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fluid is governed by the Newton’s cooling law: q = hA(Ts-T∞).

Therefore, to increase the convective heat transfer, one can

surface and the fluid.

accomplished by increasing the fluid flow over the surface since

h is a function of the flow velocity and the higher the velocity,

the higher the h. Example: a cooling fan.

with fins.

Extended Surface Analysis

Ac: the fin cross-sectional area

dq x

q x = − kAC

dT q x + dx = qx + dx

dx dx

dq x

Energy Balance: q x = q x + dx + dq conv = q x + dx + hdAS (T − T∞ )

dx

d 2T

− kAC 2

dx + hP(T − T∞ )dx = 0, if k, A C are all constants.

dx

Extended Surface Analysis

(contd….)

d 2 T hP

2

− (T − T∞ ) = 0, A second - order, ordinary differential equation

dx kAC

Define a new variable θ ( x ) = T ( x ) − T∞ , so that

d 2θ hP

2

− m 2

θ = 0, where m 2

= , ( D 2

− m 2

)θ = 0

dx kAC

Characteristics equation with two real roots: + m & - m

The general solution is of the form

θ ( x ) = C1e mx + C2 e − mx

To evaluate the two constants C 1 and C 2 , we need to specify

two boundary conditions:

The first one is obvious: the base temperature is known as T(0) = Tb

The second condition will depend on the end condition of the tip

Extended Surface Analysis (contd...)

dθ/dx(x=L)=0

T ( x ) - T∞ θ cosh m( L − x )

= =

Tb − T∞ θb cosh mL

The fin heat transfer rate is

dT

q f = − kAC ( x = 0) = hPkAC tanh mL = M tanh mL

dx

These results and other solutions using different end conditions are

tabulated in Table 3.4 in HT textbook, p. 118.

Temperature distribution for fins of

different configurations

Case Tip Condition Temp. Distribution Fin heat transfer

A Convection heat cosh m( L − x ) + ( h ) sinh m( L − x ) sinh mL + ( h ) cosh mL

transfer: mk Mθo mk

hθ(L)=-k(dθ/dx)x=L cosh mL + ( h ) sinh mL cosh mL + ( h ) sinh mL

mk mk

(dθ/dx)x=L=0 cosh mL

(θ L (cosh mL − θ L

C Given temperature:

) sinh m( L − x ) + sinh m( L − x )

θ(L)= θL θb θb )

Mθ 0

sinh mL sinh mL

θ(L)=0

hP

θ ≡ T − T∞ , m2 ≡

kAC

θ b = θ (0) = Tb − T∞ , M = hPkAC θ b

Example

handle of the pot is 20-cm long, 3-cm wide, and 0.5-cm thick.

The pot is exposed to room air at 25°C, and the convection

coefficient is 5 W/m2 °C. Question: can you touch the handle

when the water is boiling? (k for aluminum is 237 W/m °C)

T∞ = 25 °C

h = 5 W/ m2 °C

100 °C

Example (contd...)

We can model the pot handle as an extended surface. Assume

that there is no heat transfer at the free end of the handle. The

condition matches that specified in the fins Table, case B.

h=5 W/ m2 °C, P=2W+2t=2(0.03+0.005)=0.07(m), k=237 W/m

°C, AC=Wt=0.00015(m2), L=0.2(m)

Therefore, m=(hP/kAC)1/2=3.138,

M=√(hPkAC)(Tb-T∞)=0.111θb=0.111(100-25)=8.325(W)

T ( x ) - T∞ θ cosh m( L − x )

= =

Tb − T∞ θb cosh mL

T − 25 . (0.2 − x )]

cosh[3138

= ,

100 − 25 cosh(3138

. * 0.2)

T ( x ) = 25 + 62.32 * cosh[3138

. (0.2 − x )]

Example (contd…)

Plot the temperature distribution along the pot handle

100

95

T( x )

90

85

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

x

T(0.1)=90.4°C. At the end T(0.2)=87.3°C.

Therefore, it should not be safe to touch the end of the handle

Example (contd...)

The total heat transfer through the handle can be calculated

also. qf=Mtanh(mL)=8.325*tanh(3.138*0.2)=4.632(W)

Very small amount: latent heat of evaporation for water: 2257

kJ/kg. Therefore, the amount of heat loss is just enough to

vaporize 0.007 kg of water in one hour.

For a stainless steel, the thermal conductivity k=15 W/m°C.

Use the same parameter as before:

1/ 2

⎛ hP ⎞

m = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ = 12.47, M = hPkAC = 0.0281

⎝ kAC ⎠

Example (contd...)

T ( x ) − T∞ cosh m( L − x )

=

Tb − T∞ cosh mL

T ( x ) = 25 + 12.3 cosh[12.47( L − x )]

100

75

T( x) 50

25

0

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

x

all. This example illustrates the important role played by the

thermal conductivity of the material in terms of conductive heat

transfer.

Fins-2

If the pot from previous lecture is made of other materials other

than the aluminum, what will be the temperature distribution? Try

stainless steel (k=15 W/m.K) and copper (385 W/m.K).

Recall: h=5W/m2°C, P=2W+2t=2(0.03+0.005)=0.07(m)

AC=Wt=0.00015(m2), L=0.2(m)

Therefore, mss=(hP/kAC)1/2=12.47, mcu=2.46

Mss=√(hPkssAC) (Tb-T∞)=0.028(100-25)=2.1(W)

Mcu= √(hPkssAC) θb=0.142(100-25)=10.66(W)

Tss ( x ) - T∞ θ cosh m( L − x )

For stainless steel, = =

Tb − T∞ θb cosh mL

Tss − 25 cosh[12.47(0.2 − x )]

= ,

100 − 25 cosh(12.47 * 0.2)

Tss ( x ) = 25 + 12.3 * cosh[12.47(0.2 − x )]

Fins-2 (contd....)

Tcu ( x ) - T∞ θ cosh m( L − x )

For copper, = =

Tb − T∞ θb cosh mL

Tcu − 25 cosh[2.46(0.2 − x )]

= ,

100 − 25 cosh(2.46 * 0.2)

Tcu ( x ) = 25 + 66.76 * cosh[2.46(0.2 − x )]

100

95

T( x ) copper

90

T ss( x ) aluminum

85

T cu( x )

80 stainless steel

75

0 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.2

x

Fins-2 (contd...)

quickly. Temperature at the end of the handle is 37.3°C. This is

because the stainless steel has low thermal conductivity and heat

can not penetrate easily into the handle.

Copper has the highest k and, correspondingly, the temperature

inside the copper handle distributes more uniformly. Heat easily

transfers into the copper handle.

Question? Which material is most suitable to be used in a heat

sink?

Fins-2 (contd...)

How do we know the adiabatic tip assumption is good? Try

using the convection heat transfer condition at the tip (case A in

fins table) We will use the aluminum pot as the example.

h=5 W/m2.K, k=237 W/m.K, m=3.138, M=8.325W

Long equation

T ( x ) - T∞ θ cosh[ m( L − x )] + (h / mk )sinh[ m( L − x )]

= =

Tb − T∞ θb cosh mL + (h / mk )sinh mL

. (0.2 − x )] + 0.00672 sinh[3138

cosh[3138 . (0.2 − x )]

=

cosh(0.6276) + 0.00672 sinh(0.6276)

T ( x ) = 25 + 62.09{cosh(0.6276 − 3138

. x ) + 0.00672 sinh(0.6276 − 3138

. x )}

Fins-2 (contd….)

100

T: adiabatic tip

96.25

T( x )

Tc: convective tip

92.5

T c( x )

88.75

T(0.2)=87.32 °C

85 Tc(0.2)=87.09 °C

0 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.2

x

as expected since there is additional heat transfer at the tip.

Note 2: There is no significant difference between these two

solutions, therefore, correct choice of boundary condition is not

that important here. However, sometimes correction might be

needed to compensate the effect of convective heat transfer at

the end. (especially for thick fins)

Fins-2 (contd...)

In some situations, it might be necessary to include the

convective heat transfer at the tip. However, one would like to

avoid using the long equation as described in case A, fins table.

The alternative is to use case B instead and accounts for the

convective heat transfer at the tip by extending the fin length L to

LC=L+(t/2).

With convection LC=L+t/2 Insulation

L

Then apply the adiabatic condition at the tip of the extended fin as

shown above.

Fins-2 (contd...)

length will need to be corrected to

LC=l+(t/2)=0.2+0.0025=0.2025(m)

Tcorr ( x ) - T∞ θ cosh m( Lc − x )

= =

Tb − T∞ θb cosh mLc

Tcorr − 25 cosh[3138 . (0.2025 − x )]

= ,

100 − 25 cosh(3138

. * 0.2025)

Tcorr ( x ) = 25 + 62.05 * cosh[3138

. (0.2025 − x )]

Fins-2 (contd...)

100

96.25

T(0.2)=87.32 °C

T( x)

Tc(0.2)=87.09 °C

T c( x) 92.5 Tcorr(0.2025)=87.05 °C

T corr( x)

88.75 slight improvement

over the uncorrected

85 solution

0 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.2

Correction Length

Lc=L+(Ac/P), where Ac is the cross-sectional area and P is the

perimeter of the fin at the tip.

Lc=L+(Ac/P)=L+(Wt/2W)=L+(t/2)

Lc=L+(Ac/P)=L+(W2/4W)=L+(W/4)

Optimal Length of a Fin

In general, the longer the fin, the higher the heat transfer.

However, a long fin means more material and increased size and

cost. Question: how do we determine the optimal fin length?

Use the rectangular fin as an example:

1 q f = M tanh mL, for an adiabatic tip fin

0.8 ( q f ) ∞ = M , for an infinitely long fin

0.6 qf

R( mL ) Their ratio: R(mL)= = tanh mL

0.4 ( q f )∞

0.2 Note: heat transfer increases with mL

0 as expected. Initially the rate of

0 1 2 3 4

mL

change is large and slows down

drastically when mL> 2.

R(1)=0.762, means any increase beyond mL=1 will increase no

more than 23.8% of the fin heat transfer.

Temperature Distribution

For an adiabatic tip fin case:

¾ Use m=5, and L=0.2

T − T∞ cosh m( L − x ) as an example:

Rθ = =

Tb − T∞ cosh mL

High ΔT, good fin heat transfer Low ΔT, poor fin heat transfer

1

1

R θ ( x ) 0.8

0.648054

0.6

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

0 x 0.2

Correction Length for a Fin with a

Non-adiabatic Tip

Lc=L+(Ac/P), where Ac is the cross-sectional area and P is the

perimeter of the fin at the tip.

Lc=L+(Ac/P)=L+(Wt/2W)=L+(t/2)

Lc=L+(Ac/P)=L+(W2/4W)=L+(W/4)

Fin Design

T∞

Total heat loss: qf=Mtanh(mL) for an

Tb adiabatic fin, or qf=Mtanh(mLC) if there is

convective heat transfer at the tip

hP

where m= , and M= hPkA Cθ b = hPkA C (Tb − T∞ )

kAc

Use the thermal resistance concept:

(T − T )

q f = hPkA C tanh( mL)(Tb − T∞ ) = b ∞

Rt , f

where Rt , f is the thermal resistance of the fin.

For a fin with an adiabatic tip, the fin resistance can be expressed as

(Tb − T∞ ) 1

Rt , f = =

qf hPkA C [tanh(mL)]

Fin Effectiveness

How effective a fin can enhance heat transfer is characterized by the

fin effectiveness εf: Ratio of fin heat transfer and the heat transfer

without the fin. For an adiabatic fin:

qf qf hPkA C tanh(mL) kP

εf = = = = tanh( mL)

q hAC (Tb − T∞ ) hAC hAC

If the fin is long enough, mL>2, tanh(mL) → 1,

it can be considered an infinite fin (case D of table3.4)

kP k⎛ P ⎞

εf → = ⎜ ⎟

hAC h ⎝ AC ⎠

In order to enhance heat transfer, ε f > 1.

However, ε f ≥ 2 will be considered justifiable

If ε f <1 then we have an insulator instead of a heat fin

Fin Effectiveness

(contd...)

kP k⎛ P ⎞

εf → = ⎜ ⎟

hAC h ⎝ AC ⎠

conductivity, k.

It seems to be counterintuitive that the lower convection

coefficient, h, the higher εf. But it is not because if h is very high,

it is not necessary to enhance heat transfer by adding heat fins.

Therefore, heat fins are more effective if h is low. Observation: If

fins are to be used on surfaces separating gas and liquid. Fins are

usually placed on the gas side. (Why?)

Fin Effectiveness

(contd...)

a dimension of W by W as an example: P=4W, AC=W2,

P/AC=(4/W). The smaller W, the higher the P/AC, and the

higher εf.

(to increase the total number) fins.

Fin Effectiveness (contd...)

qf qf (Tb − T∞ ) / Rt , f Rt ,h

εf = = = =

q hAC (Tb − T∞ ) (Tb − T∞ ) / Rt ,h Rt , f

It is a ratio of the thermal resistance due to convection to

the thermal resistance of a fin. In order to enhance heat transfer,

the fin's resistance should be lower than that of the resistance

due only to convection.

Fin Efficiency

qf

Define Fin efficiency: η f =

q max

where q max represents an idealized situation such that the fin is made up

of material with infinite thermal conductivity. Therefore, the fin should

be at the same temperature as the temperature of the base.

q max = hA f (Tb − T∞ )

Fin Efficiency

(contd…)

For infinite k

T(x)<Tb for heat transfer T(x)=Tb, the heat transfer

to take place is maximum

Tb

x x

Total fin heat transfer qf Ideal heat transfer qmax

Fin Efficiency (cont.)

Use an adiabatic rectangular fin as an example:

qf M ta n h m L h P k A c ( T b − T ∞ ) ta n h m L

η = = =

h A f (Tb − T∞ ) h P L (Tb − T∞ )

f

q m ax

ta n h m L ta n h m L

= = ( s e e T a b le 3 .5 f o r η f o f c o m m o n f in s )

hP mL

L

k Ac

T h e f in h e a t tr a n s f e r : q f = η f q m a x = η f h A f ( T b − T ∞ )

Tb − T∞ T − T∞ 1

qf = = b , w h ere Rt, f =

1 /(η f h A f ) Rt, f η f hA f

T h e r m a l r e s is ta n c e f o r a s in g le f in .

1

A s c o m p a r e d to c o n v e c tiv e h e a t tr a n s f e r : R t , b =

h Ab

In o r d e r to h a v e a lo w e r r e s is ta n c e a s th a t is r e q u ir e d to

e n h a n c e h e a t tr a n s f e r : R t , b > R t , f o r A b < η f A f

Overall Fin Efficiency

qf

Af: surface area of a single fin

qb At: total area including base area and total

finned surface, At=Ab+NAf

N: total number of fins

Overall Fin Efficiency

(contd…)

= h[( At − NAf ) + Nη f Af ](Tb − T∞ ) = h[ At − NAf (1 −η f )](Tb − T∞ )

NAf

= hAt [1 − (1 −η f )](Tb − T∞ ) = ηOhAt (Tb − T∞ )

At

NAf

Define overall fin efficiency: ηO = 1 − (1 −η f )

At

Heat Transfer from a Fin

Array

Tb − T∞ 1

qt = hAtηO (Tb − T∞ ) = where Rt ,O =

Rt ,O hAtηO

Compare to heat transfer without fins

1

q = hA(Tb − T∞ ) = h( Ab + NAb, f )(Tb − T∞ ) =

hA

where Ab,f is the base area (unexposed) for the fin

To enhance heat transfer AtηO >> A

That is, to increase the effective area ηO At .

Thermal Resistance Concept

L1 t A=Ab+NAb,f

Rb=t/(kbA)

T1 T1 T2 Tb T∞

T∞

R1=L1/(k1A) Rt ,O = 1 /( hAtηO )

T1 − T∞ T1 − T∞

T2 Tb q= =

∑ R R1 + Rb + Rt ,O

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