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MORPHOLOGHICAL PROCESSES IN TERMANU LANGUAGE ( ROTE ISLAND )

Affixation
Preffix ( Inflectional m)
In termanu we have preffix such as : ma
Example : Lada ma-Lada = delicious
Tuda- ma-tuda = Falling
- Subject Prefix ( inflectional m)
Most verb roots in combination with subject preffix except 1S & 2S. They are used in
certain verb roots. the preffix indicates Person and Number

Subject prefixes eat
a
See
ita
Drink
inu
Decide
ketu
1s u Ua ita inu ketu
2s Mu Mua m-ita m-inu etu
1p Ta Taa t-ita t-inu Taketu
3p La Laa L-ita L-inu Laketu
3s na Naa N-ita N-inu Naketu

Above stem begining with vowel i use the consonant of the prefix.

Example:

1. Ana N-inu oe he/she drinks water
3s 3s-drink water

2. Ala la,a Huni they eat banana
3P 3P-eat banana

3. Ita ta, ketu basan masalah We have decided problem
1p 1p-decide



Actor free pronoun Subject prefix Possessive enclitics (S) Possessive enclitics (P)
1S Au u- -n/na -n/nala
2S O Mu- -n/na -n/nala
1P Ita Ta- -n/na -n/nala
3P Ala La- -n/na -n/nala
3S Ana na -n/na -n/nala


- Sufixes ( Derivetional m)

The suffix k in termanu is used with verb root and stem to derive a noun. The verb root and stem
are often reduplicated.

Example :

1. Ana naa kakau he/she eats rice
3s 3s-eat rice

Ana tao na-naa-k bauk he/she makes many food
3s make dup-food-suffix many

2. Ana ninu oe he/she drinks water
3s drinks water

Ana asa ni-ninu-k bauk He/she buys many beverages
3s buy dup-beverage- suffix many
-CIRCUMFIXES
There are some circumfixes in termanu . if we attach preffix and suffix in root of word, it will change part
of speech . preffix is- ka and suffix is -k
Example
Kola - ka-kola-k
Talk talking

Kedi ka-kedi-k
Cut cutting
Kose ka-kose-k
Rub rubbing


- Enclitic

Enclitic n can used with verb root or adjective to derivate noun

Example :

Ala hii laa pelak they like to eat corn
3p like 3p-eat corn

Ama-n tunga hi-hii-n His Father follows His will
Father -3sg follows dup-like-3sg
O manaa You are Beauty
1s beauty

O manaa-n seli Your beauty is great
1s beauty-n great


- Syllabic enclitic
Syllabic enclitic such as : na and nala combine with word to indicate singular and plural of the words

Example :
Au buku na nalutun so
1p book-syllabic enclitic broken already
My book has already broken

Ana nano nala ninu oe
3s- friend 2sg drink water
His/her friends drink water


- REDUPLICATION
Termanu has several kinds of verb and adjective reduplication, they are cv-Reduplication and v-
reduplication. And they must be attached with suffix-k to indicate noun.
Example :
Naa = na-naa- k = food
Dup- eat-sufix

Ninu = Ni-ninu k = beverage
dup- drink-suffix

Note : above they are CV Reduplication

Ali = A - Ali-k = anger
dup angry-suffix
Asa= a-asa-k = financing
dup-buy-suffix

Note = above, they are V-reduplication

- FULL REDUPLICATION
Full reduplication of verb root or stem indicate a progressive or repetitive ( iterative aspet)
Example :
Kola kola-kola = talking
Lao lao-lao = walking around
Naa- naa-naa = eating
Ninu ninu-ninu = drinking






TENSE, ASPECT and MOOD
TENSE
Tense in Termanu if we want to know whether Past, Present and Future we see adverb of sentences
like Indonesian language and adverb can comes the begining of sentence and the end of sentence.
Example :
Huas Au hapu doik = Yesterday I got money (past)
Adv

Au mai ia manfali = I came here last year (past)
Adv
Faikia Au tao kokis = Today I make cake ( Present )
Adv

O neu kota binesak = You will go to Kupang tommorow ( Future )
Adv


ASPECT
Aspect consists of two parts,they are event and the other state. In termanu also has two parts of
aspect. Event means that one activity who has done over and over (iterative) while state means that
describe true at that particular time.
Example:
State : fa nala tanto uman = flood hits tantos home
State : roni sue wati = Roni loves wati
Event : au ua huni = I eat banana
Event : Ala ladiu oe = They take a bath

MOOD
In termanu they are moods.structure of modal like in english, it can comes begining of subject and
among subject and verbs
example :
Mesti = Musi
Mungkin = Meda
Dapat = Nala


BORROWING
Termanu has the words that borrow from Indonesian Language.
Example :
Dua = Two
Au Fadi-n Dua (I have Two brothers/sisters)
Lima = Five
Au hapu doik lifun Lima (I get money five thousand Rupiahs)
Masalah = Problem
Ala tao masalah (They make problems)
Hadiah = Gift
Tanto fe Indri Hadiah esa (Tanto Gives Indri a gift)


















Names of TERMANUs Group :
Indah Kapitan
Jekson Lusi
Lili Nunuhitu
Marselina Baun
Marselina Yohanis
Ostanto Huan
Rossi Henuk