law cotiued
The perso accused "ust ha!e acted itetioa(($
The defedat "ust ha!e iteded to do the thig that cause the har"
Aefedat does ot ecessari($ ha!e to ited to har"
4(aitiff ca"e before the court 6)!e bee wrog ad 6 deser!e a re"ed$
7as the perso acted itetioa(($ .o but he shou(d ha!e #ow better
&cted ureasoab(e, out of had, etc%
>udge sa$s o#a$ $ou wi this was #ow as eg(igece
.eg(igece "ere($ reBuires care(essess
6f $ou ca "a#e the argu"et that o reasoab(e perso wou(d ha!e doe what the
defedat did
This (ead tort (aw ito accideta( i5ur$
;'% -4 did ot ited to spi(( i the 8u(f of 1e'ico but it was care(ess ad rec#(ess
,trict Liabi(it$
7appes whe there are o defeces
6f $ou cause the har" the $ou are (iab(e
;'% if $ou ha!e so"ethig dagerous o $our propert$ ad it escapes the $ou are (iab(e
;'% a bag of acid i $our bac#$ard, seeps through goes ito $our eighbours $ard ad fuc#s
it up e!e if $ou too# a(( reasoab(e steps i tr$ig to #eep it safe /egieer "aiteace,
sa"p(es, etc0 a(( this does ot "atter because $ou shou(d ot ha!e had it a$wa$s, if $ou
caused that da"age $ou are resposib(e
;'% attac# dogs which escaped ad #i((ed a wo"a off $our propert$ if the$ are there for a
uusua( purpose attac# dogs for a grow op, if the$ were pets the it wou(d ot be strict
Cicarious (iabi(it$
;'% bar ower to boucer, <"a#e sure peop(e are beha!ig, re"o!e ad patros who are gettig
out of had, use a reasoab(e a"out of force, do)t go ifrot of cocrete stairs=
That ight, boucers drags out a gu$ at a bar ad throws hi" off the stairs, gu$ beco"es
2%4 "i((io i da"ages
&re $ou resposib(e as the bar ower*
6deed $ou are
The boucer co""itted a batter$ ad is (iab(e
Cicarious (iabi(it$ is a e'tesio to the e"p(o$er o (iab(e because $ou did so"ethig
wrog, but because of $our re(atioship with the perso who did so"ethig wrog
;"p(o$er #eeps the profits whe $ou ru the busiess we((, the $ou shou(d pa$ the costs
whe thigs go horrib($ wrog i a positio of cotro(, cou(d ha!e pre!eted this fro"
4ass cost to custo"ers so a icrease of prices i order for this to ot occur i the future
/better traiig for boucers, isurace, etc0
Tort Law
7as our !icti" recei!ed co"pesatio* :es recei!ed co"pesatio for the i5uries he
Aeterrece* ;couraged other bar owers to "odif$ their beha!iour /ta#e the steps to
pre!et it0
Tort (aw therefore acco"p(ished its first two purposes
6tetioa( Torts
6ducig breach of cotract
6terferig with ecoo"ic re(atioship
2a(se i"priso"et
Ca p(aitiff pro!e this, is there a$ defeces*
Aut$ of care
-reach of reBuired stadard of care
Causatios of Aa"ages
3easoab(e forceabi(it$
Co(utar$ assu"ptios
Cotributor$ eg(igece
4(aitiff "ust pro!e that the defedat acted itetioa(($
The itetio to do the thig that causes the har"
.ot that the defedat iteded to har" $ou
6teded to do whate!er it was that resu(ted i the har"
;'% 4(aitiff "ust pro!e defedat trespassed
6 the woods 6 a" (ost, turs out 6 a" o $our (ad
6 do)t ited to be o $our (ad
-ut it was "$ itetio to be stadig here happes that 6 a" o $our (ad ad trespassig
;'% ,a"e e'a"p(e but with a (ie
-udd$ pushes $ou across the (ie of trespass Eoe
The this is ot itetio
&("ost a(wa$s a reBuire"et that the p(aitiff suffered da"ages
4ri"ar$ purpose of tort (aw is co"pesatio
6f $ou caot pro!e that $ou suffered da"ages the $ou do ot ha!e a tort (aw case
;'% Aoctor de!e(ops groud brea#ig procedure
Laser too( to fi' a prob(e" otherwise wou(d reBuire wo"e to get a h$sterecto"$
Aa$ surger$ t$pe thig, o side effects, a"aEig pioeer a hero
The$ fi(" a buch of these procedures so the$ ca trai other peop(e to do this
3esidets see that at the ed of e!er$ procedure he is doig this thig with the (aser
7e does it without e'ceptio ad its the sa"e actio e!er$ ti"e
7e is ta#ig the (aser too( ad doig so"ethig o the (eft side of the uterie wa((
+i!ersit$ of 1ichiga fa, taggig iside of wo"e with 1ichiga footba(( (ogo
Wo"a #ows about this ad sues for batter$
,he (oses because she did ot suffer a$ da"ages
,he is 5ust horrib($ offeded, this is ot tort (aw
.o da"ages F o tort (aw
3are e'ceptios to this pricip(e /o da"ages F o tort (aw0
,o"eti"es courts award o"ia( da"ages
Trespass is oe of the"
4er se ie!itab(e withi the"se(!es
;'% brea# ito profs house ad sit ad watch TC at his house ad chi(( without his coset
4rof wi(( wi e!e though he did)t suffer a$ da"ages
;'% .aEi war cri"ia( sues for defa"atio
Techica(($ $ou wi but $ou rea(($ ha!e)t suffered a$ da"ages /get rewarded oe do((ar0
Trespass ad defa"atio $ou do)t ha!e to pro!e eg(igece
;terig so"eoe)s (ad without coset
6terferig of e5o$"et of so"eoe)s propert$
;'% throwig firecrac#er thig i eighbours bac#$ard
This is a uisace
;'% ,riracha hot sauce factor$
Ower is so puget ad per!asi!e
7a!e to icrease productio
.eighbours are co"p(aiig about uisace
;$es water fro" s"e(( of sauce fro" the factor$
This is a (itt(e "ore difficu(t
This is a i"portat acti!it$ /5obs, ta' re!eue, busiess profits, etc0
,riracha sauce peop(e wi(( sa$ <we were here before $ou=
.eighbours wi(( sa$ <$ou were o($ a fa"i($ ru busiess whe we "o!ed i ow $ou
e'paded (i#e craE$=
Tr$ to ba(ace the i"portace of the acti!it$ ta#ig p(ace agaist the degree of iterferece
of the propert$ owers
Touchig so"eoe without their coset
;'% puch so"eoe, doctor perfor"s without patiets coset
Whe $ou do)t touch so"eoe but $ou #id of threate to
;'% "a#e so"eoe f(ich ad the$ hit their head agaist the bac# of the wa((
6tetioa(($ "a#e utrue state"ets about so"eoe that har"s their reputatio
6f it is spo#e it is ca((ed s(ader
Aea(ig with so"eoe e(se)s propert$
;'% se(( his phoe to hi"
Ta#e fried)s (aptop ad se(( it o #i5i5i without coset
6tetioa(($ obtaiig goods or ser!ices !ia fa(se preteces
6ducig -reach of cotract
;'% 6)(( gi!e $ou 10# to breach that cotract with the"
7a!e to pro!e the$ had a cotract
6tetioa(($ iterferig with ecoo"ic re(atios
;'% 6)(( gi!e $ou 10# if $ou par# truc# i frot of his (oadig doc# so he ca)t (oad his shit
2a(se 6"priso"et
Aetaiig so"ebod$
;'% store "aager agaist shop(ifters
,it right there uti( the cops co"e
6f the$ ha!e)t sto(e so"ethig the it is ot a citiEes arrest
.ow it is fa(se i"priso"et
65urious fa(sehood
Li#e defa"atio but for a busiess product
;'% ,a"sug phoes cause cacer
6f $ou state a fa(se fact the that wou(d be i5urious fa(sehood
6t is (i#e defa"atio but it i!o(!es a product or ser!ice
3epresets a big phi(osophica( share
We brig ito the eBuatio )accideta()
1ust pro!e a(( @G
10 Aut$ of care
20 -reach of reBuired stadard of care
@0 Causatio of da"ages
6f she pro!es a(( three the the defedat ca go to the defeces
10 Aut$ of Care
;'% o a "outai 400#" awa$ fro" e!er$oe, $ou do)t ow a dut$ of care
Wou(d a reasoab(e perso i $our situatio foresee a ris# of har"
6f the aswer is $es, the that e(e"et is satisfied
6f we wat to #ow who the reasoab(e perso is we go to the cases
&s# i this situatio what wou(d a reasoab(e perso ha!e doe
;'% throw a baseba(( at the bac# of the roo"
Wou(d a reasoab(e perso foresee this as dagerous
Loo# at cases about throwig a pro5ecti(e i a crowded c(assroo"
6f $ou ca)t fid, fid a case that is si"i(ar
What wou(d a reasoab(e prof wou(d do i the e'act sa"e circu"staces
.eg(igece does)t ho(d the reasoab(e perso as a perfect perso
Ciews it as a ordiar$, t$pica( perso
What is reasoab(e a(wa$s depeds o the circu"staces
.o reasoab(e perso i the abstract sese
O($ a reasoab(e perso i the sa"e e'act circu"staces
Aut$ of care with peop(e who are reasoab($ c(ose /eighbourhood, pro'i"it$0 i the sa"e
!iciit$ owe the perso a dut$ of care
20 -reach the reBuired stadard of care
.eg(igece reBuires $ou to act reasoab(e
What wou(d a reasoab(e perso do*
To deter"ie this $ou shou(d (oo# at cases
;'% if prof put up ettig "esh for safet$, wars a(( studets
7ad a dut$ of care, but if so"eoe got i5ured it wou(d)t be ureasoab(e
,tadard of care wi(( go up if the perso was professioa(
,o"eoe re($ig o so"eoes e'pertise
Whe the ris# of har" is great /stadard of care wi(( go up0
,tadard of care wi(( shift, i accordace to what a reasoab(e perso wi(( do i the
@0 Causatio of Aa"ages
2au(t based co"pesatio sche"e
;'% auto"obi(e isurace, o eed to pro!e fau(t isurace "ust co"pesate $ou
if $ou ca pro!e $ou were i a car accidet $ou wi(( get co"pesatio
Wor#ers co"pesatio if $ou are i5ured i the wor#p(ace $ou ca get co"pesatio
:ou caot sue
:ou go to wor#er)s co"pesatio, the$ assess $ou ad the$ co"pesate $ou
6f $ou are a i5ured wor#er it is difficu(t for $ou to sue $our e"p(o$er ad see that the$
were at fau(t
6t is difficu(t to sue cowor#er at fau(t* :ourse(f at fau(t*
Tort (aw is based o fau(t
4ro!e that the defedat caused $our i5ur$
<-ut for %%= test
-ut for "e ot puttig the garbage pai( at the door she wou(d ot ha!e bro#e her (eg
:ou are (iab(e
e'a"p(eG pai( of garbage, she brea#s phoe, other gu$ trips o!er her, goes to a"bu(ace,
a"bu(ace crashes ito tree
This wou(d pass the but for test -+T the$ (i"it the da"ages for da"ages that are of
t$pe foreseeab(e so prof wou(d)t be resposib(e for a"bu(ace dri!er)s death
;'% cigarette, tosses it accideta(($ i oi(, causes a fire
:ou are resposib(e
;'% puch so"eoe i the face with a rea(($ thi s#u((
:ou are resposib(e for a(( da"ages e!e though his s#u(( is soft
&s#s how "a$ thigs separate what the defedat did to the e!et
6ter!eig e!ets
;'% bush part$, gets ito fight, gets stabbed
2rieds tr$ to e!acuate hi", f(ag dow a car, dropped his budd$ repeated($ carr$ig hi"
out to the road
8u$ wou(d)t ha!e died without the "u(tip(e drops of his frieds
7e wou(d)t ha!e died without those drops
6s the stabber resposib(e*
.o causatio because it is too remote too "a$ thigs that happeed
;'% gu$ gets i5ured ad para($sed does)t go through with surger$ because 0%01H chace
of death sues to get "oe$
Court a((ows defedat off the hoo#
,a"e (ega( re"ed$ of "itigatio app(ies
Caot if(ate da"ages, "ust #eep the" reasoab($ (ow
Co(utar$ assu"ptio of ris#
;'% shoot a puc# o!er the g(ass ad brea#s a chee# boe get sued
:ou assu"e !o(utar$ of ris#
That)s so"ethig b$ puttig o $our s#ates, gettig ito the area $ou assu"e !o(utar$ of
The other wa$ to dea( with this is to use wai!ers
Courts do)t (i#e the" so the$ set the thresho(d high
7a!e to be detai(ed, ad app(icab(e
Cotributor$ .eg(igece
The defedat sa$ig that he was eg(iget but so was the p(aitiff
This was the 1cAoa(dIs hot coffee case
,he was 20H cotributoria( eg(iget
1cAoa(d)s was 90H
;'% 6 dri!e without a seat be(t ad $ou crash ito "e 6 sue $ou because "$ da"ages were
"ore because 6 did)t wear a seat be(t
40H $ou J0H the other perso
:ou were resposib(e for $our ow da"ages as we((
6 tort (aw we go bac#wards
4roduct Liabi(it$
6dea that a "aufacturer of products owes a dut$ of care for custo"ers
;'% 8iger beer wo"a dri#s ha(f a s(ug
-ott(er sa$s to her but $ou ca)t get a re"ed$ fro" us because we do)t ha!e a (ega(
re(atioship with us
:ou are (i#e a (ega( strager to us
,he sa$sG
6 thi# a reasoab(e perso i $our circu"stace wou(d ha!e foresee a prob(e"
;'% (adder busiess
2au(t$ (adders
Ob(igatio is o "aufacturer to act reasoab($
Occupiers Liabi(it$
The dut$ of care of a occupier of (ad owes whe peop(e go o that (ad
;'% i!itig peop(e o $our (ad to pait $our fece
Owe a dut$ of care
:ou a(so owe a dut$ of care to trespassers
;'% !icious dog put up a sig so it shows $ou acted reasoab($
,hift i the (aw towards dru# dri!ig
,eteces are "uch harsher
The (aw has e!o(!ed to ref(ect Caadia !a(ues /which ha!e chaged o!er the $ears0
6f $ou go to a bar ad get o!er?ser!ed ad dri!e ad get ito a accidet, the bar is resposib(e
4ut resposibi(it$ o bar owers because the$ are "a#ig "oe$ ad are i a positio to
pre!et it fro" happeig
;'% Koe Chi(ds
Aru# dri!er dri!es ito her car, #i((s her bo$fried ad she beco"es hadicapped
,he sued the part$ that the dri!er was at
Court said o case where socia( host was resposib(e
&ppea(, appea(, appea( fai(, fai(, fai(
,upre"e court of Caada stated that the part$ host did ot supp($ the a(coho( ad did ot
#ow he was a co!icted dru# dri!er
-ut there is a situatio where a case where the socia( host wi(( be resposib(e
6 the ear future we wi(( see socia( host (iabi(it$ i Caada
4rofessioa( (iabi(it$
6t is 5ust eg(igece
4eop(e who are professioa(s who are gi!ig ad!ice, peop(e suffer da"ages fro" re($ig o this
Causatio of professioa( re(iabi(it$
6f $ou re($ o the opiio the $our da"ages are caused b$ that re(iace
4rofessioa( ca be resposib(e for peop(e who are ot their c(iets