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Grant Clay

Period 3
10/5/08
AP Psychology Outline
Chapter 7: Meory
!ed " #e$inition
%lue & 'portant Points
Green & 'portant People ( Contri)utions
1* Meory
a* +ncoding " ,oring Meory Code*
)* -torage " Maintaining +ncoded 'n$oration in Meory o.er /ie*
c* !etrie.al " !eco.ering 'n$oration $ro Meory -tores*
d* ,orgetting is due to de$iciencies in any o$ 3 Processes in Meory*
0* +ncoding: Getting 'n$oration into Meory
a* Attention " ,ocusing A1areness on a narro1ed range o$ -tiuli or +.ents*
i* 2ou need to pay attention to 'n$oration i$ you intend to ree)er it*
ii* ,ocusing your attention in 0 or ore places at once causes large reduction in
eory per$orance and otor per$orance*
)* 3e.els o$ Processing
i* -tructural +ncoding 4 -hallo1 Processing " +phasi5es the Physical -tructure
o$ the -tiulus*
ii* Phoneic +ncoding 4 'nterediate Processing & +phasi5es 1hat a 1ord
sounds li6e*
iii* -eantic +ncoding 4 #eep Processing " +phasi5es the eaning o$ 7er)al
'nput*
i.* 3e.els&o$&Processing /heory " Proposes that deeper le.els o$ processing result
in 3onger&3asting Meory codes*
1* #eeper Processing leads to +nhanced Meory
c* +nriching +ncoding
i* +la)oration " 3in6ing a -tiulus to other in$oration at the tie o$ +ncoding*
ii* 'agery " Creation o$ .isual iages to represent the 1ords to )e ree)ered*
1* +asier to $or 'ages o$ Concrete O)8ects instead o$ A)stract O)8ects*
iii* #ual&Coding /heory " Meory is +nhanced )y ,oring -eantic and 7isual
codes9 since either can lead to !ecall*
i.* -el$&!e$erent Coding " #eciding ho1 or 1hether 'n$oration is Personally
!ele.ant*
3* -torage: Maintaining 'n$oration in Meory
a* -ensory Meory " Preser.es Meory in its Original -ensory $or $or a %rie$ /ie9
:sually only a ,raction o$ a -econd*
)* -hort&/er Meory ;-/M< " A 3iited&Capacity -tore that can Maintain :nrehearsed
'n$oration $or up to a)out 00 -econds*
c* !ehearsal " /he Process o$ !epetiti.ely 7er)ali5ing or /hin6ing a)out the 'n$oration*
i* !ehearsal -tores 'n$oration in your -hort /er Meory $or a 3ong /ie*
d* Capacity o$ -torage
i* George Miller " People could recall only a)out 7 'tes in tas6s that re=uire
-hort&/er Meory*
ii* Chun6 " A Group o$ ,ailiar -tiuli -tored as a -ingle :nit*
1* -toring 'n$oration in -iilar Chun6s helps $or !ecall*
e* -hort&/er Meory as >?or6ing Meory@
i* Alan %addeley " Model o$ >?or6ing Meory@ o$ -hort&/er Meory*
1* Phonological 3oop " ,acilitate the Ac=uisition o$ 3anguage*
0* 7isuospatial -6etchpad " Perits people to /eporarily Aold and
Manipulate 7isual 'ages*
3* Central +Becuti.e -yste " Controls #eploying9 -1itching9 and
#i.iding Attention*
C* +pisodic %u$$er " /eporary 3iited&Capacity storage $or 'ntegrating
?or6ing Meory to 3ong&/er Meory*
$* 3ong&/er Meory ;3/M< " An :nliited Capacity -tore that can hold 'n$oration
o.er 3engthy Periods o$ /ie*
i* 3ong&/er Meory is -tored Peranently9 soeties there is trou)le
!etrie.ing it*
ii* ,lash)ul) Meories " :sually 7i.id and #etailed !ecollections o$ Moentous
+.ents*
1* O$ten 'naccurate Meories*
g* Dno1ledge !epresented ( Organi5ed in Meory
i* Conceptual Aierarchy " A Multile.el Classi$ication -yste %ased on Coon
Properties Aong 'tes*
1* Greatly 'ncreases Meory !ecall )y Grouping/Charting 'n$oration*
ii* People >Cluster@ 'tes that are -iilar to each other to ree)er the*
iii* -chea " An Organi5ed Cluster o$ Dno1ledge a)out a Particular O)8ect or
+.ent A)stracted $ro Pre.ious +Bperience 1ith the O)8ect or +.ent*
1* People are ore li6ely to !ee)er things that are Consistent 1ith
their -cheas than /hings that are not*
i.* -eantic Eet1or6 " Consists o$ Eodes !epresenting Concepts9 Foined /ogether
)y Path1ays that 3in6 !elated Concepts*
1* !elated ?ords are +asier to ree)er as ho1 closely related they are*
.* Parallel #istri)uted Processing Models ;P#P< " Cogniti.e Processes #epend on
Patterns o$ Acti.ation in Aighly 'nterconnected Coputational Eet1or6s that
!ese)le Eeural Eet1or6s*
1* !ee)ering regarding Patterns across a Eet1or6*
C* !etrie.al: Getting 'n$oration out o$ Meory
a* Cues to Aid !etrie.al
i* /ip&O$&/he&/ongue Phenoenon " /he /eporary 'na)ility to !ee)er
-oething 2ou Dno19 Accopanied )y a ,eeling that 'tGs >Fust out o$ !each@
1* Partial !ecollections o$ten lead in the !ight #irection*
ii* Misin$oration +$$ect " Occurs 1hen Participants !ecall o$ an +.ent they
?itnessed is Altered )y 'ntroducing Misleading Post&+.ent 'n$oration*
iii* 'agination 'n$lation " A $e1 oents o$ )elie$ that a person has had an
eBperience they ha.enGt allo1s the to a6e up details that didnGt occur*
i.* -oeties Ad.ertising Accurate 'n$oration can 3ead to )elie$ in 'naccurate
'n$oration*
1* Ad.ertising that >Ad.il is good $or you heart is $alse@ a$ter a $e1 days
people )elie.e >Ad.ilGs are good $or your Aeart*@
)* -ource Monitoring ( !eality Monitoring
i* Marcia Fohnson
ii* -ource Monitoring " 'n.ol.es Ma6ing Attri)utions a)out the Origins o$
Meories*
iii* -ource Monitoring +rror " Occurs 1hen a Meory #eri.ed $ro one -ource is
Misattri)uted to Another -ource*
i.* !eality Monitoring " Process o$ #eciding ?hether Meories are %ased on
+Bternal -ources ;OneGs Perception o$ Actual +.ents< Or 'nternal -ources
;OneGs /houghts and 'aginations*<
5* ,orgetting: ?hen Meory 3apses
a* Aerann +))inghaus
i* Eonsense -ylla)les " Consonant&7o1el&Consonant Arrangeents that #onGt
Correspond to ?ords*
ii* ,orgetting Cur.e " Graphs !etention and ,orgetting O.er /ie*
1* /he More Meaning$ul the Material9 the -lo1er the ,orgetting Cur.e*
)* Measures o$ ,orgetting
i* !etention " !e$ers to the Proportion o$ Material !ee)ered*
ii* !ecall " Measure o$ !etention !e=uires -u)8ects to !eproduce 'n$oration
$ro an Array o$ Options*
iii* !ecognition " Measure o$ !etention !e=uires -u)8ects to -elect Pre.iously
3earned 'n$oration $ro an Array o$ options*
i.* !elearning " Measure o$ !etention !e=uires a -u)8ect to Meori5e 'n$oration
a -econd /ie to #eterine Ao1 Much /ie or Ao1 Many Practice /rials are
-a.ed )y Aa.ing 3earned it %e$ore*
c* ?hy ?e ,orget
i* 'ne$$ecti.e +ncoding
1* Psuedo,orgetting " 2ou donGt learn soething 1ell due to a lac6 o$
Attention*
ii* #ecay
1* #ecay /heory " ,orgetting Occurs )ecause Meory /races ,ade 1ith
/ie*
iii* 'nter$erence
1* 'nter$erence /heory " People ,orget 'n$oration )ecause o$
Copetition $ro other Material*
0* !etroacti.e 'n$erence " Occurs 1hen Ee1 'n$oration 'pairs the
!etention o$ Pre.iously 3earned 'n$oration*
3* Proacti.e 'nter$erence " Occurs 1hen Pre.iously 3earned 'n$oration
'nter$eres 1ith the !etention o$ Ee1 'n$oration*
i.* !etrie.al ,ailure
1* +ncoding -peci$icity Principle " /he 7alue o$ a !etrie.al Cue #epends
on Ao1 ?ell it Corresponds to the Meory Code*
0* /rans$er&Appropriate Processing " Occurs 1hen the 'nitial Processing
o$ 'n$oration is -iilar to the /ype o$ Processing !e=uired )y the
-u)se=uent Measure o$ !etention*
.* Moti.ated ,orgetting
1* !epression " ,reud /heory " !e$ers to 6eeping #istressing /houghts
and ,eelings %uried in the :nconscious*
H* !eco.ered Meory Contro.ersy
a* Many People are Coing out 1ith -tories o$ A)use as Children that has )een !epressed
$or years*
)* !eco.ered Meories are :sually Eot .ery Accurate*
c* ,alse eories can )e Con8ured )y -uggesti)ility and 'agination 'n$lation*
d* %ut -oe Clais are /rue and Accurate*
e* All the Contro.ersy goes to -ho1 that our Meory is :nrelia)le soe o$ the /ie*
7* Physiology o$ Meory
a* +ric Dandel
i* Meory ,oration !esults in Alterations in -ynaptic /ransission at -peci$ic
-ites*
ii* -ynapses %ecoe closer together ( -tronger*
)* Adrenal Aorones +$$ect Meory -torage )y Modulating Acti.ity in the Aygdala*
c* 3ong&/er Potentiation ;3/P< " A 3ong&3asting 'ncrease in Eeural +Bcita)ility at
-ynapses Along a -peci$ic Eeural Path1ay*
d* 3ong&/er #epression ;3/#< & A 3ong&3asting #ecrease in Eeural +Bcita)ility at
-ynapses Along a -peci$ic Eeural Path1ay*
i* Could )e a Cause o$ ,orgetting*
e* !ichard /hopson
i* Meories Create :ni=ue9 !eusa)le Path1ays in the %rain along 1hich -ignals
,lo1*
8* Anatoy o$ Meory
a* !etrograde Anesia " 'n.ol.es the 3oss o$ Meories $or +.ents that Occurred prior to
the Onset o$ Anesia*
)* Anterograde Anesia " /he 3oss o$ Meories $or +.ents that Occur a$ter the Onset o$
Anesia*
c* Aippocapus Accounts $or uch 3ong&/er Meory through Consolidation*
d* Consolidation " A Aypothetical Process 'n.ol.ing the Gradual Con.ersion o$ 'n$oration
into #ura)le Meory Codes -tored in 3ong&/er Meory*
e* Aygdala sees to )e Critical $or ,oration o$ 3earned ,ears*
$* Meory /a6es Place all o.er the %rain*
I* -ystes ( /ypes o$ Meory
a* Eon&#eclarati.e Meory -yste " Aouses Meory $or Actions9 -6ills9 Conditioned
!esponses9 and +otional !esponses*
)* #eclarati.e Meory -yste " Aandles ,actual 'n$oration*
c* +ndel /ul.ing
i* +pisodic Meory -yste " Chronological !ecollections o$ Personal
+Bperiences*
1* 3i6e an Auto)iography*
ii* -eantic Meory -yste " General Dno1ledge that is not tied to the /ie
1hen the 'n$oration 1as 3earned*
1* 3i6e an +ncyclopedia*
d* Prospecti.e 7s* !etrospecti.e Meory
i* Prospecti.e Meory " !ee)ering to Per$or Actions in the ,uture*
1* Cues Ma6e it +asier to !ee)er Prospecti.e /as6s*
ii* !etrospecti.e Meory " !ee)ering +.ents $ro the Past or Pre.iously
3earned 'n$oration*