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ISRN Agronomy
Volume 2013, Article ID 891792, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/891792
Research Article
Analysis of Some Technological and Physical Characters of
Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) Fruit in Iran
Abdollah Khadivi-Khub
Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University, Arak 38156-8-8349, Iran
Correspondence should be addressed to Abdollah Khadivi-Khub; akhadivi@ut.ac.ir, a-khadivi@araku.ac.ir
Received 9 March 2013; Accepted 9 April 2013
Academic Editors: S. Imhof, Z. Yanqun, and M. Zhou
Copyright 2013 Abdollah Khadivi-Khub. Tis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
cited.
Knowledge of the physical properties of date fruit is necessary for the design of postharvesting equipment such as cleaning, sorting,
grading, kernel removing, and packing. Also, the physical and mechanical properties are incorporated in the development of the
grading machine as a case study. In this study, some physical and mechanical properties of three mandarin cultivars, as promising
fruits, were analyzed to help the design of handling machines. According to results, the greatest dimensional characteristics were
found for Page cultivar, whereas Onsho cultivar showed the lowest sphericity value (93%), and the highest sphericity was observed in
Clementine cultivar (97%). Te specifc gravity of Page cultivar was 0/97, and this cultivar had the biggest fruit. Tus, it may be used
for export. Te volume measured was 1%higher than the calculated assumed shape of the spheroid ( = 4.19
2
). Te relationship
between diameters and mass was linear, and the correlation was high for all studied cultivars and mixed cultivar (combined all data).
Tere was a linear relation between mass and volume of the mixed cultivar of mandarin with a high coefcient of determination.
1. Introduction
Citrus are the major horticultural crops in Iran so that this
country has a high annual production level of citrus fruit
and was ranked the 15th producer in the world [1, 2]. Te
mandarin (Citrus reticulata) is a species of citrus fruit that
is an evergreen tree (like other trees of this family) and
slow growing. Mandarin begins to bear fruit when it is
around three years old. Iranian mandarins are not exported
because of variability in size and shape and lack of proper
packaging [3]. Consumers prefer fruits with equal weight and
uniform shape. Mass grading of fruit can reduce packaging
and transportation costs and also may provide an optimum
packaging confguration [4].
Fruit crops and food products have several unique
characteristics which set them diferent from engineering
materials. Tese properties determine the quality of the
fruit, and identifcation of correlation among these properties
makes quality control easier [5]. To design a machine for
handling, cleaning, conveying, and storing, the physical,
mechanical, and hydraulic properties of agricultural products
must be known. Physical characteristics of fruit crops are
the most important parameters to determine the proper
standards of design of grading, conveying, processing, and
packaging systems [6]. Among these physical characteristics,
mass, volume, and projected area are the most important ones
in determining sizing systems [7]. Information regarding
dimensional attributes is used in describing fruit shape which
is ofen necessary in horticultural research for a range of
difering purposes including cultivar descriptions in appli-
cations for plant cultivar rights or cultivar registers [8, 9].
Quality diferences in mandarin fruit can ofen be detected by
diferences in density. When mandarin fruits are transported
hydraulically, the design of fuid velocity is related to both
density and shape. Volumes and projected area of fruits must
be known for accurate modeling of heat and mass transfer
during cooling and drying [10]. Hydrodynamic properties
are very important characters in hydraulic transport and
handling as well as hydraulic sorting of fruit crops. To
provide basic data essential for development of equipment for
sorting and sizing mandarin, it should be determine several
properties of this fruit such as fruit density and terminal
velocity of that [11, 12]. Many studies have reported on the
chemical, physical and mechanical properties of fruits, such
2 ISRN Agronomy
as wild plum [13], rose fruit [14] and sweet orange [7]. Also,
chemical, and physical and mechanical properties of fruits in
mandarin were reported in several studies [15, 16], but limited
studies concerning hydrodynamic, physiomechanical, and
technological properties of Iranian mandarins have been
performed. Tere are two main objectives for this study. Te
frst is to determine the hydrodynamic and physiomechanical
properties of three mandarin cultivars in Iran (Clementine,
Onsho, and Page). Te second is to produce a convenient ref-
erence table with hydrodynamical, physical, and mechanical
information suitable for fresh mandarin mechanization and
progressing.
2. Materials and Methods
Tree mandarin cultivars in Iran consisted of Clementine,
Onsho, and Page were used in this study. A total of 165 fruits
(55 fromeach cultivar) were tested in the biophysical and bio-
logical laboratories. Te mandarins were pickedupat random
fromtheir storage piles. Fruit mass () was determined with
an electronic balance with 0.01 g sensitivity. To determine the
average size of the fruits, three linear dimensions, namely, as
length, width, and thickness, were measured by using a digital
caliber with 0.1 mm sensitivity. Volume () was determined
by the water displacement method [17]. For this purpose, a
mandarin was submerged into a known volume of water, and
the volume of water displaced was measured. Water temper-
ature was kept at 25

C. Specifc gravity of each mandarin was


calculated by the mass of mandarins in air divided by the
mass of displaced water. Tree mutually perpendicular axes,
major, (the longest intercept), intermediate (the longest
intercept normal to ), and minor, (the longest intercept
normal to , ) of mandarin were measured by Win Area-Ut-
06 meter (Figure 1) developed by Mirasheh [18]. Geometric
mean diameter, GM, was determined from the cubic roots
of three diameters, ()
1/3
, and percentage sphericity was
equal to the geometric mean diameter divided by the longest
diameter multiplied by 100 as suggested by Mohsenin [17].
Te volume of mandarins was calculated assuming the shape
of a prolate spheroid, an oblate spheroid, and an ellipsoid
applying the following equations, respectively, = 0.52
2
,
= 0.52
2
, and = 4.19 (geometric mean diameter/2)
3
.
Anaverage projectedarea as a criterionfor the sizing machine
was proposed. Tree mutually perpendicular areas, , ,
and were measured by a computer vision (diameter) Area-
meter with high accuracy.
An average area projected (known as the criterion area,
, cm
2
) was determined from
=
( + + )
3
. (1)
Spreadsheet sofware, Microsof Excel, 2010, was used
to analyse data and determine regression models between
the parameters. A typical linear multiple regression model is
shown in
= +
1

1
+
2

2
+ +

, (2)
Figure 1: WinArea-UT-06 system.
where is a dependent variable, for example, mass, ,
or a criterion area, , is volume, ,
1
,
2
,
3
, . . . ,

-
independent variable, for example, physical dimensions
(mm), or volume, , (cm
3
),
1
,
2
, . . . ,

-regression coef-
cients, -constant of regression. For example, mass is related
to volume and can be estimated as a function of the volume
measured as shown in
= +
1
, (3)
where is the volume measured of mixed cultivars (com-
bined all data) (cm
3
).
3. Result and Discussion
A summary of the physical, mechanical, and hydrodynamic
properties of Clementine, Onsho, and Page cultivars is shown
inTable 1. According to these results, the greatest dimensional
characteristics were found for Page cultivar with means of
65.33, 64.15, and 56.33 mm major, intermediate, and minor,
respectively, whereas these values were 61.45, 60.32, and
57.50 mmand 60.90, 59.83, and 49.11 mmfor Clementine, and
Onsho cultivars, respectively. Erod gan et al. [19] reported
that determining dimensional characteristics are essential to
design a mechanism for mechanical harvesting.
An average of specifc gravity of the Page cultivar was
0.97 and higher than others. Te shape of studied cultivars
is spheroid with a minimum probable error from the volume
measured. Onsho cultivar showed the lowest sphericity value
(93%) and the highest sphericity was observed in Clementine
cultivar (97%). Te specifc gravity of Page cultivar was 0/97
and this cultivar had the biggest fruit. Tus, it may be used
for export. Sphericity of mixed cultivar (combined all data)
was 95%, and average of diameter of two diameters and
was 1% less than the geometric mean diameter and with a
similar coefcient of variation (8%). Te knowledge related
to geometric mean diameter would be valuable in designing
the grading process [5]. Te volume measured was 1% higher
than the calculated assumed shape of the spheroid ( =
4.19
2
). Volume and mass of each cultivar and also the
mixed cultivar (combined all data) with three diameters were
analyzed to determine the relationships between physical
ISRN Agronomy 3
Table 1: Some physical and engineering properties of mandarin fruit for studied cultivars.
Cultivar Physical properties Mean Max. Min. SD CV
Clementine
Major (mm) 61.45 73.70 54.20 4.07 6.62
Intermediate (mm) 60.32 72.60 52.70 4.03 6.68
Minor (mm) 57.50 67.30 79.90 4.37 7.54
Mass (g) 82.13 124.70 60.60 13.22 16.09
Volume (cc) 89.74 138.20 63.90 16.42 18.29
Specifc gravity (g/cm
3
) 0.92 0.96 0.86 0.03 3.06
Geometric mean (mm) 59.72 70.07 52.48 3.92 6.57
Percent sphericity 97.00 98.00 94.00 0.02 1.74
Onsho
Major (mm) 60.90 72.60 53.40 4.03 6.62
Intermediate (mm) 59.83 72.10 51.60 3.93 6.56
Minor (mm) 49.11 58.30 43.90 3.32 6.76
Mass (g) 68.52 97.40 48.80 11.81 17.23
Volume (cc) 77.98 115.50 53.30 14.35 18.41
Specifc gravity (g/cm
3
) 0.88 0.95 0.82 0.03 3.36
Geometric mean (mm) 56.33 64.91 49.57 3.42 6.07
Percent sphericity 93.00 96.00 88.00 0.02 1.95
Page
Major (mm) 65.33 74.30 53.90 4.31 6.59
Intermediate (mm) 64.15 73.20 53.00 4.21 6.57
Minor (mm) 56.33 64.20 47.10 4.25 7.54
Mass (g) 103.82 147.3 61.70 18.37 17.70
Volume (cc) 107.04 152.30 63.10 19.26 18.00
Specifc gravity (g/cm
3
) 0.97 1.01 0.93 0.01 1.36
Geometric mean (mm) 61.80 69.62 51.88 4.11 6.65
Percent sphericity 95.00 99.00 89.00 0.02 1.68
Mixed cultivar (combined all data)
Major (mm) 62.56 74.30 53.40 4.56 7.30
Intermediate (mm) 61.44 73.20 51.60 4.48 7.29
Minor (mm) 54.31 67.30 43.90 5.44 10.02
Mass (g) 84.82 147.3 48.80 20.67 24.37
Volume (cc) 91.59 152.30 53.30 20.54 22.43
Specifc gravity (g/cm
3
) 0.92 1.01 0.82 0.04 4.80
Geometric mean (mm) 59.28 70.07 49.57 4.43 7.47
Percent sphericity 95.00 99.00 88.00 0.03 2.69
Ave. diameter ( + )/2 58.44 69.00 48.80 4.55 7.78
Table 2: Relationship between volume and mass with three diameters in studied cultivars of mandarin.
Volume Mass
In =
1
In +
2
In +
3
In +
4
=
1
+
2
+
3
+
4
Coefcient cultivar
1

2

3

4

2

1

2

3

4

2
Clementine 0.93 1.20 0.60 6.70 0.99 0.65 2.07 0.58 115.84 0.97
Onsho 0.27 1.98 0.60 7.21 0.97 0.53 1.98 0.68 115.66 0.95
Page 1.32 0.86 0.59 6.80 0.99 1.74 1.55 1.12 172.72 0.98
Mixed cultivar 0.97 1.32 0.70 7.75 0.97 1.34 1.89 1.21 180.44 0.89
properties (Table 2). Result showedhighrelationshipbetween
volume and high coefcient of determination,
2
, as shownin
In = 0.97 In + 1.32 In + 0.7 In 7.75,

2
= 0.97.
(4)
Natural logarithm of volume with three diameters of all
cultivars and mixed cultivar (combined all data) was high.
Te relationship between diameters and mass was linear, and
the correlation was high for all studied cultivars and mixed
cultivar (combined all data). Mass versus volume was plotted,
and there was a linear relation between mass and volume
4 ISRN Agronomy
of the mixed cultivar of mandarin with a high coefcient of
determination,
2
= 0.96 as shown in
= 0.99 5.52. (5)
Agamia et al. [20] reported that the average mass of fruit
ranges from about 95 to 140 g, the fruit volume from 100
to 154 cm
3
, and the diameter from 4 to 6.5 cm for Nareng,
Clementine, Satsuma, Cleopatra, Mallawi, and Baladi Man-
darins. Mousa (1998) [2] found that the mean values of
diameter ranged from about 69 to 84 mm; height ranged
from about 57 to 87 mm; mass ranged from about 160 to
208 g; volume ranged from 188 to 241 mm for Navel, Baladi,
Acidless, and Valencia orange varieties.
Relationbetweenthe meanprojected area and the volume
of mandarin was determined fromthe plot and the coefcient
of determination, between both was very high and close to
unity. A nonlinear regression equation for the mixed cultivar
of mandarin was determined as showed in
= 1.48
0.65
,
2
= 0.994. (6)
Awady et al. [16] concluded that the physical properties
of Minneola fruits which had oblong shape were as follows:
diameter = 6289 mm, height = 68104 mm, mass = 201
345 g, volume = 120342 cm
3
, and projected area = 54
108 cm
2
.
4. Conclusion
Some physical properties of Clementine, Onsho, and Page
cultivars are presented in this study. From this study, it
can be concluded that the highest and the lowest of length,
geometric mean diameter, volume, mass, and specifc gravity
were obtained for Page cultivar, and it is the best for export.
Te lowest values for these traits were observed in Onsho
cultivar. Te mean percent sphericity of each mandarin
cultivar resulted in diferent means, varying from 58.45 to
97.00%. Also, volume and diameter had a natural logarithmic
relationship with three diameters. Te physical and mechan-
ical properties are incorporated in the design of the fruit
hopper, revolving drums with holes (length and diameters
of drums, diameter of holes, and number of holes), and exit
chute of the designed grading machine.
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