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# Stepper motor and drivers

Name : D.M.A.Wijerathne
Index No.: 080544R
Field : Electrical Engineering
Group : D-10
Date of sub. : 12/04/2012

OBSERVATION SHEET
Name : D.M.A.Wijerathne
Index No.: 080544R
Group : D-8
Experiment : Stepper motor and drivers
Date of per. : 29/03/2012
Instructed by : Dr. HarshaAbeykoon

 Manual switching steps to get one revolution
Full step operation
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
U2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
V2 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
W2 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

Half step operation
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
U2 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1
V2 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0
W2 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1

 Micro processor excitation sequence for different modes of stepper motor
operation

One phase on operation

Speed =148.3 rpm
Pulse width =8 ms

Two phase on operation

33ms
34ms
ss

Speed =149 rpm
Pulse width =16 ms

Half step operation

Speed =74.5 rpm
Pulse width =25 ms

68ms
CALCULATION & DISCUSSUION

1.
Detent Torque (DT):
Stepper motors using permanent magnets have a remnant position holding
torque (called detent torque or cogging, and sometimes included in the specifications)
when not driven electrically. Soft iron reluctance cores do not exhibit this behavior.
Holding Torque (HT):
The maximum torque produced by
the motor at standstill.. It is the torque required to rotate the energized motor’s rotor is
called the holding torque.

2.

(

) (

)

I. For a 6/4 pole 3 phase stepper motor using the manual switching sequence,
6 - Number of poles in stator
4 - Number of poles in the rotor

No of switching signals required per revolution = 43 =12

= 30°
II. For a 8/6 pole 4 phase stepper motor using the manual switching sequence,

No of switching signals required per revolution = 6 = 24

= 15°
3. In a 6/4 pole 3 phase stepper motor the basic step angle is 30
0
. Therefore in a single
pulse the rotor rotates 30
0
.

The No of pulses required to revolve one revolution = 360
0
/ 30
0
= 12

Therefore the obtained value from calculation and the observed value same as for 6/4
pole 03 phase stepper motor in one revolution.

4. When we know the stepper motor speed and pulse rate,
Time taken to make a single revolution (T) =

From the Oscilloscope output we can get the ‘pulse rate’ using the pulse width.

For single phase operation (150rpm, pulse width=33ms)

= 29.4°

For two phase operation (150rpm, pulse width=34ms)

= 30.4°

For half step operation (75rpm, pulse width=68ms)

= 30.4°

1. Discuss the main points of various modes of operation of the stepper motor

Different modes of operation of stepper motor drivers determine in what sequence the coil are
energized to make the motor shaft move appropriately. There are three commonly used excitation
modes for step motors; these are full step, half step and microstepping.
In full step operation, the motor moves through its basic step angle, i.e., a 1.8° step motor takes
200 steps per motor revolution. There are two types of full step excitation modes. In single phase
mode, also known as "one-phase on, full step" excitation, the motor is operated with only one phase
(group of windings) energized at a time. This mode requires the least amount of power from the
driver of any of the excitation modes.
In dual phase mode, also known as "two-phase on, full step" excitation, the motor is operated with
both phases energized at the same time. This mode provides improved torque and speed
performance. Dual phase excitation provides about 30% to 40% more torque than single phase
excitation, but does require twice as much power from the driver.
Half step excitation is alternating single and dual phase operation resulting in steps that are half the
basic step angle. Due to the smaller step angle, this mode provides twice the resolution and
smoother operation. Half stepping produces roughly 15% less torque than dual phase full stepping.
Modified half stepping eliminates this torque decrease by increasing the current applied to the
motor when a single phase is energized.. Micro stepping is a technique that increases motor
resolution by controlling both the direction and amplitude of current flow in each winding. Current
is proportioned in the windings according to sine and cosine functions.
Micro stepping can divide a motor's basic step up to 256 times. Micro stepping improves low
speed smoothness and minimizes low speed resonance effects. Micro stepping produces roughly
30% less torque than dual phase full stepping.
Essentially, the goal of this process is to create a motor that runs as smoothly as possible. Due to
the nature of step motors, their rotation is not entirely smooth, as the motor is moving "step by
step". Of course, these steps are designed to be moved through rather quickly, so there is usually no
particularly detrimental effect on performance, but for those who require smoother resolution, the
full step stepper motor may not be quite what is needed.
This is where the micro stepper controller comes in. The micro stepper controller is a driver that
sends pulses to the motor in an ideal waveform for fluid rotation. The idea is for the driver to send
current in the form of sine waves. Two sine waves that are 90 degrees out of phase is the perfect
driver for a smooth motor. If two step coils can be made to follow these sine waves, it results in a
perfectly quiet, smooth motor with no detectable "stepping".
In additionally there is another mode called as wave drive .In this drive method only a single phase
is activated at a time. It has the same number of steps as the full step drive, but the motor will have
significantly less than rated torque. It is rarely used.