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This attempts to investigate the use of poetry in teaching vocabulary among the form two students in SMK Raja
Muda Musa, Kuala Kangsar. The subjects in the sample were the form two students. In this work, some issues and
concerns related to second language vocabulary teaching and learning were analyzed and interpreted. Data were
gathered by means of class observations, field notes, teaching activities, and surveys. The results obtained in this
study revealed that, after the implementation of this project, the teacher found out that poetry is an effective in
teaching vocabulary. Finally, some suggestions for further research in this area were given.

1.0 Background of the study
Over the years, the focus on vocabulary in language teaching has evolved. Vocabulary is an
element of language that was once neglected. In the Malaysians ESL teaching, vocabulary is
integrated into the syllabus and regarded as one of the major part in learning the language. In the
1970s with the shift to communicative language, teaching vocabulary has become very
important. Husin, Maarof, and DCruz (2000), explain that the drill-and-practice had some
benefits in language teaching but it did not help the students to master the language for a long-
term. It is stated that those students who were actually good during the tests, were not able to
speak and write fluently as soon as they graduate from their high school.

Ratnawati Mohd Ashraf and Ismail Sheikh Ahmad (2003), says that Malaysian school
students in the rural area lacked in their basic vocabulary and this causes them not to be able
to respond to reading and vocabulary tests. Therefore, the researcher believes that it is very
important to identify a good way of teaching vocabulary so that it will be able to assist the
students in the process of learning the vocabulary.

Literature and language is inseparable from one another. The new curriculum of teaching
English language and literature in secondary school (KPM, 2003) developed by the Ministry
of Education is a good step in order to promote language acquisition and competence among
Malaysian students. Blair (1982) says that literature plays a precious role in the intermediate
language classroom whereby with careful selection of the text, literature has great potentials
for the intermediate language learners. Therefore, the implementation of the new literature
component in the teaching is relatively appropriate. Literature can easily become the
foundation for literary and the focus and it provides sufficient input which can work as
models of language so that the students can internalize grammar, work out the meaning of the
words, understand the language that they hear and learn to communicate better.

Poetry is a piece of literary writing which enables the flow of ideas and informations and
also a powerful vehicle to teach the students reading comprehension. Nesamalar (2007) said
Poetry is a piece of literature characterized by rhythm, metre and stanza, by pitchy
language and sensory appeal conveyed by the use of various devices.
Wright (1989) states that reading a piece of literature is not a process of getting the
meaning but its about making the meaning as well. He also feels that the usage of literature in
the classroom gives an insight to the students and also a sensitive perception of the events,
characters and situations that is being portrayed in the piece of literature.

1.2 Statement of the problem
This research was conducted to find how poetry will be useful to teach vocabulary. The
language proficiency of English in SMK Raja Muda Musa, Kuala Kangsar in Perak was low as
compared to their mother tongue as more weight age and importance is given to their mother
tongue. The usage of English is also minimal as the students dont have the confidence to
converse in the target language and this problem reflects back to square one, lack of adequate
vocabulary. On the other hand, the English Language Society in the school put a lot of effort in
order to enrich the students vocabulary level. They organize, contest and competitions but the
students are not participating as they dont have the interest and motivation to widen their
knowledge in vocabulary. This was because the students have limited vocabulary knowledge
thus they perform badly in their test as well as examinations.

1.3 Research questions
This study investigated the following question:
1) Are there any differences in students achievement in the learning of vocabulary by using

1.4 Definition of terms
Brian Seaton (1982) defines vocabulary as a list of words that are arranged alphabetically with
the definitions translations of the principal of words of language. Another definition of
vocabulary would be the words that are learned through many processes. This could be through
the process of acquisition, learning or unexpected experience from socializing with the speaker
of the language.
Poetry :
Poetry originates from the Greek word poien which means to make. American Heritage
Dictionary of the English Language (1992) defines poem as a verbal composition designed to
convey experiences, ideas, or emotions in a vivid and imaginative sound and suggestive power
and by the use of literary techniques such a meter, metaphor and rhyme. The definition that was
given about poetry is just a few samples of numerous definitions that have been made about
poetry. There is no single definition that defines poetry accurately. The language that was used in
poetry is beautiful and those words are chosen to express what the author thinks and feel. Thus, it
can be said that poetry is actually a unique form of communication whereby the author are
putting forward his or her ideas and feelings to the surrounding of world through the carefully
chosen words.
Effectiveness: According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2000), the word
effectiveness means producing the result that is wanted or intended.


2.0 Introduction
This chapter provides a review of related literature that would help to build a theoretical
and methodological framework for this research. This review is written based on recent studies
about the study. Firstly, it discusses on poetry in ESL classroom, followed by the advantages of
using poetry in language learning, criteria for selection of poetrys to be used in language
learning, problems in using poetry in language learning, vocabulary and theories on vocabulary

2.1 Poetry in ESL Classroom
In many classrooms in Malaysia, textbooks play a very important in language teaching and
learning process. Generally teachers have a very high tendency to teach English using the
traditionally-structured based exercises. According to Gill (2007), English Language learners
need to be exposed with variety of genres in their language learning. There are many obvious
possible benefits in using poetry to teach the students. The benefits of including poetry in
language classroom can be classified in term of cross-cultural awareness, fluency in reading,
literacy skills and vocabulary.

2.2 Advantages of using poetry in language learning
Using poems in classroom helps to provide students with the insight into developing cross-
cultural awareness. Through the poems, students will be used to enhance the learners
understanding of the cultural values of the people. In order to understand and speak English
fluently, learners have to posses linguistic knowledge of idiomatic expressions which usually are
much related to the English culture. Therefore, the learners have to be familiar with the culture.
Poems in English which offers various themes that are relevant to the learners as they will provide
meaningful and memorable context to interpret new language are well suited for content based
approaches as suggested by Lazar (1997). This statement is supported by Martinez (2003) who
says that, poetry can be a good stimulus which can elicit more expressions of opinions, reflective
thinking and emotions to a fruitful discussion. Thus, understanding and explicating the themes
being portrayed in the poem not only improve the language but also cultural awareness among the
A few researchers found that students are unable to reach language arts potential as a result
of their unfamiliarity with the background of cultural and social knowledge that is in the reading
material. Therefore, while teaching poetry, teachers are responsible in choosing the appropriate
poems and activities that are culturally specific and familiar to the students. This will ensure the
proper responses from students and at the same time make the activity beneficial to their own
Gill (2007) has written articles on the advantages of using poetry in the ESL classroom.
He highlighted that it is very crucial for the teachers to choose the poems that is relevant to the
students life and experience. Therefore students will be encouraged to share a poem that has
some insight for them. Teachers should invite the students to read the poems aloud with them.
Poetry is a piece of literature that needs to be spoken and heard. Through choral reading oral
fluency for all students poetry can be improved.
In addition choral reading poetry allows the students to practice pronunciation of a word.
Barrentine (1996) founds that reading aloud is one of the most powerful teaching tools to use
English Language Teaching as it produces a strong language model and reduces anxiety in the
students. In fact, reading aloud is said to be motivational. The discussion on the poem taught in
the classroom will be able to stretch learners language abilities.
Even though, there are many definitions was put forward but Gill (2007) states that
poetry is something that people does and to be more specific, type of writing that people does for
some purposes. For instance, one may write a poem to share their experiences. Thus, students
who read this poetry will be able to read these experiences and relate those experiences to them,
share them and write about those poetrys.
On the other hand, Williams (2004) highlights that poetry is a genre that enriches lines
and supports literacy skills. Typically poems are short pieces of text in which they are much
manageable for lower secondary school students. According to her, a poem contains short lines
and a very descriptive language that will be able to endorse fluency, inferential opinion and
discussion. Apart from that, rhyming verse is easy to read as it is often short and contains
common word patterns. Poetry can actually elicit a powerful emotional response for students and
of the poetrys are carefully chosen, students will feel that what they did in the classroom is
relevant and meaningful to their own lives. Poetry, is one of a successful way to promote
activities whereby students can share their feelings and opinions (such as in discussions and
group work). This will mechanically accelerate students acquisition of language.
Usage of poetry in classroom also would help the students to reinforce their knowledge of
vocabulary and grammar and at the same foster some good reading skills. Introducing poems to
the English learners can inculcate the usage of poetic and creative use of language in relation to
vocabulary and syntax. To understand the specific effect of creative and poetic meaning, learners
need to be taught to explore such sophisticated use of language and this will automatically
develop the students interpretative abilities. Moreover, teaching the learners to exploit the
meaning of the poem can also help learners to develop their abilities to infer meaning and
interpretations. Whenever students respond to literary text, they will instantly become more
confident about expressing their own ideas and emotions. This will help them to gain their
confidence to meddle with the text and its language and motivate the students.
Motivation is another contributing factor in learning a language. Lightbown and Spada
(1999) stresses about the importance of motivation in language learning. They highlighted that
the most prominent way a teacher can influence learners motivation is by making the classroom
an encouraging environment whereby students are inspired to participate in the activities.
Learners who are motivated have a better chance of learning the vocabulary and the unmotivated
ones will have a lesser chance. So in order to enhance the learners vocabulary learning, students
need to be motivated to complete the task given and with the pleasure that achieved, the process
of learning will occur smoothly.
By using poetry, the students can interpret the hidden themes in the poetry easily, In
other words, the usage of poetry in ESL classroom can help them to become more sensitive to
overall features in English. It is a fact that poems provide students with a chance to profoundly
expand their vocabulary as there are many words that can be found which is not included in their
text books. Exposing students to different literatures such as poetry can increase students
vocabulary, linguistic aspects and many more creative aspects. Therefore activities such as cloze
testing can be used by teachers for linguistic purpose. Usually, students will learn vocabulary
through memorization and translation method. However, poems can be very useful and
meaningful in helping students to remember the words more effectively.
Lazar as cited in Toh Annie (2007) remarks that poetry is one of a literary genre that is
under exploited in the ESL classroom generally because of the linguistic density and the
irrelevance to cater the needs and interests of the average students. For that reason, poetry is
seldom chosen as the material in ESL classroom.

2.3 Criteria for the selection of poetrys
In order for poetry to be used to the fullest capacity, the teachers need to find the right
kind of poetry to be used in language teaching. Tomlinson (1986) provides us with a few
strategies on finding the right poem to be used in the language classroom. There are seven
criteria namely, universal appeal, surface simplicity, brevity, potential depth, affective potential,
contemporary language and potential for illustration.
Universal appeal here refers to universal themes such as friendship, love and education
which have great appeal to language learners that have close experience with them. These topics
might attract certain people but unlikely to attract other people.
Surface simplicity refers to the way that poetry is used in the language classroom and
whether or not it is accessible for all the students and there should be nothing in the first line of
the poetry that might terrify some students. According to Blair (1982), poetry should be suited to
the students language level.
Meanwhile brevity is about the usage of short poetry with a heterogeneous class (mixed
ability) in order to reduce the loss of certain students.
Potential depth in the poetry chosen can challenge the good students of the group who
have no problems in responding to the surface of the poem. Teachers must also make sure that
the language in the poetry chosen resembles the target language.

2.4 Problems in using poetry in language teaching
Despite the advantages that one can gain from using poetry in language learning, there
are also a few problems to be faced. One of the most obvious problems would be how poetry
breaks grammar rules. Another feature of poetry that goes against the rule of language will be in
the area of punctuation. Some poets do not punctuate correctly to show the division between the
phrases and this creates difficulties for students to comprehend the poetry. Tomlinson (1986)
highlights another problem why teachers hesitate to use poetry in language teaching, which is the
vocabulary items used in the poetry are too difficult for the average learner to comprehend the
meaning of the poetry. Although, there are a few problems to be faced in using poetry in
language teaching, the advantages with the inclusion of poetry in language learning outweighs
the disadvantages. Tomlinson feels that not comprehending everything in a poetry will not
endanger the learning process in a child.
2.5 Vocabulary
Vocabulary is the total amount of words that make up a language and it upholds a great
importance in expressing thoughts and interaction activities. Nation (1990) states that people can
describe a few things without grammar, but they cant express anything without vocabulary.
Thus, one needs to equip oneself with certain amount of vocabulary to have a meaningful
communication. Learning vocabulary is one of the most prominent steps to getting to learn a
language. This is because, knowledge of vocabulary along with basic comprehension strategies
are the key to mastering the language. As pointed out :

Possessors of this skill in reading and listening are those who are somehow adjusted to
encounter low frequency vocabulary items and to somehow have a meaning for them in the
context in which they are encountered. In short, the basic skill in vocabulary expansion is the
habit of guessing from the context, using the grammatical and pragmatic cues
(Anna, 1979,page.211)

Initially there were two main approaches used to teach vocabulary, grammar translation
method and audio lingual method. Grammar translation dating back in the nineteenth and
twentieth method emphasizes on memorization of vocabulary and the main feature of this
approach is that the list of vocabulary are learnt to illustrate the grammatical rules (Richard and
Renanadya, 2002). Audio lingual method, on the other hand focuses more on the pronunciation
and oral drilling. The area of vocabulary was given less attention as compared to other skills in
language learning during the 1950s and 1960s as the audio lingual method had a major
influence on methodology.
However during the 1970s vocabulary was given importance under the communicative
language teaching method (Nunan, 1998). Nation (1990) also pointed out that vocabulary
development skills are seldom taught thus the students was never given a chance to be attentive
about the significance of vocabulary. Similarly, Allen, (1983) says that many teachers are
emphasizing on grammar rather than vocabulary because some scholars are afraid that the
students would make mistakes in constructing sentences if they learn too many words before
basic grammar was mastered. As a result of this, very little attention was actually paid to
vocabulary learning.
Conventionally, vocabulary was not taught as a particular subject for the students to learn
but it was associated with other skills such as writing, listening, reading and speaking.
Throughout an English lesson, students are required to use their own vocabulary items and they
are only introduced to new vocabulary items during the classroom activities. For many English
learners, vocabulary is learnt without any real practice. Many English teachers are still practicing
the old translation technique to teach vocabulary to the students thus, those vocabulary items can
be forgotten in a short span of time. The thought that if a person studies vocabulary for a period
of time and he will someday comprehend the language is false. In fact, the learning of
vocabulary is the key to comprehension and speech production.
Learning vocabulary is a very complicated process. Vocabulary learning process is about
the ability of the students to recall and recognize the word in its spoken and written form.
According to Harmer (1991), knowing a word involves knowing the meaning of the word
whereby students can relate the word to its suitable context. Secondly, it is about using the word
in the correct context, the ability to spell and pronounce the words correctly and finally it is
about the ability to use it in the appropriate grammatical form.
According to Nguyen and Khuat (2003), even though the students understand the
importance of learning of vocabulary but most of the students learn vocabulary passively due to
a few reasons. First and foremost, the teachers explanation about the language seems to be
boring to the students. Secondly, students have this perception that learning vocabulary just
about knowing the word and thus all other function of the words is ignored. Thirdly, students
acquire new vocabulary through textbooks, and the help of teachers. For instance, the students
might encounter new words in a text and they only ask the teachers to explain the meaning and
usage of the words but they are not willing to apply what they have learned. Therefore, some of
them are not be able to use the word in a different way.

2.6 The acquisition of vocabulary
Vocabulary development is a continuous process whereby learners meet the words plenty
of times throughout the learning process in order to increase their knowledge on the use of the
words. Vocabulary learning should be facilitated through meaningful activities as it can provide
the learners with more opportunities to memorize the words effectively. Krashen (1985) cited in
Blair, (1981) cited in Teresa (2005) explained about the acquisition of vocabulary. According to
this hypotheses, new lexis will be acquired when the meaning of the words are clear to the
learner. The input hypotheses explain about pictures and other authentic materials that are used
by the language teachers. These materials provide conditions that help the input comprehensible.
According to Krashen (1998) the developments in literacy and language only occur in one way,
which is when comprehend messages.
Vocabulary development is marked by the acquisition of words. Thornbury (2005) explains
that a new vocabulary is acquired when the learner is able to identify the meaning of the word
and use it naturally. There are many factors that affect the vocabulary development in learners.
Much research has shown that words that are learnt through active process are more likely to be
remembered than the words that are acquired through normal reading and listening. Hence,
vocabulary practice needs to be more stimulating and interesting. Maley and Morgan (1987) has
listed some ways in which one acquires vocabulary. They are:

- Not a linear but a branching process, therefore the words are not learnt mechanically but
- Not an impersonal but an intensely personal process, therefore the associations and
vibrations that a word sets up depends on our own past and present experience.
- Not a solitary but a social process. We expand our apprehension of word meanings by
interchanging and sharing them with others.

Morgan and Rinvolucci (1990) consolidate Maleys view by telling that learners conceive
vocabulary learning as a relational process. Wallace (1992) agrees that in teaching the
meaning of the words especially at the elementary stage, teachers should establish a direct
link between the words taught and the meaning of the word. Success in the learning very
much depends on the number of senses employed in the learning process. When a child is
progressing in the learning it is crucial that the teacher make special effort to introduce the
vocabulary that is related to the childs environment. The teachers role will prepare the
students for the kind of English used by the native speakers.

2.7 Summary

There is abundance of materials that a teacher can utilize for the purpose of teaching
vocabulary. In choosing the right material to be used in ESL classroom, it is advisable to choose
materials that will spark interest in students. Using literary piece such as poetry in ESL
classroom can motivate the students. In conclusion, the usage of poetry is indeed an effective
approach in order to enhance students vocabulary level and theoretically there is evidence that
clearly shows the effect of using poetry in language learning. Hence the researcher attempts to
investigate if poetry will be an effective tool in teaching vocabulary to the students.

3.0 Introduction
This chapter outlines the methodology and instruments used to conduct this research.
This study investigated the effectiveness of using poetry to teach vocabulary. The purpose of this
study was to determine whether the acquisitions of vocabulary can be improved if poetry is used
to teach the students. This study also hoped to find if the students actually acquired any
significant number of vocabularies from the use of poetry. The results of the methods of
instruction were documented by the researcher in a qualitative format including a reflective
journal, and a survey.
3.1 Research Design
The researcher has used survey and observation in order to evaluate the effectiveness of
using poetry in teaching vocabulary. The purpose of the survey will be to get student opinions to
which method they found the most engaging and see if those methods correlate to scores on their
work. One technique that will be used is observation. This will be one of the primary data
methods. The researcher will be looking to see if the vocabulary words explicitly taught during
the course of the research study are being used by students in their conversations with teachers
and peers. After an observation has been made the researcher will make reflective notes on what
was observed.

3.2 Samples and sampling procedures.
The research was carried out in students in a form two class (2 Bahagia) at SMK Raja
Muda Musa Kuala Kangsar. This class consists of 4 Indian students and 28 Malay students. The
total number of students who participated in this study was 32. The form 2 classes were in the
morning session. The mother tongues for these students were Tamil for the Indians and Bahasa
Melayu for the Malay students. These students were of below intermediate level based on their
mid-term result in the year 2012. The school was located about 5km two from the Kuala Kangsar
town. It was a government aided school. At the conclusion of the action research study, all data
will be collected and analyzed to determine if poetry was effective to teach vocabulary in the
form two class. The researcher will look for patterns and successes to see if there was any
correlation to student learning specific vocabulary words explicitly and academic growth. The
researcher will compile all data and make a conclusion that can be determined from the data and
observations in their completed action researcher project.

3.3 Teachers Report On Observation
The researcher carried out this research in a form two class. Firstly, the researcher had a
brief meeting with the principal of the school and explained the nature of the study to him. Then
the teacher planned the lesson, act on the lesson, observe the lesson (students feed back and
answer sheets), and reflect back on the teaching in order to get an insight of the effectivenness on
using poetry to teach vocabulary.
- Plan
Previously, the teacher who taught the class used the normal way (text books) in teaching
vocabulary and when the reseracher went to the class, the reseacher found out that the students
were lacking in terms of vocabulary. Thus, the teacher planned to use poetry to teach vocabulary
to the students.
- Act
The first lesson was carried on the poem, The Dead Crow by A.Samad Said. During the
induction set, the researcher provides a few facts about pollution and ask the samples about the
causes and effects of pollution. In the explanation part, the researcher explains the vocabulary in
the poetry to the students. As for the practice stage, the researcher ask the samples to answer 10
multiple choice questions on the topic taught. For the production part, the researcher ask the
students to to match words given to words with the similar meaning and after that, the researcher
discusses the answers with the students. Finally, the researcher summarizes the whole lesson.

- Observation
Next the researcher gathered the students work and evaluated them. Based on the data
gathered, the exercise given to the students was a bit hard for the students. They did not manage
to answer the worksheets given by the teacher and they were a bit passive during classroom
- Reflection
Students participation in the classroom is the key stone to identify the active and passive
students. In addition, via students participation, we can measure the understanding of the
students in the lesson on the day. The students on for that lesson seems to be passively
participating and giving responses in the lesson. This is due to a few reasons. Looking back at
my teaching, the students were lacking in vocabulary whereby they could not understand a few
words and therefore they did not manage to participate in classroom and did not manage to
answer questions during the practice and production stage.

- Plan
The teacher planned to use another poetry in teaching vocabulary.
- Act
The second lesson was taught on the to the experimental group using the poetry Lifes
Brief Candle. For the induction session, the researcher aks the students to read the poetry
aloud and for explanation stage, the researcher explained about the poetry to the samples. For
the practice part, the reseacher directed the students to substitute words in the poetry with the
synonyms correctly. For the production part, the researcher asks the students to construct 5
sentences using the words found in the poetry precisely. As for the closure, the researcher
summarizes the whole lesson.
- Observation
Next the researcher gathered the students work and evaluated them. Based on the data
gathered, the exercise given to the students was a bit hard for the students. The students did a
bit better than the first lesson. Therefore, the teacher planned to use another poetry to teach
vocabulary to the students. Some of the issues that surfaced were, students not completing
the task on their assigned day. For example, students didnt have the proper supports needed
to be ready to teach a new word and its definition. Other observations made by the researcher
showed students lack of engagement when being taught a new word by their peers. It was
difficult to actively engage all students when the responsibility of teaching new words was
shared with the students.
- Reflection
Only the one who were sitting in the few first rows were attentive. The ones at the back
did not pay attention but to make the matter worse they were chit chatting and making noise.
Somehow, I manage to get the students to be quiet but yet they still did not pay any attention
to my teaching. In my opinion I think that, his problem resulted from the poetry that I choose
which was not creative enough to grab the students attention. In future, I plan to improve the
students participation in the class by devoting time and thought to shaping the environment
and planning each class session and using more interesting poetry to grab the students
- Plan
This time around, the teacher planned to use a different poetry in order to get the students
attention, whereby in the previous lesson the poetry used was not creative enough to grab the
students attention.
- Act
For the third treatment, the reseacher used the poetry, The Lake Isle of Innisfree. The
reseacher started the lesson by asking the samples to read the poetry aloud. The researcher then
explained the meaning of the poetry and the unfamiliar words to the students. As for the practice
stage, the researcher asks the students to substitute 10 words in the poetry with the synonyms
correctly. For the production part, the researcher asks the students to construct 10 sentences
using the words in the poetry precisely. For the closure part, the researcher summarizes the
whole lesson.
- Observation
During my teaching in the class, I did pose questions to students in order to engage them and
elicit deeper-level thinking about the subject under the discussion. I try to ask more questions as
the art of asking questions is one of the basic skills of good teaching. Socrates believed that
knowledge and awareness were an intrinsic part of each learner.
- Reflection
Therefore, in exercising the craft of good teaching, an educator must reach into the learner's
hidden levels of knowing and awareness in order to help the learner reach new levels of thinking.
Through asking questions I found out that, I can extract not only factual information, but aid
learners in connecting concepts, making inferences, increasing awareness, encouraging creative
and imaginative thought, aiding critical thinking processes, and generally helping learners
explore deeper levels of knowing, thinking, and understanding. The students manage to answer
my questions and also manage to answer the worksheets and i think this resulted from the usage
of poetry.

Lesson 4
- Plan
In this class I have planned to use another poetry to teach vocabulary to the students.
- Act
The final treatment for the group was given on the 13
of September and the samples
were taught using the poetry entitled Heir Conditioning by M.Shanmughalingam. As for the
introduction part, the researcher asks the students to read the poetry aloud. For the
explanation part, the researcher explains the vocabulary in the poetry to the students. As for
the practice part, the researcher directed the students to answer 10 multiple choice questions
on the topic taught. For the production part, students were asked to write one paragraph about
the meaning of the poetry precisely. Finally for the closure part, the teacher summarizes the
whole lesson.

- Observation
The researcher manages to extend and strengthen the students thinking through my
teaching. The activity that was conducted requires the students to come up with the correct
word for the practice part. This is because the teacher used a simple poetry and incorporated
used cooperative learning and also brainstorming during my teaching. Cooperative learning
helps to foster mutual responsibility and teaches students to be more patient and
compassionate meanwhile brainstorming in groups allows creative thinking for new ideas
and encourages full participation because all ideas are equally recorded. The spirit of
cooperation is created whereby one idea can spark off other ideas
- Reflection
The researcher found this lesson using poetry to teach vocabulary to be one of the most
engaging for students. The practice was authentic and was directly tied to what they were
learning about then and there. Students were actively participating in explicit vocabulary
instruction and using rich words in conversation and discussion without even really realizing
what they were doing.

4.1 Observation and data analysis
These forms of documentation showed that poetry were found to be more effective
methods of explicit vocabulary instruction than others and the results will be further shared and
explained. The classroom in which the research was conducted showed signs of increased
student use and understanding of oral, written, and reading vocabulary. As stated above in the
methods sections of analysis the researcher was able to see students using and experimenting
with new words being taught through explicit methods of instruction. Students were attempting
to use and learn new words through peer dialogue, discussions with the researcher, and through
their own personal writing. Overall all, the researcher observed students being the most engaged
through the usage of poetry. These observations correspond with the data collected in the survey.
Survey results showed that the students liked the poetry method as compared to the
normal way of teaching vocabulary which is through the usage of textbooks. The student survey
was a simple analysis of which method the students seemed to be the most engaged in and learn
the most from. Students were asked to rate the three methods of instruction by placing a 1 next to
the method they preferred the most, and 2 next to the method that would be their second choice.

This pie chart depicts that 71 % of the students would like to use poetry in learning
vocabulary and the other 29% thinks the textbook would be the best way to learn vocabulary.
The researcher plans to continue to implement poetry in teaching vocabulary in the
classroom. This way students would be able to include new words in their daily life that are
coming from poetry, as opposed to only including words that are taught to the whole class.
Overall, the researcher found the action research to be a successful study and an important tool in
gaining improvement in teacher instruction and student learning. The students proved that they
learned and the researcher gained valuable insight into using poetry to teach vocabulary.
Text book