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Determination of Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

concentration in some of Commercial Products,

by Redox Titration

Mouhannad AL.-Hachamii Sadiq J. Baqir Saadon A.Aowda
Fatima A. Hussein,
Dep.of chemistry, college of science, Babylon University
Muhammed K.Alasedi
Ministry of Health Hilla city, Babylon
The goal of this search is to determine the concentration of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid ) in some of
a Commercial Products, Vegetables and Fruit Juices by Redo Titration! A redo titration, involving an
"odometric method, has been used to do the analysis! The sam#les classified by their Vitamin C

C ) ( !" #$%& '$

#()*( +,"( -. '/ 01 0123 3 &) '45 (!
6* 78&%29: '.%, ;1 + . C 2
Vitamins are a grou# of small molecular com#ounds that are essential nutrients in
many multi$cellular organisms, and humans in #articular! %$Ascorbic acid &as first
isolated as a #ure substance by Albert A'ent$(yorgi and Charles )ingin *+,-
.Paulling ,*+/01 , an anti$oidant and free radical scavenger, is found ubi2uitously in
fruit and vegetables such as citrus fruits (oranges, lemons, limes, tangerines etc!),
melons, tomatoes, #e##ers, broccoli, green leafy vegetables such as s#inach, #otatoes
and turni#s, its 2uantitative determination is es#ecially im#ortant in the #roduction of
&ine, beer, mil3, soft drin3s and fruit 4uices, &here it can be a 2uality indicator
.(errior 5 6i''a,*++71 !(iven the essential role #layed in the human diet and
necessary to gro&th and re#air of tissues in all #arts of human body !"t is necessary to
form collagen an im#ortant s3in #roteins ,scar tissue ,tendons, ligaments, and blood
vessels! vitamin C is essential for the healing of &ounds, and for the re#air and
maintenance of cartilage, bones and teeth .8cevoy ,*++91 ! :ince vitamin C is easily
oidi'ed, storage and coo3ing in air leads to the eventual oidation of vitamin C by
oygen in the atmos#here! "n addition, ascorbic acid is &ater$solubility vitamin
means that a significant amount of vitamin C #resent in a food can be lost by boiling
and then discarding the coo3ing &ater .8cevoy ,*++91! The formula for ascorbic acid
is C
, "t occurs as a &hite or slightly yello& crystal or #o&der &ith a slight
acidic test , Ascorbic Acid is freely soluble in &ater> s#aringly soluble in alcohol>
insoluble in chloroform, ether, and ben'ene .8offat,*+-;1! The structures for the
reduced (ascorbic acid) form and for the oidi'ed form (dehydroascorbic acid) are
sho&n belo&?

The amount of ascorbic acid can be determined by a redo titration &ith a
standardi'ed solution of iodine! The iodine is reduced by the ascorbic acid to form
iodide! As sho&n in the other half of this redo e2uation!

The titration end #oint is reached &hen a slight ecess of iodine is added to the
ascorbic acid solution .@ailey ,*+/7>@rody,*++7>Pauling ,*+/;>)alluer,*+-;1!
Vitamin C deficiency leads to scurvy, a disease characteri'ed by &ea3ness, small
hemorrhages throughout the body that cause gums and s3in to bleed, and loosening of
the teeth! Vitamin C can not synthesi'ed through body cells, nor does it store it! "t is
therefore im#ortant to include #lenty of vitamin C$containing foods in daily diet!
vitamin C toicity is very rare, because the body can not store the vitamin ho&ever
,amounts greater than ,000 mgAday are not recommended because such high doses
can lead to stomach u# set and diarrhea! The minimum daily re2uirement is 90 mg!
Bell$balanced diets #rovide ade2uate amounts of the vitamin as measured by the
Recommended Caily Allo&ance (RCA) of about /D mg #er day for adults (aged *D or
older), less for children, and more for #regnant and lactating &omen! The Eational
Academy of :ciences recommends the consum#tion of ;0 mg of ascorbic acid #er
day! ! the Federal Food and Crug Administration has ado#ted the recommended
dietary allo&ance (RCA) of ;0 mgAday A very small daily inta3e of vitamin C (*0$*D
mgAday for an adult) is re2uired to avoid deficiency and stave off scurvy! <o&ever,
there has been, and continues to be, vigorous debate on &hat the o#timum daily inta3e
of vitamin C is! :ome have argued that ,00 mgAday is an o#timal daily inta3e for adult
humans! =thers have suggested *$, gAday is best, this des#ite studies that sho& that
the blood is saturated &ith vitamin C at *00 mgAday, and any ecess is ecreted in the
urine .RCA,*++D> RCA,*+-/> @ro&ne!,*++9> FA=AB<=,,00,> %evine et al.,*+++>
%evine et al.,*++D>Teoh ,*+/D1!
Recommended daily dietary intake of vitamin C:
A!TRA"#A milli$rams %!%A% milli$rams
Adult men:
Adult women:
Pregnancy (2nd and 3rd
I is not standard solution ,so it may be standardi'ed &ith thiosul#hate solution !
!"#erimental $rocedure for determination of .@ailey ,*+/7> @rody, *++7>
Pauling,*+/;> )alluer,*+-;1.
%. $re#aration o& '.''( mol L
iodine solution? Accurately &eight t&o gm of )"
and *!9g of ", , dissolved to aless amount of &ater , sha3e until dissolving ! Transfer
iodine solution to a *% volumetric flas3 , ma3ing sure to rinse all traces of solution in
to the volumetric flas3 using distilled &ater , com#leted the volume u# to the mar3!
. $re#aration o& '.(* starch indicator solution+ :oluble starch (0!,Dgm) to a *00
m% conical flas3 or bea3er and D0 m% of distilled &ater &as added ! :olution heated
&ith stirring at /+
C for D minutes , careful must be ta3en not to eceed the stated
tem#erature! Allo& solution to cool to room tem#erature!
,! $re#aration o& &ood-drin. sam#le?
F "ndustrial Pac3aged fruit 4uices G=range , Pinea##le, %emon ,Tmrhend and A##le
(8iso), Pe#si (3halee3 3adha), Red gra#es(Ei3tar), :even u# ()ufa), Pomegranate
(%inda) , Tmrhend (Toti), =range (Calia), and (ranules #each (Rani) H may also
need to be strained through cheese cloth if it contains a lot of #ul# or seeds!
F For analysis of vitamin C #o&ders ( Tanc lemon , Tanc orange and livans #o&ders )
dissolved * gm in *00m% of distilled &ater (in a volumetric flas3)!
F For analysis of vitamin C tablets ( )ruger and 4oiure tablets), dissolved a single
tablet in ,00 m% of distilled &ater (in a volumetric flas3)!
F Juice s2uee'ed from fresh fruit (Ciala orange , <illa orange, Igy#t orange
,allalin3i ,#omegranate and a##le Juices ) should be strained through cheese cloth
in order to remove seeds and #ul# &hich may bloc3 #i#ettes!
F Juice s2uee'ed from fresh vegetables ( Tomato ,=nion ,Celery ,=#tion ,Potato and
%ettuce 4uices ) should be strained through cheese cloth in order to remove seeds
and #ul# &hich may bloc3 #i#ettes!
F:am#le of fruit or vegetable (*00gm) blended in a food #rocessor together &ith D0
m% of distilled &ater! After blending, strain the #ul# through cheese cloth, &ashing
it 0m% in a volumetric flas3!
7! Ali2uot of the sam#le (,0 ml) solution #re#ared above transfrred into a ,D0 m%
conical flas3 , about *D0 m% of distilled &ater and * m% of starch indicator
D! :am#le &ere titrated &ith 0!00D mol %
iodine solution! The end#oint of the
titration is identified as the first distinct trace of a dar3 blue$blac3 colour due to the
starch$iodine com#le!
;! Titration &ere re#eated &ith further ali2uots of sam#le solution until concordant
results (titres agreeing &ithin 0!* m%) &ere obtained!
/esults and discussion+-
"n this research estimating vitamin C in industrial 4uices (=range , Pinea##le,
%emon, Tmrhend and A##le (8iso), Pe#si (3halee3 3adha), Red gra#es (Ei3tar),
:even u# ()ufa), Pomegranate (%inda) , Tmrhend (Toti), =range (Calia), fruits
(Calia) and (ranules #each (Rani)), )ruger and 4oiure tablets, and Tanc lemon , Tanc
orange and livans #o&ders, and natural 4uices for fresh fruits (Ciala orange , <illa
orange, Igy#t orange ,mandarin ,#omegranate and a##le Juices ) and fresh vegetables
( Tomato , =nion ,Celery ,cucumber ,Potato and %ettuce 4uices)!"t &as calibrated
using redo &ay by iodine calibration using starch as indicator , iodine &as an
ade2uate oidi'er used for this #ur#ose!
Table (*) sho& the in industrial 4uices estimated concentration and the #ro#ortion of
vitamin C!
0able 1%2+0he results were obtained below, re#resent the 3itamin 4 content in
some industrial 5uice in quantit6 m7 - %'' ml and #ercenta7e *.
Amount calculated
m7 - %'' ml
Industrial #roduct name 4hain
%9 .. 99(
%, .. ,,
<9 .. 9(
%9 .. 99(
=ran7e 1Miso2
lemon 1Miso2
0mrhend 1Miso2
A##le 1Miso2
$e#si 1.halee. .adha2
/ed 7ra#es1>i.tar2
Se3en u# 1Ku&a2
$ome7ranate 1Linda2
0mrhend 10oti2
=ran7e 1?alia2
&ruits 1?alia2
@ranules #each 1/ani2
lemon 10anc2
oran7e 10anc2
oran7e 1li3as2
3itamin 4 1Kru7er tablets2
Aitamins 15oiure tablets2

Scheme 1%2 . Aitamin 4 content in some industrial 5uice 1m7A%''ml2 .
The result in table (*) and scheme (*) sho&ed the highest concentration of
vitamin C in industrial 4uices found in granules #each 4uice &here concentration is
(D9!9,) mg A *00 ml and lo&est in orange 4uice (8iso),hitting (**!7+) mg A*00 ml
,either #o&der %imon Tanc, the #resence of vitamin C according to bulletin declared
on the #roduct is *00 K,but the results sho& that &e have reached -+!+ K and its
concentration &as (9!99) mgA*00 ml, &here results a##eared su##osed to be the
&eight of vitamin C (;;/) mg of origin (7D) mg ,results sho& that this &eight
(D++!-D) mg of origin (7D) mg ! Bhile orange Tanc #o&der result of vitamin C
amount to 77!+; K &ith the amount according to bulletin declared as the #roducts of
*00 K,&here it should the &eight of vitamin C (;;/) mg of origin (7D) mg ,results
sho& that this &eight (,++!+) mg of origin (7D) mg ! Vitamin C tablets L ty#e )rueger
according to bulletin declared only that all (*) gm contains (7D) mg of vitamin C, but
the results &e obtained the concentration is (;+!+D) mg in (*) gm ,an increase of
about (,D) mg! Iither vitamins fruits tablets L ty#e 4unior according to bulletin
declared only that all (*) gm contains (-!-) mg of vitamin C but &e have received is
(*+!++D) mg in (*) gm, an increase of more than double!
Bhere the study sho&ed that the Tmrhend 4uice (8iso) &as vitamin C focus as
the results &e obtained (,D!//) mgA*00 ml ,but according to the bulletin attached
descent rate and 2uality (*!;-) mgA*00) ml ,either alimonadah 4uice (8iso) &as its
focus as the results &e obtained (*D!7)mgA*00 ml, but according to the bulletin
attached descent rate and 2uality (0!*) mgA*00 ml!
com#aring these results &ith a focus located on the #ac3aging these 4uices,
sho&ing clearly that there &as a difference in the #ercentage concentrated of com#any
to com#any, And also because of industrial 4uices and &rong storage methods!
The handling and #re#aration of food #roducts adversely affect the 2uality of
vitamin C in food! since it vulnerable to heat ,oygen and acid, tem#erate and
al3alinity mediums!
Bith regards to the manufacture of 4uices, the 3ee#ers airtight containers made
of sheet metal or glass do not cause the lose of &hat remains of vitamin C as a result
of manufacturing #rocesses only about *0 K &hile 3ee#ing cardboard containers,
&hether &ith #araffin layer or #olyethylene, they lead to the loss of around /D K of
the #ast three
&ee3s, even if 3ee#ing it in the fridge because these containers do not #revent
the access of oygen to 4uice and oidi'e it, in addition to the &or3 of the u##er$
#ac3aged 4uice or occu#ied by air to oidi'e the #ro#ortion of 4uice again, &hile the
addition of carbon al3alinity of the damage vitamin 4uice damage entirely!
Table (,) sho&s the estimated in natural 4uice concentration and the #ro#ortion
of vitamin C !
0able 12 +0he results were obtained below, re#resent the 3itamin 4 content in
some natural 5uice in quantit6 m7 - %'' ml .
Scheme 12 + Aitamin 4 content in some natural 5uices .
"n table (,) and scheme (,) the results sho&ed the highest concentration of
vitamin C found in orange 4uice, hitting (*0/!*) mg A*00ml of 4uice ,the lo&est level
&as found in tomato 4uice, &hen it reached (,0!;)mg A*00 ml of 4uice!
Results sho&ed also the #resence of vitamin C concentration (*0/!*) mg A
*00ml in naturally orange 4uice (<illa),+-!;7 mg A *00 ml (Ciala) and /9!9*D mg A
*00 ml (Igy#tian) ,&hile the concentration of vitamin C in <illa orange highest from
Ciala orange &hich highest more than the Igy#tian orange! Results a##eared that the
focus of vitamin C in natural 4uices models is considered much higher as the focus of
international standards.Cennis Pittenger,*+-9>8itchell (!I!etal!,*++,>Vanderslice
J!T!,*++0>Romero 8!A!,*++,>:idibe 8!,*++;>@rand 8iller,etal!,*++91!
vitamin C eist in the form of drugs as s&allo& tablets, che&ing tablets,
s&allo& ca#sules, solvents and in4ection, Americans e#erts certain can be access to
the handling of the recommended amount of vitamin C easily through alternative
Accordin7 to
m7 - %'' m7
m7 - %'' ml
5uices name
D,!- L /,
*9!; L */
** L ,0
Ciala orange
<illa orange

medicine but the damage &ill be limited in the short term if they are to sto# dealing
dose, therefore #referred e#erts dealt vitamins by natural eating and drin3ing, and
not to rely on synthetic substitutes .Collery C!,*++*1!
@aily C!E!, *+/7 , J.CHEM.ED!,D*,7--!
@rand 8iller, James 5 8aggiore *++9 MTables of Com#osition of Australian
Aboriginal FoodsM Aboriginal :tudies Press, Canberra!
@rody, T! ,*++7 Eutritional @iochemistry> Academic Press? :an Ciego, CA,> ##! and
@ro&ne,8!@!*++9!Lable Facts for Healthfl Eating .8a'er cor#oration, Cayton, =<!
Cennis Pittenger, *+-9 Area Invironmental <orticulturist, :outhern Region,
Nniversity of California Coo#erative Itension! :ource! Vegetable @riefs (,,9),
Collery C ,*++* ,thera#eutic drugs ,volume *,Churchill,livingstone,%ondon,A*-*$
FA=AB<= ,00,! Vitamin C! "n? Hman !itamin an" Mineral #e$irements. Re#ort
of a Joint FA=AB<= I#ert Consultation! FA=, Rome> ## /9$-;!
Federation of American societies for e#erimental biology, life sciences research
office! #re#ared for the interagency board for nutrition monitoring and related
research!*++D!thir" report on ntrition monitoring in the nite" state% volmes &
an" '.N!:!(overnment #rinting office,Bashington,CC!
(errior :!A!,6i''a C!,*++7 Eutrient content of the N!:!Food su##ly,*+0+$*++0!<ome
economics research re#ort E=!D, N!:!Ce#artment of agriculture,Bashington,C!C!
)allner, A! *+-;, Annals of the Ee& Oor3 Academy of :ciences, 7+-, 7*-$7,9!
%evine 8, Rumsey :C, Chari&al )R, Par3 J 5 Bang O *+++ Criteria and
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%evine 8!, Chari&al )R, Belch RB, Bang O 5 Par3 J@ *++D Cetermination of
o#timal ascorbic acid re2uirements in humans! (m. J. Clin. )tr. ;,? *97/:$D;:!
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American society of health$system #harmacists,"EC!,8C!
8eissam Eoroo'ifar,8o'hgan )hoRA:AE"$8otlA(<,A##lication of #ot!chromate
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Francisco, ##! , 7$D, ,*$,, 99, ;0$*, *7D!
Paulling %! *+/0 Ivolution and theneed for as ascorbic acid Proc!nat acad
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in various fruits by <P%CM Jornal of Chromatographic *cience, !ol +,, )ov,
pages -++.-+/!
:idibQ 8!, :cheuring JF, Tembely C, :idibQ 8 8, <ofman P, and Frigg 8! *++;!
M@aobab $ homegro&n vitamin C for AfricaM! (groforestry 0o"ay. 1%'. pp &+.&2.
:ubcommittee on the *0
edition of the RCAs,food and nutrition board, commission
on life sciences, national research council !*+-/!Recommended Cietary
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Teoh :T (*+/D)! Recommended daily dietary inta3es for Peninsular 8alaysia! Me" J
Mal90? 9-$7,!
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