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5, T=7)

1.1 Introduction

1 It Godown (warehouse crane) rectangular plan configuration of the building is 18 x 26.5 m, and 8 m high column.

2 The building has seismic and wind force resistance is provided by the "Rangka Baja Pemikul Mom

men Biasa (Table 9. C.34 SNI 03 1726 2012) in the direction tranverse building and longitu-

dinal direction is provided by "Rangka baja kosentrik Biasa" (Table 3 9.B. SNI 03 1727 2012) "

3 The building is assumed to be supported by a pedestal clamp and joints in the foundation of the crane warehouse.

"

4 To determine the strength of the steel members and connections used Indonesian foundations on Building National

"Code 2012 (SNI 1726 2012), NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New

Building And Other Structures (FEMA 450) Prepare by Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC).

References. The following reference document shall be used for loads other than earthquakes

and for combinations of loads as indicated in this chapter:

ASCE 7 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, American Society of

Civil Engineers, 1998.

AISC LRFD American Institute of Steel Construction. 1999. Load and Resistance Factor

Ddesign Specification for Structural Steel Buildings.

FEMA 451, NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Design Examples 2013

AISC Manual American Institute of Steel Construction. 2001. Manual of Steel -

construction, Load and Resistance Factor Design, 3rd Edition.

AISC Seismic American Institute of Steel Construction. 2000. [2002] Seismic Provisions

for Structural Steel Buildings, 1997, including Supplement No. 2.

FEMA 350 SAC Joint Venture. 2000. Recommended Seismic Design Criteria for New -

Steel Moment-Frame Buildings.

IBC International Code Council, Inc. 2000. 2000 International Building Code.

AISC SDGS-4 AISC Steel Design Guide Series 4. 1990. Extended End-Plate Moment -

connections, 1990.

RSNI 1729 20XX Spesifikasi untuk bangunan gedung struktural.

SNI 1726 2012 Tata cara perencanaan ketahanan gempa untuk bangunan gedung dan non gedung.

RSNI 1727 20XX Beban minimum untuk perancangan bangunan gedung.

1.2 Description of Building and Structure

1.2.1 This godown ( warehouse crane ) building has plan dimensions :

Width (B) = 24 m

Long (L) = 26.5 m

Height = 7 m

Roof angle = 30

1.2.2 Classification of all Building by Use or Occupancy

6 Utilization type = Gudang penyimpanan Table 1 SNI 1726 2012

Risk Category = I Table 1 SNI 1726 2012

1.3 Design Parameters

1.3.1 Provision Parameters

Seismic

Ground investigation data on 28 June, 2014 (attached; attachment no:)

Refering SPT result of the bore holes BH-01, BH-02, BH-03 and BH-04 at site:

7 SPT N in the upper 30 m depth <15. SNI 03 1726 2012; article 5.3

Site Class = E (Soft Soil) SNI 03 1726 2012 ; pasal 5.3

Seismic Zone Map of Indonesia on the Zone II boundary and

Zone III, Zone and the city of Surabaya in IIL. Possible maximum ground acceleration during an earthquake occure -

will be between 0.1 and 0.2 g.

S

S

(Cyty : Surabaya) = 0.663 (SNI 1726 2012 Table 6.1.1)

S

1

(Cyty : Surabaya) = 0.248 (SNI 1726 2012 Table 6.1.1)

Fa = 1 (SNI 1726 2012 Table 6.2)

Fv = 1 (SNI 1726 2012 Table 6.2)

SMS = FaSS = 0.663 (SNI 1726 2012 Table 6.2)

SM1 = FvS1 = 0.248 (SNI 1726 2012 Table 6.2)

SDS = 2/3 SMS = 0.62 (SNI 1726 2012 Table 6.3)

SD1 = 2/3 SM1 = 0.58 (SNI 1726 2012 Table 6.3)

To = 0,2 * SD1/SDS = 0.187097

Ts = SD1/SDS = 0.935484

Figure 1.3 Design Response spectrum refering (SNI 1726 2012 Table 6.6)

TL = to be taken as 6 sec. = 6 sec (SNI 1726 2012 Table 13 )

I

e

Importance Factor Seismic (occu Categ I) = 1 (SNI 1726 2012 Table 4.1.2)

Seismic Design Category = D (SNI 1726 2012 Table 4.2.2)

Table 1.3.1 Design Respons Spectra

T (sec)

R=4.5 cm/sec

2

32.18503937

0.00 0.248 0.055 54.06

0.19 0.620 0.138 135.1

0.94 0.620 0.138 135.2

1.00 0.580 0.129 126.4

1.10 0.527 0.117 114.9

1.20 0.483 0.107 105.4

1.30 0.446 0.099 97.26

1.40 0.414 0.092 90.31

1.50 0.387 0.086 84.29

1.60 0.363 0.081 79.03

1.70 0.341 0.076 74.38

1.80 0.322 0.072 70.24

1.90 0.305 0.068 66.55

2.00 0.290 0.064 63.22

Wind

(Wind design criteria accordance with section revering RSNI 1727 20XX section 26

Basic Wind Speed (V) City Surabaya = 120 mph

Revering to a letter that was sent on record the basic for disign, point 3 Wind condition :

The maximum basic wind speed is estimated as 24 m/sec. In that wind speed (24 m/sec) the pres-

sure is 372 N/m2 or 37,2 kg/m2.

The wind load to be use in design on the MWFRS -

(Main Wind -Force Resisting System) for an enclosed partially enclosed building or other structure

shall not be less than 0,48 kN/m2 = 48 kg/m2 multiplied by the area of the building or structure pro-

jected onto vertical plane normal to the assume wind direction. This wind load 48 kg/m2 shall be

Sa Cm = Sam/(R/I) Csm

use design.

Method design wind loads for this building are determinined in accordance section 26 SNI 1727 2012

"method 2 - analytical Procedure"

I

e

Importance Factor Wind (occupancy Categ I) = 0.77 RSNI 1727 20XX table 1.4-1

Diretionally factor Kd* = 0.85 RSNI 1727 20XX table 26.6-1

Exposure = B RSNI 1727 20XX table 27.3-1

Adjustment factor (mean roof H = 30 ft) = 1 RSNI 1727 20XX figure 28.6-1

Topographic factor (Kzt) = 1 RSNI 1727 20XX section 26.8

Componen and cladding, Roof for enclosed building GCp RSNI 1727 20XX table 26.11-1

(angle of plane of roof from horizontal : =

Effective wind Area = m2

External Pressure Coefficient, GCp Wall = -0,8 and +0,7

External Pressure Coefficient, GCp Gable Roof = -1,1 and + 0,3

Vellocyty Pressure basic (Pz) = 48 kg/m2

-0.8 kg/m2

0.7 kg/m2

zone 1 -0.9 kg/m2

zone 2, 3 -1.1 kg/m2

zone 1,2,3 0.2 kg/m2

Dead Loads and Live Load

Roof live load (L) Uniform = 5 psf, 24 kg/m

2

Roof live load (L) Cosentrated =300 lbs, 136 kg

Roof dead load (D) + purlin = 2.1psf, 10 kg/m2 (metal galvalum 0,5 mm)

Weight of brick wall panels = 60 psf, 290 kg/m2

load combinations

Structures, components, and foundations shall be designed so that their design strength equals

or exceeds the most critical effects of the factored loads in the following combinations:

1. 1.4 (D ) RSNI 1727 20XX section 2.3.2

2. 1.2(D+ T ) + 1.6(L ) + 0.5 (Lr or R) RSNI 1727 20XX section 2.3.2

3. 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or R )+ (L or 0.8W ) RSNI 1727 20XX section 2.3.2

4. 1.2D + 1.6W + L + 0.5(Lr or R ) RSNI 1727 20XX section 2.3.2

5. 1.2D + 1.0E + L RSNI 1727 20XX section 2.3.2

6. 0.9D + 1.6W RSNI 1727 20XX section 2.3.2

7. 0.9D + 1.0E RSNI 1727 20XX section 2.3.2

Exceptions :

1 The Load factor on L in combination (3), (4),and (5) is equal 0,5 for all occupancies in wich

L load les than or equal to 100 psf = 479 kg/m2

2 Basic combination number 4 (eq. 3.2.4) , refering ASCE 7 -10 section 2.3.2 Basic Combin-

nation 4 is 1.2D + 1.0W + L + 0.5(Lr or R )

1.3.2 Materials

Concrete for footings fc' = 30 Mpa

Slabs-on-grade fc' = 30 Mpa

Reinforcing bars = ASTM A615, Grade 60

Structural steel (wide flange sections) = ASTM A36 , fy = 240 Mpa

Plates = ASTM A36 , fy = 240 Mpa

Bolts = ASTM A325

1.4 Structural Design Criteria

1.4.1 Building Configuration

9 This building features seismic and wind force resistance is provided by Moment-resisting frame

system = ( intermediate steel moment frame) at tranverse direction of the building and the longitu-

dinal direction is provided by Braced frame system = ordinary steel concentrically.

The configuration Transverse direction force-resistance is provided by 26 triple gable frame wich

wide span 54 m. And The response modification factor (R, 0 , Cd )

2012 special for Moment-resisting frame system = intermediate steel moment frame

The configuration Longitudinal direction force -resistance is provided by 24 brace frame system

(Fig . 1.4.1).The response modification factor (R, 0 , Cd )

2012 special for Braced frame system = ordinary steel concentrically.

24,300

10

(25.1)

Zone

Wall

Ps = * Kzt*I*Pz External Pressure Coeffisient

22.0

(28.3)

(34.6)

6.2832

Gable Roof

The building is assumed supported on spread footings based on moderately deep soft clay deposits

or assumed foundation by pinned supported.

(The design of foudation is not included here. Reaction force footing the columns be given)

1.4.2 Redundancy Factors

For a structure in Seismic Design Category D refer to section 7.3.4.2 SNI 1726 2012 redudancy

faktor (), for Seismic Disign Categories D, shall equal 1,3

or Provission Eq. 5.2.4.2 defines the reliability factor () as :

= 2 20/(r

max

A

x

)

Where the roof area A

x =

sq.ft.

To cheking in an approximate manner. In the transverse direction , ther are (2 adjacent column /

(2x 24 bays) so :

r

max

= 2 adjacent column/(2 x 24 bays)

= 2/(2x24) = 0,042

= 1.06

In the longitudinal direction , the braces are equally loaded (ignoring accidental torsion), there is

(1 brace)/(4 x 6 brace) so

r

max

= (1 brace)/(4 x 6 brace)

= 0.042

= 1.06

Thus, the reliability multiplier is 1.06 in the transverse direction and 1.06 in the longitudinal direction

And the structure that are regular in plan at all direction.(tranverse and longitudinal direction).

[The redundancy requirements have been substantially changed in the 2003Provisions.For a building

assigned to Seismic Design Category D, = 1.0 as long as it can be shown that failure of beam-to-

column connections at both ends of a single beam (moment frame system)or failure of an individual

braced -frame system would not result in more than a 33 percent reduction in story strength or cre-

extreme torsional irregularity.Therefore, the redundancy factor would have to be investigated in

both directions based on the new criteria in the 2003 Provisions.]

1.4.3 Orthogonal Load Effect

A combination of 100 percent seismic forces in one direction plus 30 percent seismic forces in the

orthogonal direction must be applied to the structures in Seismic Design Category D (Provisi. Sec.

5.2.5.2.3 and 5.2.5.2.2 [4.4.2.3 and 4.4.2.2, respectively]).

1.4.4 Structural Component Load Effects

The effect of seismic load (Provisions Eq. 3.4.15 and Eq 3.4.16 MNBC 2012 is:

E = QE 0.2 S

DS

D.

Recall that SDS = 0,62 for this building.

The seismic load is combined with the gravity loads as follows:

1.2D + 1.0L + 0.2S + E = 1.2D +1.0L +QE + 0.2*0,62 D = 1.32 D + 1.0L + 0.2 S +QE.

0.9D + E = 0.9D + QE - 0.2*0,62 D = 0.776 D + QE.

1.4.5 Drift Limits

For a building in Seismic Use Group I, the allowable story drift as obtain from table 16 :

(SNI 1726 2012 Pasal 7.12.1 Tingkat Batas Simpangan) :)

261,563.0

a = 0.025 hsx.

1.5 Analysis

Because Seismic Design Category D and occupancy Category this building is I, One storeys for

purposes of determining seismic loads, is permitted to consider analysis prosedure selection " Equi-

valent Lateral Force Analysis" MNBC 2012 section 3.4.2.8 (MNBC 2012 Table 3.4.13)

"Permitted Analytical Procedures"

So base shear will be determined using an equivalent lateral force (ELF) analysis.

1.5.1 Period determination (SNI 1726 2012 section 7.8.2)

The fundamental period of the structure, T, in the direction under consideration shall be

established using the structural properties and deformational characteristics of the

resisting elements in a properly substantiated analysis. The fundamental period, T, shall

not exceed the product of the coefficient for upper limit on calculated period (Cu) from

Table 3.4.14 and the approximate fundamental period, Ta , determined from Eq. (3.4.26).

As an alternative to performing an analysis to determine the fundamental period, T, it is

permitted to use the approximate building period, Ta , calculated in accordance with

Section 3.4.2.8.2.1, directly.

1.5.3 Approximate fundamental period

The approximate fundamental period (Ta), in sec, shall be determined from the following

equation: SNI 1726 2012 section 7.8.2.1

Ta = Ct.hn

x

where hn is the height in ft above the base to the highest level of the structure and the

coefficients Ct and x are determined from SNI 1726 2012 Table 15

In the longitudinal direction where stiffness is provided only by the diagonal bracing, the approxi-

mate period is computing using provission SNI1726 2012 Eq. 7.8.2.1 refer Table 15

Ta = 0,0731*12^0,75 = 0.47131 sec

the computed period of the structure must not exeed :

Tmax= Cu.Ta = 0.65983 sec

(for SD1 = 0,58 by Table 14, Cu = 1,4)

In the Tranverse direction where stiffness is provided by steel moment-resisting frames

mate period is computing using provission SNI 1726 2012 Eq. 7.8.2.1 refer Table 15

Ta = 0,0724*12^0,8 = 0.52855 sec

in accordance with provission 3.4.2.8.2 , the computed period of the structure must not exeed :

Tmax= Cu.Ta = 0.73997 sec

(for SD1 = 0,58 by Table 14, Cu = 1,4)

1.5.4 Calculation of Seismic Response Coefficient

The seismic base shear, V, in a given direction shall be determined in accordance with

the following equation:

V = Cs W (SNI1726 2012 Eq. 61)

where

Cs = the seismic response coefficient determined in accordance with Section 7.8.1.1

W = the effective seismic weight per Section 7.7.2

The seismic response coefficient, Cs, shall be determined in accordance with Eq. (22).

Cs = SDs/(R/I) (SNI1726 2012 Eq. 22)

where

SDS = the design spectral response acceleration parameter in the short period range as

determined from SNI1726 2012 Section 8.8.1.

R = the response modification factor in SNI1726 2012 Table 9, 17, 20, 21

Tranverse direction:

Moment-resisting frame system = intermediate steel moment frame

R = 4.5

0 = 3 (SNI 1726 2012 table 9 )

Cd = 4

Cs Tranverse direction

Cs = SDs/(R/I) (SNI 1726 2012 Eq. 22)

= 0,62/(4,5/1)

= 0.138

The value of Cs computed in accordance with Eq. (23) need not exceed the following:

T = 0.529 detik

TL = 6 sec

Cs = SD1/(T(R/I)) for T TL (SNI1726 2012 Eq.23)

= 0,58/(0,529(4,5/1))

, = 0.244

Cs shall not be less than Cs =0.01

Therefore, use Cs = 0.138 for the tranverse direction.

Longitudinal direction:

Braced frame system = ordinary steel concentrically braced frame

R = 3,25

0 = 2,0 (SNI 1726 2012 table 9 )

Cd = 2,5

Cs Longitudinal direction

T = 0.471 detik

TL = 6 sec

Cs = SDs/(R/I) (SNI 1726 2012 Eq. 22)

= 0,62/(3,25/1)

= 0.191

The value of Cs computed in accordance with Eq. (3.4.21) need not exceed the following:

Cs = SD1/(T(R/I)) for T TL (SNI 1726 2012 Eq. 23)

= 0,58/(0,471(3,25/1))

, = 0.379

Cs shall not be less than Cs =0.01

Therefore, use Cs = 0.191 for the longitudinal direction.

Cs shall not be less than Cs =0.01 (SNI1726 2012 Eq. 24)

1.5.5 Seismic Base Shear (V)

The seismic base shear, V, in a given direction shall be determined in accordance with

the following equation:

V = Cs W (SNI1726 2012 Eq. 61)

where

Cs = the seismic response coefficient determined in accordance with Section 7.8.1.1

W = the effective seismic weight per Section 7.7.2

1.5.6 Effective Seismic Weight (W)

243

Roof D = (34)(1xL1)(BX5) kg kg

Rafter =(6)(Panjang rafter)(L2)(B)(berat WF) kg kg

Panels at sides galvalum = (2)(10)(3)(Bx5) kg kg

Panels at ends galvalum = (2)(10)(5,5)(Bx5) kg kg

Weight of brick wall panels 2*L1*2*B*5*0.2 kg kg

Column frames = (H)(6)(berat WF) kg kg

Seismic weight kg kg

The seismic base shear in the tranversel direction : Cs = 0.138

V = CsW = kg

The seismic base shear in the longitudinal direction is: Cs = 0.191

V = CsW = kg

w=(k/m)^0.5

The seismic force must be increased by the reliability factor as indicated previously. Wi

Athough this is not applicable to the determination of deflections, it is applicable in the determina- k

tion of required strengths.

The reliability multiplier ( ) will enter the calculation later as the modal analysis is developed. If the

ELF method was used exclusively, the seismic base shear in the longitudinal direction would be

increased by now: (See section 1.4.2 Redundancy faktor)

for = 1.06 Tranverse direction

V = 1.06 x = kg

for = 1.06 Longitudinal direction

V = 1.06 x = kg

Roof live load (L) Uniform = 20 psf, 95.8 kg/m

2

Roof live load (L) Cosentrated = 3 lbs, 1.33 kg

Weight of wall panels = 75 psf, 359 kg/m2

1.5.6 Vertical Distribution of Seismic Force

The lateral seismic force ( Fx ) (kip or kN) induced at any level shall be determined from

the following equations:

Fx = Cvx. V Eq.(30)

where

Cvx = vertical distribution factor,

V = total design lateral force or shear at the base of the structure (kip or kN)

wi and wx = the portion of the total effective seismic weight of the structure (W ) located

or assigned to Level i or x

hi and hx = the height (ft or m) from the base to Level i or x

4,234 4,234

50,948

9,719 10,302

The weights that contribute to seismic forces are:

Tranverse direction Longitudinal direction

11,340 11,340

1,575 1,575

2,888 2,888

378 378

30,534

9,719

7,019 7,441

50,948

7,019

30,534

k = an exponent related to the structure period as follows:

for structures having a period of 0.5 s or less, k = 1

for structures having a period of 2.5 s or more, k = 2

for structures having a period between 0.5 and 2.5s, k shall be 2 or shall be

determined by linear interpolation between 1 and 2

Perio longitudinal direction = 0.471 sec. ; k = 1

Perio tranverse direction = 0.529 sec. ; k = 1.014 (interpolating)

Tabel 1.5.6.1 Equivalent Lateral Force Vertical distribution Tranverse Direction

0.84

0.11

0.05

Note : Typica roof rafter = 2 x 6 pcs = 12 ; Fx = V.Cvx/12

Typiacal Kolom 8 m = 2 X 6 pcs = 12 ; Fx = V.Cvx/12

Typiacal Panel = 2 X 6 pcs = 12 ; Fx = V.Cvx/12

Tabel 1.5.6.2 Equivalent Lateral Force Vertical distribution Longitudinal Direction

0.84

0.11

0.05

Note : Typica roof rafter = 2 x 6 pcs = 12 ; Fx = V.Cvx/12

Typiacal Kolom 8 m = 2 X 6 pcs = 12 ; Fx = V.Cvx/12

Typiacal Panel = 2 X 6 pcs = 12 ; Fx = V.Cvx/12

1.5.7 Chek The Fundamental Periode of Structure (T) arah tranverse

1.5.7. a. by T Rayleigh : T r = 6.3

3.00

2.09

Trayleigh = 6.3 =

1.5.7 Chek The Fundamental Periode of Structure (T)

1.5.7. a. by T Rayleigh : T r = 6.3

1.50

0.10

Trayleigh = 6.3 =

1.5.7.b Computed using the STAAD Pro program

With this model, the first 6 periods of vibration and mode shapes of the structure were com-

puted using the STAAD Pro program. The first mode had a period of vibration of 1.21 sec.

with predominantly transverse participation.

The third mode period was 0.5 seconds with a predominantly longitudinal transverse parti-

2,176.48 15,738.23

0.54

Level Wi (kg) Fi (kg) di (cm)

Roof+Rafter 6,978.92 1,438.06

Culoumn 6 m 3,566.15 193.86

719.03

7,440.616

19.39 35.66

V Fx

Wi.di^2

62,810.28

Fi.di

3,527.36

404.78

3,122.58

10,302.392

858.53

42.57

5 22,831.00

Total 63,270

69.07

Height (hx) Level Weight(Wx) Wx.hx

k

Fx V

(kg) (m) (kg.m) (kg) (kg)

(kg) (m) (kg.m) (kg)

Cvx

463,305.21

(kg)

520.43

30.56

Roof+Rafter 41,874 9 388,868.08

Panel Side+end 4,463

Fi (kg) Fi.di di (cm) Level

Total 63,270 449,977.35

Coloumn 7 m 16,934 3 51,606.12

Panel Side+end 4,463 5 22,312.50

3 50,803 Coloumn 8 m 16,934

Level Weight(Wx)

Roof+Rafter

Culoumn 8 m

Wi (kg)

6,978.92

3,566.15

1,040.86

193.86

Roof+Rafter 41,874 9 376,861.65

0.95

15,702.57

Wi.di^2

78,357.78

2,157.10

96.93

Height (hx) Wx.hx

k

Cvx

15,547.50

cipation. The fisrt 6 modes accoumted for approximately 92% of the total mass of the struc

ture in the tranverse direction and approximately % in the longitudinal direction, both of

which are greater than 90 % requiremen of provissions.

In accordance with Provission MNBC 2012 section 3.4.2.9.4 , compare the design values of -

modal base shear to the base shear determined by The ELF method. If the design value for modal

shear is less than 85 percent of the ELF base shear calculated using a period of Cu Ta,

then Cu Ta shall be used to bring the modal base shear up to this comparison ELF value

must be applied to the modal story shear, moments shall be multiplied by

Modification factor = 0.85 ( V/Vt)

The Periode tranverse direction T = Cu Ta = 0.739966 Sec. (Tmax)

The seismic base shear in the tranversel direction : Cs = 0.138 , R = 4.5

V = CsW = kg

The Periode longitudinal direction T convergen = 0.56 Sec.

The seismic base shear in the longitudinal direction is: Cs = 0.177 , R = 3.5

V = CsW = kg

The seismic force must be increased by the reliability factor as indicated previously.

Athough this is not applicable to the determination of deflections, it is applicable in the determina-

tion of required strengths.

The reliability multiplier ( ) will enter the calculation later as the modal analysis is developed. If the

ELF method was used exclusively, the seismic base shear in the longitudinal direction would be

increased by now:

Modification factor tranverse direction = 0.85 *(103,908/104,076) = 0.85

Modification factor longitudinal direction = 0.85 *(143,873/133,596) = 0.97

for = 1.06 Tranverse direction

V = 0.85 x = kg

for = 1.06 Longitudinal direction

V = 0.97 x = kg

Finally, The design respons spectra for 3-D modal analysis is again revising by the new seismic -

base shear in tranverse direction and longitudinal direction . The model is run once again to obtain

the final result for design forces : axial forces, Torsional moments, shears, and moments .

1.5.8 Drift

The lateral deflection cited previously must be multiplied by Cd = 4 to find the transverse drift:

The maximum lateral displacements at the ridge due to seismic loads (design response spectra as

increased by the modification factors above) from the second analysis are:

Tranverse direction deflection xe = 3.85 cm

Longitudinal direction deflection ye = 0.57 cm

xe = Cd. xe/I = 4 x 15.4

ye = Cd. xe/I = 2.5 x 1.4

Refering 1.4.5 Drift Limit : For building in seismic Use Group I, the allowable story drift is:

a = 0.025 hsx

= 60 cm , hsx = 1200 cm

This drift condition not exceeds the limit of 60 cm. . However, there is no story drift limit for singlestory

structures with interior wall, partitions, ceilings, and exterior wall systems that have been designed

7,441 6,325

10,302 9,997

9,025

7,031

to accommodate the story drifts. (The heavy wall panels were selected to make an interesting example

problem, and the high transverse drift is a consequence of this. Some real buildings, such as refrigerated

warehouses, have heavy wall panels and would be expected to have high seismic drifts. Special attention

to detailing the connections of such features is necessary.)

In the longitudinal direction, the lateral deflection was much smaller and obviously is within the limits.

Recall that the deflection computations do not consider the reliability factor. This value must be

multiplied by a Cd factor to find the transverse drift. The tabulated value of Cd is 4.5, but this is for use

when design is based upon R = 5. The Provisions does not give guidance for Cd when the system R factor

is overridden by the limitation of Provisions Sec. 5.2.2.1 [4.3.1.2]. The authors suggest adjusting by a

ratio of R factors.

5.1.4.4 P-delta

The AISC LRFD Specification requires P-delta analyses for frames. This was investigated by a 3-D Pdelta

analysis, which determined that secondary P-delta effect on the frame in the transverse direction was

less than 1 percent of the primary demand. As such, for this example, P-delta was considered to be

insignificant and was not investigated further. (P-delta may be significant for a different structure, say

one with higher mass at the roof. P-delta should always be investigated for unbraced frames.)

3.4.2.12.2 Diaphragm deflection

The deflection in the plane of the diaphragm, as determined by engineering analysis, shall

not exceed the permissible deflection of the attached elements. Permissible deflection

shall be that deflection that will permit the attached element to maintain its structural

integrity under the individual loading and continue to support the prescribed loads.

1.5 Result For Design Force

Rafter Ridge

Knee

Column 6 m

Braces Vertical & Horizontal

Strut Dia 16 mm

Design Force Rafter

Design Force Column

54.01 0.31 2.12 46.58

2.01 - - -

33.36 42.23 5.93 19,761.88

78.47 21.68 17.42 15,184.70

(kN) (kN) (kN.cm) (kN.cm)

Element Structure

33.36 44.65 5.48 21,512.10

Axial Force Shear Y Moment Y Moment Z

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