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ENGLISH TASK

CEMENT
GROUP 1
DIRGANTARA RAJIV H.
GRACE DANA AYORI
NURHAYETI
RIKHE SYAHNITA R.
YUSUF AGUNG M.R.
1 CIVIL 2 MORNING
2011 / 2012
Definition
A cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently,
and can bind other materials of concrete together.
Function
1. Cement acts as an adhesive material to bind together the sand,
gravel, and crushed stone to form concrete.
2. Cement use for sticking things (eg bricks) together in building.
Composition
1. Tricalcium Silicate - maor
component found in
cement of about !" t# $"%
2. Dicalcium Silicate - 1" to
&"%
&. Tricalcium Aluminate - ! to
1!%
!. Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite
- 1# to 1'%
Types of cement
1. (rdinary )ortland Cement
2. *apid +ardening Cement
&. ,-tra *apid +ardening Cement
!. .ulphate *esisting Cement
". /uick .etting Cement
$. .uper .ulphated Cement
0. 1o2 +eat Cement
'. )ortland )o33olan Cement
4. Air-,ntraining Cement
1#.Coloured Cement
11. +ydrophobic Cement
12.5asonry Cement
1&.,-pansive Cement
1!.(il-6ell Cement
1".+igh Alumina Cement
1$.+igh ,arly .trength Cement
Ordinary Portland Cement
Type I (Ordinary PC) )ortland cement is commonly used for general
construction especially 2hen making precast and precast-prestressed
concrete that is not to be in contact 2ith soils or ground 2ater.
7he typical compound compositions of this type are8 ""% (C
&
.), 14%
(C
2
.), 1#% (C
&
A), 0% (C
!
A9), 2.'% 5g(, 2.4% (.(
&
), 1.#% ignition
loss, and 1.#% free Ca(. A limitation on the composition is that the
(C
&
A) shall not e-ceed fifteen percent.
Type II (Low Sulphate Resistin Cement) is for general
construction that is e-posed to moderate sulfate attack and is meant
for use 2hen concrete is in contact 2ith soils and ground 2ater
especially in the 2estern :nited .tates due to the high sulfur content
of the soil.
;ts typical compound composition is8
"1% (C
&
.), 2!% (C
2
.), $% (C
&
A), 11% (C
!
A9), 2.4% 5g(, 2."%
(.(
&
), #.'% ;gnition loss, and 1.#% free Ca(.
Type III (Rapid !ardenin Cement) is usually used for precast
concrete manufacture, 2here high 1-day strength allo2s fast turnover
of molds. ;t may also be used in emergency construction and repairs
and construction of machine bases and gate installations.
;ts typical compound composition is8
"0% (C
&
.), 14% (C
2
.), 1#% (C
&
A), 0% (C
!
A9), &.#% 5g(, &.1%
(.(
&
), #.4% ;gnition loss, and 1.&% free Ca(.
Type I" (Low !eat !ydration PC) is used for very large concrete
structures, such as dams, 2hich have a lo2 surface to volume ratio.
;ts typical compound composition is8
2'% (C
&
.), !4% (C
2
.), !% (C
&
A), 12% (C
!
A9), 1.'% 5g(, 1.4%
(.(
&
), #.4% ;gnition loss, and #.'% free Ca(.
Type " (!ih Sulphate Resistin PC) is used in concrete that is to
be e-posed to alkali soil and ground 2ater sulfates 2hich react 2ith
(C
&
A) causing disruptive e-pansion.
;ts typical compound composition is8
'% (C
&
.), !&% (C
2
.), !% (C
&
A), 4% (C
!
A9), 1.4% 5g(, 1.'% (.(
&
),
#.4% ;gnition loss, and #.'% free Ca(.
Portland Po##olan Cement
)ortland )o33olana cement ())C) is manufactured by the
intergrinding of ()C clinker 2ith 1# to 2" percent of po33olanic
material (as per the latest amendment, it is 1" to &"%).
:ses8
1. 9or hydraulic structures<
2. 9or mass concrete structures like dam, bridge piers and thick
foundation<
&. 9or marine structures<
!. 9or se2ers and se2age disposal 2orks.
Portland Composite Cement
A hydraulic cement produced by milling 4!-'# parts (by 2eight) of
)ortland cement clinker together 2ith a corresponding amount of at
least t2o kinds of additives ($-2# parts) and a =uantity of gypsum. ;ts
2'-day strength must be at least !2.".
:ses 8
1. >eneral purpose
2. All kinds of concrete structures
&. +igh ?uildings
!. *oad pavements
". >eneral purpose prefabricated concrete components
$. ?ridges and @iaducts
0. 6ater .torages
'. Concrete ?rickets
4. 6all and plaster
1#.Concrete se2age pipes
Phsycal Properties
1. 9ineness
7he fineness is a measure of the si3e of cement particles and is
e-pressed in terms of spesific surface of cement. ;t is an important
factor in determining the rate of gain or strength and uniform =uality.
Cement is a dispersed solid 2hose particle si3e is ranging from #.1 to
2"# micron-meter.
2. .etting time
;n this process of setting, a stage is reached 2hen the cement paste
is sufficiently rigid to 2ithstand definite amount of pressure.
7he setting time is divided into t2o parts 8
A The initial settin time 8 the time at 2hich the cement paste loses
its plasticity is termed.
A The final settin time 8 the time taken to reach the stage 2hen
the paste becomes a hard mass.
&. .oundness
.oundness refers to the ability of a hardened cement paste to retain
its volume after setting. 1ack of soundness is observed in the cement
samples containing e-cessive amounts of hardburnt free lime or
magnesia. Autoclave e-pansion test is used to determine soundness
of cement.
!. Compressive .trength
Compressive strength is the capacity of a material or structure to
2ithstand a-ially directed pushing forces. 7he compressive strength
of hardened cement is the most important of all the properties.
7herefore, it is not surprising that the cement is al2ays tested for its
strength at the laboratory before the cement is used in important
2orks.
". .pecific >ravity
7he ratio of the mass of a solid or li=uid to the mass of an e=ual
volume of distilled 2ater at !BC (&4B9) or of a gas to an e=ual volume
of air or hydrogen under prescribed conditions of temperature and
pressure. Also called relative density. .pecific gravity is generally
re=uired in mi- proportioning for concrete. 7he relative density of
()C is a assumed as &,1".
$. Consistency
Consistency of a cement paste refers to its ability to flo2. Cormal
consistency pastes are re=uired to be prepared for testing cement
specimens. A paste is said to have a normal consistency 2hen the
plunger of vicat apparatus penetrates it by 1# D 1 mm. 7he
corresponding 2ater-cement ratio is reported.
0. ?ulk Eensity
7he bulk density can be determined by dividing the mass of cement
particles and air bet2een particles by the volume of cement sample.
?ulk density of ()C ranges from '&# kgFcu.m to 1$"# kgFcu.m. 7his
test can be done 2ith the help of t2o beakers having same amount of
cement. 7he cement in one beaker is slightly vibrated 2hich sho2s a
decrease in the volume.
'. 1oss of ;gnition
A cement sample of kno2n 2eight is heated bet2een 4## G 1###
o
C
(1$"# G 1'&#
o
9) until a constant 2eight is obtained. 7he 2eight loss
of the sample due to heating is then determined. A hig loss on ignition
(more than &%) indicates prehydration and carbonation, 2hich may
be due to inappropriate storage or adulteration.
4. +eat of +ydration
7he heat generated during the reaction of cement and 2ater is kno2n
as heat of hydration. 7he factors affecting heat of hydration are C
&
A,
C
2
., 2ater-cement ratio, fineness of cement and curing temperature.
Conduction calorimeter is used to test heat of hydration.
$d%antaes and Disad%antaes
Advantage8
1. Cement is used as a binding material
2. Cement is easy to handle and apply
&. 7hey are suitable to contact 2ith potable or drinkable 2ater.
Eisadvantage8
1. Cement are subected to cracking
2. ;t is very difficult to provide idoneous curing condition
&. Cot ideal for situation 2hen settlement is e-pected
EXERCISE:
Answer the question and search the answer in the box !
1. The composition o cement that has 1!"1#$ content
is Tetraca%cium...
Answer : ALUMINOFERRITE
&. The other names o cement t'pe III is...cement.
Answer : RAPID HARDENING
(. At the same )CC and ))C can be used in the
manuacture o concrete...
Answer : SEWAGE PIPES

*. +ne o ph'sica% properties o cement is...
Answer : SOUNDNESS
,. This is one ... o cement- cement is eas' to hand%e
and app%'.
Answer : ADVANTAGE

.. The time at which the cement paste %oses its
p%asticit' is termed. This is the deinition o
the.....settin/ time.
Answer : INITIAL
0I01I+2RA)34
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