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AODC Technical Manual 1/2000

Australian Oceanographic Data Centre


Maritime Headquarters
Wylde Street, POTTS POINT N.S.W. 2011
AUSTRALIA
Prepared by
Data Management Group
Third Edition
INSTRUCTIONMANUAL
FOROBSERVINGANDRECORDING
SEABED SAMPLES, SECCHI DISC,
BIOLUMINESCENCE
AND SOUND VELOCITY
MEASUREMENTS
Version 3 January 2000 Hydrographic Surveys Manual Produced by AODC
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Version 3 January 2000 Hydrographic Surveys Manual Produced by AODC
Table Of Contents
Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................. 3
Oceanographic Observations
Manual Contents
Data Management
Chapter 2. OCEANOGRAPHIC OBSERVATIONS......................................................................... 5
Sea Floor Sediments
Water Transparency & Turbidity
Marine Bioluminescence
Sound Velocity in Seawater
Chapter 3. OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTRUCTIONS.......................................................................... 9
How to Fill in the Observers Information
How to Fill in the Time & Position Information
How to Fill in Ocean & Weather Condition Information
How to Fill in Seabed Sample Information
How to Fill in Water Clarity Information
How to Fill in Bioluminescent Information
How to Fill in Sound Velocity Information
Chapter 4. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS......................................................................................... 11
Chapter 5. CRUISE INFORMATION.............................................................................................. 12
Chapter 6. TIME & POSITION INFORMATION.......................................................................... 13
Chapter 7. OCEAN CONDITIONS INFORMATION................................................................... 15
Depth to Bottom
Wind Conditions
Wave Conditions
Swell Conditions
Sea Surface Temperature
Chapter 8. SEABED SAMPLE OBSERVATION............................................................................ 18
Obtaining a Sample
Bottom Sample
Comments
Chapter 9. SECCHI DISC OBSERVATIONS................................................................................. 21
Measuring Water Transparency
Determining Water Colour
Weather
Secchi Disc Observation
Comments
Chapter 10. BIOLUMINESCENCE OBSERVATIONS................................................................. 24
Weather
Bioluminescence
Comments
Chapter 11. SOUND VELOCITY MEASUREMENTS.................................................................. 27
Obtaining a Measurement
Chapter 12. DATA RETURN............................................................................................................ 29
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Appendix A. PRESENT WEATHER CODES.................................................................................. 30
Appendix B. OCEANOGRAPHIC LOGSHEETS ........................................................................... 32
Seabed Sediment Logsheet
Secchi Disc Logsheet
Bioluminescence Logsheet
Sound Velocity Logsheet
Form QC-3; Data Return Form
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. The Australian Area of Interest............................................................................................................ 3
Figure 2. AODC produced distribution plot ....................................................................................................... 4
Figure 3. Grain sizes of sea floor sediments ..................................................................................................... 5
Figure 4. Water turbidity from San Francisco Harbour ................................................................................ 6
Figure 5. Types of bioluminescence...................................................................................................................... 7
Figure 6. Refraction in sound speed gradients ................................................................................................ 8
Figure 7. ODOM Digibar............................................................................................................................................. 8
Figure 8. Logsheet Cruise Information. ........................................................................................................... 12
Figure 9. Cruise and observers details on the Excel templates .............................................................. 12
Figure 10. Logsheet time and position fields ................................................................................................ 13
Figure 11. Date, Time and position fields in the Excel template............................................................ 13
Figure 12. Diagram illustrating Global Quadrants ...................................................................................... 14
Figure 13. Logsheet fields for conditions during observation ............................................................... 15
Figure 14. Weather and sea conditions in template .................................................................................. 15
Figure 15. Illustration of the heights and periods of waves and swell .............................................. 16
Figure 16. Seabed fields on logsheet AH 575................................................................................................ 18
Figure 17. Seabed sample fields in Excel Template..................................................................................... 18
Figure 18. Secchi Disc fields on logsheet AH 469........................................................................................21
Figure 19. Secchi fields in Excel Template .......................................................................................................21
Figure 20. Forel-Ule water colours .................................................................................................................... 22
Figure 21. Observed Bioluminescence fields on logsheet AH 531........................................................ 24
Figure 22. Observed Bioluminescence fields in Excel templates........................................................... 24
Figure 23. Sound Velocity Logsheet fields...................................................................................................... 27
Figure 24. Sound Velocity measurement fields in Excel Template ....................................................... 27
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Wave and swell height code table .................................................................................................... 17
Table 2. Swell period code table ......................................................................................................................... 17
Table 3. Seabed Codes; Material and Descriptors ........................................................................................ 20
Table 4. Past weather condition codes. ........................................................................................................... 22
Table 5. Forel-Ule Colour Codes based on comparison with colour card. ........................................ 23
Table 6. Stimuli for the observed bioluminescence ................................................................................... 25
Table 7. Colour of bioluminescence .................................................................................................................. 25
Table 8. List of types of bioluminescence ...................................................................................................... 25
Table 9. Duration of bioluminescence ............................................................................................................. 26
Table 10. Extent of bioluminescence ............................................................................................................... 26
Table 11. Present Weather meteorological codes. ............................................................................... 30-31
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CHAPTER 1 Introduction
OCEANOGRAPHIC
OBSERVATIONS
The Australian Oceanographic Data Centre (AODC) Seabed Sample, Secchi Disc,
Bioluminescence and Sound Velocity observation pack (including manual,
logsheets and templates) have been introduced to standardise data collections
and returns. These data will then be made available to national and international
marine science communities as well as within the Department of Defence, to assist
in the advancement of marine studies and in building the knowledge edge for the
ADF.
These four oceanographic parameters have been put together in this manual
because they are easy to observe and provide highly valuable information about
the conditions of the oceans around Australia.
Oceanographic observations should be obtained whenever the opportunity arises,
while the ship is underway or at anchor.
In planning an oceanographic cruise, data collectors should seek the AODCs
assistance on the existence and location of historical data available within the
survey area. This will assist in promoting data collection in under sampled areas.
The AODC can provide data distribution plots (Figure 2) for any area within the
Australian Area of Interest, as shown in Figure 1 below.
Figure 1 The Australian area of Interest (Source: AODC; EDMS, 1999)
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MANUAL CONTENTS The information contained in this booklet covers all the procedures necessary for
observation sampling. It provides instruction on how to correctly use and
complete all four paper logsheets and how to use the Microsoft Excel templates
to document oceanographic.
The manual contains a floppy disc located on the inside back cover which contains
Microsoft Excel templates which should be copied onto your hard-drive. Keep the
floppy disc in the manual as a backup. Accompanying this manual should be
notepads containing logsheets (as found in Appendix B) which should be used to
record the observations as they are being made.
DATA MANAGEMENT When the floppy disc with observed data is submitted to AODC, the Data
Management Officer in charge of Quality Control performs a number of tests
before the data is archived in the database. The checks performed on the data are;
# Position Checks - The location of each observation is plotted and verified that
they are not on land.
# Date/Time Checks - By comparing the distance and time between observations,
simple errors can be corrected and flagged.
# Data Checks - Checks that all data are within range and that the standard
codes provided in this manual apply.
A distribution plot, similar to Figure 2, will be created and forwarded to the
submitter of data along with a covering letter stating any errors found and ways
to improve the quality of data in the future. A formatted blank floppy disc will also
be included to assist with further data exchange.
Figure 2 : AODC produced distribution plot (Source: AODC EDMS, 1999)
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CHAPTER 2 Oceanographic Observations
SEABED SAMPLE
OBSERVATIONS
Sea Floor Sediments
Sediment deposits found on continental shelves and slopes are mainly an
accumulation of particles brought in by rivers, glaciers and winds, these are then
mixed with the shells and the skeletal remains of marine organisms. Sea floor
sediments are classified by origin and particle size (Figure 3). Deep sea sediments
contain more pelagic (formed in the sea) material than sediments on the
continental shelf which are mainly of terrigenous origin (formed on land).
Sediments generally accumulate on the sea floor at a rate of 0.1 to 10mmper 1000
years. Hence a meter long sample obtained by a device such as a corer can bring
up material that was deposited between 100,000 to 10 million years ago providing
an insight into the past history of the ocean (Pickard, 1990).
Sea floor sediment sampling also provides the observer with information on the
nature and composition of the seabed which is useful in determining the
anchoring conditions and the strength and direction of the bottom currents. The
nature of the solid bottom and its overlying sediments are significant in
interpreting sonar equipment values. This bottom bounce, or backscatter, of the
sound wave varies depending on the type and strength of the sea floor - for
example, SONAR performs much better when the sound rays are not absorbed by
mushy or loosely packed sediments or scattered by a rough bottom (Williams et.
al., 1975).
A good knowledge of the sea floor can be of great assistance to the sailor and
scientist alike, therefore correct identification of a sample is vital in establishing a
useful database. Classifying sediments correctly by size is very important, Figure 3
below provides grain sizes of sediments and Table 3 lists all the acceptable
sediment types (top table) and their describing terms (bottom table).
Figure 3 : Grain sizes of sea floor sediments. (Source: Hamilton, 1996)
MUD SAND GRAVEL
Clay Silt Fine Medium Coarse Pebbles Cobbles Stones
0.004mm
0.062mm 2mm
32mm 64mm
Cy Si f.S m.S c.S P Cb St
Sample from corer.
Norfolk Canyon, depth
1462m.
(Source: Scrutton et. al.)
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SECCHI DISC
MEASUREMENTS
Water Transparency & Turbidity
The amount of visibility through the water column is dependent on the amount of
foreign material (turbidity) present. Generally, there are three possible causes to
dramatic changes in turbidity; erosion, presence of plankton and mixing (Williams
et. al. 1975).
# Erosion involves the transportation of sediments from the land out to sea via
rivers and currents. Figure 4 is a good example of this.
# Large amounts of plankton will increase the waters turbidity
# Mixing disturbs sediments already lying on the sea floor bringing them up into
the water column.
The Secchi Disc is an instrument used to measure the transmission of visible light
through the water column. It is a white (or black & white) plate about 30cm in
diameter fastened to horizontally hang from the end of a non-stretchable rope
marked out in metre intervals.
The water transparency is measured by lowering the Secchi Disc into the water
until it can no longer be seen. The depth of the disc is then measured by reading
the amount of submerged rope. Ideally the disc should then be lowered past the
point where it can no longer be seen then raised slowly until it just reappears
again. This distance should also be measured and the resulting average becomes
the Secchi Disc Depth.
Figure 4 : Water turbidity from San Francisco Harbour
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As a general rule, light can penetrate to a depth of two times the measured secchi
disc depth. For example, if the Secchi disc was no longer visible at a distance of
five meters below the surface then it can be assumed that light penetrates to a
maximum depth of ten meters at that location.
This depth of disappearance is a measure of the waters transparency and provides
an estimate of the turbidity of the water. These measurements are used to
estimate silt run-off from rivers, size and extent of polluted areas and monitoring
algae growth. Transparency varies with the seasons and the tidal cycle, hence
repeat observations in one position in different months of the year are most
valuable.
Measurements of this kind are of significant importance to the optimal
functioning of some operational sensors, including the Laser Airborne Depth
Sounder (LADS), and every opportunity must be taken to increase the amount of
available data on the Australian coast.
BIOLUMINESCENCE
OBSERVATIONS
Marine Bioluminescence
Bioluminescence is the emission of light by a living organism and is triggered by
internal or external actions like surface waves or fish movements. The
phenomenon occurs more in warm tropical waters, but can also be found in high
latitude waters during the warmer months. Bioluminescence is more prevalent in
coastal regions near river mouths and near shore upwellings than in the open sea
(Williams et. al., 1975).
The most common occurrence of bioluminescence to the sailor is at night with the
luminescent bow wave or wake a ship creates. In these instances the causal
organisms are almost always dinoflagellates, single-cell algae, often numbering
many hundreds per litre.
The organisms which emit light are spread over a wide range of taxa (around 240
groups) such as bacteria, protozoa, fungi, sponges, crustaceans, insects, fish,
squid, jellyfish, and benthic plants. The luminescent displays vary from limited
flashes of a few milliseconds to continuous glows lasting for minutes or even
longer.
It is a phenomenon which has attracted the interest of a wide variety of
researchers, ranging from organic chemists to Naval planners. The light that is
generated upon stimulation can have tremendous and sometimes catastrophic
impacts on naval operations. Any object, natural or man-made, moving through
plankton-laden water has the potential to leave a luminous trail. The key to
determining the usefulness of bioluminescence for either military or scientific
pursuits is to monitor their occurrences both spatially and temporally.
Figure 5 : Types of bioluminescence; angler (fish), atolla (jellyfish), radiolaria
(plankton).
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SOUND VELOCITY
MEASUREMENTS
Sound in Seawater
Ocean temperature, pressure and salinity all have an influence on the behaviour
of sound in seawater and because these parameters vary according to depth and
geographic location, the speed of sound is not always constant. However, sound
speed is affected more by temperature change than salinity, thus a measurement
of temperature variation is sufficient to determine the variation of sound speed
for most purposes.
Seawater contains layers where sound is either refracted towards the bottom
(speed slows with depth) or refracted towards the surface (speed increases with
depth). Figure 6 shows how different sound speed values can be obtained down
through the water column.
Figure 6 : Refraction in sound speed gradients (Source: Applied Oceanography
Handbook)
A Digibar is a 43cmsound velocity probe attached by a 20mcable, to a waterproof,
battery operated hand held control unit (Figure 7). It provides an accurate and
more convenient way to measure the velocity of sound in water than the
traditional bar check method. Measurements should be made at standard depths
of 5m, 10m, 15m and 20m by lowering the probe into the water, pressing the
measure button and recording the results.
Figure 7 : The ODOM Digibar, Model1100 (Unit and Probe)
Depth
Speed
Ray Path
C1
C2
C3
C4
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CHAPTER 3 Oceanographic Instructions
This manual is broken down into the following chapters. Each chapter reflects a
particular section of the logsheets and templates. Every effort should be made to
complete all fields, as they all provide valuable oceanographic information about
the area. The fields marked below in blue must be completed otherwise the
observation cannot be considered valid and must be rejected.
HOW TO FILL IN THE
OBSERVERS
INFORMATION
Important information that must be recorded about the observation platform and
observer which allows the observed data to be traced back to its source. This
information is common to all observation logsheets and covers:
N Name of Ship or Dive Team
N Cruise ID
N Organisation
N Name of Observer
N Contact Details
N Project or Area
N Datum
HOW TO FILL IN THE
TIME & POSITION
INFORMATION
Essential information which must be recorded about the time, date and location
of the observations. The time, although important, is not essential for seabed
samples. This information is common to all observation logsheets and covers:
N Date
N Time
N Globe Quadrant
N Latitude
N Longitude
HOWTO FILL IN OCEANIC
CONDITION
INFORMATION
Oceanic information at the site of an observation are extremely valuable as often
they provide the only source of data about the conditions at that time for many
locations. Although not an essential field, oceanic conditions do influence what is
being observed and therefore are important. This information is common to all but
sound velocity logsheet and cover:
N Ocean Depth
N Wind
N Waves
N Swell
N Sea Surface Temperature
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HOW TO FILL IN SEABED
SAMPLE INFORMATION
Information which is required to be recorded about seabed sample observations.
This information covers:
N Sample Held By
N Method of Collection
N Sample Composition
N Method of Fixing
N Comments
HOW TO FILL IN WATER
CLARITY INFORMATION
Required information which must be recorded about secchi disc observations,
including past and present meteorological details which affect water turbidity.
This information covers:
N Cloud Cover
N Present Weather
N Past Weather
N Disc Depth
N Water Colour
N Disc Side
N Sun Angle
N Comments
HOW TO FILL IN
BIOLUMINESCENT
INFORMATION
Information which must be recorded about Bioluminescence observations,
including meteorological information which influences bioluminescent sightings.
This information covers:
N Cloud Cover
N Present Weather
N Stimuli
N Colour
N Kind
N Duration
N Extent
N Comments
HOW TO FILL IN SOUND
VELOCITY INFORMATION
Information relating to how to record digibar sound speed measurements.
N Digibar Soundspeed Measurements
N Comments
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CHAPTER 4 General Instructions
1. The data collector observing the oceanographic conditions on deck must
directly record all observations into the appropriate paper logsheet.
2. If an error is made on the logsheets do not use an eraser. Neatly cross out
the incorrect value and write the correction next to it, or in the comments
field. This way there is no confusion as to what the intended value is.
3. Each logsheet holds ten observations of the one parameter. When all the
observations have been completed, the sheets should be fastened together
in chronological order with the total number of sheets in the set written in
the space provided (bottom right corner).
4. From the logsheets, all observations should be transferred into digital
format using the Microsoft Excel templates provided. The templates have
inbuilt data validation macros and online help boxes to aid in accurate
data recording.
5. The logsheets together with the saved excel spreadsheets should both be
sent to the AODC at the address given below.
6. The rest of this manual provides instruction on how to correctly fill in the
logsheet and template. Examples of this are shown on the following pages.
7. When completing the data entry templates the specified field format must
be followed. Always prefix zeros to fill a field.
8. Begin a new logsheet and template with each new cruise or change of area
or project.
9. Fields on the logsheet that cannot be filled out because the feature cannot
or was not observed, or the necessary instruments are unavailable, must
be left blank.
10. Any queries regarding the logsheets should be directed to:
Data Management Officer
Australian Oceanographic Data Centre
Maritime Headquarters
Wylde Street
Potts Point NSW 2011
ph: (02) 9359 3129 or (02) 9359 3124
fax: (02) 9359 3120
e-mail: dm@aodc.gov.au
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CHAPTER 5 Cruise Information
For each new logsheet used, the following information, shown in Figure 8, must
be completed. Similarly when the Excel Templates are first opened the ship and
observers details screen appears, Figure 9, which must be filled out before moving
to the next page.
Figure 8 : Logsheet cruise information.
NAME OF SHIP OR DIVE
TEAM
Enter the ships full name including any corresponding prefix e.g. HMAS, RV, or
enter the Diving Team number e.g AUSCDT 1.
CRUISE ID The cruise number is an alpha-numeric number assigned to the cruise. For Navy
Hydrographic vessels, this would be the Hydrographic Instruction Number (hi286).
ORGANISATION Enter the name of the institution sponsoring this cruise e.g. RAN, CSIRO, UNSW.
OBSERVERS NAME AND
CONTACT
The name of the principle observer of the oceanographic conditions of the cruise
should be recorded. If there is more than one observer then select the main
observer or the person most likely to be contactable should there be any queries
regarding the data. Contact can be a phone/fax number or email address.
PROJECT OR AREA The area being observed should be noted here. For RAN cruises state the name of
the exercise or survey instruction during the time oceanographic conditions were
observed.
DATUM The geocentric datum used when measuring the position of observation used
must be noted. If the position is read of a map, note the maps datum in the space
provided on the logsheet. Similarly if the position is read from a GPS the datum
used by the system should also be noted.
Figure 9 : Cruise and observers details on the Excel templates.
HMAS Paluma
Torres Strait, NE off Thursday Island
RA N
HI 301
Robin Stewart 02 9876 2345
WGS 84
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Version 3 January 2000 Hydrographic Surveys Manual Produced by AODC
CHAPTER 6 Time & Position Information
The position, date and time of each observation should be entered as accurately
as possible as quality control software at the AODC check the time and position
between each observations for impossible ship speeds. The date and time values
must be recorded in Zulu (Greenwich Meantime). Figure 10 shows the section in
the logsheets where this information must be entered (note the format is
displayed above the box). Figure 11 illustrates the columns in the Excel templates.
Figure 10 : Logsheet time and position fields
Figure 11 : Date, Time and position fields in the Excel template.
DATE The format for the date fields is two numeric digits, with leading zeros to fill the
field.
Day DD Enter the day of the month as determined by Zulu (Greenwich Meantime) using
numerals 01 through to 31.
Month MM Enter month of the year using numerals 01 through to 12.
Year YY Enter last two digits of the year 00 through to 99.
TIME The format for the time fields is two numeric digits.
Hour HH Enter the hour in Zulu (Greenwich Meantime), of the observation.
Minutes mm Enter the minutes in Zulu (Greenwich Meantime) of the observation
DATE TIME LATITUDE LONGITUDE
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QUADRANT Q Enter the Quadrant of the globe where the observation was taken.
Figure 12 : Diagram illustrating Global Quadrants
LATITUDE
Degrees LL Enter latitude in degrees (0 to 89).
Minutes MM Enter latitude in minutes (0 to 59).
Seconds T Enter seconds as 1/10th of a minute (0 to 9). E.g. 30 seconds would be entered as 5.
LONGITUDE
Degrees LL Enter latitude in degrees (0 to 179).
Minutes MM Enter latitude in minutes (0 to 59).
Seconds T Enter seconds as 1/10th of a minute (0 to 9). E.g. 30 seconds would be entered as 5.
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CHAPTER 7 Ocean Conditions Information
Although not obligatory, the surface meteorological conditions during the time of
observation are valuable in the interpretation of bioluminescence, secchi disc and
seabed sample observations. Figure 13 & Figure 14 below illustrate the areas to be
completed on the logsheet and in the Excel template.
Figure 13 : Logsheet fields for conditions during observation
Figure 14 : Weather and sea conditions in template.
DEPTH TO BOTTOM
Water Depth dddd Enter the depth to the ocean floor at the time of observation to the nearest whole
meter from the echo sounder or chart.
WIND CONDITIONS
Wind Speed Indicator i The units used to measure wind speed need to be identified. Circle the unit on the
logsheet and enter the appropriate code in the template; 0 = m/s, 1 = knots.
Wind Direction dd Enter the true wind direction, in tens of degrees, from which the wind is blowing,
e.g. if the wind is observed to be blowing from the west enter 27 (not 270). If there
is no wind (calm) enter 00. If the wind direction was not observed leave field blank.
Wind Speed ff Enter the true wind speed in m/s or knots, or 00 if there is no wind (calm). If the
wind speed was not measured, leave the field blank.
DEPTH
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WIND WAVE SWELL SST
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WAVE CONDITIONS Waves are identified as generally having short, pointed crests and their heights
and periods are variable.
Wave Period PP Enter the average wind wave period to the nearest second. 00 is entered when the
sea is calm and 99 when the wave period cannot be determined because the sea
state is confused/chaotic. If the period was not observed or could not be observed
enter //.
Wave Height HH The significant wave height is a term that applies to observing and averaging the
height of the highest third waves. When recording this use the half meter code
shown on the next page in Table 1. This code is based on estimates of wave height
to the nearest half meter.
SWELL CONDITIONS When a wind abates, or if waves travel away from the generating area, the wave
become swell. Swell waves have characteristically rounded and longer crests than
the above, swell heights are generally lower and uniform in height, period and
direction (RAN, Applied Oceanography Handbook).
Swell Direction dd Enter the direction from which the swell is approaching in tens of degrees, using
01 to 36 for directions 010 to 360. Enter 00 for calmseas and 99 for indeterminate
direction.
Swell Period P Use Table 2 on the following page to code the period of the swell in seconds.
Swell Height HH The distance between swell crest and trough, Figure 15. As with wave height use
Table 1 on the following page.
Figure 15 : Illustration of the heights and periods of waves and swell.
SEA SURFACE
TEMPERATURE
TTT
o
C Record the sea surface temperature, using a bucket and thermometer or from the
water intake valve on board the ship, to the nearest tenth of a degree celsius.
When recording in the excel template the decimal point is omitted. E.g. a
temperature of 27.5
o
C should be entered as 275.
Period (sec)
Wave Height (m)
Swell Height (m)
Wave
Swell
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Table 1 : Wave and swell height, half meter code table.
Table 2 : Swell period code table
Code
Height
(m) Code
Height
(m) Code
Height
(m) Code
Height
(m)
01 0.5 21 10.5 41 20.5 61 30.5
02 1 22 11 42 21 62 31
03 1.5 23 11.5 43 21.5 63 31.5
04 2 24 12 44 22 64 32
05 2.5 25 12.5 45 22.5 65 32.5
06 3 26 13 46 23 66 33
07 3.5 27 13.5 47 23.5 67 33.5
08 4 28 14 48 24 68 34
09 4.5 29 14.5 49 24.5 69 34.5
10 5 30 15 50 25 70 35
11 5.5 31 15.5 51 25.5 71 35.5
12 6 32 16 52 26 72 36
13 6.5 33 16.5 53 26.5 73 36.5
14 7 34 17 54 27 74 37
15 7.5 35 17.5 55 27.5 75 37.5
16 8 36 18 56 28 76 38
17 8.5 37 18.5 57 28.5 77 38.5
18 9 38 19 58 29 78 39
19 9.5 39 19.5 59 29.5 79 39.5
20 10 40 20 60 30 80 40
Code Period (sec) Code Period (sec)
0 10 5 5 or less
1 11 6 6
2 12 7 7
3 13 8 8
4 14 or more 9 9
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CHAPTER 8 Seabed Sample Observation
Knowledge of the composition of the seabed is of increasing scientific and
operational importance and samples should be obtained whenever the
opportunity arises. Samples should be obtained and observed when the depth to
sea floor is less than 200m and from areas such as all charted and likely
anchorages, banks, shoals, seamounts and the channels between them. Ideally,
seabed sampling should also occur at regular intervals, an interval of 10cm on the
chart is a useful guideline.
Samples from the seafloor are to be classified according to Table 3. These codes
are used internationally on charts and have been reproduced here from the
Hydrographic Office Chart 5011 Symbols and abbreviations used on Admiralty
Charts (INT 1) from the section IJ Nature of the Seabed. Although some of these
terms are no longer used in chart production, they are important here as they
provide a greater and more accurate description of the seafloor.
Figure 16 & Figure 17 illustrate the seabed fields in the logsheet (AH 575) and excel
template (seabed_obs.xlt) respectively.
Figure 16 : Seabed fields on logsheet AH 575.
Figure 17 : Seabed sample fields in Excel Template.
OBTAINING A SAMPLE Samples are best obtained by diver, corer or dredge methods. It is especially
important to obtain a significant sample of bottom sediment to accurately
describe the nature of the sea floor. Methods of sampling such as the use of an
armed leadline or shipek grab are not so effective because the first only picks up
the smaller particles whereas the latter misses mud sized particles because they
get washed out.
BOTTOM SAMPLE
COMMENTS
SAMPLING
METHOD
SAMPLE
COMPOSITION
FIXING
METHOD
Separate by dot .
e.g. f.S.Cy.bk.Sh
Anchor M.bk.Co.S GPS
Samplenot retained
Anchor M.bk.Co.S
GPS
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BOTTOM SAMPLE
Sampling Method Enter the type of instrument used to obtain the sample, e.g. Anchor, Dredge, Core.
Sample Composition The observed physical composition of the sample using the sediment codes as
shown on page 19, Table 3. Where the returned sample is a mixture of materials
the primary constituent is given first followed by the others separated by a dot (.),
for example a sample consisting primarily of sand with some shell and pebbles
would be recorded as S.Sh.P
Descriptive codes such as colour, feel or texture can also be included. These codes
precede the constituent with the dot (.) e.g. a sample that contains fine sand with
mud and some broken shells would be written as f.S.M.bk.Sh
When including descriptive terms the dot is included (as opposed to sediments
shown on Hydrographic Charts) to assist in the assimilation to the AODCs
environmental databases and the AUSEABED project.
Method of Fixing The method or instrument used to determine the ships position when the sample
was taken.
Sample Held By If a seabed sample was retained, please indicate where the sample was sent.
COMMENTS Use this field to record any general information that relates to the particular
sample or may be relevant otherwise.
1.a) and b) Mini Peterson or Van Veen grab in open & closed position.
2. Shipek Grab. (Source: RAN Applied Oceanography Handbook)
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These terms in the table below are to be used to describe the seabed material. The
main, or primary, material must be given first followed by any other material
present. All sediment codes are to be separated by a dot (.) Note the actual grain
sizes are listed for the first eight materials. Clay and Silt are difficult to identify by
sight & feel alone so just Mud will suffice.
The table belowis to be used to describe any material listed above. These describers
precede the material code and are also separated by a dot (.) Note that fine,
medium and coarse are only to be used to describe the grain size of sand.
Table 3 : Seabed Codes; Material and Descriptors.
Code Seabed Material Code Seabed Material
S Sand (0.6-2mm) Md Madrepore
M Mud (<0.6mm) Ba Basalt
Cy Clay (<0.004mm) Lv Lava
Si Silt (0.004-0.062mm) Pm Pumice
St Stones (>64mm) T Tufa
G Gravel (>2mm) Sc Scoriae
P Pebbles (2-32mm) Cn Cinders
Cb Cobbles (32-64mm) Mn Manganese
R Rock Gc Glauconite
Co Coral Oy Oysters
Sh Shells Ms Mussels
Wd Weed (Inc. Kelp) Sp Sponge
Gd Ground Al Algae
Oz Ooze Fr Foraminifera
Ml Marl Gl Globigerina
Sn Shingle Di Diatoms
Bo Boulders Rd Radiolaria
Ck Chalk Pt Pteropods
Qz Quartz Po Polyzoa
Code Seabed Descriptor Code Seabed Descriptor
f Fine (sand only) sk Speckled
m Medium (sand only) w White
c Coarse (sand only) bl Black
bk Broken b Blue
sy Sticky gn Green
so Soft y Yellow
sf Stiff rd Red
v Volcanic br Brown
ca Calcareous ch Chocolate
h Hard gy Grey
sm Small lt Light
l Large d Dark
ga Glacial
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CHAPTER 9 Secchi Disc Observations
Water transparency and colour observations are to be made at regular intervals as
directed in the Hydrographic or Oceanographic Instructions, and whenever
possible during daylight hours, or when the ship has occasion to stop or anchor.
All observations should be recorded in logsheet AH 469, (as in Figure 18 below)
then transferred onto the excel template, (secchi_obs.xlt) Figure 19.
Figure 18 : Secchi Disc fields on logsheet AH 469
Figure 19 : Secchi fields in Excel Template
MEASURING WATER
TRANSPARENCY
To obtain a secchi disc reading, the ship should be stopped (and ideally left to
drift). The observation should be made from the shady, lee side of the ship where
there are minimal reflections and the water is smooth. The secchi disc should be
lowered into the water on a line marked out in meter intervals until the disc is no
longer visible; this depth is noted. The disc is raised again until it just reappears;
this depth is noted. The depth of water transparency is the mean of these two
measurements.
DETERMINING WATER
COLOUR
Recovery of the secchi disc should be stopped at one meter below the surface and
the colour of the water should be compared with the colours appearing on the
Forel-Ule colour card (Figure 20). The Forel-Ule colour scale consists of a series of
twelve standard coloured strips encased in a plastic card. The 6 F Forel Scale are
colours of open bodies of water and the 6 U Ule Scale are estuarine colours.
Water colour is best determined when viewed against a white background, such
as the white portion of a secchi disc.
WEATHER SECCHI DISC
COMMENTS
C
l
o
u
d

C
o
v
e
r
P
r
e
s
e
n
t
W
e
a
t
h
e
r
P
a
s
t

W
e
a
t
h
e
r
S
e
c
c
h
i

D
i
s
c
D
e
p
t
h
C
o
l
o
u
r
D
i
s
c

S
i
d
e
S
u
n

A
n
g
l
e
n ww W ZZZ CCC b/w AA
1 03 0 095 F7 w 30 Flood Tide
1 3
0
9.5m
F7
O
28
o
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Figure 20 : Forel-Ule water colours.
WEATHER
Cloud Cover n Enter the total cloud cover in oktas. Oktas are the units which refer to the amount
of sky that clouds cover. One okta is equal to an eighth (12.5%) of sky obscured by
cloud, therefore 8 oktas represents the sky totally covered in clouds and 0 oktas
means less than an eighth or none of the sky is covered. If cloud cover cannot be
determined for whatever reason enter 9, or if no observation was made enter
single solidi ( / ).
Present Weather ww Describe the present weather using the meteorological codes as given in Table 11,
Appendix A. This table (WMO 4677) is an internationally used code table for
describing the present weather conditions. Leave blank if weather not observed.
Past Weather W Describe the past weather conditions using Table 4 below which is an
internationally used table (WMO 4501). When taking observations every six hours
note the weather at the preceding time (0000, 0600, 1200, 1800 GMT). Similarly if
taking three hour observations, note weather at 0000, 0300, 0600, 0900, 1200,
1500, 1800, 2100 GMT.
Table 4 : Past weather condition codes (WMO 4501).
Code Explanation
0 Cloud covering 1/2 or less of the sky throughout the appropriate period.
1 Cloud covering more than 1/2 of the sky during part of the appropriate period
and covering 1/3 or less during part of the period.
2 Cloud covering more than 1/2 of the sky throughout the appropriate period.
3 Sandstorm, duststorm or blowing snow.
4 Fog or ice fog or thick haze.
5 Drizzle.
6 Rain.
7 Snow, or rain and snow mixed.
8 Shower(s).
9 Thunderstorm(s) with or without precipitation.
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SECCHI DISC
OBSERVATIONS
Secchi Disc Depth ZZZ Depth of visibility of the secchi disc, recorded to the nearest tenth of a metre. See
the section Measuring Water Transparency above for instructions on how to
correctly measure the secchi disc depth.
Colour C Record the colour of seawater, observed as described previously in section
Determining Sea Colour. Enter Forel-Ule codes, from Table 5, based on
comparison with Forel-Ule colour card, Figure 20. If the water colour does not
match any of the codes but seems to lie somewhere in between, then record the
intermediate number, i.e. F6. The F codes are to be used in open bodies of water
and the U codes are for estuarine waters.
Table 5 : Forel-Ule Colour Codes based on comparison with colour card.
Disc Side b/w Observations may be taken using the black or white side of the secchi disc facing
upwards. Whichever side is used should be noted. For secchi discs with quadrants
of white and black pieces, enter the colour which was observed when noting water
colour.
Sun Angle AA Record the approximate position of the sun from the horizon. Enter the angle in
tens of degrees, i.e. from 0 to 90, where 0 is sunrise/sunset and 90 directly above
the head.
COMMENTS Use this field to record any general information relevant to the observation,
specifically significant tidal information such as whether the tide is ebbing or
flooding.
Code Colour Code Colour
F1 Deep Blue U1 Green
F3 Blue U3 Yellowish Green
F5 Blueish Green U5 Khaki
F7 Greenish Blue U7 Olive
F9 Green U9 Greenish Brown
F11 Light Green U11 Brown
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CHAPTER 10 Bioluminescence Observations
When bioluminescent activity is observed the following information should be
recorded on the logsheet AH 531, (Figure 21 below) then entered into the excel
template (biolum_obs.xlt) shown in Figure 22. Similarly, and of equal importance,
is to record where and when no bioluminescence was observed. Bioluminescence
is best observed during the darkness at night - however take note to record the
time of observation in Zulu (Greenwich Meantime).
Figure 21 : Observed Bioluminescence fields in logsheet AH 531.
Figure 22 : Observed Bioluminescence fields on Excel templates.
WEATHER
Cloud Cover n Enter the total cloud cover in oktas, if cloud amount cannot be determined enter
9, and if no observation was made enter single solidi (/).
Present Weather ww Describe the present weather using the meteorological codes as given in Table 11,
Appendix A. This table (WMO 4677) is an internationally used code table for
describing the present weather conditions. Leave blank if weather is not observed.
BIOLUMINESCENCE
Stimulus S Using Table 6 on page 24, enter the process or condition which activated the
bioluminescence. If unknown then leave field blank.
WEATHER BIOLUMINESCENCE
COMMENTS
C
l
o
u
d

C
o
v
e
r
P
r
e
s
e
n
t

W
e
a
t
h
e
r
S
t
i
m
u
l
i
C
o
l
o
u
r
K
i
n
d
D
u
r
a
t
i
o
n
E
x
t
e
n
t
n ww S C KK DD E
1 03 2 5 05 02 4 Small traces in bow wave
1 3 2 5 5
2
4
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Table 6 : Stimuli for the observed bioluminescence
Colour C The primary observed colour of the bioluminescence according to Table 7 below,
should be recorded. If colour was not observed, leave field blank.
Table 7 : Colour of bioluminescence
Kind KK Using Table 8 below, enter a code that best describes what the bioluminescence
looks like. Any additional description can be put into the comments. If the kind of
bioluminescence was not recorded then leave the field blank.
Table 8 : List of types of bioluminescence
Code Stimulus
1 Light assisted
2 Bow wave
3 Wake
4 Calm, undisturbed sea
5 Breaking Waves
6 Rain
7 Fish
Code Colour Code Colour
1 White 4 Orange
2 Yellow 5 Green
3 Red 6 Blue
Code Kind or Type
1 Milky sea, a constant even white glow
2 Uneven sparkling patches or regular bands
3 Flashing patches
4 Patches apparently expanding and contracting
5 Disturbed water luminescence in breaking waves only
6 Luminous masses apparently coming to the surface and exploding to
illuminate a large area
7 Phosphorescent wheels with beams of light revolving around a centre
8 Patches of luminescence travelling more or less quickly over the surface
9 Light stimulated luminescence
10 Discrete luminous blobs or shapes, (e.g. from larger creatures)
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Duration DD Record the length of time the bioluminescence was present and enter the
respective code number as shown below in Table 9. If the duration was not
measured then leave the field blank.
Table 9 : Duration of bioluminescence
Extent E Using Table 10 below, the area and shape covered by the observed
bioluminescence should be recorded. Where possible provide further information
of the shape and direction in the comments. If the extent was not recorded then
leave the field blank.
Table 10 : Extent of bioluminescence
COMMENTS Where all bioluminescence fields were blank, that is no bioluminescence was
observed, Nil Bioluminescence should be written in the comments field. No
sighting of bioluminescence is of equal importance.
Code Duration Code Duration
1 0-2 seconds 6 30-40 seconds
2 2-5 seconds 7 40-50 seconds
3 5-10 seconds 8 50-60 seconds
4 10-20 seconds 9 1-2 minutes
5 20-30 seconds 10 Continuous
Code Extent
1 General glow over large areas
2 Broken water only over large areas
3 In small patches
4 In large patches
5 In bands (provide direction)
6 Small regular sources of illumination
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CHAPTER 11 Sound Velocity Measurements
This chapter briefly describes the processes involved in measuring and recording
the velocity of sound in the ocean using DIGIBAR Model 1100, a hand held
electronic velocity of sound calibrator.
Measurements must be made at standard depths, these being at the surface, 5m,
10m, 15m and 20m. These are made by lowering the probe into the water to the
desired depth (marked on the probe cable at 5m intervals) and reading off the
result, which is recorded in the Sound Velocity Logsheet (AH 580), Figure 23 below.
Then transfered to the spreadsheet (sound_obs.xlt) as shown in Figure 24.
Figure 23 : Sound Velocity Logsheet fields.
Figure 24 : Sound Velocity measurement fields on Excel Template.
OBTAINING A
MEASUREMENT
Before any measurements of sound velocity are taken using the digibar, all
previous measurements must be erased from the units memory by pressing the
clear button.
The first measurement is made close to the surface. Lower the probe into the water
until the probe is entirely submerged and lies around 30cm below the surface. This
is the minimumdepth at which the unit can make an accurate measurement. Press
the MEASURE button and record the value displayed on the LCD screen onto the
Logsheet.
14 1541.5
1541.5 1541.5 1541.0 1541.1 1541.1 1541.1 1541.5 1541.5 1541.3
31.2
0m 5m 10m 15m 20m 20m 15m 10m 5m 0m AVERAGE 0m
S
o
u
n
d

V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
m
/
s
e
c
S
o
u
n
d

V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
m
/
s
e
c
S
o
u
n
d

V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
m
/
s
e
c
S
o
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n
d

V
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l
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c
i
t
y
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S
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d

V
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y
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/
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o
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V
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S
o
u
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d

V
e
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o
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i
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y
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/
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S
o
u
n
d

V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
m
/
s
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c
S
o
u
n
d

V
e
l
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c
i
t
y
m
/
s
e
c
S
o
u
n
d

V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
m
/
s
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c
S
o
u
n
d

V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
m
/
s
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c
S
e
a

S
u
r
f
a
c
e
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
vvvv.v vvvv.v vvvv.v vvvv.v vvvv.v vvvv.v vvvv.v vvvv.v vvvv.v vvvv.v VVVV.V TTT
1541.5 1541.5 1541.5 1541.0 1541.1 1541.1 1541.1 1541.5 1541.5 1541.3 1541.1 312
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The Probes cable is marked out in 5 meter intervals which allows the operator to
lower the probe to the standard depths of 5m, 10m, 15m and 20m. When the
probe is lowered to each of these depths, press the MEASURE button whilst
keeping the probe as stationary as possible, then record the result. After the 20m
interval has been measured and recorded, measure it again, record the value and
proceed to pull the probe up, stopping every 5m to record a sound velocity
measurement.
Once all measurements at standard depths have been made, press the AVERAGE
button to obtain the mean sound velocity fro that position and record that in the
appropriate field on the logsheet.
Finally, record the sea surface temperature, either using a bucket and
thermometer or from the water intake valve on board the ship, to the nearest
tenth of a degree celsius. When recording in the excel template the decimal point
is omitted. E.g. a temperature of 27.5
o
C should be entered as 275.
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CHAPTER 12 Data Return
On completion of the cruise all observed oceanographic data should be returned
to the AODC. This includes; all paper logsheets (grouped by parameter type); one
copy of Form AODC-QC3 detailing what has been observed and recorded (see
APPENDIX B), and a 3.5 floppy disc containing the excel templates with observed
data recorded on them. However, if the observer does not have access to a PC then
just the paper logsheets can be forwarded.
The excel templates should be saved as a Microsoft Excel Workbook (*.xls) with a
logical file name, one that easily identifies the file name with the parameter, e.g.
benalla_seabed.xls or cdt1_secchi.xls
NB: To protect the floppy disc from damage during transport, wrap the disc in
aluminium foil, then some protective material such as bubble wrap or cardboard.
The AODC requires the oceanographic data in these two formats and ease of entry
into the databases. The paper logsheets contain the observations as they were
observed and contain any corrections made by the observer (see Chapter 4 -
General Instructions). The excel templates include range checking and quality
control functions to prevent any anomalous values slipping through, as well as
online help to provide the data entry officer with look-up tables containing the
necessary code tables.
The AODC will quality control the data and return to the observer a summary of
the data submitted indicating its quality, a data distribution plot (Figure 2), details
if any changes were made, and any future suggestions. A blank, formatted 3.5
floppy disc will also be sent for the next data submission. Notepads of the
logsheets are available from the AODC upon request.
DATA SUBMISSIONS The disc together with all logsheets and form AODC-QC3 should be forwarded to;
Data Management Officer
Australian Oceanographic Data Centre
Maritime Headquarters
Wylde Street
Potts Point, NSW, 2011
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APPENDIX A Present Weather Codes
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Table 11 : Present Weather meteorological code table (WMO 4677).
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APPENDIX B Oceanographic Logsheets
11. The following pages contain oceanographic logsheets for seabed sample
observations, secchi disc measurements, bioluminescence observations
and sound velocity measurements. These sheets should be filled out as
observations are being made and then forwarded to the AODC.
# YELLOW - Seabed Sample Logsheet (AH 575)
# BLUE - Secchi Disc Logsheet (AH 4690
# GREEN - Bioluminescence Logsheet (AH 531)
# ORANGE - Sound Velocity Logsheet (AH 580)
12. Form AODC-QC3 Hydrographic Survey Data Return is also included
which must accompany any data submitted to the AODC.
13. The AODC can make available notepads of these logsheets for providers of
regular or large amounts of observations.
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References
Applied METOC Centre, RAN Applied Oceanography Handbook, METOC
Australian Oceanographic Data Centre (AODC), 1992. Instruction Manual For
Secchi Disc, Bioluminescence & Bottom Sample Observation Logs, Technical
Publication 2/92, 2nd Ed.
Australian Hydrographic Office, 1997. Australian Hydrographic and
Oceanographic Instructions, 6th Ed.
Hamilton, 1996. Estimation of Backscatter From Seabed Bottom Type For The
MWSC, DSTO.
Hydrographic Office, 1994/5. Admiralty List of Radio Signals, Radio Weather
Services and Navigational Warnings, Vol. 3. Hydrographer of the Navy.
Hydrographic Office, 1998. Chart 5011 (INT 1) Symbols and Abbreviations used
on Admiralty Charts, 2nd Ed.
Pickard & Emery, 1990. Descriptive Physical Oceanography, An Introduction, 5th
Ed. Pergamon Press.
RAN Hydrographic School, 1999. Handout 600 Series, HMAS Penguin.
Scrutton & Talwani (ed), 1982. The Ocean Floor, John Wiley & Sons.
Williams, Higginson & Rohrbough, 1975. Sea&Air, 2nd Ed. Naval Institute Press.
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Distribution List
SURVEY MOTOR
LAUNCHES
HMAS Benalla
HMAS Mermaid
HMAS Paluma
HMAS Shepparton
MINE CLEARANCE
DIVING TEAMS
AUSCDT 1
AUSCDT 4
ARDT 6
ARDT 8
ARDT 9
ARDT 10
ARDT 11
HYDROGRAPHIC SHIPS Nuship Leeuwin
Nuship Melville
DEFENCE & CIVILIAN
COMMUNITIES
DSTO, Maritime Operations Division, Pyrmont.
AUSEABED Project, Sydney University, Camperdown.
CPOHSM, QC Section, HMAS Penguin, Mosman.
SOQC, Australian Hydrographic Office, Wollongong.
ASW Section, CS FAC, HMAS Watson, Watsons Bay.
Mine Warfare and Clearance Diving Force, MWPO, HMAS Waterhen, Waverton.
DA Information Services Pty, Ltd. Mitcham.