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MARK 940 : Chapter 4 questions

Why is it important to understand McGuires information processing paradigm?

It is important to understand McGuires information processing paradigm because it helps us
understand how to effectively accomplish a key communication goal: brand attitude. It shows us
how we can affect an attitudinal change and also shows us the steps required to create a
successful communication. By using these paradigm we can understand the psychological
aspect of how communication works and thus know what must happen if advertising and
promotion are to work. All in all, this paradigm will help advertisers create successful
communication message and assist in fixing faulty ones.
o P(p)- probability of being presented the message
o P(a)- probability of paying attention to the message
o P(c) probability of comprehending the message
o P(y) probability of yielding the message
o P(r) Probability of retaining the intention
o P(b) probability of behaving
(Page 61-63)

How does the communication response sequence help the manager to better understand
what is needed for effective strategic planning in communication?
The communication response sequence is a simplified version of McGuires information
processing paradigm. They both help managers understand that the communication message
needs to be appropriately distributed its needs an appropriate media outlet. As if one does not
see the advertising or promotion it has no opportunity of working. Second they also understand
the importance of creating a message that is easily comprehendible as if the audience cannot
process the message there can be no effects or they may process the message incorrectly and
you could have an undesired effect. Thus it shows managers that they need to focus on the
exposure and processing steps so as to ensure the desired communication effect and target
audience action. In other words, it helps managers understand that the overall advertising and
promotion planning must correspond to what it takes for advertising and promotion to be
successful the 4 steps mentioned below.
o Exposure corresponds to McGuires presentation step
o Processing encompasses both the attention and comprehension steps
o Communication effects encompass both the yielding and retention steps
o Target audience action corresponds to the behavior step
(Page 63, 65)

What are the major benefits of sequential planning?
The major benefit of sequential planning is that allows the marketer or decision maker to make
adjustment when and where necessary. The communication response sequence like the
advertising planning process is sequential and hierarchical, but the major difference is that a
failure at one step will not invalidate the whole process. With the communication response
sequence if there is a failure at any step then this invalidates the whole process. However with
the sequential planning process of the advertising plan the marketing has the ability to work
backwards for the objectives set and allows them to judge failure points and adjust accordingly.
For instance, if there is a wrong decision made with the selection of the target audience then
the objective of the plan is not invalidated, the target audience is simply wrong and must be
adjusted. However in the communication planning process if there is exposure and but no
processing o f the message then the both the exposure plan and processing is invalidated and
the whole process must start again.
Sequential planning allows marketers to see their end objective and work towards it in
the subsequent steps, all the while allowing for adjustments to be made when and if necessary.
(Page 68-70)

What is the role of the marketing plan in strategic planning for advertising and other
marketing communication?
The role of marketing plan is to set written objectives for the advertising and promotional
planning to adhere to and to also ensure that marketing communications are in line with the
overall marketing plan, brand positioning and brand image. In addition with a clearly stated
marketing plan one has objectives to achieve which in turn make it possible to coordinate the
advertising and promotion programs with the plans of other company units. With written
objectives all of the managers involved will know what the demands upon the company will be
at any given time
o For example: financial planning and production plans should be matched with
advertising expectations of the brand. If we know our product sells significantly better at
certain times of the year, advertising strategy will be geared to those peal selling
periods. In terms of cash flow for the company more money will be required during
these peak selling periods for marketing expenses as well as for raw materials and
perhaps labor as well. Production will need to plan for greater manufacturing demands
for the brand in terms of raw materials, labor and time.
Additionally, these written objectives are important for the advertising agency as well. If
everyone working on an account account service, creative, media, planning know what the
advertisers objectives are for the brand, there is less opportunity for misunderstandings
between the agency and the client advisory or between groups within the agency. A 3

advantage to having written objectives is that they produce something against which both the
advertiser and the agency can evaluate the brands performance.
(Page 70)

Why is it important to understand the difference between goals and objectives in strategic
planning for advertising and other marketing communication?
Objectives define the general ends sought by the company, while goals are objectives that have
very specific definition.
Most companies will have specific goals of one sort or another when they put together
their marketing plan. After all, without some estimate of likely sales, not only will it be difficult
to determine what money will be available for marketing expenditures, but also the company
will not be able to plan effectively for things such as production schedules, raw material
acquisition and so on. If only the vague objective of increasing sales has been adopted it should
be clear that important planning decisions will be very difficult if not impossible to formulate.
Thus, goals and objectives are important to the marketing plan as it gives managers a metric to
measure success or failure, to help make planning decisions and also to set milestones that they
need to achieve.
Furthermore, goals and objectives are related to the communication response sequence
and it is important to understand when to use a goal and when to use an objective. In the
communication response sequence objectives are set at every level of planning, but goals are
set only where they make sense and can be measured. This means that goals are set for an
individual adverts contribution to exposure and message processing and for a campaign when
considering communication effects and target audience action
(Pages 70-72)