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ICS 321 Multi Media L.

Gottschalk
Digital MultiMedia, by Nigel Chapma ad !ey Chapma
Chapter 2: Enabling Technologies, page 31
Digital multimedia is ot oly "o# compute#s$
% digital &ideo o D'Ds
% digital ('
% digital audio )o CDs*
but, "ull ite#acti&ity still limited to compute#s +,- N,..
Digital Representations, page 32
memo#y bit is eithe# / o# 1
byte is 0 1e#os ad oes st#ug togethe#, e.g. //1//1//
a 2data st#uctu#e2 "o# multimedia )MM* might be the a##agemet o" all the bytes that
desc#ibe each pi3el o" a photo.
Digitization, page 35
Sometimes MM data o#igiates i digital "o#m4
othe# times it eeds to be scaed.
2Digiti1atio2 is the p#ocess o"
1* S5M6LING a sigal7s &alue at disc#ete ite#&als, ad
2* 895N(I:5(I,N ;he ;e #est#ict the &alue to a "i3ed set o" le&els.
+igu#e 2.2 o page 3< sho;s a sigal.
I "i#st pa#t o" +igu#e 2.3, it has bee sampled at disc#ete ite#&als
I 2d pa#t o" +igu#e 2.3, it has bee =uati"ied so that the &alue at each ite#&al is
cost#aied to a set o" disc#ete ite#&als.
(he de&ices that do such samplig as called 5DCs )5alog to Digital Co&e#te#s*.
(;o settigs "o# a sca$
% samplig #ate4
% =uati1atio le&els.
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ICS 321 Multi Media L. Gottschalk
MM data that has bee co&e#ted "#om aalog to digital is called a 2digital sigal2.
Digital sigals a#e mo#e #obust tha aalog sigals. Namely, they do ot su""e#
deg#adatio ;he
% copied, o#
% t#asmitted o&e# et;o#ks.
>ecause o" samplig ad =uati"icatio, the#e is data loss. )loss o" accu#acy*.
?o; do ;e #ecost#uct the o#igial sigal ;he displayig MM data@
1* 2Sample ad ?old2. see "igu#e 2.A, page 3B.
Not good app#o3imatio to o#igial, but maybe good eough "o# C-( display o#
loudspeake#.
2* May othe# methods, ;hich ;e ;ill co&e# late#.
I" samples a#e too "a# apa#t, #ecost#uctio ;ill be iade=uate o matte# ;hat the
techi=ue used.
% Notice i "igu#e 2.C, page 3B ho; the spike bet;ee s)i* ad s)iD1* ca7t be #eco&e#ed
o matte# ;hat the #ecost#uctio method. Such ude#samplig #esults i
% disto#tios ad
% a#te"acts )de"ied late#*. page 30
?o; "#e=uet a samplig #ate is 2su""iciet2@
Eskip the c#ossed out lies belo;. they do N,( essetial to the theo#y beig de&eloped
he#eF
Coside# a alte#ati&e ;ay o" #ep#esetig a sigal$
Musical ote cosists o" ;a&e"o#ms o" se&e#al di""e#et "#e=uecies added
togethe#4
)called 2"udametal2 plus the 2ha#moics2 o# 2o&e#toes2*
Gach "udametal ad o&e#toe a#e pu#e sie ;a&es.
1
I "igu#e 2.B, page 3H, the top ;a&e is the "udametal.
Gach ;a&e belo; adds oe o&e#toe.
It begis to look like a s=ua#e ;a&eI
Gach o&e#toe beig added is o" a highe# "#e=uecy tha the p#e&iously added
oe.
)I music, this is called the 3#d, the Cth, the Bth.*
5s you ca see "#om "igu#e 2.B, as ;e add highe# ad highe# "#e=uecies, the
shi"t i the sigal is mo#e ab#upt, leadig to a s=ua#e ;a&e.
So, to smooth out the ab#upt chages, ;e ca add a "ilte# to the sigal to
elimiate the highe# "#e=uecies.
)page 3H* )G3plo#ed "u#the# i chapte# C.*
1
)(his is time &a#yig sigals, but i chapte# C it ;ill be applied to space &a#yig sigals as ;ell.*
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ICS 321 Multi Media L. Gottschalk
So, o;, is the#e a samplig #ate that 2su""iciet2@ )page A/*
5s;e#$ the Samplig (heo#em states that$
I" the highest "#e=uecy compoet Eo# 2sig ;a&e2F o" a sigal is ")h*, the sigal ca
p#ope#ly be #ecost#ucted i" the samplig #ate is g#eate# tha 2")h*. (his &alue is the
2Ny=uist #ate2.
2
)page A/*
5s a e3ample, look at the clock o "igu#e 2.H, page A1.
(he samplig #ate is "ou# times a miute, ad you ca see the secod had
mo&ig a#oud the clock "ace. Jou KN,. "#om the successi&e "#ames that is is
mo&ig clock;ise.
Samplig #ate is A )"ou# times pe# #otatio*. ;hich is com"o#tably abo&e the sig
;a&e, ;hich is .
No; coside# i" ;e had oly sampled at AL3 )look o; at oly the #ed bo3es*.
It o; appea#s the clock had is mo&ig back;a#ds at #ate o" L3. )(his is ;hy
;ago ;heels i old mo&ie ;este#s seem to be goig back;a#ds.*
No; coside# a samplig #ate o" 2 )look oly at e&e#y othe# "#ame goig do;
page.*
(he secod had alte#ates bet;ee st#aight up ad st#aight do;. So ca7t tell i"
it is goig clock;ise o# coute#clock;ise. So eed somethig slightly mo#e tha
2, so slightly mo#e tha the Ny=uist #ate.
(he sideba# o page A1 states that because o" techical coside#atios, you #eally eed to
sample at a highe# #ate tha 2")h* i o#de# to do p#ope# #ecost#uctio. (he clock e3ample
illust#ated this ;ell.
I" ;e ude#sample, the some "#e=uecy compoets get t#as"o#med ito othe#
"#e=uecies du#ig #ecost#uctio. (his is ko; as 2aliasig2. .ith soud, it comes
o&e# as disto#tio. I images, it comes th#u as Magged edges. .he the image has "ie
#epeatig details, the it comes th#u as Moi#e patte#s )see "igu#e 2.1/, page A2*. I
mo&ig pictu#es, it comes th#u as Me#kiess o" motio, o# e&e as #et#og#ade motio
);ago ;heels goig back;a#ds*.
.hat about isu""iciet umbe# o" =uati1atio le&els@@ )page A1*
+igu#e 2.11 sho;s a blackL;hite photo sta#tig ;ith 2C< shades, the 120, the <A, the
32, the 1<, the 0, the A, the 2.
I less #egula# image, it sho;s up as poste#i1atio )b#ightess cotou#ig*.
+igu#e 2.12, page A3, o le"t has millios o" colo#s4 o #ight, Must "ou#.
I" you a#e makig a poste#, the oe o the #ight might be eye%catchig.
2
Some autho#s use 2Ny=uist #ate2 to mea the highest "#e=uecy compoet that ca be #ep#oduced, gi&e
a set samplig #ate. .atch outI
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ICS 321 Multi Media L. Gottschalk
(he umbe#s o" shades o" g#ey i "igu#e 2.11 )bL; photo* ;as chose to be
% 0 bits, the
% B bits, the
% < bits, the
% C, the A, the 3, the 2, the 1.
(his a""ects ho; much sto#age is eeded to #eco#d a image.
Note that the bL; image is still okay do; to C bits )32 di""e#et bL; shades*. So "i&e bits
pe# pi3el is popula#I
I" soud is =uati1ed at too "e; le&els, it is comes th#u as
% disto#tio,
% =uati1atio oise )a hiss*,
% loss o" =uiet passages, ad
% gee#al "u11iess i soud )like a cell phoe i a lo; st#egth a#ea*.
8uati1atio oise is disce#able at 2C< le&els )0 bits*, but ot at 1< bits )<CC3< le&els*.
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ICS 321 Multi Media L. Gottschalk
Hardware and Software Requirements, page 42
Hardware, page 42
Soud, &ideo ad most images #e=ui#e la#ge amouts o" disk space ad memo#y.
(ime based media ha&e to be played back i #eal time, so ot oly "ast p#ocessig but "ast
data buses ad "ast et;o#ks.
(his has bee ad is the limitig "acto# i usage o" MM data.
.e eed to e3amie both ha#d;a#e eeds "o#$
% cosumptio, ad
% p#oductio.
1* +i#st cosumptio$
look at typical domestic systems.
Coso#tium o" 6C mau"actu#e#s de"ied the multimedia 6C )M6C* du#ig the 1HH/s.
Le&el 3 M6C$
% BC M?1 6etium
% 0 Mbytes o" -5M,
% .ido;s 3.11 )o# bia#y compatible ,S*,
% C// Mbytes ha#d disk
% A 3 CD%-,M,
% CD =uality audio output
% capability to play =ua#te#%"#ame &ideo at "ull "#ame #ate i 1C%bit colo#.
Mo#e typically, i 2//3$
% GA iMac, #uig Mac,S N
% 1.2C G?1 p#ocesso# )O 3 G?1 6etium*
% C12 Mbytes -5M
% 1C/ G >ytes ha#d disk
% D'D%- ;#ite#
% built i C<K modem
% ste#eo speake#s
% po;e#"ul g#aphics accele#ato# ca#d
% 1B ich "lat pael display capable o" 1AA/3H// pi3els.
>ut, home use#s upg#ade less "#e=uetly, ad
home use#s do buy lo; ed systems.
MM phoes )me#ge# o" 6D57s ad cell phoes* do ot ha&e high capacity.
)Mo#e o this i Chapte# 1B %% et;o#ks chapte#*
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ICS 321 Multi Media L. Gottschalk
2* 6#oductio$
,"te high ed 6Cs #uig .ido;s 2///, o# o Macitosh compute#s.
Githe# ;ould be augmeted by special%pu#pose g#aphics accele#atio hL; ad iput
de&ices "o# audio ad &ideo.
(ypical$
% GC 6o;e# Macitosh,
% dual 2 G?1 p#ocesso#s
% "aste# "#ot side bus
% mo#e po;e#"ul g#aphics ca#d ;ith <AMbytes o" &ideo memo#y
% 2 G>ytes mai memo#y
% additioal high speed disks.
+ilm ad (' idust#y uses SGI o# Su ;o#kstatios$
% #ede#ig 3%D aimatio
% &ideo e""ects.
Images may be composed o" up to 1// laye#s )chapte# C*.
(hey ;ould be "latteed be"o#e deli&e#y.
So i p#oductio, a image takes 1// times mo#e disk o# memo#y space tha deli&e#ed
image.
'ideo ad audio o"te e3ist ucomp#essed du#ig p#oductio, #e=ui#ig much mo#e space
tha the deli&e#ed p#oduct.
Captu#e o" digital video #e=ui#es 3"e# speeds to disk o" 3.C Mbytes L secod. Sometimes
eed up to 3/ MbytesL secod.
% +i#e;i#e A// ad 0// o""e# )theo#etically* up to A// ad 0// Mbytes pe# secod 3"e# to
disk.
% Ne; SCSI IL+7s ;ill 3"e# at 1</ MbytesLsec.
I" a se#&e# is sha#ed ac#oss cliets, the disk speed may be too slo;. So -5ID
3
is used.
G#aphics tablet is eeded$ you ca7t p#ope#ly d#a; o# pait ;ith a mouseI
(;o moito#s$ oe "o# the image, oe "o# tools ba#s ad palettes.
?igh #esolutio scae#.
Digital came#a.
Digital 'ideo came#a ad digital soud #eco#dig e=uipmet.
Comp#essio ha#d;a#e
Mic#ophoes, mi3e#s, t#ipods, heads, lightig, ad so o.
3
-edudat 5##ay o" Ie3pesi&e Disks
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ICS 321 Multi Media L. Gottschalk
Sotware, page 4!
(he essece o" multimedia is combiig di""e#et types o" media i oe p#esetatio.
(he#e a#e specialty p#og#ams "o# each type o" media.
5utho#ig systems that allo; sc#iptig a#e the used to combie the "iished media.
Some people a#e good at p#oducig media documets4 othe#s at the sc#iptig
)p#og#ammig*.
25 essetial pa#t o" ou# de"iitio o" MM is the coditio that the combied media be
su""icietly ;ell iteg#ated to be p#eseted by a ui"ied ite#"ace, ad maipulated by a
sigle compute# p#og#am.2 %% page AH
(h#ee ;ays to do this$
% b#ig elemets togethe# i a ;eb page usig ?(ML o# NML,
% a a#chitectu#e like 8uick(ime.
% deli&e# the MM p#oductio i a stad aloe "o#m$ e.g. +lash mo&ies sa&ed as
2p#oMecto#2 do7t eed +lash to play them.

," cou#se, +lash ad 8uick(ime obMects ca be deli&e#ed i a ;eb page, so these "o#ms
a#e ot completely distict.
"etwor#s, page 5$
5s a ;eb de&elope#, assume
o mo#e tha C< Kbps bet;ee cliet ad se#&e#. )(he highest #ate achie&able by
dial%up.*
33 Kbps to A0 Kbps is mo#e usual.
Some olde# modems oly suppo#t 1A.A Kbps.
>#oadbad
A
ad 5DSL ca go to <.1 Mbps, but is ce#taily ot e&e#y;he#e.
Cable ca suppo#t C// Kbps to 3/ Mbps.
+o# se#&e#s, may used dedicated (1 ad (3 lies to thei# IS6s$
(1 %% 1.C Mbps
(3 % AA.B Mbps.
L5Ns$ 1/ base ( Gthe#et$ 1/ Mbps
1// base ($ 1// Mbps
but bad;idth is sha#ed by all de&ices o the L5N.
A
(he +CC de"ies b#oadbad as 2ay se#&ice o&e# 2// Kbps2
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ICS 321 Multi Media L. Gottschalk
Client and Ser%ers, page 54
%% othig e; he#e %%
&'&E t(pes, page 5)
MIMG )Multipu#pose Ite#et Mail G3tesio* suppo#ts the iclusio o" data othe# tha
plai 5SCII te3t i email. MIMG documet%type ideti"icatio has bee adopted by
?((6.
5 MIMG cotet heade# is o" the "o#m type/subtype.
% te3tLhtml )used "o#?(ML pages*
% imageL%% such as imageLgi"
% audioL %%%
% &ideoL %%% such as &ideoL=uicktime
% modelL %%% such as modelL'-ML )used "o# 3%D model data*
% messageL %%
% applicatioL %% )bia#y data "o# e3ecutable p#og#am*
such as$ applicatioLg1ip
Standards, page 5*
.3C7s stada#d "o# &ecto# g#aphics, S'G, is #a#ely used.
Mac#omedia7s +lash "o#mat is the de"ault &ecto# "o#mat.
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