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Course on Dreams

Carl Jung; class on 5.12.14

Carl Jung, Man and His Symbols; Part 5:
1) Symbols in an Individual Analysis (by Jolande Jacobi);
2) Conclusion: Science and the Unconscious (by M-L von Franz),
Where the myth fails,
human love begins.
Then we love a human
being, not our dream,
but a human being with
flaws. Anas Nin

Freud to Fliess (1895):
We cannot do without men with the courage to think new things
before they can prove them.
From Four Lectures by Lance S. Owens MD:

In November of 1913 C. G. Jung embarked upon an extraordinary imaginative journey; in
later life he called it his confrontation with the unconscious. An enigmatic stream of
visions flooded upon him, and for the next decade he labored to accurately document these
events in his private journals. As the work progressed, Jung felt a need to give the
revelations from his Soul a more formal elaboration. With great artistic craft employing
antique illuminated calligraphic text and stunning artwork he transcribed the record of his
visions into a massive red leather-bound volume: This is the mysterious Red Book. Jung titled
it Liber Novus, the Book of the New. Near the end of his life, Jung remarked about his
The years when I pursued the inner images were the most important time of my life.
Everything else is to be derived from this. It began at that time, and the later details hardly
matter anymore. My entire life consisted in elaborating what had burst forth from the
unconscious and flooded me like an enigmatic stream and threatened to break me. That was
the stuff and material for more than only one life.... Everything later was merely the outer
classification, the scientific elaboration, and the integration into life. But the numinous
beginning, which contained everything, was then.
Jung and his Red Book
C. G. Jung's image of Philemon, his spiritual guide
For nearly a century the Red Book, Liber Novus,
remained Jungs hidden treasure. Only a
handful of Jungs most trusted students and
colleagues were allowed to see it during his life;
after his death in 1961, all requests for access
to the volume were refused by his family. But
now, after decades veiled in mystery, the Red
Book has finally been released to the world in a
magnificent facsimile edition. This singular
visionary volume a book that defies category
or comparison is the crux for any developed
understanding of Jungs psychological work.
In this series of four lectures, Dr. Lance Owens
discusses the genesis and content of the Red
Book, and explain its central place in the life
and work of C. G. Jung: 1 Anticipations: The
Coming of the Red Book; 2 Imagination,
Vision and Psychology; 3 The Prophet's Bride:
C.G. Jung and the Red Book; 4 Liber Novus
and the Hermeneutics of Vision.

Amen, you are the song that sounds far over the water.
Amen, you are beginning and the end.
Detail of an illustration of
a solar barge on page 55
of Carl Jung's The Red
Book. Translated, the
complete text on the
page reads: "One word
that was never spoken. /
One light that was never
lit up. / An unparalleled
confusion. / And a road
without end." According
to translator Sonu
Shamdasani, the solar
barge "was seen as the
typical means of
movement of the sun" in
ancient Egypt. "The Sun
God protected the barge
against the monster
Aphophis, who
attempted to swallow the
solar barge as it traveled
across the heavens."
One word that was never spoken.
One light that was never lit up.
An unparalleled confusion.
And a road without end.
This is the image from Jungs childhood imagination: Town submerged by water.
An imagined conversation
between Jung and a character he
calls The Red One:
I am finding I am standing on the
highest tower of a castle. The air
tells me so. I am far back in time.
Soul is a Sphere...
The Unconscious
Personal Unconscious
Freud vs. Jung
The personal unconscious contains repressed memories, painful ideas,
and subliminal perceptions from an individual's life.
Collective Unconscious
Just as animals are guided by instincts, Jung feels there are universal
archetypal images which we are programmed to respond to.
The collective unconscious is an impersonal or transpersonal
unconscious. The collective unconscious contains those elements
common to the tribe, the family, the nation, the race.
Jung noticed the similarities in the myths and fantasies of different times
and places. These concepts account for such similarities and for the fact
that mythological elements crop up in dreams, psychotic fantasies, and
so on in individuals who have not been exposed to these mythic ideas in
their lives. guided by
Archetypes are: a) Common to all people; b) Emotional patterns that have been
formed over time as reoccurring reactions to events; c) Predispose us to react in
predictable ways to certain stimuli.
Notion similar to Platonic idealism.
The archetypes are certain regular motifs or consistently recurring types of
situations or types of figures which arise from the collective experience and
which can be found in mythology, e.g.
Persona/ Shadow
Animus/ Anima
The Great Mother/ Evil Mother (Sense of generativity and fertility vs.
The Divine Child/ God
The Magician/ Trickster
The Hero/ Demon (Good and evil)
The Wise Old Man or Woman /The Fool
To some extent, Jung regarded these as a priori and to some extent inherited.
They give rise to our fantasy lives.
The Self
The little s self
Ego has limited view
Ego thinks it sees the big picture
The big S Self
The whole
Includes both conscious and
Personal and the collective
Face we present to the world
Mask from Greek theater
Ego has limited grasp of whole Self:
The psyche cannot be reduced to the ego. It embraces a much wider reality
that Jung called the collective unconscious, and the lowest level of that
unconscious is nature.
Dreams of nakedness, clothing, cosmetics, etc. may reflect Persona issues.
The Shadow
Dark shadow:
- The dark side of our nature the part we disown
and tend to project onto others;
Bright shadow;
Personal and collective;
Dreams with negative, scary people of your same gender
may express shadow issues.
Relationship Between Persona and Shadow
Two opposing archetypes (the battle within).
Persona refers to the outer (idealized) mask of the personality-- that which a
person wishes to show the world; while the shadow represents those feared and
unknown parts that the person chooses to hide both from self and others.
Both persona and shadow have collective and personal components.
The persona is a compromise between the individual and society.
The more rigid our persona, the darker our shadow.
The shadow is a necessary aspect.
The mostly unconscious feminine aspect in men
The whole nature of man presupposes woman, both physically and
spiritually. His system is tuned into woman from the start, just as it is
prepared for a quite definite world where there is water, light, air, salt,
carbohydrates etc..
Every man carries within him the eternal image of woman, not the image of
this or that particular woman, but a definite feminine image. This image is
fundamentally unconscious, an hereditary factor of primordial origin
engraved in the living organic system of the man, an imprint or "archetype"
of all the ancestral experiences of the female, a deposit, as it were, of all the
impressions ever made by woman-in short, an inherited system of psychic
adaptation. Even if no women existed, it would still be possible, at any given
time, to deduce from this unconscious image exactly how a woman would
have to be constituted psychically. The same is true of the woman: she too
has her inborn image of man.
Woman always stands just where the man's shadow falls, so that he is only
too liable to confuse the two. Then, when he tries to repair this
misunderstanding, he overvalues her and believes her the most desirable
thing in the world.
The mostly unconscious masculine aspect in women
The conscious side of woman corresponds to the emotional side of man,
not to his mind. Mind makes up the soul, or better, the animus of woman,
and just as the anima of a man consists of inferior relatedness, full of affect,
so the animus of woman consists of inferior judgments, or better, opinions.
For a woman, the typical danger emanating from the unconscious comes
from above, from the spiritual sphere personified by the animus, whereas
for a man it comes from the chthonic realm of the world and woman, i.e.,
the anima projected on to the world.
Unconscious assumptions or opinions are the worst enemy of woman; they
can even grow into a positively demonic passion that exasperates and
disgusts men, and does the woman herself the greatest injury by gradually
smothering the charm and meaning of her femininity and driving it into the
background. Such a development naturally ends in profound psychological
disunion, in short, in a neurosis.
The Complex
Complexes are certain constellations of psychic elements (ideas, opinions,
convictions, etc.) grouped around emotionally sensitive areas.
Complexes are produced during a struggle between opposing archetypes.
There is a (1) nuclear element and (2) cluster of associations attached to the
Often the nucleus is a deep unconscious wound, deep enough to lay bare
the archetype. Thus, an archetypal image often forms the nucleus of a
complex. e.g.
Oedipus complex
Inferiority complex
Power complex
Savior complex
Healer complex
Mother complex
Ego complex
Dreams tell us about them.
Complexes become constellated around psychic wounds deep enough to lay
bare the archetype. Thus, an archetypal image often forms the nucleus of a

Jungs Typology
Introversion - Consciousness flows inward
Extraversion - Consciousness flows outward

Feeling ----|------ Thinking
Meaningfully related coincidences
Golden scarab dream of resistant patient
Based on 1952 essay, "Synchronicity, An Acausal Connecting Principle
Corresponded with Einstein and others on quantum physics
Also with J.B. Rhine, famous ESP researcher at Duke University
Causality is only one principle and psychology essentially cannot be exhausted by causal
methods only, because the mind (=psyche) lives by aims as well.
**Jung had been long aware of events in his own life and those of his patients that seem to
defy the normal laws of causality. For example, one of his patients whose treatment had
resisted progress because of her excessively rationalistic cast of mind, had a dream in which
she received a golden scarab, an insect that plays an important role in Egyptian mythology.
Later, when she was telling Jung the dream, he heard a gentle tapping at the window, and
when he opened it, in flew a scaraboid type beetle which was Switzerland's equivalent to the
golden scarab, and he caught it in his hand and handed it to her and said, "Here is your
scarab." This uncanny event had the effect of breaking through the rationalistic shell that she
had built around herself.
Maslow : Self-Actualization
Eastern spirituality: Enlightenment
Process rather than end-state
The development, unfolding, or maturation of the Self, particularly when
this is consciously tracked through introspection
The Inner Marriage
Refers to the coming to terms with inner male and female and generally
signifies a coming to terms with opposites-- anima and animus-- the
contra-sexual side is unconscious and needs to be integrated.
Jung sees psyche as purposive
i.e. not just driven by the past
Tree/seed metaphor
Symbols of Transcendence
In Man & His Symbols by Jung et al, mention is made of a number of
common symbols of transcendence
They include:
Trickster, shaman, bird, lonely journey or pilgrimage, an ancient tree
or plant, animals, rodents, lizards, snakes, ascending to a mountain
top, winged horse or winged dragon, etc.

Jung and Dreams
Language of the dream
Function of the dream
Dream Interpretation
Language of The Dream
Freud: 1) Censorship; 2) Primary
process thinking.
Jung: 1) Dreams speak in language of
metaphor; 2) It is a learnable language;
3) Dream seeks to reveal, rather than to
conceal (not trying to hide its meaning;
not trying to trick us).
Function of The Dream

Freud: 1) Wish fulfillment; 2) Protect sleep

Jung: 1) Compensatory function: a)
Correcting biases of the conscious mind; b)
Jungs crick in the neck dream. 2)
Prospective function: a) Agrees with Freud
that dreams may look backward; b) But they
also may provide a vision of the future; c)
Jungs dreams foreshadowing WW I .
1. Jungs compensatory dream:
Realized something was not right in
relationship with a female patient.
Decided to raise the issue in next
therapy session. That night dreamt he
was in a valley looking high up at a
woman in a castle. He woke with a
crick in his neck from looking up. If in
the dream I had to look up at the
patient in this fashion, in reality I had
probably been looking down on her.
Dreams are, after all, compensations
for the conscious attitude. When he
shared the dream and interpretation,
there was an immediate positive
change in the therapeutic relationship.
2. Hour-long vision of an ocean of
blood rushing over the Alps and
drowning all of Western civilization.
Series of dreams in which an Arctic
cold wave descended upon Europe,
killing all life. These were a year
before the war broke out in 1914.
Interpreting The Dream
Freud: Free associations.
1) Critical of free associations (a) Always goes back to childhood; b) Always
leads to neurotic hang-ups, i.e. complexes);
2) Amplification: a) Must begin with an open mind, willingness to discover
something new; b) Examine context of the dreamers life; c) Amplification
keeps circling around the dream image (Personal associations; Functional
associations; Mythical, archetypal, literary, anthropological, and historical
3) Objective vs. Subjective level of meaning (The dream is a theater in which
the dreamer is himself the scene, the player, the promoter, the producer, the
author, the public, and the critic);
4) Active Imagination: a) Dreaming the dream onward; b) Dialoguing with the
dream and/or dream elements; c) Giving concrete expression to the dream,
e.g. painting, poetry, dance, etc.;
5) Interpretation of archetypal symbols: a) No fixed meanings to symbols. No
dream books.; b) Archetypal symbols with universal meanings transcending
individuals consciousness; c) Archetypes not specific images but blueprints for
images that are filled in with material from individuals life.

The Break Between Jung and Freud
Breaking point was Jungs belief in archetypal symbols
1909 trip to Clark University in the U.S. to receive honorary degrees
They share dreams on the steamship trip across the Atlantic
Jungs dream: Finds himself in second story of a house which he feels is his
house; going down to ground floor, he sees medieval furniture and
decorations. He then follows a stone stairway down to the cellar, which
turns out to be from ancient Rome. Finds a stone slab in the floor, opens
it, and descends into a dark cave strewn with bones and the remains of a
primitive culture. On the dusty floor of the case, he sees two human
skulls, very old and half disintegrated.
Freud saw this dream as a primitive death wish against Jungs parents.
Jung saw the dream as a structural diagram of the human psyche, showing
a collective unconscious below the personal unconscious.

Sigmund Freud's ashes at the Golders Green
The pain due to the cancer in his Jaw became
so severe that Dr. Freud asked his physician to
administer doses of morphine that would
result in a physician-assisted suicide on
September 23, 1939.
Protestant Church Graveyard
Zrich, Switzerland
Jungs Two Attitude Types
Even the layman can identify the
attitude types

25% of

75% of
Everyone knows those reserved, inscrutable,
rather shy people who form the strongest
possible contrast to the open, sociable, jovial
or at least friendly and approachable
characters who are on good terms with
everybody, or quarrel with everybody, but
always relate to them in some way and in turn
are affected by them.
Psychological Types, CW Vol. 6 Par 557
Keeps to self
Shrinks from objects
Slightly defensive
Prefers familiar surroundings
Few close friends
Introversion, e.g.:
I like getting my energy from dealing with the ideas, pictures, memories, and
reactions that are inside my head, in my inner world.
I often prefer doing things alone or with one or two people I feel comfortable
I take time to reflect so that I have a clear idea of what Ill be doing when I
decide to act.
Ideas are almost solid things for me.
Sometimes I like the idea of something better than the real thing.
Open and Outgoing
Accommodating nature
Adapt easily to situations
Form quick attachments
Adventurous and like to travel
Friendly and like to meet new
Focus is on EXTERNAL &
Extraversion, e.g.:
I like getting my energy from active involvement in events and
having a lot of different activities.
Im excited when Im around people and I like to energize other
I like moving into action and making things happen.
I generally feel at home in the world.
I often understand a problem better when I can talk out loud
about it and hear what others have to say.
Jungs Four
For complete orientation, all four functions should contribute equally: thinking should facilitate
cognition and judgment; feeling should tell us how and to what extent a thing is important or
unimportant for us, sensation should convey concrete reality to us through seeing, hearing,
tasting, etc., and intuition should enable us to divine the hidden possibilities in the background,
since these too belong to the complete picture of a given situation (my emphasis).
Psychological Types, CW, Vol. 6; Par. 900.
Jungs Functional Types
Function of logical, objective
and impersonal discrimination
Not based on intelligence or
quality of thought
Feeling is antithetical to
Process of weighing values
Function of subjective judgments
Takes time
Acts with timing and tact
Based on personal/social values
Not based on affect or emotion
Nature of feeling is complex, holistic
Perception by means of five senses
Establishes that something exists
An irrational function--not based on
Subordinates judgment to perception-
-basis of judgment is totally on
Dependent on objects that excite
Perceives by way of the unconscious
Expectant Attitude, Optimistic
Active, creative process of seeing into
Oriented to the background of
Has a nose for future; for not yet
manifested possibilities
Inner vision
The Rational Functions: Thinking and Feeling
Rational functions make logical discriminations based on:

Reflective judgments (Thinking)

Valuations (Feelings)

Irrational Functions - Sensing and Intuition
- Make judgments based on the following perceptions:

Things exist and are experienced by the five senses
Things exist in themselves and are intuited unconsciously
Primary Function
Fully under the control
of the will
Decisive in orientating
Most natural
Most favored
Most developed
One sided
development may
Auxiliary Function
Complements primary
Does not oppose primary
Second of most import to
Not completely reliable or
Nature is different from
primary function
May be slightly or fully
Fourth Function --
The Inferior Function
Resists integration into consciousness
Autonomous--not under ones conscious will
Bridge to the Unconscious
Attacks the primary function
Infantile, primitive, and archaic in its expression
Happens to us
Generally Slow and Difficult to consciously
Characteristics of a Thinking Type
Introverted Type
Subjective orientation--
begins and ends there
Ideas & Metaphors
Brings order to and
through theories/ideas--
not original thinking
Internal world of fantasy
and image
Black & White Judgments.
Reserved about facts,
open to new insights,
theories, options and
Indifferent to other

Extroverted Type
Object orientation
Actions governed by
intellectual reflection
Focus is on external
situation not ideas
Attached to ideals
Brings order by taking a
definite stand
Oriented to getting the
facts straight not swayed
by emotion
Excels at bringing order to

Inferior Function of Thinking--
Feeling Function
Extroverted Feeling
Feelings tied to external
Strong outward loyalty to
Overwhelming affect with
little control
Negative, primitive affect
and bitterness
Influenced by others in
personal matters
Lack of calculation
Judgment is cold

Introverted Feeling
Feelings tied to inner
intensity of subject
Mournful judgments
about life choices
Hidden influence on
others Still waters run
deep. Never grasped.
Strong but invisible
faithfulness to friends
I love you, but its none
of your business. Rilke
feelings--tied to mother
The Holy Grail of the
Unconscious; By SARA