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MOS 2181

September 8
th
, 2014
What are organizations?
Organizations are social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort
oal !ccomplishment
"ertain behaviours are necessar# for survival an$ a$aptation, people have to%
be motivate$ to &oin an$ remain in the organization
carr# out their basic 'or( reliabl#
be 'illing to continuousl# learn an$ upgra$e their (no'le$ge
be fle)ible an$ innovative
roup *ffort
Organizations $epen$ on interaction an$ coor$ination among people to accomplish their goals
"oncerne$ 'ith ho' to get people to practice effective team'or(
What is organizational behaviour?
*ssentiall# social interventions comprise$ of people
!ttitu$es an$ behaviours of in$ivi$uals an$ groups in organizations
Stu$#ing the people an$ their interactions 'ith each other
+n$erstan$ing an$ managing people effectivel#
"oncerne$ 'ith ho' to get people to practice effective team'or(
oals of Organizational ,ehaviour
- main goals of O, . pre$ict, e)plain, manage
/re$ict . When 'ill this behaviour occur, 'hen 'ill someone be a goo$ lea$er, 'hen 'ill
someone act unethicall#
*)plain . Why is this behaviour happening, 'h# are the# being unethical 0are the# being
treate$ unfairl#?1
O, is intereste$ in $etermining 'h# people are more or less motivate$, satisfie$, or
prone to resign
2he abilit# to un$erstan$ behaviour is a necessar# prere3uisite for effectivel# managing
it
Manage . /utting it into action our pre$ictions an$ e)planations, can $o something to
restore the ine3uities
4f a behaviour can be pre$icte$ an$ e)plaine$ it can often be manage$
4f pre$iction an$ e)planation constitute anal#sis, then management constitutes action
Management means getting things accomplishe$ in organizations through others
Organization ,ehaviour continue$
Most important trait . conscientiousness
Setting $ifficult goals is better than sa#ing 5$o #our best5
Most people over evaluate ho' 'ell the# perform their &ob
4ntelligence 6 conscientiousness
2he main factor that $ifferentiates organizations is their 'or(force an$ human capital
7uman capital is strongl# relate$ to an$ a (e# $eterminant of firm performance
7uman 8esources Management
8efers to programs, practices, an$ s#stems to ac3uire, $evelop, an$ retain emplo#ees in an
organization
!nal#sis follo'e$ b# action
*vi$ence base$ management
4nvolves translating principles base$ on the best scientific evi$ence into organizational practices
/ersonalit# an$ intelligence can be goo$ pre$ictors for &ob performance
Organizations often fail to a$opt practices
/ractitioners are sometimes not a'are
"omple)it# of research
4mportance . ma# not have the evi$ence to bac( it up
Management% 9ester$a#, 2o$a#, an$ 2omorro'
"lassical vie'point 0*arl# 1:005s1
+n$erstan$ing people an$ ho' the# 'or( 0earlier on1
"reating specialize$ 'or(
7igh $egree of specialization of labour an$ a ver# high $egree of coor$ination
2he 'or( 'as coor$inate$ so management 'ante$ to coor$inate 'or( as much as possible
'ithout leaving people 'ith free$om
"entralize$ $ecision ma(ing . ever#thing happens from the top, not from the lo'er
emplo#ees
;re$eric( 2a#lor . father of scientific management
Specialization of labour
,ase$ on science not rule of thumb
;oun$ rest brea(s ver# effective
<er# scientific approach
Ma) Weber
,ureaucrac#
Strict chain of comman$ . report to onl# one superior
"entralize$ $ecision ma(ing
Strict specialization to match $uties 'ith technical competence
/o'er is at the top
7uman 8elations Movement 01:205s . 1:-05s1
8ealize$ emplo#ees 'ere human beings too
,egan 'ith the 7a'thorne Stu$ies
Wante$ to (no' the effects of lighting on 'or(ers
;oun$ that if the# turne$ the lighting lo', pro$uctivit# increase$
8ealize$ that something 'as going on in these factories
/eople reall# care about the supervision
2he# care$ about rest brea(s . improve$ pro$uctivit#
*mplo#ees li(e having goo$ co'or(ers
7a'thorne effect
*ffects of ps#chological an$ social processes on pro$uctivit# an$ 'or( a$&ustment
When #ou5re pai$ attention to at 'or(, pro$uctivit# increases
8ecognize that 'or(ers are people too
/articipative management . letting emplo#ees have a sa# in $ecisions
Open communication, participation in $ecision ma(ing, $ecentralize$ control
"lassical vie'point $oes not fit 'ith gro'th an$ achievement
Other points on the sli$e as 'ell . chec( the p$f
"riti3ue of classical vie'point an$ bureaucrac#
Strict specialization is incompatible 'ith human nee$s of gro'th an$ achievement
Strong authorit# from upper management lea$s lea$s to lac( of consi$eration of creative i$eas
from lo'er level emplo#ees
7igher performance levels are attainable but strict rules ma# prevent gro'th
Strong specialization lea$s to 'or(ers losing sight of overall goals
"ontemporar# "ontingenc# !pproach
7o' 'e manage people reall# depends
2he nee$ for fle)ibilit# an$ a$aptabilit#
Wor( teams are goo$ for 8=> but not for accounting
?ee$ to be fle)ible an$ a$aptable
>epen$s on the lea$er, the people being le$, an$ 'hat the lea$er is tr#ing to achieve
Management nee$s to be tailore$ on the situation
"ontingenc# approach . there is no one best 'a# to manage@ rather an appropriate st#le
$epen$s on the $eman$s of the situation
What managers $o
4nterpersonal 8oles . e)pecte$ behaviours that have to $o 'ith establishing an$ maintaining
interpersonal relations
;igurehea$ role . serve as s#mbols of their organization rather than active $ecision ma(ers
Aea$ership role . managers select, mentor, re'ar$, an$ $iscipline
Aiaison role . maintain horizontal contacts insi$e an$ outsi$e the organization
4nformational 8oles . concerne$ 'ith the various 'a#s managers receive an$ transmit
information
Monitor roles . scan the internal an$ e)ternal environments of the firm to follo' current
performance
>isseminator roles . sen$ information on both facts an$ preferences to others
Spo(esperson roles . mainl# sen$ing messages into the organization5s e)ternal environment
>ecisional 8oles
*ntrepreneur role . managers turn problems an$ opportunities into plans for improve$
changes
>isturbance han$ler . $eal 'ith problems from emplo#ee conflicts
8esource allocator roles . $eci$e ho' to $eplo# time, mone#, etc
Managerial activities
8outine communication% formal sen$ing an$ receiving of information
2ra$itional management% planning, $ecision ma(ing, controlling
?et'or(ing% interacting 'ith people outsi$e of the organization
78 management% motivating an$ reinforcing, $isciplining an$ punishment, managing
conflict, staffing, an$ training
Managerial !gen$as
!gen$a Setting . $evelop agen$as of 'hat the# 'ant to accomplish for the compan# . more
concerne$ 'ith people issues
?et'or(ing . establish a 'i$e formal an$ informal net'or( of (e# people insi$e an$
outsi$e their organizations
!gen$a implementation . 4mplement the agen$as, go an#'here to net'or( an$ emplo#e$ a
'i$e range of influence tactics from $irect or$ers to subtle language
Managerial min$s
Sense that a problem e)ists
/erform 'ellBlearne$ mental tas(s rapi$l#
S#nthesize isolate$ pieces of information an$ $ata
>ouble chec( more formal or mechanical anal#sis
4nternational managers
2echnical re3uirements for accomplishing goals are actuall# the same across cultures . it is
onl# the behavioural re3uirements that $iffer
>iversit# . Aocal an$ lobal
4ncreasing tren$ of 'omen an$ immigrants into the pai$ emplo#ment sector
>iversit# of age is also having an impact on organizations
?ee$ to un$erstan$ ho' the 'or(force an$ customers in those countries are $iverse an$
culturall# $ifferent
*mplo#ee 'ellBbeing
*mplo#ees are searching for meaning an$ purpose in their 'or( lives an$ organizations have
begun to focus on emplo#ee ph#sical an$ mental health b# creating more positive 'or(
environments
Wor(place spiritualit# . refers to 'or(places that provi$e emplo#ees 'ith meaning, purpose, a
sense of communit#, an$ a connection to others
/s#chological capital . refers to an in$ivi$ual5s positive ps#chological state of $evelopment that
is characterize$ b# selfBefficac#, optimism, hope, an$ resilience
Self efficac# . refers to one5s confi$ence to ta(e on an$ put in necessar# effort to succee$ at
challenging tas(s
2alent management an$ emplo#ee engagement
2alent management% 8efers to an organization5s processes for attracting, $eveloping, retaining,
an$ utilizing people 'ith the re3uire$ s(ills to meet current an$ future business nee$s
Wor( engagement% ! positive 'or(Brelate$ state of min$ that is characterize$ b# vigour,
$e$ication, an$ absorption
"orporate social responsibilit#
8efers to an organization ta(ing responsibilit# for the impact of its $ecisions an$ actions on its
sta(ehol$ers
4nvolves *S issues 0environmental, social, an$ governance1
8esponsible to #our sta(ehol$ers
*nvironmental initiatives
oing above an$ be#on$ to help the communit# at large
*)amples of corporate emplo#ee engagement
oogle vi$eo