FRESH WATER, FRESH WATER CONSUMPTION, ITS RESOURCES AND AWARENESS IN RURAL HOUSEHOLD

Water is a great gift of God for mankind. Water is a grand source for health, food and transportation and also for others purposes. Ninety-seven percent of world water is salty and not fit for human consumption. In Pakistan the problem of water pollution is also growing at an alarming rate. The phenomena increase in country’s population has brought unprecedented pressure on safe drinking water. The main objective of the present study to examine the awareness, attitude and consumption of fresh water in rural areas of Tehsil Samundri. Multistage sampling techniques was applied for data collection. In the first stage one union council was selected randomly from Tehsil Samundri, in the second stage four villages were selected randomly from the selected union council. In the next stage 120 respondents were selected from the selected villages of the UC # 125 of Tehsil Samundri. Comprising 30 respondents from each village by using lottery method. A comprehensive questionnaire was designed having the questions about source of fresh water, system of water storage, good or bad quality of water, health concern. Data were statistically analyzed by using appropriate statistical techniques. Majority i.e. 67.5 percent of the respondents had two source of freshwater. It was found majority i.e. 88.3 percent of the respondents said that the electric pump is a main source of freshwater. About one-fourth i.e. 24.2 percent of the respondents were getting drinking water from their main source i.e. hand pump or electric pump. Majority i.e. 65.8 percent of the respondents used canal bank pump’s water for drinking/cooking purpose.

INTRODUCTION
Global freshwater use is estimated to expand 10% from 2000 to 2010, down from a per decade rate of about 20% between 1960 and 2000. These rates reflect population growth, economic development, and changes in water use efficiency. Projections that this trend will continue have a high degree of certainty. Contemporary water withdrawal is approximately 3,600 cubic kilometers per year globally or 25% of the continental runoff to which the majority of the population has access during the year. If dedicated instream uses for navigation, waste processing, and habitat management are considered, humans then use and regulate over 40% of renewable accessible supplies. Regional variations from differential development pressures and efficiency changes during 1960–2000 produced increases in water use of 15– 32% per decade (Robert et al., 2007) Holy Book Says, and we have sent winds fecundating the clouds, then we sent down water from the Heaven. Then we gave it to you drink and you are not its treasurer (AL-QURAN PART 14S-AL – HIJR VERSE 22). In other Surah, Holy Book Says “It is he who sent down water from the Heavy there is drink there from for you, and from which; are trees of which you pasture”, (AL-QURAN, PART 14 , S-AN-NAHL-VERSE 10)

Previous century has created a great difference between resources and consumers. The most important resource is fresh water. Fresh water is one of the world’s most valuable resources, it is essential to support human life and natural environment. Therefore, we are facing unique challenges in term of our water consumption. Water sources and house ensure good water quality for every one. Over one Billion people do not have access to clean drinking water. Most (women and girls) spend many hours each day walking to collect water (Worldwide Foundation, 2003). The rural areas of Pakistan are also having problems in getting fresh water for domestic purposes. Domestic purposes includes drinking, cooking, washing and other household jobs. The largest city of Karachi, for example, had experienced public agitations and clashes over the shortage of fresh water in recent years. Objectives

Categories objectives of the study are as under: 1. To know the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents.

2. To get first hand information about the attitude of the respondents towards the use of fresh water. 3. 4. To examine the awareness of the rural people about the use of fresh water. To formulate some concrete suggestion for the proper use of fresh water.

METHODOLOGY

In social research, methodological techniques and methods of statistical analysis are very important. Advancement of sociological knowledge during this era has been possible largely due to increasing use of methodological tools and techniques. Multistage sampling techniques was applied for data collection. In the first stage one union council was selected randomly from Tehsil Samundri, in the second stage four villages were selected randomly from the selected union council. In the next stage 120 respondents were selected from the selected villages of the UC # 125 of Tehsil Samundri. Comprising 30 respondents from each village by using lottery method. A questionnaire was designed having the questions about source of fresh water, system of water storage, good or bad quality of water, health concern. Data were statistically analyzed by using appropriate statistical techniques.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 1:

Distribution of the respondents according to their age.

Age categoriesFrequencyPercentage (in years) Upto 30 31-40 41 & above Total

53 44 23 120

44.2 36.7 19.1 100.0

Mean = 34.75 S.D. = 11.84 Table 1 indicates that a major proportion, i.e., 44.2 percent of the respondents belonged to age group upto 30 years, while 36.7 percent of the respondents belonged to age group 31-40 years and 19.1 percent of them belonged to age group 41 and above years. Table 2: Distribution of the respondents according to their education.

Education FrequencyPercentage Illiterate 22 18.3 Upto Matric 43 35.8 Intermediate 23 19.2 Graduation and above32 26.7 Total 120 100.0

Table 2 reveals that 18.3 percent of the interviewed were illiterate, while most of the respondents i.e. 35.8 percent had education upto matric level, 19.2 percent were intermediate and little more than one-fourth i.e. 26.7 percent of the respondents had education graduation and above level. Table 3: Distribution of the respondents according to their income.

Income (in Rs.) FrequencyPercentage Upto 5000 37 30.8 5001-10000 31 25.8 10001 and above52 43.4 Total 120 100.0

Table 3 shows that 30.8 percent of the respondents had income upto Rs. 5000, while about onefourth i.e. 25.8 percent of the respondents had income Rs. 5001-10000 and major proportion i.e. 43.4 percent of the respondents had income Rs. 10001 and above. Table 4: Distribution of the respondents according to their main source of freshwater.

Main source of freshwaterFrequencyPercentage Hand pump 14 11.7 Electric pump 106 88.3 Total 120 100.0

Table 4 indicates that 11.7 percent of the respondents reported that hand pump is a main source of freshwater, while majority i.e. 88.3 percent of the respondents said that the electric pump is a main source of freshwater. Table 5: water. Distribution of the respondents according to their satisfaction with the quality of

Satisfaction with the quality of waterFrequencyPercentage To great extent 32 26.7 To some extent 7 5.8 Not at all 81 67.5 Total 120 100.0

Table 5 reflects that about one-fifth i.e. 26.7 percent of the respondents were satisfied to great extent with the quality of water, while 5.8 percent satisfied to some extent and majority i.e. 67.5 percent of the respondents were not satisfied with the quality of the water. Similar results were found by Aquastat (2003). He found that the bottled water quality is generally good as compare to groundwater. Table 6: Distribution of the respondents according to the reasons of dissatisfaction with the quality of water. Reasons FrequencyPercentage Bad quality46 56.8 Salty water 20 24.7 Any other 15 18.5 Total 81 100.0

Industrial, tourist and institutional wastes put an additional burden on pollution of the river water quality (Al-Rawi, 2005).

Table 6 depicts that majority of the respondents i.e. 56.8 percent were dissatisfied with water due to bad quality, while 24.7 percent of the respondents were dissatisfied because their water was salty, and 18.5 percent of them were dissatisfied with the quality of water due to other reasons. Table 7: water. Distribution of the respondents according to the main source of drinking/cooking

Main source of drinking /cooking waterFrequencyPercentage Hand pump 8 6.7 Electric pump 28 23.3 WASA municipal 5 4.2 Canal bank pump 79 65.8 Total 120 100.0

Table 7 shows that 6.7 percent of the respondents were getting water from hand pump for drinking/cooking purpose, while 23.3 percent of the respondents used electric pump for drinking/cooking water, only 4.2 percent used WASA/Municipal’s water and majority i.e. 65.8 percent of the respondents used canal bank pump’s water for drinking/cooking purpose. Table 8: Distribution of the respondents according to adopt any measures developed to improve the quality of drinking water. Adopt any measures to improve the quality of drinking waterFrequencyPercentage Yes 3 2.5 No 117 97.5 Total 120 100.0

Table 8 indicates that only 2.5 percent of the respondents were adopted measures to improve the quality of drinking water, while a huge majority i.e. 97.5 percent of the respondents did not adopt any measure to improve the quality of drinking water. The adopted measures were filtration and boiling of water.

Table 9: Distribution of the respondents according to their knowledge about the diseases due to bad quality of water. Diseases Yes No Total Freq.%ageFreq.%ageFreq.%age

Diarrhea 91 Food poisoning4 Vomiting 11 Cholera 92 Viral hepatitis 75 Gas trouble 2

75.8 3.3 9.2 76.7 62.5 1.7

29 116 109 28 45 118

24.2 96.7 90.8 23.3 37.5 98.3

120 120 120 120 120 120

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Table 9 depicts that the respondents knowledge about diseases due to bad quality of water. It was found that majority of the respondents i.e. 75.8, 76.7 and 62.5 percent had knowledge about diseases i.e. diarrhea, cholera and viral hepatitis due to bad quality of water, respectively. While 3.3, 9.2 and 1.7 percent of the respondents had knowledge about food poisoning, vomiting and gas trouble due to bad quality of water. Table 10: Distribution of the respondents according to their awareness that pipelines could affect the quality of drinking water. Awareness FrequencyPercentage To great extent 39 32.5 To some extent27 22.5 Not at all 54 45.0 Total 120 100.0

Table 10 reflects that about one-third i.e. 32.5 percent of the respondents were aware to great extent with the statement “pipelines could affect the quality of drinking water”, while 22.5 percent satisfied to some extent and major proportion i.e. 45.0 percent of the respondents had not awareness about “pipelines could affect the quality of drinking water”. Table 11: Activity Dish washing Distribution of the respondents according to the use of water for domestic use. Once day 6 (5.0%) 63 (52.5%) 11 (9.2%) 77 aTwice day 114 (95.0%) 57 (47.5) aFew times in aFew time week month in aNever -

Bathroom cleaning House cleaning

-

-

-

69 (57.5%) 30

26 (21.7%) 5

14 (11.7%) 5

Cloth washing

3

(64.2) Washing vehicles 2 (1.7%) 23 (19.2%) 5 (4.2%) 9 (7.5%)

(2.5%) -

(25.0%) 25 (20.8%) 23 (19.2%) -

(4.2%) 29 (24.2%) -

(4.2%) 64 (53.3%) 67 (55.8%) 88 (73.3%) 106 (88.3%)

Watering plants

7 (5.8%) -

Watering lawns

27 (22.5%) -

Water animals

5 (4.2%)

-

Table 11 shows that 5.0 percent of the respondents used water for dish washing once a day, while a huge majority i.e. 95.0 percent of them used water for dish washing twice a day. Slightly more than half i.e. 52.5 percent of the respondents used water for bathroom cleaning once a day, while 47.5 percent used water for bathroom cleaning twice a day. About 9.2 percent of the respondents used water once a day for house cleaning, 57.5 percent used few times in a week, 21.7 percent used few time in a month for house cleaning and 11.7 percent of them were not using water for house cleaning. Majority i.e. 64.2 percent of the respondents were using water for cloth washing once a day, while 2.5 percent used twice a day, one-fourth of the respondents used few times in a week, 4.2 percent used few time in a month and 4.2 percent of them never used water for cloth washing in their homes. Only 1.7 percent of the respondents washing vehicles daily, while 20.8 percent washing vehicles few times in a week and 24.2 percent washing their vehicles few times in a month and majority 53.3 percent of them never used water for washing vehicles. About 19.2 percent of the respondents used water once a day for watering plants, 5.8 percent used water twice a day, 19.2 percent used few time in a week and 55.8 percent never used water for watering of plants. Only 4.2 percent of the respondents used water once a day for watering lawns, 22.5 percent used few time in a month and 73.3 percent never used water for watering lawns. About 7.5 percent of the respondents used water for animals on time in a day, while 4.2 percent twice a day and 88.3 percent of the respondents never used water for animals, because they have no animal.

REFERENCES

AL-QURAN PART 14-S-AL – HIJR VERSE 22).

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AL-QURAN, PART 14 , S-AN-NAHL-VERSE 10) Al-Rawi, S.M. 2005. Contribution of man-made activities to the pollution of the Tigris within Mosul area/IRAQ. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2005 Aug;2(2):245-50. Engineering Environment Research Center (ERR), Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq. Aquastat, 2003. Review of world water resources by country. FAO, Rome http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/aglw/aquastat/main/index.stm Robert, B., C. Caudill, J. Chilton, E.M. Douglas, M. Meybeck and D. Prager, 2007. Fresh water. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and Trends, Pages 165-207. Worldwide Foundation, 2003. FRESHWATER: A PRECIOUS COMMODITY. Online. http://www.wwfpak.org/freshwater.php.

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