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A Case Study of Nationalised Ban
Assistant Professor,
University School of Management,
Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, INDIA
Email I! a"ay#solkhe$reiffmail%com, asolkhe$kuk%ac%in
Mo&ile! '()(*+ ,,)+-
It is eclare that article title .OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AMONG
BANKING PROFESSIONALS: A Case Study of Nationalised Ban/
is original 0ork of author% It is further state that neither the article has
&een 1u&lishe &efore nor it has &een sent for 1u&lication in any other
A%ay Sol&e
Assistant Professor,
University School of Management,
Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra
Stress is inevitable in our society. Researchers on stress make it clear that, to
enter in to the complex area of stress, especially in to the area of occupational
stress, is very difficult. Stress is an unavoidable consequence of modern living.
During the past decade, the banking sector had under gone rapid and striking
changes like policy changes due to globalisation and liberalisation, increased
competition due to the entrance of more private (corporate) sector banks,
donsi!ing, introduction of ne technologies, etc. Due to these changes, the
employees in the banking sector are experiencing a high level of stress. "n light of
the above, the present study attempt to thro light on the various problems of
occupational stress among banking professionals specifically the #ationalised
bank employees. $or meeting the ob%ective &ccupational Stress "ndex (&S")
constructed by Srivastava and Singh as used in the study. 'he () item
questionnaire is categorised into *+ sub scales namely Role &verload, Role
,mbiguity, Role -onflict, .nreasonable /roup and 0olitical 0ressure,
Responsibility for 0ersons, .nder 0articipation, 0oerlessness, 0oor 0eer
Relations, "ntrinsic "mpoverishment, 1o Status, Strenuous 2orking -onditions
and .nprofitability. 'he sub%ects ere the 34 professionals occupying the
managerial positions in the 0un%ab #ational 5ank. 'he study as largely
concentrated in #orthern Region of "ndia focusing on the branches of 0#5
located in 0un%ab, 6aryana and -handigarh. 'he result obtained as analysed
using descriptive statistics and 0earson -orrelation. 'he study concluded that
employees of the selected bank are experiencing high degree of stress ith respect
to the dimensions of 0oor 0eer Relations, Responsibility of persons, Strenuous
2orking -onditions, 0oerlessness and .nprofitability.
Key 2ors! 3ccu1ational Stress Ine4 53SI6, Stress, 7ole 3verloa, 7ole Am&iguity an
7ole 8onflict, 9ank Em1loyee, Nationalise 9ank,
:he avent of technological revolution in all 0alks of life cou1le 0ith glo&alisation,
1rivatisation 1olicies has rastically change conventional 1atterns in all sectors% :he &anking
sector is of no e4em1tion% :he ;(('s sa0 raical 1olicy changes 0ith regaring to fiscal eficit
an structural changes in Inia so as to 1re1are her to co1e 0ith the ne0 economic 0orl orer%
<lo&alisation an 1rivatisation le 1olicies com1elle the &anking sector to reform an a"ust to
have a com1etitive ege to co1e 0ith multinationals le environment% :he im1lications of the
a&ove sai transformations have affecte the social, economic an 1sychological omains of the
&ank em1loyees an their relations% Evience from e4isting literature states that more than *'=
of the &ank em1loyees have one or other 1ro&lem irectly or inirectly relate to these rastic
changes% All the factors iscusse a&ove are 1ros1ective attri&utes to cause occu1ational stress
an relate isorers among the em1loyees%
:he frontiers of kno0lege on the conce1t of stress an its effects are e41aning in all
irections% :here e4ists a multi1licity of theories an invaliate e41lanations to the term stress%
9ut there is general acce1tance of the conce1t of stress as a escri1tion of the iniviual>s
reactions to the environmental emans an influences 0hich are 1otential stressors% Stressors
com&ine to 1ressure an iniviual until stress evelo1s% Hans Selye efines stress as, ?the non@
s1ecific res1onse of the &oy to any eman mae u1on it?% 9eehr an Ne0man efine "o& stress
as, .a conition arising from the interaction of 1eo1le an their "o&s an characteriAe &y
changes 0ithin 1eo1le that force them to eviate from their normal functioning%/ :hus stress is
an aa1tive res1onse to an e4ternal situation that results in 1hysical, 1sychological an
&ehavioural eviations for organisational 1artici1ants% 8oo1er 5;()BC ;()+6 summariAe an
categoriAe si4 factors res1onsi&le for stress ;% Dactors intrinsic to the "o& 5heat, noise, chemical
fumes, shift 0ork6C -% 7elationshi1s at 0ork 5conflict 0ith co@0orkers or su1ervisors, lack of
social su11ort6C B% 7ole in the organisation 5for e4am1le, role am&iguity6C ,% 8areer evelo1ment
5lack of status, lack of 1ros1ects for 1romotion, lack of a career 1ath, "o& insecurity6C +%
3rganisational structure an climate 5lack of autonomy, lack of o11ortunity to 1artici1ate in
ecision making, lack of control over the 1ace of 0ork6C *% Home an 0ork interface 5conflict
&et0een omestic an 0ork rolesC lack of s1ousal su11ort for remaining in the 0orkforce6%
Sources of managerial stress have &een 0ell ocumente since the late ;(E's% Ivancevich
an Matteson 5;()'6 ientifie four categories of 0ork stressors! 1hysical environment,
iniviual level 5a mi4er of role an career evelo1ment varia&les6, grou1 level 51rimarily
relationshi1@&ase6 an organisational level 5a mi4ture of climate, structure, "o& esign an task
characteristic6% Schuler 5;()-6 also ientifies seven categories of 0ork stressors in organisations!
Fo& Gualities, 7elationshi1s, 3rganisational Structure, Physical Gualities, 8areer Develo1ment,
8hange an 7ole in the organisation% Guick an Guick 5;(),6 1ro1ose four categories of
stressors! task emans, 1hysical emans an inter1ersonal emans%
Although a lot of stuies have &een conucte on the 1sychosocial sie of the ne0 1olicy
regime in many sectors, there are only fe0 stuies, as far as the &anking sector is concerne,
0hile the same sector has &een rastically influence &y the ne0 1olicies% In this "uncture, the
1resent stuy is unertaken to thro0 light in to the 1athogenesis of s1ecific 1ro&lems of &ank
em1loyees relate to occu1ational stress%
7esearch has sho0n that the 1sychological emans of a "o& can have 1ervasive an 1rofoun
emotional an 1hysical effects on the lives of 0orkers 5Kahn, ;();CKarasek an :heorell, ;(('C
Matteson an Ivancevich, ;()-6% :he e41losive increase in research on occu1ational stress,
es1ecially uring the last ecae 5for e4am1le, 8oo1er an 8art0right, ;((,C Guick et al%, ;((EC
S1iel&erger an 7eheiser, ;((,C S1iel&erger et al%, -''-6, has clearly esta&lishe that "o&@relate
stress has an averse im1act on 1rouctivity, a&senteeism, 0orker turnover an em1loyee health%
In aition to these severe conseHuences of stress@relate 1ro&lems in the 0ork1lace, reuce
1rouctivity an iminishe customer services are hien costs that often result from Ie4hauste
or e1resse em1loyees 0ho are not energetic, accurate, or innovative at 0orkJ 5Karasek an
:heorell, ;((', 1% ;*E6% Accoring to Matteson an Ivancevich 5;()-6, costs in the US economy
relating to reuce 1rouctivity, a&senteeism an 0orker turnover have continue to escalate as a
function of measure occu1ational stress%
7a1i change is no0 a funamental characteristic of moern 0orking life, 0ith greater emans
to learn ne0 skills in orer to aa1t to increasingly com1le4 ty1es of 0ork% A stuy conucte
&y the Princeton Survey 7esearch Associates 5;((E6 foun that E+ 1er cent of em1loyees
&elieve that they e41erience more on@the@"o& stress than 0orkers i a generation ago%
Stressors at the iniviual level have &een stuie more than any other category% 7ole
conflicts, role am&iguity, role overloa an uner loa, is 0iely e4amine iniviual stressors
5Mc <rath ;(E*C Ne0ton an Keenan, ;()E6% It is also re1orte &y many researchers that the lo0
"o& satisfaction 0as associate 0ith high stress 5Holling0orth et al%, A&ul Halim, ;();C Keller
et al%, ;(E+C Keigh et al, ;())6%
Dinancial com1ensation of 0orkers for stress@relate 1ro&lems has also increase
markely in recent years 5<ri11a an Dur&in, ;()*6, as reflecte most clearly in a ramatic rise
in the occu1ational claims of em1loyees seeking com1ensation for stress@inuce 1sychological
ysfunctions 5Ko0man, ;((B6% Since ;(E', stuies of stress in the 0ork1lace have increase
more than -' fol, 0hereas research on family stress has receive consiera&ly less attention%
8onsistent 0ith these results, a stuy conucte &y the St% Paul Dire an Marine Insurance
8om1any 5;((-6 foun that 1ro&lems at 0ork 0ere more strongly associate 0ith health
com1laints than 0ere any other life stressor events, incluing family 1ro&lems% <ro0ing
recognition of the averse conseHuences of stress in the 0ork1lace for em1loyee health an 0ell@
&eing is clearly reflecte in an increasing num&er of stuies of occu1ational stress 1u&lishe in
the meical an 1sychological literature uring the 1ast Huarter@century%
8o&& 5;(E+6 has the o1inion that, .:he res1onsi&ility loa creates severe stress among
0orkers an managers%/ If the iniviual manager cannot co1e 0ith the increase res1onsi&ilities
it may lea to several 1hysical an 1sychological isorers among them% 9rook 5;(EB6 re1orte
that Hualitative changes in the "o& create a"ustmental 1ro&lem among em1loyees% :he
inter1ersonal relationshi1s 0ithin the e1artment an &et0een the e1artments create Hualitative
ifficulties 0ithin the organisation to a great e4tent%
Miles an Perreault 5;(E*6 ientify four ifferent ty1es of role conflict! ;% Intra@sener
role conflict -% Inter sener role conflict% B% Person@ role conflictC ,% 7ole over loa% :he use of
role conce1ts suggests that "o& relate stress is associate 0ith iniviual, inter1ersonal, an
structural varia&les 5KatA an Kahn, ;(E)C 2hetten, ;(E)6% :he 1resence of su11ortive 1eer
grou1s an su11ortive relationshi1s 0ith su1er visors are negatively correlate 0ith 7%8% 58a1lan
et al%, ;(*,6% :here is evience that role incum&ents 0ith high levels of role am&iguity also
res1on to their situation 0ith an4iety, e1ression, 1hysical sym1toms, a sense of futility or
lo0er self@esteem, lo0er levels of "o& involvement an organisational commitment, an
1erce1tions of lo0er 1erformance on the 1art of the organisation, of su1ervisors, an of
themselves 59rief an Alag, ;(E*C <reene, ;(E-6%
3ccu1ational stress is an increasingly im1ortant occu1ational health 1ro&lem an a
significant cause of economic loss% 3ccu1ational stress may 1rouce &oth overt 1sychological
an 1hysiologic isa&ilities% Ho0ever it may also cause su&tle manifestation of mor&iity that
can affect 1ersonal 0ell@&eing an 1rouctivity 5Guick, Mur1hy, Hurrel an 3rman, ;((-6% A "o&
stresse iniviual is likely to have greater "o& issatisfaction, increase a&senteeism, increase
freHuency of rinking an smoking, increase in negative 1sychological sym1toms an reuce
as1irations an self@esteem 5Fick an Payne, ;()'6% :he use of role conce1ts suggests that
occu1ational stress is associate 0ith iniviual, inter1ersonal an structural varia&les 5KutA an
Kahn, ;(E)C 2hetten, ;(E)6%
It is reaily a11arent that increase concerns a&out "o& stress have stimulate numerous
stuies that have hel1e to ientify im1ortant sources of stress in the 0ork1lace 5Guick et al%,
;((E6% It shoul &e note, ho0ever, that the theories that guie this research have iffere from
stuy to stuy, resulting in iverse goals of investigation, conce1tual confusion an inconsistent
an often conflicting research finings 5Kasl, ;(E)C Schuler, ;()'6%Kahn an 9yosiere 5;((-6
have revie0e an evaluate the most influential moels of occu1ational stress an summariAe
the em1irical finings relating to these moels% 2hile some investigators have focuse on the
1ressures of a 1articular "o&, others have &een concerne 1rimarily 0ith the &ehavioral an
health conseHuences of 0ork@relate stress 5Schuler, ;((;6% 8onseHuently, in orer to clarify an
inter1ret research finings on occu1ational stress, it is essential to unerstan the conce1tual
moels that have guie this research%
F"en#$% Ca&lan and Ka$n's Pe"son ( En)i"on*ent Fit +PE,Fit- t$eo"y
Drench, 8a1lan, Kahn an their colleagues 5Drench an 8a1lan, ;(E-C Drench et al%, ;()-C Drench
an Kahn, ;(*-C Kahn et al%, ;(*,6 su&seHuently incor1orate Ke0inJs conce1ts of stress an
strain in their Person L Environment Dit 5PE@Dit6 theory, 0hich is 0iely acce1te as a ma"or
conce1tual frame0ork for research on occu1ational stress 58hemers et al%, ;()+C E0ars an
8oo1er, ;(('6% In the conte4t of this theoretical orientation, occu1ational stress is efine in
terms of "o& characteristics that 1ose a threat to the iniviual resulting from a 1oor match
&et0een the a&ilities of the em1loyee an the emans of the "o& 5Drench an 8a1lan, ;(E-6% :he
0ork1lace stress that occurs as a result of incom1ati&le 1ersonL environment fit 1rouces
1sychological strain that may contri&ute to stress@relate 1hysical isorers 5Drench et al%, ;()-6%
St"ess at .o" Model
8oo1er an MarshallJs 5;(E*C Marshall an 8oo1er, ;(E(6 Stress at 2ork moel is similar to PE@
Dit theory, &ut is more s1ecific in ientifying five ma"or categories of "o& 1ressure an lack of
organisational su11ort in the 0ork1lace that contri&ute to occu1ational stress! 5;6 1ressures
intrinsic to the "o&C 5-6 the em1loyeeJs role in the organisationC 5B6 inter1ersonal relationshi1s at
0orkC 5,6 limitations in career evelo1mentC an 5+6 organisational structure an climate%
Ka"ase's /e*and(Cont"ol Model
KarasekJs 5;(E(6 DemanL8ontrol moel focuses on interactions &et0een the o&"ective emans
of the 0ork environment an the ecision latitue of em1loyees in meeting these emans
5Karasek an :heorell, ;(('6% Accoring to this moel, Ithe greatest risk to 1hysical an mental
health from stress occurs to 0orkers facing high 1sychological 0orkloa emans or 1ressures
com&ine 0ith lo0 control or ecision latitue in meeting those emansJ 5Schnall, ;((), 1% ;6%
:he com&ination of high "o& emans 0ith relatively little control contri&utes to lo0ere
1rouctivity an a greater risk of health@relate 1ro&lems 5:heorell an Karasek, ;((*6% :he
DemanL8ontrol moel also recogniAes the &eneficial effects of social su11ort from su1ervisors
an co@0orkers 5Karasek et al%, ;()-C Schnall, ;(()6%
La0a"us' T"ansa#tional P"o#ess Model
KaAarusJ 5;(**6 :ransactional Process moel of 1sychological stress an co1ing conce1tualiAes
stress as a 1rocess that involves a com1le4 transaction &et0een a 1erson an herMhis environment
5KaAarus an Dolkman, ;(),6% In a11lying this moel to occu1ational stress, KaAarus 5;((;6
em1hasiAes the istinction &et0een sources of stress 5IstressorsJ6 in the 0ork1lace an the
emotional reactions that are evoke 0hen a 1articular stressor is cognitively a11raise as
threatening% :hree ty1es of a11raisal meiate the effects of stressors on emotional reactions%
Primary a11raisal occurs 0hen a stressor is evaluate in terms of its immeiate im1act on a
1ersonJs 0ell@&eing% Seconary a11raisal takes into account the resources of the em1loyee for
co1ing 0ith the stressor% :he thir ty1e, rea11raisal, incor1orates ne0 information resulting from
the 0orkerJs a11raisal of the effectiveness of herMhis efforts to co1e 0ith a 1articular stressor%
National Institute fo" O##u&ational Safety and 1ealt$ +NIOS1- Model
National Institute for 3ccu1ational Safety an Health 5NI3SH6 efines "o& stress in terms of Ithe
harmful 1hysical an emotional res1onses that occur 0hen the reHuirements of the "o& o not
match the ca1a&ilities, resources, or nees of the 0orkerJ5NI3SH, -''-6% :his efinition of "o&
stress, as0ell as the resulting moel evelo1e &y NI3SH,0as 1rimarily influence &y PE@Dit
theory% :he NI3SH moel e41licitly recogniAes that e41osure to stressful 0orking conitions
1lays a 1rimary role in causing "o& stress an influencing 0orker safety an health, 0hile
Iiniviual an other situational factors can intervene to strengthen or 0eaken this influenceJ
5i&i%, 1% *6% Ho0ever, the NI3SH moel gives little attention to the significant influence of the
em1loyeeJs cognitive a11raisal of sources of stress in the 0ork1lace%
S&iel!e"2e"'s State(T"ait P"o#ess +STP- Model
S1iel&ergerJs StateL:rait Process 5S:P6 moel of occu1ational stress focuses on the 1erceive
severity an freHuency of occurrence of t0o ma"or categories of stressor events, "o& 1ressures
an lack of su11ort 5S1iel&erger et al%, -''-6% :he S:P moel &uils on the PE@Dit an
:ransactional Process moels &y eneavoring to integrate these moels 0ith the conce1tion of
an4iety, anger an e1ression as emotional states an 1ersonality traits 5S1iel&erger, ;(E-C
S1iel&erger et al%, ;()BC S1iel&erger et al%, ;())6% :he S:P moel gives greater em1hasis than
other moels to the effects of iniviual ifferences in 1ersonality traits in etermining ho0
0ork1lace stressors are 1erceive an a11raise%
O)%e*ti+es of t&e Study:
:he 1resent research 0ork is intene!
;% :o analyse the areas of occu1ational stress among the Nationalise &ank em1loyees
-% :o assess the level of stress among &ank em1loyees on the ;- imensions of 7ole 3ver@
Koa, 7ole Am&iguity, 7ole 8onflict, Unreasona&le <rou1 an Political Pressure,
7es1onsi&ility for Persons, Uner Partici1ation, Po0erlessness, Poor Peer 7elations,
Intrinsic, Im1overishment, Ko0 Status, Strenuous 2orking 8onitions an
B% :o unerstan the various moels an theories of occu1ational stress%
,% :o revie0 the literature 1ertaining to occu1ational stress, relate conce1ts an factors
unerlying it%
+% :o offer some via&le an 1ractica&le suggestions, result oriente guielines to the &ank
unerstuy to reuce the level of stress among their em1loyees%
:heoretical consierations an 1revious researches ena&le the researcher to formulate the
follo0ing hy1othesis
'here are no signs of presence of stress among employees of nationalised bank on the various
dimensions of &ccupational Stress "ndex.
Resea,*& $esi-n
:he 1resent stuy is e41loratory as 0ell as escri1tive in nature in conte4t of nationalise &anks%
Here the researcher on the one han, has attem1te to lay o0n the theoretical groun for
occu1ational stress an trie to e41lore its theories, moels an various stuies relate to it% 3n
the other han he has trie to escri&e the 1sychological situation of &ank em1loyees through the
moe of a scale calle 3SI 53ccu1ational Stress Ine46%
Managers 0orking in the ifferent &ranches of Pun"a& National 9ank 5PN96 s1ecifically locate
in Northern 1art of Inia from Haryana, Pun"a&, an 8hanigarh form as su&"ects% In total
researcher contacte ;,' managers to 0hom the HuestionnairesJ 0as istri&ute, out of 0hich ('
0ere receive com1lete in all res1ects% :herefore, the e4act sam1le 0as ('%
Tools used fo, $ata Colle*tion
:he 3ccu1ational Stress Ine4 5Srivastava, A%K%, an Singh, A%P%, ;();6 0as use for ata
collection% :he scale consists of ,* items, each to &e rate on the five 1oint scale% 3ut of ,*
items -) are I:rue L KeyeJ an last ;) are IDalse L KeyeJ% :he items relate to almost all
relevant com1onents of the "o& siAe 0hich cause stress in some 0ay or the other, such as, role
over@loa, role am&iguity, role conflict, unreasona&le grou1 an 1olitical 1ressure, res1onsi&ility
for 1ersons, uner 1artici1ation, 1o0erlessness, 1oor 1eer relations, intrinsic, im1overishment,
lo0 status, strenuous 0orking conitions an un1rofita&ility%
Relia)ility of t&e S*ale! :he relia&ility ine4 5:a&le No% B6 ascertaine &y S1lit Half 53
Even6 metho an 8ron&achJs al1ha L coefficient for the scale as a 0hole 0ere foun to &e %(B+
an %(' res1ectively% In general, in 1sychology researches, a goo measure shoul have a
8ron&achJs Al1ha of at least %*' an 1refera&ly closer to %('% :herefore, in the 1resent stuy the
scale can also &e consiere relia&le% :he relia&ility inices of the ;- su&@scales 0ere also
com1ute on the 8ron&achJs al1ha metho% :he ta&le no% - recors the o&taine inices%
$ata Analysis and Results
:he results o&taine from (' su&"ects on occu1ational stress on ;- su&scales of 3%S%I 0ere
analyse using escri1tive statistics an PearsonJs correlation% In the 1resent stuy effect of
occu1ational stress 0as investigate% :he escri1tive statistics is given in :a&le B%Dor measuring
the effect of various imensions on each other, Inter@item 8orrelation 0as also 1erforme an
Inter@correlation Matri4 is 1resente through :a&le No% +
:he result o&taine sho0s the 1resence of significant stress among the em1loyees of the &ank
unerstuy% 5See :a&le No% ;%6%It is o&serve from the total of mean scores 5Mean Score N
-EB%,;6 on the ;- su&@scales of 3ccu1ational Stress Ine4 i%e% greater the mean scores greater the
stress level of the em1loyees unerstuy% Hence the null hy1othesis i%e% 'here are no signs of
presence of stress among employees of bank understudy on the various dimensions of
&ccupational Stress "ndex stans re"ecte an alternate hy1othesis is esta&lishe that there are
o&serva&le signs of stress among em1loyees of &ank unerstuy on the various imensions of
3ccu1ational Stress Ine4%
:o gain more insight into assessment of the level of stress 0ith res1ect to the ;- imensions
of 3SI iniviually, Mean Scores are o&serve an inter1rete accoringly% Mean scores on the
various su&@scales of 3ccu1ational Stress Ine4 are sho0n in :a&le No% , an the same is
iscusse in the follo0ing 1aragra1hs!
:he mean scores on the factors such as Poor Peer 7elations 5PP76 5Mean Score N B%;E6
an 7es1onsi&ility of Persons 57P6 5Mean Score N B%;+6 are higher than other factors of
3SI% It is conclue that em1loyees are highly stresse on these t0o imensions% It is
further inter1rete that stress level is high ue to the 1oor inter1ersonal relationshi1s 0ith
colleagues, colleagues lack of coo1eration in solving aministrative 1ro&lems% Durther to
a is that managers are not a&le to take an is1ose@off the res1onsi&ility of other "unior
em1loyees, their future, the 1rogress of the organisation as a 0hole ue to the
1henomenon of less autonomy in their o0n "o&s an less 1lace of suggestion in 1ro&lem
solving an ecision making, a high feeling of 1o0erlessness e4ist, all these leas to
increase amount of stress%
Mean scores is o&serve lo0 on the imensions like 7ole Am&iguity 57A6 5Mean Score
N -%E;6 an the Intrinsic Im1overishment 5Mean Score N -%E+6 0hich is inter1rete &y the
researcher as em1loyees in the &ank are less stresse ue to non@availa&ility of clear
information 0ith res1ect to the ifferent as1ects of "o&, "o& role, 1oor 1lanning of "o&,
vague e41ectations &y colleagues an su&orinates% It is further ae that though
"o&sMtasks are of humrum ty1e, there are very less o11urtunities availa&le to em1loyees
to utiliAe their o1timum 1otential , un@conucive environment to evelo1 their a1titue
an 1roficiency , less say in ecision making an 1ro&lem solving ue to 0hich they
1erform uner stress% 9ut these factors are seconary causes of stress%
:he researcher has conucte an Inter Item 8orrelation, from the same an Inter@8orrelation
matri4, 0as o&taine as sho0n in :a&le No% +, the follo0ing inter1retations 0ere o&taine!
:he factor of 7ole 3verloa 5736 is having 1ositive correlation 0ith 7ole 8onflict 5786
0ith a correlation of %-- 0hich is significant at %'+ 1ro&a&ility level% :his means that
0hen the em1loyees are overloae 0ith too much 0ork, there 0oul &e no clarity of
goals an targets% :he factor of Poor Peer 7elations 5PP76 is having negative correlation
0ith 7ole 3verloa 0ith a correlation of @%B; 0hich is significant at %'; level% :his means
that 0hen em1loyees are overloae 0ith greater 0ork than there are chances that they
0ill not inulge in too many inter1ersonal interactions an relations thus having 1oor
1eer relations% :he factor of Uner@1artici1ation 5UP6 is also having negative correlation
0ith the 7ole 3verloa 0ith a correlation of @%-+ 0hich is significant at %'+ 1ro&a&ility
level% :his means that ue to role overloa the em1loyees 0ill uner@1artici1ate in certain
tasks an 0ill over@1artici1ate in others%
:he factor of 7ole am&iguity 57A6 is having high 1ositive correlation 0ith Intrinsic
Im1overishment 5II6 an Ko0 Status 5KS6 0ith a correlation of %B* an %B; res1ectively
0hich is significant at %'; 1ro&a&ility level% It is inter1rete that the 7ole am&iguity
1ersists ue to monotonous nature of assignments, less o11ortunity to utiliAe a&ilities an
e41erience ine1enently, less o11ortunity to evelo1 a1titue an 1roficiency etc% Due
to role am&iguity also the em1loyees are not getting ue significance &y higher
authorities to their 1ost as 0ell as their 0ork% It is also 1ositively correlate 0ith 7ole
8onflict an Strenuous 2orking 8onitions 5S286 0ith a correlation of %-BB an %-BE
at %'+ 1ro&a&ility level% It means that ue to role am&iguity, the em1loyee are not a&le to
is1ose@off the contraictory as 0ell as vague instructions from higher officers, there is a
greater interference of officials into the 0orking conitions, not getting full facilities
regaring ne0 assignments% 7ole am&iguity also 1ersists in the &ank ue to e4istence of
tense circumstances in 0hich 0ork has to &e one, the unsatisfactory 0orking conitions
from the 1oint of vie0 of 0elfare an convenience, 0ork assignments &eing com1licate
an risky also%
:he factor of 7ole 8onflict is having high 1ositive correlation 0ith Unreasona&le <rou1
an Political Pressure 5U<PP6 0ith a correlation of %BE+ an %B;( 0hich is significant at %
'; 1ro&a&ility level% It is inter1rete as the 1henomenon of 7ole conflict e4ists ue to the
e4istence of ifficulty on the 1art of em1loyees to a"ust 0ith the unue 1olitical as 0ell
as grou1 1ressures an formal rules an instructions, various com1ulsions to 1erform
un0illingly, maintenance of grou1 conformity, violations of formal 1roceures an
:he factor of 7ole 8onflict is also having high 1ositive correlation 0ith Ko0
Status 5KS6 0ith a correlation of %B;( 0hich is significant at %'; 1ro&a&ility level% It is
inter1rete that sometimes ue to contraictory instructions from higher authorities,
unclear irections, insufficient facilities, all these leas to ina&ility of em1loyee to
is1ose@off each an every instruction in esire manner as a result of it, the em1loyee
neither receive res1ect from others nor en"oy ue significance to the 1ost as 0ell as 0ork
from higher authorities%
:he factor of 7es1onsi&ility of Persons 57P6 is 1ositively correlate 0ith Un1rofita&ility
5UD6 0ith a correlation of %-E; 0hich is significant at %'; 1ro&a&ility level% It is
conclue that em1loyees ue to a&sence of re0ars an lack of motivation o not o0e
the res1onsi&ility of other 1ersons, their future in the organisation%
:he factor of 7es1onsi&ility of Persons 57P6 is also negatively correlate 0ith
Intrinsic Im1overishment 5II6 0ith a correlation of @%--- 0hich is significant at %'+
1ro&a&ility level% It is inter1rete as the em1loyees are not a&le to give ue 0eightage to
the res1onsi&ility of other 1ersons, their future an ultimately the 1rogress of the
organisation, ue to the fact that their o0n "o&s are less autonomous, more monotonous,
less o11ortunitiesJ to have greater use of their a&ilities , less e4istence of offering any
suggestions in the 1ro&lem solving %
:he factor of Uner@1artici1ation 5UP6 is highly 1ositively correlate 0ith Po0erlessness
5PK6 0ith a correlation of %B'; at a significance of %'; 1ro&a&ility level% It is inter1rete
that in the organisation unerstuy the em1loyees suggestions are less acce1te, they
have less 1artici1ations in ecision making, less chance of offering o1inions in making
a11ointments for im1ortant 1osts etc% Due to all these causes they usually uner@
:he factor of Uner@1artici1ation 5UP6 is also 1ositively correlate 0ith
Un1rofita&ility 5UD6 0ith a correlation of %-++ 0hich is significant at %'+ 1ro&a&ility
level% :he results clearly e41lain that UP on the 1art of the 0orker 0ill lea him to non@
achievement of targets an goal thus a crucial cause of stress an failure%
:he factor of Po0erlessness 5PK6 is having high 1ositive correlation 0ith Strenuous
2orking 8onitions 5S286 0ith a correlation of %BE, at a significance level of %';
1ro&a&ility level% Po0erlessness is a state of hel1lessness 0hich causes istress an a
feeling of non@control over certain organisational issues% Po0erlessness 0oul further
increase 1oor 1eer relations an there 0oul &e a sense of internal issatisfaction
5Intrinsic Im1overishment II6 an ue to a correlation among the a&ove mentione factors
the 0orking conitions 0oul a11ear to &e very strenuous 5S286%3ur results in the inter@
correlation matri4 reflect the same%
:he factor of Intrinsic Im1overishment 5II6 is having a 1ositive correlation of %-(B an %
-)B 0ith Strenuous 2orking 8onitions 5S286 an Ko0 Status 5KS6 res1ectively 0hich
is significant at %'; 1ro&a&ility level% 2hen assignments are of monotonous an
com1licate nature an 0here the 0ork has to &e one in unsatisfactory conitions ,
0here there is a less o11ortunitiesJ for evelo1ing their a1titue an 1roficiency, it is
o&vious that em1loyees 0ill &e uner stress an accoringly their efficiency 0ill suffer%
:he factor of Intrinsic Im1overishment 5II6 is also having a 1ositive correlation
of %-)B 0ith Ko0 Status 5KS6 0hich is significant at %'; 1ro&a&ility level% In an
organisation 0hen "o& oes not allo0 an incum&ent to increase his social status,
unHuestiona&ly, the stress level of an iniviual 0ill increase, same is the case 0ith the
em1loyees of the &ank unerstuy%
:he factor of Ko0 Status 5KS6 is 1ositively correlate 0ith Un1rofita&ility 5UD6 0ith a
correlation of %-B- at %'+ 1ro&a&ility level% It is inter1rete that 0hen an em1loyee oes
not receive res1ect from others, no ue significance is given &y higher authorities to the
1ost as 0ell as 0ork of an em1loyee ue to all these factors it results in lo0 egree of
motivation on the 1art of an em1loyee an ultimately his stress level increases%
Drom the a&ove finings it can &e conclue that stress e4ist in the em1loyees of the &ank
unerstuy, s1ecifically higher on the imensions of 1oor 1eer relations, strenuous 0orking
conitions, 1o0erlessness an un1rofita&ility% It is further conclue that the 1ro&lem of stress is
inevita&le an unavoia&le in the &anking sector% A ma"ority of the em1loyees face severe stress@
relate ailments an a lot of 1sychological 1ro&lems% Hence, the management must take several
initiatives in hel1ing their em1loyees to overcome its isastrous effect% :he 1rouctivity of the
0ork force is the most ecisive factor as far as the success of an organisation is concerne% :he
1rouctivity in turn is e1enent on the 1sychosocial 0ell@&eing of the em1loyees% In an age of
highly ynamic an com1etitive 0orl, man is e41ose to all kins of stressors that can affect
him on all realms of life% :he gro0ing im1ortance of interventional strategies is felt more at
organisational level% :his 1articular research 0as intene to stuy the im1act of occu1ational
stress on NationaliAe 9ank em1loyees% Although certain limitations 0ere met 0ith the stuy,
every effort has &een mae to make it much com1rehensive%
;% A&ul@Halim A% A% an A% ! Social su11ort an Managerial affective res1onses to Fo& stress% Fournal of
3ccu1ational 9ehaviour, B5,6, ;()-%
-% 8hemers, M%M%, 7%9% Hays, D% 7hoe0alt an F%2ysocki 5;()+6, IA 1ersonLenvironment analysis of "o&
stress! a contingency moel e41lanationJ, Fournal of Personality an Social Psychology, ,(, *-)LB+%
B% 8oo1er, 8%K% an F% Marshall 5;(E*6, I3ccu1ational sources of stress! a revie0 of the literature relating to
coronary heart isease an mental ill healthJ, Fournal of 3ccu1ational Psychology, ,(, ;;L-)%
,% 8oo1er, 8%K% an S% 8art0right 5;((,6, IHealthy min! healthy organiAation L a 1roactive a11roach to
occu1ational stressJ, Human 7elations, ,E, ,++LE'%
+% 8oo1er, 8%K%, 9%D% Kirkcaly an F% 9ro0n 5;((,6, IA moel of "o& stress an 1hysical health! the role of
iniviual ifferencesJ, Personality an Iniviual Differences, ;*, *+BL+%
*% 8oo1er, 8%K%, S%F% Sloan an S% 2illiams 5;())6, :he 3ccu1ational Stress Inicator 53SI6, 2insor! NDE7
E% E0ars, F%7% an 8%K% 8oo1er 5;(('6, I:he 1ersonLenvironment fit a11roach to stress! recurring 1ro&lems
an some suggeste solutionsJ, Fournal of 3rganiAational 9ehavior, ;;, -(BLB'E%
)% Drench, F%7%P%, Fr% an 7%D% 8a1lan 5;(E-6, I3ccu1ational stress an iniviual strainJ, in A%F% Marro0 5e%6,
:he Dailure of Success, Ne0 Oork! Amacom, 11% B'L**%
(% Drench, F%7%P%, Fr% an 7%K%Kahn 5;(*-6, IA 1rogrammatic a11roach to stuying the inustrial environment
an mental healthJ, Fournal of Social Issues, ;)5B6, ;L,E%
;'% Drench, F%7%P%, Fr%, 7%D% 8a1lan an 7%P% Harrison 5;()-6, :he Mechanisms of Fo& Stress an Strain,
Konon! 2iley%
;;% <ener Difference in stress among &ank officers of Private an Pu&lic SectorC :he I8DAI "ournal of
Marketing research, Pol%PIII, No%-, -''( ,11*B@*(%
;-% <ri11a, A%I% an D% Dur&in 5;()*6, I2orkerJs com1ensation occu1ational isease claimsJ, National 8ouncil
8om1ensation Insurance Digest, ;, +L-B
;B% Ivancevich, F%M% an M%:% Matteson 5;(E*6, Stress Diagnostic Survey 5SDS6! 8omments an Psychometric
Pro1erties of a Multiimensional Self@re1ort Inventory, Houston, :Q! DD Associates%
;,% Ivancevich, F%M% an M%:% Matteson 5;()'6, Stress an 2ork, A Managerial Pers1ective, <lenvie0, IK!
Scott, Doresman an 8om1any%
;+% Ivancevich, F%M%, M%:% Matteson an D%P% Dorin 5;(('6, Stress Diagnostic Survey 5SDS6, Houston, :Q! DD
;*% Fayashree, 7a"enran 5-''(6, Stress Management 0ith s1ecial reference to Nationalise &ank Em1loyees in
8hennai, IFEIMS, Pol%;% No%B%
;E% Fyothi 9uhra"a , . 8auses of stress among insurance em1loyees! An em1irical stuyC :he I8DAI "ournal of
Marketing research, Pol%PII, No%;', -'') 11E@;,%
;)% Kahn, 7%K% 5;();6, 2ork an Health, Ne0 Oork! 2iley%
;(% Kahn, 7%K% an P% 9yosiere 5;((-6, IStress in organiAationsJ, in M%D% Dunnette an K%M% Hough 5es6,
Han&ook of Inustrial an 3rganiAational Psychology, vol% B, Palo Alto, 8A! 8onsulting Psychologists
Press, 11% +E;L*+'%
-'% Kahn, 7%K%, D%M%2olfe, 7%P% Guinn, F%D% Snoeck an 7%A% 7osenthal 5;(*,6, 3rganiAational Stress! Stuies
in 7ole 8onflict an Am&iguity, Ne0 Oork! 2iley%
-;% Karasek, 7%A% 5;(E(6, IFo& emans, "o& ecision latitue, an mental strain! im1lications for "o&
reesignJ, Aministrative Science Guarterly, -,, -)+LB'E%
--% Karasek, 7%A% an :% :heorell 5;(('6, Healthy 2ork! Stress, Prouctivity, an the 7econstruction of
2orking Kife, Ne0 Oork! 9asic 9ooks%
-B% Karasek, 7%A%, K%P% :riantis an S%S% 8hauhry 5;()-6, I8o0orker an su1ervisor su11ort as moerators of
associations &et0een task characteristics an mental strainJ, Fournal of 3ccu1ational 9ehaviour, B5-6, ;);L
-,% Kasl, S%P% 5;(E)6, IE1iemiological contri&utions to the stuy of 0ork stressJ, in 8%K% 8oo1er an 7%K%
Payne 5es6, Stress at 2ork, Ne0 Oork! 2iley, 11% BLB)%
-+% Keller, 7%:% ! 7ole 8onflict an am&iguity ! 8orrelates 0ith "o& satisfaction an values, 1ersonnel
Psychology, -)5;6, ;(E+%
-*% KaAarus, 7%S% 5;((;6, IPsychological stress in the 0ork1laceJ, Fournal of Social 9ehavior an Personality,
*, ;L;B%
-E% KaAarus, 7%S% an S% Dolkman 5;(),6, Stress, A11raisal, an 8o1ing, Ne0 Oork! S1ringer%
-)% Ko0man, 7%K% 5;((B6, 8ounseling an Psychothera1y of 2ork Dysfunctions, 2ashington, D8! American
Psychological Association%
-(% Marshall, F% an 8% 8oo1er 5;(E(6, I2ork e41eriences of mile an senior managers! the 1ressure an
satisfactionJ, International Management 7evie0, ;(, );L(*%
B'% Matteson, M%:% an F%M% Ivancevich 5;()-6, Managing Fo& Stress an Health! :he Intelligent PersonJs
<uie, Ne0 Oork! Dree Press%
B;% Mcgrath, F%E% ! Stress an &ehavior in organiAations% In M%D% Dunnette 5E6, ;(E* Han&ook of Inustrial
an 3rganiAational Psychology% Palo alto, 8% A% 8ounseling 1sychological stress%
B-% Ne0ton, :%F% R Keenen, A ! 7ole stress ree4amine ! An investigation of role stress 1reictors%
3rganiAational &ehavior an human ecision 1rocesses, ;()E, ,'% B,*@B,)%
BB% NI3SH 5-''-6, 5U7K6 000%cc%govMnioshMstress0k%htm%
B,% Nithyananan,D%P%, R Su&ramanyam ,S% 5-''(6 3ccu1ational Stress an Mental Health of 8ariac an
noncariac Patients, Inustrial Psychiatry Fournal, Pol% ;)%No%-%
B+% Princeton Survey 7esearch Associates 5;((E6, Ka&or Day Survey! State of 2orkers, Princeton, NF!
Princeton Survey 7esearch Associates%
B*% Guick, F%8%, F%D% Guick, D%K% Nelson an F%F%F% Hurrell 5;((E6, Preventive Stress Management in
3rganiAations, 2ashington, D8! American Psychological Association%
BE% Sarik0al, Kovy R Kumar, Sunil 5-';'6 An International Stuy of 2ork Stress 0ith ty1es of 2orkers ,
AS99S Annual 8onference Proceeings! Kas Pegas, Polume ;E Num&er ;%
B)% Schnall, P% 5;(()6 5U7K6 000%0orkhealth%orgMstrainM&riefintro%htmM%
B(% Schuler, 7%S% 5;()'6, IDefinition an conce1tualiAation of stress in organiAationsJ 3rganiAational 9ehavior
an Human Performance, -+, ;),L-;+%
,'% Schuler, 7%S% 5;()'6, IDefinition an conce1tualiAation of stress in organiAationsJ 3rganiAational 9ehavior
an Human Performance, -+, ;),L-;+%
,;% Schuler, 7%S% 5e%6 5;((;6, IDore0orJ, in P%K% Parre0e 5e%6, Han&ook on Fo& Stress, 8orte Maera, 8A!
Select Press%
,-% Schuler, 7%S% 5e%6 5;((;6, IDore0orJ, in P%K% Parre0e 5e%6, Han&ook on Fo& Stress, 8orte Maera, 8A!
Select Press%
,B% Selye, H% 5;(E,6% .Stress 0ithout Distress%/ Har1er an 7o0 Pu&lications, U%S%A%
,,% Selye, H% 5;()B6% :he Stress 8once1t ! Post, 1resent an future% In 8%K% 8oo1er 5E%6, Stress 7esearch !
Issues for Eighties% 8hiester ! 2iley%
,+% S1iel&erger, 8%D% 5e%6 5;(E-6, An4iety as an Emotional State, vol%;, Ne0 Oork! Acaemic Press%
,*% S1iel&erger, 8%D% an E%8% 7eheiser 5;((,6, IFo& stress in university, cor1orate an military 1ersonnelJ,
International Fournal of Stress Management, ;, ;(LB;%
,E% S1iel&erger, 8%D%, <% Faco&s, S% 7usssell an 7%S% 8rane 5es6 5;()B6, IAssessment of Anger! :he StateL
:rait Anger ScaleJ, in F%N% 9utcher an 8%D% S1iel&erger 5es6, Avances in Personality Assessment, vol% -,
Hillsale, NF! KEA, 11% ;+(L)E%
,)% S1iel&erger, 8%D%, P%7% Pagg an 8%D% 2asala 5-''-6, I3ccu1ational stress! "o& 1ressures an lack of
su11ortJ, in F%8% Guick an K% :etrick 5es6, Han&ook of 3ccu1ational Health Psychology,2ashington,
D8! American Psychological Association, 11% ;)+L-''%
,(% S1iel&erger, 8%D%, S%S% Krasner an E%P% Solomon 5es6 5;())6, :he E41erience, E41ression, an 8ontrol of
Anger, Ne0 Oork! S1ringer Perlag Pu&lishers%
+'% Srivastava, A%K% R Singh, A%P% 5;();6 Manual of the 3ccu1ational stress Ine4, De1artment of Psychology,
9anaras Hinu University, Paranasi,%
+;% Srivastava, A%K% 5;((E6% Self@management of occu1ational stress! 8ognitive L &ehavioural a11roach% Inian
Fournal of Inustrial 7elations, B-, ,)E@(+%
+-% Srivastava, A%K%, R Singh, A%P% 5;();6 8onstruction an stanariAation of an occu1ational stress ine4C a
1ilot stuy% Inian Fournal of 8linical Psychology, ),;BB@;B*%
+B% St% Paul Dire an Marine Insurance 8om1any 5;((-6, American 2orkers uner Pressure :echnical
7e1ort,St% Paul, MN! St% Paul Dire an Marine Insurance 8om1any%
+,% :heorell, :% an 7%A% Karasek 5;((*6, I8urrent issues relating to 1sychosocial "o& strain an cariovascular
isease researchJ, Fournal of 3ccu1ational Health Psychology, ;, (L-*%
Ta)le 0 1 Le+el of St,ess a.on- Nationalised )an E./loyees2
Mean S%D%
Higher the Score <reater the Stress
Ta)le 3 4 Ite.s of 'a,ious Su)3S*ales of O2S2I2
No2 Su) S*ales 5O**u/ational St,ess6 Se,ial No2 of t&e Ite.s in t&e S*&edule
; 7ole 3verloa ;,;B,-+,B*,,,,,*
- 7ole Am&iguity -,;,S,-*,BE
B 7ole 8onflict B,;+S,-E,B)S,,+
, Unreasona&le <rou1 an Political Pressure ,,;*,-),B(
+ 7es1onsi&ility for 1ersons +,;E,-(
* Uner@1artici1ation *S,;)S,B'S,,'S
E Po0erlessness ES,;(S,B;S
) Poor@Peer 7elations )S,-'S,B-S,,;S
( Intrinsic Im1overishment (,-;S,BBS,,-S
;' Ko0 Status ;'S,--S,B,
;; Strenuous 2orking conition ;-,-,,B+,,BS
;- Un1rofita&ility ;;,-B
Ta)le 7 Relia)ility Inde8
No2 Su) S*ales 5O**u/ational St,ess6 Relia)ility Inde8
; 7ole 3verloa %+(E
- 7ole Am&iguity %,(+
B 7ole 8onflict %+')
, Unreasona&le <rou1 an Political Pressure %+,'
+ 7es1onsi&ility for 1ersons %*(E
* Uner@1artici1ation %+,)
E Po0erlessness %+B(
) Poor@Peer 7elations %+EE
( Intrinsic Im1overishment %+-)
;' Ko0 Status %,((
;; Strenuous 2orking conition %+-+
;- Un1rofita&ility %+;)
#ote 7 8 $alse 9eyed "tems
Ta)le 9 $es*,i/ti+e Statisti*s
Sr% No% Su& Scales 8oes Mean S%D%
; 7ole 3verloa 73 -%)+'' %+*,);
- 7ole Am&iguity 7A -%E;*E %E;;-E
B 7ole 8onflict 78 -%);E) %+*(B*
, Unreasona&le <rou1 an Political Pressure U<PP -%(')B %*,+-*
+ 7es1onsi&ility for 1ersons 7P B%;++* %*')B;
* Uner@1artici1ation UP -%)')B %*,(;E
E Po0erlessness PK -%(E', %EE;(-
) Poor@Peer 7elations PP7 B%;E-- %*')+;
( Intrinsic Im1overishment II -%E+'' %*;)')
;' Ko0 Status KS -%)''' %E',+,
;; Strenuous 2orking conition S28 -%(,;E %*E+*E
;- Un1rofita&ility UD -%(**E %)+'*,
Source7 &S" Survey
:a&le +! Inter@8orrelation Matri4 5Ine1enent Paria&le Skille 2orkers6
RO ;
RA %'E- ;
RC %--E
UGPP %;B' %;*B %BE+
RP %;;' @%''E @%'(- @%;E; ;
UP @%-+)
%;;) %;+) %',; @%;', ;
PL @%;(- %;++ %'*, @%'B, @%''B %B';
PPR @%B;-
@%';; %')) %'(B @%-'- %-'+ %'(+ ;
II @%;'B %B*E
%'); %;EB @%---
%;'- %'(' %;*- ;
LS @%''E %B;-
%;,' @%'** %')+ %;;; %-'* %-)-
S(C @%'+B %-BE
%;E( %;)* @%;;E @%'++ %BE,
%'EB %-(B
%;)' ;
UF %'EB %-'+ %;(, %'); %-E;
%;-, @%;B' %'(B %-B-
%'+B ;
S% 8orrelation is significant at the '%'+ level 5-@taile6%
SS% 8orrelation is significant at the '%'; level 5-@taile6%