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Lecture 6 Property Law

October 14
th
, 2014
Midterm
2 hours
50 questions M!
October 21
st
, 1"#0pm
$o cases %rom the boo&
Mi'ht ha(e to app)y the princip)e thou'h
Property Law
Property is capita) who 'ets the wea)th
*he )aw o% property 'oes ri'ht to the root o% discussion o% capita)ism
+,- .omney %i)in' his income ta,, income o% 20mi)) on)y pays 15/ income ta, whi)e his
secretary ma&es on)y 55& and pays #5/
.omney e,p)ains this by sayin' it is per%ect)y )e'a) 0in(estment income ta,ed at a )ower
rate1
Lar'er disparity between rich and poor 2 worse qua)ity o% )i%e %or the a(era'e person
3e want our )aws to promote 4ustice and %airness
Property
5escribe the ri'hts that you ha(e (ersus the ri'hts that other peop)e ha(e towards 6thin's6
.e)ationship between peop)e with respect to 6thin's6
7 re)ationship between yourse)% and e(erybody e)se it is not as narrow as contract )aw or tort
)aw
8eparated into two &inds
.ea)
9asica))y )and and bui)din's and anythin' attached to it
+,- :ouse, apartment
Many di%%erent peop)e ha(e ri'hts to your rea) property
;nion <as, cops, nei'hbours, etc-
Possessory interest
<i(es you the ri'ht to possess the )and
=ee simp)e ownership the best you can 'et with rea) property
Leaseho)d interest i% you ha(e an apartment that you ri'ht
*he ri'ht to possess that )and but you do not own it
+,- =ee simp)e )and)ord, Leaseho)d me
+asements peop)e who can come into my )and
+,- union 'as, mai)man
.i'ht o% way
8hared dri(eway
One property wi)) own it but there wi)) be a ri'ht o% way en4oyed by the other
property the ri'ht to use that property to 'et to the bac&yard
*he other property owner cannot pre(ent that because they do not ha(e e,c)usi(e
possession
$on>possessory interest
6*he &in' rea))y owns a)) the )and6 has the ri'ht to 'rant the estates to the sub4ects that
he p)eases
*he idea that e(ery pri(ate interest in )and comes %rom the crown
!rown )and )and that hasn6t been parce))ed out
Persona)
7)) property that is not rea) property
5i(ided into tan'ib)e and intan'ib)e
*an'ib)e
*hin's you can touch
?ntan'ib)e
*hin's you cannot physica))y touch
+,- inte))ectua) property, trademar&s, patents, trade secrets, ban& accounts, accounts
recei(ab)e, insurance, internet domains, shares o% a corporation
@20 bi)) intan'ib)e symbo)ic o% a ri'ht to e,chan'e can6t touch the ri'ht o%
e,chan'e
Penny %rom 1AA6 tan'ib)e not symbo)ic o% a medium o% e,chan'e it has
intrinsic (a)ue 0worth @50001
!o))ectab)e coin 2 tan'ib)e
Money in the modern sense 2 intan'ib)e
+,- apartment the ri'ht to that apartment 2 rea) property )easeho)d, you ha(e the
ri'ht to be there
+,- Land)ords ri'ht to co))ect money %rom you e(ery month intan'ib)e the ri'ht to
co))ect money
?% it was intended to be permanent that is rea) property 0e,- 3hite board1
?% you can remo(e it it is persona) 0e,- 8pea&ers1
*wo thin's happen with persona) property that doesn6t happen with rea) property
11 Persona) property tends to 'et )ost 6%inders &eepers )osers weepers6
?% you %ind somethin' you ha(e the best c)aim o(er it ne,t to the owner
Pro(in' ownership o% persona) property is comp)icated
+,- %ind @20 bi)) in between cushion o% %riend6s couch it is not your property
+,- %ind somethin' in pub)ic it is yours
+,- %indin' somethin' in an o%%ice it is pri(ate property not accessib)e
there%ore not yours
!an the pub)ic come and 'o i% yes then it is pub)ic, i% no then it is pri(ate
21 Buite o%ten someone comes into possession o% property that be)on's to someone
e)se
+,- )easin' a car or equipment bai)ment" someone is in possession o% persona)
property that be)on's to someone e)se
+,- ta&in' )aptop to 9est9uy to %i, bai)ment
+,- mo(in' company with your piano bai)ment
+,- 'oods to be dry c)eaned bai)ment
9ai))or Owner, 9ai))ee person in possession
3hat standard o% care shou)d the bai))ee ha(e to adhere toC 0i% it 'ets sto)en or
)ost1
?% there is a contract then the contract 'o(erns it
?% there is a )imitation in )iabi)ity then it is in e%%ect as we))
*erms o% contract pre(ai)s 0i% there is a contract1
?% there is no contract the bai))ee needs to e,ercise reasonable care
7)ways depends on the circumstances
.easonab)e standard o% care 'oes up and down dependin' on the
circumstances
+,- 8he6s 'oin' to p)ay squash, as& person to )oo& a%ter her )aptop
8tandard o% care is )ower because it is %or her bene%it
+,- !an ? borrow your )aptop %or a moment
8tandard o% care %or this e,amp)e is much hi'her because it is %or my
bene%it
+,- 8he as&s you to )oo& a%ter )aptop, you don6t a'ree, she )ea(es be%ore
you can %inish your sentence
Dou can wa)& away
+,- %indin' a )aptop in an empty room
?t is a bai)ment in(o)untary bai)ment because standard o% care is
(ery )ow
Dou can wa)& away but you can6t throw the computer a'ainst the wa))
?% you %ind somethin' and turn it in to the po)ice and say come bac&
in #0 days, you can c)aim
+,- pro% %inds a rin' pri(ate property but pub)ic)y accessib)e
?nte))ectua) Property .i'hts
=edera)
?% you are suin' within this topic you are 'oin' to %edera) court
?n%rin'ement o% inte))ectua) property is tort )aw
*he nature o% trademar&s and copyri'hts is that they are 6out there6
*he ri'hts that ? en4oy (ersus the ri'hts that other peop)e en4oy
?nte))ectua) property does not protect ideas, on)y the e,pression or app)ication o% that idea
+,- te))in' someone about your idea not protected
?nte))ectua) property protects the e,pression or app)ication 0with patent )aws1
*rademar&s
7 distin'uishin' mar&
7 word, symbo), )o'o, desi'n 0swoosh $i&e1
*e))s peop)e that this 'oods or ser(ices is not )i&e other 'oods and ser(ices
5istin'uishes other 'oods and ser(ices %rom others
Dou 'et the automatica))y by usin' them
+,- Phi)6s PiEEa in London, can stop other peop)e %rom se))in' Phi)6s PiEEa )ater on
;nre'istered trademar& can on)y use it in 'eo'raphica) p)ace in where you use it
.e'istered trademar& can use a)) across !anada but not in ;87
?nte))ectua) property ri'hts are nationa) 0on)y in !anada1 need to re'ister in a di%%erent
country
+,- 7ustra)ia bur'er &in' 2 :un'ry Fac&s bur'er &in' was a)ready ta&en
*rademar&s e,ist because o% usa'e
*he more you use a trademar& the better it is
?% you don6t use it then it is not a trademar&
;sed to distin'uish 'oods and ser(ices to other 'oods and ser(ices
Protect the use o% a )o'o not the idea o% a )o'o
*rademar&s do not e,ist 'enerica))y
+,ist %or speci%ic 'oods and ser(ices
+,- =ord Mustan', 3estern Mustan', Mustan' theatre downtown a)) per%ect)y (a)id
trademar&s a)) e,ist with connection with speci%ic 'oods and ser(ices
$o )i&e)ihood o% con%usion a)thou'h they are a)) the same trademar&
?n connection with di%%erent 'oods and ser(ices
8upermar&s so much %ame and (ariety, cannot be used by anyone e)se
+,- !an6t use the $i&e swoosh %or anythin' in ;87
?n !anada the courts ha(e said no i% there are no )i&e)ihood o% con%usion can use $i&e
swoosh when se))in' rea) estate
+,- Mate) 09arbie do))s1 (s restaurant named 9arbies
?n%rin'es on our trademar& the barbie do))
*he court re4ects the ownership because there is no )i&e)ihood o% con%usion- *oys (s
restaurant
?% the bar owner had barbie do))s han'in' %rom the wa))s and other Mate) themed thin's
in the restaurant then there mi'ht be a su''estion about a connection and wou)d be
prob)ematic
!anada more socia)istic )ess ri'hts %or trademar& ho)ders
;87 more capita)istic more ri'hts %or trademar& ho)ders
?% there is a )i&e)ihood o% con%usion then it may be prob)ematic
9ut i% you e,ercise that there is no connection it wi)) be %ine
?ntentiona) torts one o% two torts passin' o%% or distortion
Passin' o%% misrepresentin' 'oods or ser(ices as bein' endorsed or a%%i)iated when
they are not
!reatin' the impression that your 'oods are o% a certain source or supp)y when they
are not
+,- tryin' to se)) %a&e roots sweaters
+,- ? start se))in' %a&e roots sweatshirts in 9ermuda ma&e 1 mi)) se))in' the &noc&>
o%%s
.oots dama'es 2 Eero because they were not intendin' to se)) them in 9ermuda
3hat ? ha(e done is i))e'a)
+quitab)e remedies 0three o% them1"
?n4unction 0stop se))in' those 'oods1
7ccountin' o% pro%its 0that money rea))y be)on's to us, you used our property
to earn this money1
5e)i(erin' up o% the in%rin'in' artic)es 0that in(entory that you ha(e )e%t,
'i(e it to us so we can burn it1
+,- 8amsun' sued by 7pp)e 7pp)e sued %or 2-2 bi))ion but they considered
it a )oss because they did not 'et the in4unction
5i)ution o% trademar& 0bi))board on 401 Mc5ona)d6s is 'arba'e1
;sin' it in a way that is di)uti(e in its (a)ue
O)ympics spends the most money on trademar&s
On)y thin' they ha(e to se)) is the 'uarantee o% e,c)usi(ity
*rademar& po)ice, order e(ery in%rin'in' artic)e to be remo(ed
5isney is second the ri'hts %or the mounty
*he most (a)uab)e trademar&s words that ha(e no meanin' other than the trademar&
+,- 8tarbuc&s, *im :ortons, .9!
7pp)e is c)e(er and e%%ecti(e because no one wou)d e(er associate it with somethin' in the
computer business
Patents
Le'a) protection %or an in(ention
Dou cannot patent an idea, on)y an in(ention
7pp)ied science not theoretica) science
Must be new, use%u), and not ob(ious
$ot disc)osed within a year o% %i)in' must pro(ide e(idence that it is new
!anada %irst person to %i)e
;87 %irst person to in(ent
+(en i% someone e)se %i)es %irst, i% you pro(e you in(ented it %irst it is your
Patents must be use%u)
!an6t patent a scu)pture, art, etc-
*hey must ha(e a purpose
Dou 'et a patent on a machine that is used %or this purpose, not 4ust a patent on a machine
itse)%
+,- thermyda)hyde %or mornin' sic&ness e,pired 0de%ects with babies1 but it the same
chemica) was 4ust appro(ed %or the use o% cancer
Patents must be not ob(ious
Must be somethin' in(enti(e and inno(ati(e
Patents )ast usua))y 20 years, use%u) )i%e is 1G years # years to ta&e
Patent pendin' app)yin' %or a patent and waitin' %or it
Patents cannot be renewed
Period o% e,c)usi(ity in e,chan'e %or contributin' your in(ention to society
5o not arise automatica))y
*here are no unre'istered patent )i&e there are unre'istered trademar&s
*rademar&s )ast 15 years and can be renewed, patents cannot be renewed
9usiness method patents uncertain in !anada
+,- 'ettin' a hambur'er in a cardboard bo, in a unique way
7maEon 'ot their one>c)ic& orderin' pac&a'e patent %i)ed
8o you can %i)e a business patent in !anada
?t is unc)ear at this point whether business methods can be patented in !anada
:ow to patent or'anismsC
:ar(ard patented a 'enetica))y>modi%ied mouse
8upreme court o% !anada re4ected this because it is a hi'her )i%e %orm
Monsento cow produces more mi)& with chemica) but cow %ee)s )i&e shit, Monsento a)so
se))s the medicine %or the cow
Pesticide that &i))s e(erythin' e(en wheat, but a)so se))s a (ersion o% wheat seeds that is %or
wheat %armers
!annot patent a mouse but we can patent a wheat seed
!opyri'hts
*he ri'ht to pre(ent peop)e %rom copyin'
Protects )iterary wor&s, music, scu)pture
5oes not protect the idea itse)% but protects the e,pression o% it
!opyri'ht arises automatica))y
+,- poem on des&
!opyri'ht arises %rom an ori'ina) e,pression bein' recorded
?t is important to &eep records o% authorship
*hey pro(ide this e(idence by mai)in' it to yourse)% sea)ed en(e)ope with 'o(ernment
date script
Protects a'ainst unauthoriEed copy
Li%e o% the author p)us 50 years
!orporations cannot be authors
+,ceptions to copyri'ht
=air dea)in'
+ducation
$ews reportin'
? can6t ta&e a picture o% a wor& o% art and put it on my wa))
? can ta&e a picture o% a wor& o% art and put it in the news 6this was the one that was
sto)en6
!riticismre(iews
+,empt %rom copyri'ht in%rin'ement
+,- criticism and postin' the who)e mo(ie copyri'ht
8atire
Mora) ri'hts
9e)on' on)y to the author or artist
!annot be trans%erred
+,- scu)pture o% <eese in +aton centre
*ie ribbons and bows around the 'eese, the artist came in and said it is humi)iatin' the
artist and said you cannot do that
7rtist went to court and won
.i'hts that the artist has that cannot be trans%erred
$ame attributed to the wor&, cannot be detrimented or humi)iated
+aton shou)d ha(e 'otten him to wai(e his ri'hts
7 promise not to assert his ri'hts
*rade 8ecrets 0con%identia) in%ormation1 not considered a property by Phi) Hin'
?ntan'ib)e persona) property
?t cannot be patented, trade>mar&eted, or copyri'hted
Dou can &eep it secret 0e,- !oca>co)a %ormu)a1
Or you can enter into contracts with peop)e
$o mechanism at )aw to protect this property