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Anatomy of the Brain

2 Major Divisions of Nervous System
1. CNS-Central Nervous System
- brain and spinal cord
2. PNS – Peripheral Nervous System
- nerves
- conduct impulses from the CNS to the
receptor organs
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Regions of the Brain
 Cerebrum (Cerebral hemispheres)
 Diencephalon
 Brain stem
 Cerebellum
Figure 7.12b
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I. Cerebrum (Cerebral Hemispheres)
 Largest part of the
brain
 Paired (left and
right) superior part
of the brain
 Cerebral cortex
 Enclose most of
the other regions of
the brain


Figure 7.13a
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Cerebral Hemispheres (Cerebrum)
 Gyri
- elevated ridges
ex. Cingulate gyrus
Precentral gyrus
Postcental gyrus

Figure 7.13a
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 Sulcus
- shallow groove
ex. Central sulcus




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 Fissures (deep grooves)
- divide the cerebrum into
lobes
 Less numerous
ex. Longitudinal fissure
Lateral fissure
Transverse fissure
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Lobes of the Cerebrum
 Surface lobes of the cerebrum
 Frontal lobe
- involved in planning, problem
solving, decision making
- controls behavior and emotions
 Parietal lobe
- controls sensation (touch, smell
and taste)
 Occipital lobe
- controls reception and perception
of visual information
- perceives shapes and colors
 Temporal lobe
- involved in olfactory and
auditory sensations
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 Cerebral areas involved in
special senses

 Gustatory area (taste)
- located at the parietal
lobe
 Visual area
- located at the posterior part of
the occipital lobe
 Auditory Area
- found at the temporal lobe
 Olfactory Area
- located at the medial temporal
lobe
Figure 7.13c
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Layers of the Cerebrum
 Gray matter
 Outer layer
 Composed
mostly neurons
Figure 7.13a
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Layers of the Cerebrum
 White matter
 Fiber tracts inside
the gray matter
-transmit impulses
Example: corpus
callosum connects
hemispheres
Figure 7.13a
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II.Diencephalon
 Sits on top of the
brain stem
 Enclosed by the
cerebral
hemispheres
 Made of
 Thalamus
 Hypothalamus
 Epithalamus
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a. Thalamus
 Surrounds the third
ventricle
 Transfers impulses to
the correct part of the
cortex for localization
and interpretation
 Interthalamic adhesion
- serves as connection bet.
right and left thalamus
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 Corpus callosum
- fiber tract
- connects the two
cerebral hemispheres
 Septum pellucidum
- bet. Corpus callosum
and fornix
- membranous partition
- separates right and left
lateral ventricles
 Fornix
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 Inferior to the
thalamus
 Most inferior part of
diencephalon
 Maintains
homeostasis
 Controls body
temperature,
hunger and thirst
b.Hypothalamus
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 infundibulum
- funnel shaped stalk
- extends from the floor
of the hypothalamus
to the pituitary gland
 Pituitary
gland/hypophysis
- hangs from the
anterior floor of the
hypothalamus
- produces hormones





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 Mammillary body
- posterior to pituitary
gland
- reflex center involved
in olfaction (sense of
smell)

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c. Epithalamus

 Small area superior and
posterior to the
thalamus
 Forms the roof of the
3
rd
ventricle
 Houses the pineal gland
and choroid plexus of
third ventricle



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 Pineal body
- part of endocrine
system that may
influence the onset of
puberty



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 Choroid plexus
- knots of capillaries
within each ventricle
-covered with
ependymal cells
- forms the
cerebrospinal fluid
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III. Brain Stem

 About the size of a
thumb in diameter
 3 inches long
 connects the spinal
cord to the brain
 Parts of the brain
stem
 Midbrain
 Pons
 Medulla
oblongata
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a.Midbrain


 Superior to the pons
 Extends from the
mammillary body to
the pons inferiorly
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Important Parts of Midbrain:

 Corpora
quadrigemina
- rounded protrusions
- superior and
inferior colliculi
- Reflex centers for
vision and hearing



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 Cerebral aqueduct
- tiny canal that
connects 3
rd
ventricle
to the 4
th
ventricle


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b.Pons
 The bulging center
part of the brain stem
 Inferior to the
midbrain
 Superior to the
medulla oblongata
 controls breathing
swallowing and
balance
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c.Medulla Oblongata
 The lowest part of the
brain stem
 Merges into the spinal
cord
 Contains important
control centers
 Heart rate control
 Blood pressure
regulation
 Breathing
 Swallowing
 Vomiting
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IV. Cerebellum
 Inferior to the occipital
lobe
 2 hemispheres
 Outer cortex (gray
matter)
 Inner region of white
matter (arbor vitae)
 Provides precise timing
for skeletal muscle
activity
 Controls balance/
equilibrium
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Meninges
 Dura mater

 Double-layered
external covering

 Thickest and
strongest layer
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Meninges
 Arachnoid layer
 Middle meninx
 Web-like

 Pia mater
 Internal layer
 Delicate layer that
adheres to the
surface of the brain
and spinal cord
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Ventricles and Location of the
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Figure 7.17a–b
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Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
 Formed in the 4 ventricles of brain
 Lateral (#1 and 2)  3rd  4th ventricle
 Formed in choroid plexuses
 By filtration and secretion of blood plasma
 In specialized capillary networks (covered by ependymal
cells) in walls of ventricles
 Pathway
 Through 4 ventricles  central canal of spinal cord
and within subarachnoid space 
 Reabsorbed through arachnoid villi into blood in
superior sagittal sinus
 Cushions brain and provides nutrients

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