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1)Linear Power Supplies

A linear regulated power supply regulates the output voltage by dropping excess voltage in a series dissipative
component. They use a moderately complex regulator circuit to achieve very low load and line regulation.
Linear regulated power supplies also have very little ripple and very little output noise.
Typical applications of Linear regulated power supplies
General purpose use - including, but not limited to:
low noise amplifiers
signal processing
data acquisition - including sensors, multiplexers, A/D converters, and sample & hold circuits.
automatic test equipment
laboratory test equipment
control circuits
anywhere that excellent regulation and/or low ripple is required

2)derive the equation of regulated power supply.
Regulated power supply is necessary in some electronic circuits especially in Amplifier circuits. Poorly
regulated power may cause buzzing and unwanted noise in RF and amplifier circuits. There are two
methods to get regulated power supply. The most common and simple one is Zener regulated power
supply. A Regulator IC of 78 XX series or Variable regulator LM317 can also be used but it may
increase the cost and size of the power supply circuit. Here explains the theory behind Zener
Zener Regulation is used to hold the output voltage steady, irrespective of the changes in input
voltage. Zener is a sophisticated semiconductor diode. It conducts only when its breakdown voltage
reaches. Zener value represents the voltage it gives. But to get easy breakdown of Zener, the input
voltage must be 1-2 volts higher than that of the Zener voltage.
Low current Zener Regulation
Fig.1 shows the voltage regulation using a Zener diode.10 V input is given to a 5.6V Zener. Zener
requires a minimum 5 mA current to maintain its action. This current is maintained by the series
resistor R connected in series with the Zener. The value of R is important to allow at least 5 mA
current for the Zener even if the load draws more current.
Zener Regulation Circuits

In the Fig.1 Imax is the current through the load. It should be maximum 250 mA.
Iz is the current passing through the Zener to maintain its action
I max + Iz is the current passing through the resistor R.
Vz is the voltage across the Zener
Using these parameters, the value of the resistor R is determined using the formula
R = (Vin-Vz) / (Imax+Iz)
That is (10-5.6) / (0.25A+0.005A) = 4.40 / 0.26 = 16 Ohms. The nearest value is 18 Ohms.
Power rating of the Zener should be enough to withstand current through the Zener in no load
Power rating of the Zener is calculated using the formula
P = (I max + Iz) x Vz = P = (0.25 A+0.005A) X 5.6 = 1.4 Watts. Select a Zener with more
than 1.5 W rating, if the load current is 250 mA.
Rating of the resistor R is also important to handle the load current as well as the Zener current.
Current through R is I max + I z and voltage through R is Vin Vz
So Power dissipation in R is
P= (Imax+Iz) x (Vin-Vz) = (0.25+0.005) x 10-5.6) = 1.14 W. So a 2 watt resistor is
required as R if the load current is 250 mA or 0.25 A.
High Current Regulation
The circuit shown in Fig.1 can be used only if the load current is less than 250 mA. If the load requires
more current, say as in battery charges, transistor based Zener regulation is necessary. Fig.2 shows
how a series transistor is used in combination with a Zener to give a High current voltage regulated
circuit. T1 is connected as an Emitter follower. It should be either a medium power transistor like
BD139 or TIP122 if current is less than 1A or power transistor like 2N3055 if current is very high.
Zener voltage Vz is 0.7 V (biasing voltage of T1) more than the required output. R should give more
than 5 mA to the Zener. The Zener holds the base of T1 at a steady Vz so that output from the
emitter of T1 will be >Vz 0.7 Volts.
3)What is difference between voltage regulator and voltage reference?
A voltage reference is an electronic device which produces a constant voltage regardless of the loading on the device,
temperature changes, passage of time and power supply variations. The voltage reference circuit most commonly used in
integrated circuits is the bandgap voltage reference. A bandgap voltage reference uses analog circuits in order to add a
multiple of the voltage difference between two bipolar junctions biased at different current densities to the voltage
developed across a diode. The diode voltage has a negative temperature coefficient and the junction voltage difference has
a positive temperature coefficient. When added in the proportion which is required in order to make these coefficients
cancel each other, the resultant constant value is a voltage which is equal to the bandgap voltage of the semiconductor.
What is a voltage regulator?
A voltage regulator is an electronic device that produces a steady and fixed output voltage, independently
of its input voltage and output current. In reality, any voltage regulator has a range of input voltages for
which it works, a certain level of efficiency and a limited amount of power it can handle. Therefore, a
careful selection of the voltage regulator must be made depending on the application it is for.
The black box model of the voltage regulators is a 3-terminal device with:
an input terminal with a certain input voltage Vin and input current Iin
an output terminal with output voltage Vout and current Iout
a common terminal GND
The goal is to keep the output voltage at a fixed value, no matter what!

Most voltage regulators have a standard pinout. In the TO-220 package shown in the right, the pins
connect to:
1. Input voltage
2. Ground
3. Output voltage
Regulators such as the 78xx series follow this pinout.
Fixed voltage regulators have a block diagram as shown below. The reference block generates a
reference voltage Vref that is expected to be insensitive to any type of perturbation. The resistive-divider
provides a scaled-version of the output voltage
to the regulator. It then adds a voltage reference Vref to the scaled voltage. The control block forces the
output voltage to follow the resulting voltage.

Say the control block sets the output voltage to be the tracking error multiplied by A1 (a typical gain
stage). Then:
We see that the output voltage can be defined by the ratio R2/R1.
Adjustable voltage regulator
Some regulators, such as the LM317, allow the designer to select a desired output voltage based on an
external resistive-divider. They are called adjustable.

The major difference between the fixed and adjustable regulators is the place where the resistors are,
inside or outside the chip. These configurations only require 3 pins.
Types of voltage regulators
Voltage regulators can be roughly divided in two categories: linear and switch-mode. While linear
regulators dissipate power when dropping the voltage level, switch-mode regulators transfer almost all
energy from input to output. The input and output powers are defined as:
Linear regulators
Linear regulators control the voltage drop between the input and output as required to produce the
desired voltage. Since the power used to drop from the input to the output voltage is lost, these are
mainly used for low power circuits and low voltage differences between input and output (otherwise a
large dissipation of energy would overheat the regulator).
There are basically two types of linear voltage regulators:
Zener-diode shunt
For example, for the series regulator, the input and output currents are equal:
Therefore, the efficiency is only defined by the ratio of voltages:
and the lost power is in the resistance between input and output:
Switched-mode regulators
The switch-mode regulators are more elaborate and use energy storage devices such as inductors to
buffer energy between the input and output. They work by getting energy from the input when the output
voltage is below the desired value and cutting the energy flow from the input when the output voltage is
above the desired value. This is done by switching on and off the power transistor that connects the input
and output, hence the name switch-mode. Since all energy is being transferred from the input to the
output as needed, the power loss only exists in parasitic resistances present in the components and
Therefore, these are preferable for power circuits and/or high voltage differences. In pratice, the
efficiency is around 90-98%. The AC adapter that connects to your laptop has some sort of switch-
mode power regulator to produce the steady DC voltage that the laptop requires.
In this kind of regulators, there are some external components between the output pin and the node we
want to keep at a desired voltage. They have a block diagram as shown below. The reference block
generates a reference voltage Vref that is expected to be insensitive to any type of perturbation.
The control block uses the error between the reference voltage and the sensed output voltage to control
the input-output relation.

The resistive-divider provides a scaled-version of the output voltage
to the regulator. It is then compared to the voltage reference Vref. The control loop forces the output
pin in a way that brings this error down. Say the control block sets the output voltage to be the tracking
error multiplied by A1 (a typical gain stage). Then:
We see that the output voltage can be defined by the ratio R1/R2. This type of regulators need at least
4 pins, like the LM2575. Like their linear counterpart, the resistances can be inside or outside the chip.
These are the most distinct types of switched-mode voltage regulators:
Buck/step down (Vin>Vout)
Boost/step up (Vout>Vin)
With classification in it
4) Compare LPS with a SMPS
Switching power supply Notes
Size and
If a transformer is used, large due to
low operating frequency (mains
power frequency is at 50 or 60 Hz).
Small if transformerless.
Smaller due to higher operating frequency
(typically 50 kHz - 1 MHz)
A transformer's power handling capacity of
given size and weight increases with
frequency provided that hysteresis losses
can be kept down. Therefore, higher
operating frequency means either higher
capacity or smaller transformer.
With transformer used, any voltages
available; if transformerless, not
exceeding input. If unregulated,
voltage varies significantly with load.
Any voltages available. Voltage varies little with
A SMPS can usually cope with wider
variation of input before the output voltage
heat, and
If regulated, output voltage is
regulated by dissipating excess
power as heat resulting in a typical
efficiency of 30-40%; if unregulated,
transformer iron and copper losses
Output is regulated using duty cycle control,
which draws only the power required by the
load. In all SMPS topologies, the transistors are
always switched fully on or fully off.
The only heat generated is in the non-ideal
aspects of the components. Switching losses
in the transistors, on-resistance of the
switching transistors, equivalent series
resistance in the inductor and capacitors,
core losses in the inductor, and rectifier
voltage drop contribute to a typical efficiency
of 60-70%. However, by optimizing SMPS
design, the amount of power loss and heat
can be minimized; a good design can have
an efficiency of 95%.
Unregulated may be diode and
capacitor; regulated has a voltage
regulating IC or discrete circuit and
a noise filtering capacitor.
Consists of a controller IC, one or several
power transistors and diodes as well as a
power transformer, inductors, and filter
Multiple voltages can be generated by one
transformer core. For this SMPSs have to
use duty cycle control. One of the outputs
has to be chosen to feed the voltage
regulation feedback loop (Usually 3.3V or 5V
loads are more fussy about their supply
voltages than the 12V loads, so this drives
the decision as to which feeds the feedback
loop. The other outputs usually track the
regulated one pretty well). Both need a
careful selection of their transformers. Due
to the high operating frequencies in SMPSs,
the stray inductance and capacitance of the
printed circuit board traces become
Mild high-frequency interference
may be generated by AC rectifier
diodes under heavy current loading,
while most other supply types
produce no high-frequency
interference. Some mains hum
induction into unshielded cables,
problematical for low-signal audio.
EMI/RFI produced due to the current being
switched on and off sharply. Therefore, EMI
filters and RF shielding are needed to reduce
the disruptive interference.
Long wires between the components may
reduce the high frequency filter efficiency
provided by the capacitors at the inlet and
noise at the
Unregulated PSUs may have a little
AC ripple superimposed upon the
DC component at twice mains
frequency (100-120 Hz). Can cause
audible mains hum in audio
equipment or brightness ripples or
banded distortions in analog
security cameras.
Noisier due to the switching frequency of the
SMPS. An unfiltered output may cause glitches
in digital circuits or noise in audio circuits.
This can be suppressed with capacitors and
other filtering circuitry in the output stage.
With a switched mode PSU the switching
frequency can be chosen to keep the noise
out of the circuits working frequency band
(e.g. for audio systems above the range of
human hearing)
noise at the
Causes harmonic distortion to the
input AC, but relatively little or no
high frequency noise.
Very low cost SMPS may couple electrical
switching noise back onto the mains power
line, causing interference with A/V equipment
connected to the same phase. Non power-
factor-corrected SMPSs also cause harmonic
This can be prevented if a (properly earthed)
EMI/RFI filter is connected between the input
terminals and the bridge rectifier.
Faint, usually inaudible mains hum,
usually due to vibration of windings
in the transformer and/or
Inaudible to humans, unless they have a fan or
are unloaded/malfunctioning.
The operating frequency of an unloaded
SMPS is sometimes in the audible human
Power factor
Low for a regulated supply because
current is drawn from the mains at
the peaks of the voltage sinusoid.
Ranging from low to medium since a simple
SMPS without PFC draws current spikes at the
peaks of the AC sinusoid.
Active/Passive power factor correction in the
SMPS can offset this problem and are even
required by some electric regulation
authorities, particularly in Europe.
Risk of
Supplies with transformers allow
metalwork to be grounded, safely.
Dangerous if primary/secondary
insulation breaks down, unlikely with
reasonable design. Transformerless
mains-operated supply dangerous.
In both linear and SM the mains,
and possibly the output voltages,
are hazardous and must be well-
Common rail of equipment (including casing) is
energised to half mains voltage, but at high
impedance, unless equipment is
earthed/grounded or doesn't contain EMI/RFI
filtering at the input terminals.
Due to regulations concerning EMI/RFI
radiation, many SMPS contain EMI/RFI
filtering at the input stage before the bridge
rectifier consisting of capacitors and
inductors. Two capacitors are connected in
series with the Live and Neutral rails with the
Earth connection in between the two
capacitors. This forms a capacitive divider
that energises the common rail at half mains
voltage. Its high impedance current source
can provide a tingling or a 'bite' to the
operator or can be exploited to light an Earth
Fault LED. However, this current may cause
nuisance tripping on the most sensitive
residual-current devices.
Risk of
Very low, unless a short occurs
between the primary and secondary
windings or the regulator fails by
shorting internally.
Can fail so as to make output voltage very high.
Can in some cases destroy input stages in
amplifiers if floating voltage exceeds transistor
base-emitter breakdown voltage, causing the
transistor's gain to drop and noise levels to
increase. Mitigated by good failsafe design.
Failure of a component in the SMPS itself can
cause further damage to other PSU
components; can be difficult to troubleshoot.
The floating voltage is caused by capacitors
bridging the primary and secondary sides of
the power supply. A connection to an
earthed equipment will cause a momentary
(and potentially destructive) spike in current
at the connector as the voltage at the
secondary side of the capacitor equalises to
earth potential
Assignment ASM/FSM based system
1) What is the difference between Moore and Mealy

1)What is data acquisition system (DAS)?