You are on page 1of 23

1 Mechanical Engineering Dept.

CEME NUST
Course: Machine Design (ME 452)
Fall Semester- 2013
Instructor: Dr. Abdul Waheed Badar
BSc. Mechanical Engineering (2000-2004): UET Taxila
M.Sc. Mechanical Engineering (2004-2006): UET Taxila
Ph.D. (Engineering) (2008-2012): TU Berlin
Area of Interest/Specialization: Solar Thermal Systems
Heat Transfer
Refrigeration and Air-conditioning
2 Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST
Course: Machine Design (ME 452)
Course Designation Core
Credit 3
No. of Sessions/Week 2
Total Session Duration 3 hrs
Fall Semester- 2013
Instructor: Dr. Abdul Waheed Badar
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 3
Grading Policy
1. Quizzes
2. Sessional Exam # 1
10 %
15 %
4. Projects/Presentations
3. Sessional Exam # 2
15 %
10 %
5. Final Exam 50 %
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total 100 %
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 4
Course Contents
Introduction to Machine Design, Basic criteria of design of machine parts
Types of stresses (Permissible and actual), variable stresses, Factor of
safety etc.
Design of Riveted Joints
Design of Welded Joints
Design of Shafts
Design of Springs
Design of Gears
Design of Power Screws
Design of Bearings
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 5
Text/Reference Books:


Course: Machine Design (ME 452)
Mechanical Engineering design, By J.E. Shigley, McGraw Hill
Machine Design , By R. S. Khurmi and J.K. Gupta
Machine Design, An integrated approach, By R.L Norton, McGraw Hill
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 6
Ch-1: Introduction to Machine Design
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 7
Introduction to Machine Design
Design
Design is either to formulate a plan for the satisfaction of a specified need and
to create something with a physical reality or to solve a specific problem
Design is an innovative and highly Iterative Process
If the result of a Design is a physical reality, then the Product must be
Functional, Safe, Reliable, Competitive, Usable, Manufacturable, and Marketable
o Decisions sometimes have to be made with too little information
o Occasionally with just the right amount of information

A Designers personal resources of CREATIVENESS, COMMUNICATIVE ABILITY,
and PROBLEM-SOLVING SKILL are intertwined with the knowledge of
technology and first principles
Introduction to Machine Design
Machine Design
Mechanical engineers are associated with the
o production and processing of energy
o providing the means of production
o the tools of transportation
o the techniques of automation
Machine is a combination of several machine elements arranged to work
together as a whole to accomplish specific purposes
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 8
E.g. a simple Journal Bearing
involves:
o Fluid Flow
o Heat Transfer
o Friction
o Energy Transport
o Material Selection
o Thermomechanical Treatments
Machine Design involves designing the elements and arranging them
optimally to obtain some useful work
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 9
Introduction to Machine Design
Machine Design
Types of Design
Adaptive Design
It is concerned with adaptation of existing designs
o E.g., standard products or systems adopted for a new application
o Conveyor belts, control system of machines and mechanisms or haulage systems are
some examples where existing design systems are adapted for a particular use
o design needs no special knowledge or skill and can be attempted by designers of
ordinary technical training
Development Design
This design needs considerable scientific training and design ability in order to
modify the existing designs into a new idea by adopting a new material or
different method of manufacture
o A new model of a car is a typical example of a developmental design
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 10
Introduction to Machine Design
Machine Design
Types of design
New Design
This type of design is an entirely new one but based on existing scientific
principles
No scientific invention is involved but requires creative thinking to solve a
problem
o designing a small vehicle for transportation of men and material on board
a ship or in a desert
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 11
Introduction to Machine Design
Machine Design
Types of design based on Method
Rational Design
This is based on determining the stresses and strains of components and
thereby deciding their dimensions
Empirical Design
This is based on empirical formulae which in turn is based on experience and
experiments
Industrial Design
These are based on industrial considerations and norms viz. market survey,
external look, production facilities, low cost, use of existing standard products
Optimum Design
It is the best design for the given objective function under the specified
constraints
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 12
Introduction to Machine Design
Machine Design
Types of design based on Method
System Design
It is the design of any complex mechanical system like a motor car
Element Design
It is the design of any element of the mechanical system like piston, crankshaft,
connecting rod, etc.
Computer Aided Design
This type of design depends upon the use of computer systems to assist in the
creation, modification, analysis and optimization of a design
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 13
Introduction to Machine Design
Phases and Interactions of the Design Process
o Specified characteristics can
include the Speeds, Feeds,
Temperature Limitations, Maximum
Range, Expected Variations in the
Variables, Dimensional and Weight
Limitations, etc.
Identification of need
generally starts the
design process
Definition Of Problem is
more specific, must include
all the specifications for the
object to be designed
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 14
Introduction to Machine Design
Phases and Interactions of the Design Process
o System schemes that do not
survive analysis are revised,
improved, or discarded
o Schemes with potential are
optimized to determine the best
performance
Synthesis of a scheme is
sometimes called the
Invention of the Concept or
Concept Design
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 15
Introduction to Machine Design
Phases and Interactions of the Design Process
o several components of a system may
be synthesize, analyze and optimize,
and return to synthesis to see its
effect on the remaining parts of the
system
o E.g. design of a system to transmit
Power requires the design and
selection of individual components
(e.g., Gears, Bearings, Shaft).
Analysis and Optimization
and Synthesis are intimately
and iteratively related
o E.g., to design a shaft for Stress and
Deflection, applied forces need to be
known.
o If forces are transmitted through Gears,
gear specifications are required to
determine the forces transmitted to
shaft.
o But Stock Gears come with certain
bore sizes, requiring knowledge of the
necessary Shaft Diameter
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 16
Analysis and Optimization
and Synthesis are intimately
and iteratively related
Introduction to Machine Design
Phases and Interactions of the Design Process
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 17
Introduction to Machine Design
Phases and Interactions of the Design Process
o Is it reliable?
o Will it compete successfully with
similar products?
o Is it economical to manufacture
and to use?
o Can a profit be made from its
sale or use?
o Is it easily maintained and
adjusted?
Evaluation is the final proof of
a successful design, involves
the testing of a prototype in
the laboratory
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 18
Introduction to Machine Design
Phases and Interactions of the Design Process
o Presentation is a selling job
o The Engineer when presenting a
new solution to administrative,
management, or supervisory
persons, is attempting to sell or to
prove to them that their solution is a
better one
o many great designs, inventions, and
creative works have been lost
simply because the originators were
unable or unwilling to properly
explain their accomplishments to
others
Presentation is the final and
vital step by communicating
the design to others
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 19
Introduction to Machine Design
Design Considerations
Design Considerations are referred to some characteristics that influence the
design of the element or, perhaps, the entire system
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 20
Introduction to Machine Design
Standards and Code
Standard is a set of specifications for parts, materials, or processes intended to
achieve uniformity, efficiency, and a specified quality
Code is a set of specifications for the Analysis, Design, Manufacture, and
Construction of something
o organizations and societies have established specifications for standards and safety
or design codes
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 21
Introduction to Machine Design
Standards and Code
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 22
Introduction to Machine Design
Stress and Strength
Survival of many products depends on how the designer adjusts the Maximum
Stresses in a component to be less than the components Strength at critical
locations
o Stress is the internal resistance offered by a part to an externally applied force
o Strength is the ability of a material to resist the externally applied forces without
breaking or yielding
Mechanical Engineering Dept. CEME NUST 23
Introduction to Machine Design
Uncertainty
Uncertainties concerning Stress and Strength include
o Composition of material and the effect of variation on properties
o Variations in properties from place to place within a bar of stock
o Effect of processing locally, or nearby, on properties
o Effect of nearby assemblies such as weldments and shrink fits on stress conditions
o Effect of thermomechanical treatment on properties
o Intensity and distribution of loading
o Validity of mathematical models used to represent reality
o Intensity of stress concentrations
o Influence of time on strength and geometry
o Effect of corrosion
o Effect of wear