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Educational

Technology
By: Henry F. Haranay
Lesson 2 Applying
Educational Technology
The whole is the sum of all its parts.
From Gestalt Psychology
Systematic Instruction
The focus of systematic
instructional planning is the
students.
Instruction begins with the
definition of instructional
objectives / learning objectives.
The teacher then selects
appropriate methods and
learning experiences.
Materials to be used must be
selected properly and applied
during the learning process.
The success of the
implementation of the lesson is
reflected during evaluation
and assessment.
Objectives
Methods &
Experiences
Materials Implementation
Assessment
STUDENTS
Choosing and Applying
Educational Technology
Teachers aim to teach well so they do all sorts of
preparations ahead of time.
But at times, all is not well.
That is why it is advisable that before using any
specific technology, teachers and students should
be very critical in selecting the technology they are
going to use.
Verbal
Symbols
Visual
Symbols
Recordings, Radio,
Still Pictures
Motion Pictures
Educational Television
Exhibits
Study Trips
Demonstrations
Dramatized Experience
Contrived Experiences
Direct Purposeful Experiences
Edgar Dales
Cone of Experience
Cone of Experience
A visual model that represents bands of
experiences arranged according to the degree of
ABSTRACTION and not the degree of difficulty
(Dale, 1969).
The bands stand for experiences that are fluid,
extensive, and continually interact (Dale, 1969).
The cone of experience does not mean that
teaching and learning should move systematically
from the bottom to top (Dale, 1969).
Cone of Experience
Teaching begins with the kind of experience that is
most appropriate to the needs and abilities of a
particular learner in a particular learning situation
(Dale, 1969).
Three Tiered Model
Enactive
Iconic
Symbolic
Jerome Bruner
Cautions
Avoid the following when following the Cone of
Experience (Lucido & Paz, 2008):
Using one medium in isolation.
Moving directly to abstract without adequate
foundation of concrete experiences.
Getting struck in the concrete without moving to
the abstract.
Choosing Correctly
To help teachers make a good choice of what
technology to use, it might help to ask the following
questions (Garo, 2008):
1. What instructional materials are suited to my
objectives and subject matter?
2. What instructional material is available? If none,
shall I develop/create one?
3. Shall I use traditional technology (low-tech) or
computer-based technology (high-tech)?
Procedure in Using
Technology in Teaching
According to Garo (2008), to ensure the effectiveness
of an instructional material, teachers are encouraged
to do:
Previewing
Effective timing
Tying experiences together
Review and/or follow-up.
Previewing
Teacher should be very familiar with the technology
or the material he/she has chosen.
Teacher must know its merits and demerits.
Review or Follow-up
Is there a review or follow-up?
This can be answered after an evaluation or
assessment has been made.
If the result is not satisfying, there is a need for
review/follow-up to strengthen the next
activity/experience.
Summary
Teaching process follows several steps to attain
meaningful learning.
Teaching process must utilize technologies
appropriately.
In designing the lesson, students skills, interests, and
capabilities must be considered.
Teacher must know the advantages and
disadvantages of the instructional material he will
use.
In choosing the right material, the Cone of
Experience and the Three Tiered Model are of help.
THANK YOU!
DAGHANG SALAMAT!