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Alreen C.

Miranda 20C
9- Heat of Formation of NaCl September 16, 2013

ABSTRACT
The universe is divided into two parts called the system and the surroundings in
which the exchange of energy occurs during a chemical reaction. Whenever a chemical
reaction takes place, heat changes occur with it and these heat changes are measured in
the branch of chemistry called thermochemistry.
The objective of the experiment is to measure the enthalpy of neutralization for
the reaction of the strong base, NaOH, and the strong acid, HCl, and also the heat of
formation of NaCl
(s)
.
For the first part of the experiment in which the enthalpy of the neutralization of
NaOH and HCl is unknown, the acid and base were mixed in a coffee cup calorimeter
which was used to trap the heat from leaking out from the system and into the
surroundings before taking note of the temperature changes and the mass of the solution.
In the second part of the experiment, temperature changes and the mass of the solution
were also recorded when solid NaCl was dissolved in water.
Using the formula to determine H, the value for the heat of reaction in Part A of
the experiment is -52.45 kJ/mol. For the second part, the calculated heat of reaction is
4.09 kJ/mol. With the use of Hesss law the heat of formation of NaCl
(s)
was also derived.
The calculated H
o
f
of

NaCl
(s)
in this experiment is -412.41 kJ/mol.

Therefore, with the use of the experiment, the formula for calculating H, and
Hesss law, the heats of reactions of NaOH
(aq)+
HCl
(aq)
NaCl
(aq)
+H
2
O
(l)
and
NaCl
(aq)
NaCl
(s),
and the heat of formation of NaCl
(s)
were derived.

INTRODUCTION
Thermochemistry measures the heat changes that accompany chemical reactions. The
universe is divided into two: the system, the part to be studied, and the rest, the surroundings.
A system can release (exothermic) or absorb (endothermic) heat to its surroundings. In an
isolated reaction, energy exchange is prevented. To calculate the heat generated per mole of
reactant or product, the formula: -m
solution
cT is used.
In this experiment, the heats of reactions of NaOH
(aq)+
HCl
(aq)
NaCl
(aq)
+H
2
O
(l),

NaCl
(aq)
NaCl
(s),
and the given equations are used to determine the H
o
f
of NaCl
(s)
using
Hesss Law. The sum of all equations should be:
Na
(s)
+

Cl
2(g)
NaCl
(s)
H
o
f
= ?
METHODS
First, 75 mL of 1 M HCl and 75 mL of 1 M NaOH were mixed in a coffee cup calorimeter.
Next, 4.38 g of NaCl
(s)
was dissolved in 150 mL water. Initial and final masses and
temperatures of individual and combined solutions were recorded using a balance and
thermometer.
RESULTS

Table 1. Heats of Reactions in Part A
Part A H
Trial 1 -47.7 kJ/mol
Trial 2 -57.2 kJ/mol
Average Enthalpy -52.45 kJ/mol

Table 2. Heats of Reactions in Part B
Part A H
Trial 1 4.10 kJ/mol
Trial 2 4.07 kJ/mol
Average Enthalpy 4.09 kJ/mol

Table 3. Given Set of Equations and the Heat of Formation of NaCl
(s)
(1) Na
(s)
+ O
2(g)

+ H
2(g)
NaOH
(s)
H= -426.73 kJ/mol
(2) NaOH
(s)
NaOH
(aq)
H= -44.505 kJ/mol
(3) H
2(g)
+ Cl
2(g)
HCl
(g)
H= -92.30 kJ/mol
(4) HCl
(g)
HCl
(aq)
H= -74.843 kJ/mol
(5) NaOH
(aq) +
HCl
(aq)
NaCl
(aq)
+ H
2
O
(l)
H= -52.45 kJ/mol
(6) NaCl
(aq)
NaCl
(s)
H= -4.09 kJ/mol
(7) H
2
O
(l)
H
2
O
(g)
H= +40.668 kJ/mol
(8) H
2
O
(g)
O
2(g)
+ H
2(g)
H= +241.84 kJ/mol
(9) Na
(s)
+ Cl
2
NaCl
(s)
H= -412.41 kJ/mol

*The value of H for equation (6), NaCl
(aq)
NaCl
(s),
became negative because the
reverse reaction from Part B is used so that it will be possible for the substances to be
cancelled.

DISCUSSION
In Part A of the experiment, HCl and NaOH were mixed and the initial and final masses
and temperatures were recorded. Using the formula H=

, the heat of the reaction


was determined. This was done in two trials and the results of the calculations are seen in
Table 1. Two values were derived for the two trials and the average of those two values
was the enthalpy used to calculate for the heat of formation of solid NaCl. This average
value is also shown in Table 1.

For Part B, solid NaCl was dissolved in water and this was also done in two trials. The
results for heat of reaction and the average enthalpy for this experiment is shown in Table
2. It is important to mention that only the enthalpies were averaged and not the raw data.
These values were arrived at using the same formula in Part A of the experiment. The
average enthalpy of this reaction will also be used to solve for the heat of formation of
solid NaCl.

In Table 3, the given set of equations was filled in with the two calculated heats of
reactions from the two parts of the experiment to be able to solve for the heat of
formation of solid NaCl using Hesss law. The value of H for equation (6), NaCl
(aq)

NaCl
(s),
became negative because the reverse reaction from Part B is used so that it will
be possible for the substances to be cancelled.

The reactions and their H were added to come up with the H
o
f
of solid NaCl which is
-412.41 kJ/mol as seen in Table 3. According to the second edition of the book
Principles of General Chemistry, the H
o
f
of solid NaCl is -411.1 kJ/mol. The
deviation of the derived value in the experiment from the theoretical value from the book
may be caused by errors made during the experiment.

Some sources of error in the experiment can come from errors made by the performer of
the experiment or the apparatus. For example, the readings on the volumes of the
solutions could be incorrect especially if they were not taken at eye level. Wrong
readings with a thermometer can also contribute to errors in measuring the temperature of
the solutions. The balance can also give fluctuating readings of the mass and because of
this, the experimenter could have recorded the wrong value. Lastly, it is also possible that
heat escaped the coffee cup calorimeter and the measured heat will give erroneous results
when used in the calculation of the enthalpies. (AtQ 1)

With the use of the formula H=

and Hesss law, the heats of reactions of


equations (5) and (6) in Table 3, together with the heat of formation of solid NaCl were
successfully determined.

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
1. (Answered in Discussion)
2. Heat capacity is the amount of heat needed or required to change the temperature
of an object by 1 K while specific heat capacity is the amount of heat needed to
change the temperature of 1 gram of an object or a substance by 1 K.
3. Keeping the lid on the container is important to trap and keep all the heat
generated by the reaction in the coffee cup calorimeter. It is important not to let
any energy or heat escape the calorimeter and prevent energy exchange with the
surroundings because the heat generated by the reaction will have to be measured
accurately. If the lid is not kept on the container, the measured heat will be wrong.
Thus, the calculations for the enthalpies will give erroneous results.
4. Hesss law works by adding the enthalpy changes of the individual steps of an
overall process, one will come up with the enthalpy change of that overall
process. Hesss law is helpful in a way that one doesnt have to do an experiment
and the enthalpy change can still be solved for. We consider the overall reaction
as the sum of the series of steps of reactions even if they dont necessarily occur
that way. As long as the H of the steps are known, it is possible to solve for the
H of the overall reaction. Hesss law works because H is a state function,
meaning it depends only on initial and final states.
5. If more concentrated solutions of NaOH and HCl were used in the experiment, the
change in temperature will be greater, meaning that the calculated H will also be
greater. On the other hand, the heat of reaction will most likely be the same as the
one derived in the experiment because it does not depend on the change in heat or
for example, on another factor, the number of moles which will be greater in
solutions with higher concentrations. If solid NaOH was used, the heat of reaction
will be negatively greater because the dissolution of NaOH
(s)
is exothermic. The
H
o
f
of NaCl
(s)
will most likely also be the same as derived in the experiment,
since it is a state function.

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS
Part A
Raw Data Table
Trial 1 Trial 2
(1) Mass of empty calorimeter + beaker + lid 118.85 g 119.20 g
(2) Temperature of Acid (HCl) . C . C
(3) Temperature of Base (NaOH) . C . C
(4) Initial Temperature (
()()

)
. C . C
(5) Maximum Temperature of Combined
Solution
. C . C
(6) Mass of Combined Solutions 268.93 g 270.07 g
(7) Mass of Solution Only ( (6) (1) ) 150.08 g 150.87 g

Trial 1
H=

x




m= 150.08 g
c= . g C
T= . C - 28.8 C= . C -. C because reaction is exothermic
Mol= MV = (1M) (0.075 L) = 0.075 mol
H=
( )( )( )

x


= -47.7 kJ/mol
Trial 2
H=

x




m= 150.87 g
c= . g C
T= . C - 28.2 C= 6. C -6. C because reaction is exothermic
Mol= MV = (1M) (0.075 L) = 0.075 mol
H=
( )( )( )

x


= -57.2 kJ/mol
Average Enthalpy=

= -52.45 kJ/mol

Part B
Raw Data Table
Trial 1 Trial 2
(1)Empty calorimeter mass 119.29 g 119.37 g
(2) Mass of water (150 mL) 266.28 g 265.27 g
(3) Mass of water only ( (2)-(1) ) 146.99 g 145.90 g
(4) Water temperature . C . C
(5) Lowest Temperature after
Dissolution
. C . C

Trial 1
H=

x



m= 146.99 g
c= . g C
T= . C - . C= -. C . C because reaction is endothermic
Mol= 4.38 g NaCl x


= 0.075 mol

H=
( )( )( )

x


= 4.10 kJ/mol

Trial 2
H=

x



m= 145.90 g
c= . g C
T= . C - . C = -. C . C because reaction is endothermic
Mol= 4.38 g NaCl x


= 0.075 mol

H=
( )( )( )

x


= 4.07 kJ/mol

Average Enthalpy=

= 4.09 kJ/mol


Solving for the Heat of Formation of NaCl
(s)
Using Hesss Law
(1) Na
(s)
+ O
2(g)

+ H
2(g)
NaOH
(s)
H= -426.73 kJ/mol
(2) NaOH
(s)
NaOH
(aq)
H= -44.505 kJ/mol
(3) H
2(g)
+ Cl
2(g)
HCl
(g)
H= -92.30 kJ/mol
(4) HCl
(g)
HCl
(aq)
H= -74.843 kJ/mol
(5) NaOH
(aq) +
HCl
(aq)
NaCl
(aq)
+ H
2
O
(l)
H= -52.45 kJ/mol
(6) NaCl
(aq)
NaCl
(s)
H= -4.09 kJ/mol
(7) H
2
O
(l)
H
2
O
(g)
H= +40.668 kJ/mol
(8) H
2
O
(g)
O
2(g)
+ H
2(g)
H= +241.84 kJ/mol
(9) Na
(s)
+ Cl
2
NaCl
(s)
H= -412.41 kJ/mol

Na
(s)
+ O
2(g)
+ H
2(g)
+ NaOH
(s)
+ H
2(g)
+ Cl
2(g)
+ HCl
(g)
+ NaOH
(aq) +
HCl
(aq)
+
NaCl
(aq)
+ H
2
O
(l)
+ H
2
O
(g)
NaOH
(s)
+ NaOH
(aq)
+ HCl
(g)
+ HCl
(aq)
+ NaCl
(aq)
+ H
2
O
(l)
+
NaCl
(s)
+ H
2
O
(g)
+ O
2(g)
+ H
2(g) =


Na(s) + Cl2 NaCl(s) H
o
f
= -412.41 kJ/mol

*The value of H for equation (6), NaCl
(aq)
NaCl
(s)
,

became negative because the
reverse reaction from Part B is used so that it will be possible for the substances to be
cancelled.

CONLUSION
The heats of reactions of the equations NaOH
(aq)+
HCl
(aq)
NaCl
(aq)
+H
2
O
(l)
and
NaCl
(aq)
NaCl
(s)
were determined using the formula H=

. The heat of reaction for


NaOH
(aq)+
HCl
(aq)
NaCl
(aq)
+H
2
O
(l)
is -52.45 kJ/mol and 4.09 kJ/mol for
NaCl
(aq)
NaCl
(s)
. With the use of Hesss law, the heat of formation of NaCl
(S)
is -412.41
kJ/mol.



REFERENCES
Gross R, Abenojar E, Tan J. Modern Experiments in General Chemistry I. 9
th
ed. Quezon
City: Department of Chemistry, Ateneo de Manila University; 2011.

Silberberg M. Principles of General Chemistry: Second Edition. 2010. McGraw-Hill.